World Cup 2010: South Africa Essay

World Cup 2010: South Africa Essay.

South Africa is hosting the Soccer World Cup in the year 2010. In order to make it a huge success, the government is adopting extensive measures to provide sophisticated facilities and renovate ten stadiums in nine provinces throughout the nation. The Soccer World Cup started in the year 1930, but no African nation had ever played host to this event. Thus the 2010 soccer World Cup would be the first international soccer event to be hosted by an African nation (South Africa Thinks Big for World Soccer Cup 2010 2005).

Furthermore, the concerned officials are preparing another five soccer fields to facilitate practice for the players in this event. In addition, there will be friendly matches between the teams of the different countries that are participating in this event. The 2002 World Soccer Cup was jointly hosted by South Korea and Japan. They had prepared, nearly thirty stadiums as venues for that event, nevertheless, not even twenty stadiums were utilized for this event (South Africa Thinks Big for World Soccer Cup 2010 2005).

The construction cost of these stadiums is to be shared by the national government and the governments of the provinces where the event is to be held, as well as by the administrations of the cities, which are to host the event. The FIFA will also contribute to this international event. The government of South Africa is going to conduct a meeting with the officials of the Southern Africa Development Community Supreme Council on Sport in Cape Town to draft a strategy to conduct the international event and to discuss the importance of the event for the region (South Africa Thinks Big for World Soccer Cup 2010 2005).

South Africa is already ahead of its schedule for hosting this event. It has sufficient time and it has already announced the names of nine cities that are to host the World Cup. The CEO of South Africa’s 2010 organizing committee, Danny Jordan declared that the FIFA had already settled seventy five percent of the contracts to the tournament and that sufficient funds would be generated out of them. According to him, the European broadcasting contracts were already signed by FIFA, which would secure US $1. 2 billion. This amount is more than what had been secured in 2002 World Cup (South Africa shifts into 2010 gear 2006).

Expectations are that there would be more funding than that of the 2006 Germany Soccer World Cup. Danny Jordan added that they hope to generate additional revenues by providing all the details of the tournaments on mobile phones. Jordan declared that this World Cup would be organized as a world class event and that the revenues so far realized would be the greatest amongst all the World Cup events that had been conducted till date (South Africa shifts into 2010 gear 2006). The cities, which are to host this international event, are Johannesburg, Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, Bloemfontein, Nelspruit, Polokwane and Rustenburg.

The FIFA had already approved ten stadiums for the event. Officials say that these stadiums would be ready by the year 2009, as an African Confederation Cup is to be conducted there in that year (South Africa shifts into 2010 gear 2006). South Africa has had sufficient experience in hosting international events. Moreover, it has a lot of experience in the planning and hosting of international sporting events. In the year 1995, it had hosted the Rugby World Cup, which was a huge success. In the subsequent year South Africa emerged the winner in the Africa Cup of Nations football tournament, which it had hosted.

During, these major events, South Africa conducted these events without any dispute or conflict. The visitors to those events had acknowledged the extraordinary efforts made by South Africa (Football Fever Runs High n. d. ). In 1997 it hosted the World Cup of Athletics without the occurrence of any untoward incidents. A large number of foreign visitors attended that tournament. In the year 2003, it hosted the Cricket Word Cup. Although it lost in that event, cricket fans who had arrived there from different countries around the world, acclaimed the efficient manner in which the event had been conducted.

They were also attracted by the beauty of the country’s numerous tourist havens (Football Fever Runs High n. d. ). South Africa is confident that it would host the 2010 FIFA World Cup in a grand manner and make it one of the major events of the century. It had set aside an amount of fifteen billion rand for this purpose. According to the finance minister, Trevor Manuel, 8. 4 billion rand would be spent on constructing new venues and technologically upgrading the present venues. The remaining amount would be spent on upgrading the infrastructure (Football Fever Runs High n. d. ).

Plans are afoot to completely overhaul the public transport system. All the major hotels have already been booked by visitors to the 2010 World Cup. The government is making arrangements to provide alternate accommodation facilities to the visitors. The government is planning to sell the tickets in the year 2008 and a great demand is anticipated for them. Three million tickets are to be made available for the sixty – four matches (Football Fever Runs High n. d. ). According to the President of FIFA, Sepp Blatter, South Africa has the competence to conduct the premier international event in 2010.

He also said that South Africa would prove its ability in this regard and it would be a grand platform for it to display its natural beauty to the world. It can also demonstrate its hospitality, display its diversified cultural heritage to the world and flaunt its expertise in holding such an extraordinary event without any hindrance (South Africa shifts into 2010 gear 2006). According to the custom established by FIFA, nearly one third of the three million tickets are to be made available to the residents of South Africa and one million tickets will be reserved for sponsors, teams and organizers.

The remaining two million tickets are to be sold to foreign spectators. Irrespective of which country emerges the winner in this tournament, the ultimate victor will be South African football (Football Fever Runs High n. d. ). The authorities responsible for conducting the 2010 Soccer World Cup have identified around twenty – two thousand rooms in hotels and around six thousand rooms in other places. This exercise was performed, in order to accommodate the large influx of visitors expected from all over the globe, for this momentous event.

These particulars were divulged by the minister for Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Marthinus van Schalkwyk, during the inauguration of the FIFA Tour Operator Program in Sandton. Officials of the FIFA, like its President Sepp Blatter, were sanguine that South Africa would prove its undoubted mettle in making this event a grand success (Boost for 2010 accommodation 2007). It goes without saying that an event of this magnitude, involves a gigantic number of vehicles for transporting, the spectators, the players, officials and others to the various stadia.

In anticipation of this huge requirement, Mathabatha Makonyama, the deputy director general of integrated planning and intersphere coordination, divulged that approximately six thousand minibus taxis, two thousand four hundred buses and sixty trains would have to be pressed into service. The expectation was that all the South African cars for hire would have to be deployed. Moreover, the vehicles belonging to the tourism industry would also be completely engaged. This mammoth event was expected to occur between the months of June and July in the year 2010 (2010 Soccer World Cup transport problems 2006).

A very large number of spectators are expected to attend these festivities. Approximately, a fifty thousand strong crowd of spectators would grace each match on an average. In all, it was assumed that three million tickets would be sold. The number of international soccer lovers to attend the matches was estimated at three hundred thousand. In addition, another two hundred thousand ticketless spectators were expected to arrive in South Africa (2010 Soccer World Cup transport problems 2006). Some measures suggested to reduce this gargantuan traffic are to persuade the FIFA to commence the tournament at the time of the holidays in late June.

Such a measure would not only reduce the number of vehicles on the roads, but it would also have the added advantage of permitting the use of university residences by visitors. The maximum amount of vehicles are expected to ply on the roads on the fifteenth day of this event. On that particular day, it was anticipated that some more vehicles would have to be deployed. The breakup of these additional vehicles was given as twenty – six trains, each of which could transport eight hundred passengers; and four hundred and sixty coaches that could transport fifty persons each (2010 Soccer World Cup transport problems 2006).

The 2010 Soccer World Cup is expected to prove its success, right from day one. Additional, revenues will be generated from the sale of electronic media rights. FIFA’s approval indicates that South Africa has adequate infrastructure and organizing capacity. However, skeptics predict that the event will not run smoothly (South Africa’s 2010 Cup challenge 2006). In this manner it becomes obvious, that there are a lot of logistic and other complexities involved in conducting an event of this magnitude.

Despite, the clamoring of the pessimists and nit pickers, the fact remains that South Africans have generally been very successful in whatever they do. In the field of cricket, they had been boycotted by the rest of the cricketing nations for practicing apartheid. Nevertheless, once this ban was no longer effective, they have displayed their mettle in the gentleman’s game to the rest of the World. The manner in which they conducted a major cricket tournament, won them accolades from the cricketing world.

Therefore, it would be no exaggeration, to state that the 2010 Soccer World Cup would prove to be a truly remarkable event in the history of sports. The innovativeness, planning, indomitable courage and commitment of the redoubtable South Africans will ensure such an outcome. Notes 2010 Soccer World Cup transport problems . January 2006. http://forum. southafrica-direct. com/2010-soccer-world-cup-transport-problems-t150-1. html (accessed December 24, 2007). Boost for 2010 accommodation. November 27, 2007. http://www. news24. com/News24/Sport/Soccer/0,,2-9-840_2228227,00. html (accessed December 24, 2007). Football Fever Runs High.

http://www1. southafrica. net/Cultures/en-GB/consumer. southafrica. net/Why+South+Africa/Media+Gallery/Football+Fever+Runs+High. ht (accessed December 24, 2007). South Africa shifts into 2010 gear. July 10, 2006. http://www. southafrica. info/2010/2010-countdown. htm (accessed December 24, 2007). South Africa Thinks Big for World Soccer Cup 2010. August 17, 2005. South Africa Thinks Big for Worhttp://www. worldcup2010southafrica. com/content/view/240/109/ (accessed December 24, 2007). South Africa’s 2010 Cup challenge. July 7, 2006. http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/africa/5141582. stm (accessed December 24, 2007).

World Cup 2010: South Africa Essay

African Empires in the Early Modern Period: (1450-1750) Essay

African Empires in the Early Modern Period: (1450-1750) Essay.

One of the comparative topics in this time period is “empire building” in Africa. The AP Jedi Masters want you to know only one of the following: (Kongo, Benin, Oyo, Dahomey, Ashanti or Songhay) – so they probably are not going to ask you to compare two African Kingdoms since they stated you only need to know one – so they could ask you to compare the process of “empire building” in Africa to that in: (Asia, Latin America or Europe) – but I am providing you with information from three African Empires – just in case – and each if from a different region in Sub-Saharan Africa – so different historical forces to consider.

The Kongo (c. 14th – 17th century)

Located on the western coastal region of Central Africa – along the Congo river. Centralized state – with officials overseeing military, judicial, and financial affairs. The empire was divided into regions – and governors who were usually related to the King oversaw those areas – some areas were allowed to continue to rule as long as they recognized the superiority of the Kongo King – they had to report to him yearly for inspection and “renewal” of their title.

The empire was financed both by the taxing of trade as well as a head tax collected by local administers and sent to the capital.

Songhay: (West Africa – Sudanic Empire) (Mid 1400’s – Mid-1600’s)  As the power of the Mali continued in the 1400’s a state within the Empire was able to obtain its independence – this was called the Songhay Empire with its capital in the trading city of Gao. The height of the Empire came under the leadership of Sunni Ali who ruled from 1464-1493. He built an elaborate administrative and military apparatus to oversee affairs in his realm.

The Kingdom of the Asante (1680-1900)

The Asante were one of the Akanspeaking peoples who settled in the forest region of modern Ghana between the 11thand 13th centuries. The separate Asante chiefdoms were united by Osei Tutu in the 1670s and in 1696 he took the title of Asantehene (king) and founded the Asante empire. Asante was the only part of Africa where rich agricultural and mineral resources coincided. With its capital at Kumasia only 30 miles south of the northern forest edge – it could draw on both forest and savanna produce some of the traditional crops were: plantains, yams, and rice.

The Portuguese arrived in the late 15th century – Kings of the Kongo converted to Christianity as a way to establish closer commercial relations with Portuguese merchants and diplomatic relations with the Portuguese King.

He appointed governors to oversee provinces and maintained a professional army, with a cavalry and navy of small boats and canoes – which were able to patrol the Niger River. He extended his empire over the areas formally controlled by the Mali rulers – he conquered the cities of Timbuktu and Jenne (which took him 7 years of siege warfare – he finally married its Queen to solidify his rule). From the capital city of Gao the Songhay rulers presided over a prosperous empire that participated in the transSaharan trade that brought: Salt, textiles and metal goods in exchange for gold and slaves. Despite the fact that the rulers were Islamic and supported Islamic institutions: mosques / universities – the vast majority of the populace remained non-Muslim. The Songhay meet their demise in 1591 when they took on a Moroccan army armed with musket gun – the defeat left open an opportunity for regions to revolt against Songhay administration.

Kongo Kings appreciated the fact that Christianity offered a strong endorsement of their monarchical rule – the new faith was convenient also because the saints of the Roman Catholic Church were similar to spirits long recognized in Kongolese religions. For the first number of years Portugal and the Kingdom of the Kongo dealt with each other with a certain level of equality – they exchanged ambassadors and a number of Portuguese went to Kongo: advisors, priests, soldiers, tailors, shoemakers, masons, and minors.

One of the most important Kings of the Kongo was: Nzinga Mbemba – also known as King Afonso I (1506-1542) – he was a devout Roman Catholic and actively sought out to convert all his subjects to Christianity – he attended religious services daily and always studied the Bible. Trade and relations with Portugal brought wealth and foreign recognition to the Kongo – items such as: ivory, copper and slaves were exchanged for European: textiles, weapons (guns, guns, guns)!!!! – remember that during this time period (1450-1750) Europeans were “colonizing” the Western Hemisphere – as this time period went on the demand for slaves increased – this dramatically impacted societies such as the Kongo – one King during the 16th century – himself had 20,000 slaves in his household.

However – the vast majority of wealth of the empire was in its gold deposits – the Europeans would call this the “Gold Coast” – which they used to buy European guns – which further solidified the power of the Asante over nearby regions which did not have access.

Guns were also obtained by providing the Europeans with slaves – the notorious “El Mina” – a fortress built along the coast where slaves were housed until departure across the Atlantic was built on Ghana’s coast.

Other items brought by the Europeans were: iron, horses, cloth, tobacco and finished manufactured goods.

Historians sometimes speak about Asante’s “metropolitan” and “provincial” spheres. “Metropolitan” Asante consisted primarily of the towns in a fifty-mile radius around Kumasi. The rulers of these towns, many of whom were related to the ruling family, participated in the enthronement of Asante kings, served on the king’s advisory council, and retained considerable autonomy.

Eventually the relationship between Portugal and the Kongo worsened because the Portuguese desire for more and more slave pushed them to negotiate with other regions around the Kongo – some of with were enemies of the Kongo while others were protectorates – the authority of the Kongolese King was undermined – which led to war with the two nations.

The Songhay empire crumbled into a series of small regional kingdoms – and with the arrival of the Europeans and the redirection of trade towards the coastline – the Sudanic Empires ceased to play a prominent role in West African politics.

By contrast, outlying regions were more clearly subordinate and were forced to pay tribute to the Asante rulers. The most distant districts of the state which were populated by non-Akan people annually sent thousands of slaves to Kumasi. They placed all trade under state agencies controlled by the Asante King, and created a complex bureaucracy to govern and collect taxes. Asante achieved a high degree of administrative efficiency (its wellmaintained roads, for example, were famous) and the ability to implement sophisticated fiscal policies.

African Empires in the Early Modern Period: (1450-1750) Essay

Outline for Speech on Giraffes Essay

Outline for Speech on Giraffes Essay.

Specific Purpose: To inform students everything they ever needed to know about giraffes. Central Idea: Giraffes are one of the most interesting mammals out there and there are many reasons why including their anatomy and appearance, their behavior and lifestyle, and their distribution and habitat. Introduction

Attention Material: Ever since I was a little girl, I have gone to the buffalo zoo every summer. I have always been completely and utterly mesmerized by the huge animals to the right of the zoo entrance.

Every time I go, still to this day, it takes a lot to persuade me to leave that exhibit. There is something so magical about these giant creatures. Something extremely intriguing. The way that they stand so tall, and present themselves so calmly. It’s almost calming just to be around this animal. Reveal the Topic: This animal I am talking about is the giraffe. Credibility: I have done extensive research on these animals over the past few weeks and I have always had a passion for them.

Preview the Body: Today I will tell you how interesting the anatomy and appearance of the giraffe, their lifestyle, and their habitat can be.


Let’s start with the anatomy and appearance of the giraffe. The giraffe’s outside appearance is what makes this animal so recognizable. There is no other animal like it. a. Everyone recognizes the giraffe by its coat. Each giraffe has whiteish yellow skin with brownish or reddish markings that cover the entire body except for their lower legs. Each giraffe has unique markings that are unique to that individual and to their species of giraffe. Just like there are no two snowflakes that are the same, there are no two giraffes that are the same. These spots vary in size, shape, color, and amount of white that is around them.

b. Giraffes have the greatest range of vision of any land animal, this is partly due to how tall they are.

c. Their height is used to their advantage. Worlds tallest mammal! They grow to about 20 feet tall. That would be like taking four of me and stacking them on top of each other! The proportion of their body is 9 feet long for their neck and head, 5 feet for their torso, and 6 feet for their legs! They use their height and their 21 inch black tongue to reach the highest of branches.

The giraffes anatomy is very unique as well.

a. Would you believe me if I said that a giraffes neck has the same number of vertebrae that you do? Well we both have 7 vertebrae. The giraffe just has longer and larger vertebrae!

b. Giraffes also have incredible weight to carry around. Their heart weighs 25 lbs, and their neck weighs 550 lbs alone. Giraffes weigh on average anywhere from 1500 to 4250 lbs.

c. Female giraffes have a gestation period of 15 months. When they give birth, they have to do it standing up and the baby will fall 5 to 6 feet to the ground. It can stand within 30 minutes, and within a half of day it will run across the savannah with its mother. The second thing that makes giraffes so interesting is its lifestyle. The giraffes behavior and lifestyle are kind of grouped together. a. The giraffes large size means it must spend most of its time eating. On average, a giraffe consumes 77 lbs of food a day. They are herbivores and live on leaves from up to 60 different species of plants and trees but the most common tree for them to eat from is the Acacia tree. The giraffe first catches a branch in its mouth. It then pulls back its head to get a mouthful of leaves. They feed anywhere from 16 to 20 hours a day.

b. The giraffe gets 70% of their water intake from their food so they have to drink very little. To drink they have to spread their legs and bend over just to get their head close enough to the ground to drink. This puts them in a vulnerable position to their biggest threats the lion and the crocodile. These animals can drink 12 gallons of water in 1 sitting. They only need to drink water every couple days though. They can go longer than camels can without water!

c. Giraffe are most active in the early morning and late afternoon but also feed at night in bright moonlight. However, unlike many of Africa’s wild animals that “disappear” under shady trees during the heat of the day, the giraffe continues browsing and because of their size, they can be spotted throughout daylight hours. They just try to stay out of the heat of the day.

d. They get 30 minutes of sleep each day. They only sleep for about 5 minutes at a time as well.

e. There is a myth that says Giraffe are usually silent. This is not true, they bellow, grunt or snort when alarmed, as well as when confronted by lions, and can also moo in distress.

f. Giraffes have a peaceful nature. This is seen when males fight. The winner never chases the loser. When the fight is over, the two males rub muzzles. They then rest together. They rarely fight, But when they do fight, it is something unlike any other. They fight by “necking”. They swing their necks into eachother repeatedly until one decides to walk away. It is violent but no one usually gets hurt.

g. They are capable of running at a speed of nearly 35 miles per hour over short distances and are one of the few mammals that walk by pacing which is by simultaneously carrying both feet on the left side forward and then simultaneously moving both feet on the right side forward. The final thing about giraffes is their habitat.

The giraffes habitat is unique to them.

a. Giraffes are social animals, and they live in open herds and travel in packs of 5 or 6. When there are a lot of leaves on the trees the giraffes scatter around to enjoy it. However, once winter approaches and food begins to become scarce, they congregate and live together to collectively look for food.

b. Previously found even in North Africa, today the remaining Giraffe populations are restricted to parts of sub-Saharan Africa with the largest concentrations being found in National Parks. Giraffes inhabit open woodlands and savannah where using their height they are able to see for great distances around them to watch out for approaching danger.

c. Despite being the tallest land animal in the world, the Giraffe is actually preyed upon by a number of large carnivores that co-inhabit the dry savannah. Lions are the primarily predators of the Giraffe that use the strength of the whole pride to catch their victim. Giraffes rely on the vast open plains so that they can have the best view possible of their surroundings but if a predator does get too close, Giraffes kick their attacker with their large, heavy feet to defend themselves.

d. In their natural habitat, they will live for about 15 years, but in a zoo they will live much longer than that.


In conclusion, Giraffes are one of the most interesting mammals out there and there are many reasons why, including their anatomy and appearance, their lifestyle, and their habitat. The next time you get the chance to go to the Buffalo Zoo, take time to stop and watch the giraffes because I guarantee you will be mesmerized just like me.

You may also be interested in the following: essay on giraffe, giraffe essay

Outline for Speech on Giraffes Essay

African American Essay

African American Essay.

Literature gives writers of all creeds the vehicle to express themselves in numerous ways – love, hate, fear, sadness, and hope. Writers give their interpretations of life through verse and bring readers of their works into their world for just a moment. Although some may consider race and ethnicity the same, they are totally different. An example of this is in the poems, What Its Like to Be a Black Girl by Patricia Smith and Child of the Americas by Aurora Levins Morales.

Both authors give their view of how race and ethnicity plays a part in one’s life when it comes to even the simplest decision.

Growing up in a diverse community has its advantages. It is amazing to see people trying to guess each other’s race and ethnicity. Innocent as it may seem at a young age to do this, it may have been the precursor to feelings towards the opposite race. The United States is a melting pot of different races coming together for one purpose – to have a good life.

This means raising a family, having a good job, buying a car and home without fear of being discriminated against. In the stories by two diverse women shows how race and ethnicity played a large part in developing their lives.

Race is defined in layman terms as “the concept of dividing people into populations or groups on the basis of various sets of physical characteristics which result from genetic ancestry” (Diffen, 2013). Race encompasses the color of one’s skin (Causcasion – white, Asian – yellow), facial features (African American – physical features, Latinos – height) and so on. Ethnicity is defined in layman terms as “an ethnic group or ethnicity is a population of human beings whose members identify with each other, on the basis of a real or a presumed common genealogy or ancestry” (Diffen, 2013).

Ethnicity encompasses ancestry of one’s family tree. Some believe they may be the descendants of Roman culture and others feel they are descendants of a culture before the time of Christ. Thanks to modern day technology, most have found they are part of a past culture or cultures – a mixture of cultures. According to the website, Difference Between explains the difference between race and ethnicity as: 1. Ethnicity gives us room to change because we can reject our own and embrace another. You can move from one region to another and assimilate your beliefs, actions and customs to identify with that ethnic orientation.

You cannot do the same with race. 2. Race is your biologically engineered features. It can include skin color, skin tone, eye and hair color, as well as a tendency toward developing certain diseases. It is not something that can be changed or disguised (Difference Between, 2013). In the story, What Its Like Being a Black Girl by Patricia Smith, the author gives the audience an insider’s view into a young black girl’s transition into black woman-hood when being African American (Black) was not as welcomed as being white.

“It’s being 9 years old and feeling like you’re not finished – like your edges are wild, like there’s something, everything, wrong. ” (Smith, 2013). Smith writes that growing up in this era for a young “black girl” is having the feeling of being awkward – her body is changing and people will see her differently. For Smith, this hope is for the opportunity to live a life where she can become a doctor, lawyer or celebrated writer. In addition, a hope that people will see her through eyes of respect for her work and not her skin color or ethnic background.

Author Aurora Levins Morales writes for those struggling to find their identities and their voices – and speaks on issues pertaining to history and the multicultural experience. In the poem, Child of the Americas, Morales gives her views on life as an American of mixed race. It is a poem about an American who came from a mixture of various cultures that comprise her heritage and her identity as an American. “I am a child of the Americas, a light-skinned mestiza of the Caribbean, a child of many diaspora, born into this continent at a crossroads.

I am a U. S. Puerto Rican Jew, a product of the ghettos of New York I have never known” (Morales, 2013). Morales continues “I am not African. Africa is in me, but I cannot return. I am not taina. Taino is in me, but there is no way back. I am not European. Europe lives in me, but I have no home there” (Morales, 2013). Morales believes she is a melting pot filled with different ethnic backgrounds but will not be accepted in these native countries because people of that country will only see the outside – her skin color, her hair, her eyes.

We have all done this – guessing the ethnicity of a person – is she mixed with African or is she mixed with German, is he Italian or is he French? We do not get to know the person – we automatically judged them by the way they look. Both Morales and Smith write about what most people in this country are experiencing on a daily basis – racial and ethnic prejudice. However, in the 1970’s, African Americans embraced their African background by donning dashikis and wearing their hair in Afros and braids. This led to most people in this country to investigate their ethnic backgrounds.

Now in the 2013, people are going to sites such as Ancestry to find out about their ethnic and racial history. People want to know more about their past in hopes it will show them where they are going. Even in the writing arena, both authors faced challenges getting their works published because of their race. Luckily, according to author Lee, brave publishers have pushed to have more and more authors of color works published. “Much of the work by mixed-race artists, though certainly not all of it, reveals the fault lines and pressure points that still exist in a rapidly changing America.

It is on these rough edges that many multiracial people live, and where many artists find the themes that animate their work: the limits of tolerance, hidden or unacknowledged assumptions about identity, and issues of racial privilege and marginalization” (Lee, 2011). Still, a small percentage of publishers will not published women of color’s literary works. This is why many ethnic writers have established their own publishing houses and stores, such as Wal-mart, stock ethnic materials from not only well-known authors but those new to the literary arena.

In an article by Martin Arnold detailing his interview with author and publisher Melody Guy, she states, “most of our first novels have an initial printing of between 17,000 and 20,000 copies, and a majority of them went back for second and thirds, and most are paying royalties. ” This is true for other women of diverse ethnic backgrounds. Smith and Morales gives the reader insight into their complicated lives as writers with diverse backgrounds.

Although they differ in race and ethnicity, both encounter the same problems living in a country whose racial make-up is rich with diverse personalities. Smith wrote about growing up with a stigma already attached to her as an African American female wanting to be like her white counterparts. “it’s dropping food coloring in your eyes to make them blue and suffering their burn in silence. It’s popping a bleached white mophead over the kinks of your hair and primping in front of mirrors that deny your reflection” (Spoken Word Academy, 2013).

In Morales’s world, it about being a born in this country, speaking a different language in addition to having a different skin color and being told she is still a foreigner. “I am a U. S. Puerto Rican Jew, a product of the ghettos of New York I have never known. An immigrant and the daughter and granddaughter of immigrants. I speak English with passion: it’s the tongue of my consciousness” (Diaz, 2013). Literature gives writers of all creeds the vehicle to express themselves in numerous ways – love, hate, fear, sadness, and hope.

Growing up in the United States, race and ethnicity is a big issue especially when it comes to finding a job, a home and getting an education. People should not judge each other by their race or ethnicity. Getting to know the person – their thoughts, dreams, ambitions – should be first and foremost. Smith and Morales found a common outlet for their frustrations with life where they live and how they live – literature. With their literary writings about growing up in America struck a familiar cord with many in this land of many races.

It is because of their writings, people can gain a better understanding of how life is on the other side – the diverse side – of life in America. What It’s Like To Be A Black Girl (For Those Of You Who Aren’t) By Patricia Smith first of all, it’s being 9 years old and feeling like you’re not finished, like your edges are wild, like there’s something, everything, wrong, it’s dropping food coloring in your eyes to make them blue and suffering their burn in silence.

It’s popping a bleached white mophead over the kinks of your hair and primping in front of mirrors that deny your reflection. It’s finding a space between your legs, a disturbance at your chest, and not knowing what to do with the whistles, it’s jumping double dutch until your legs pop, it’s sweat and Vaseline and bullets, it’s growing tall and wearing a lot of white, it’s smelling blood in your breakfast, it’s learning to say **** with grace but learning to **** without it, it’s flame and fists and life according to Motown, it’s finally having a man reach out for you then caving in around his fingers. (Spoken Word Academy, 2013).

African American Essay

African American Essay Essay

African American Essay Essay.

African American literature is captivating, powerful, spiritual, and emotional. The recurring theme is slavery but there are others such as inequality among sexes and races, injustice, resentment, and the strong belief in religion. These pieces of literature have been told by the individuals who went through the experience of slavery such as Frederick Douglass and others, like Jamaica Kincaid who have a passion for writing. The writers who experienced slavery themselves had differing views of their experience and relationship with their master.

These pieces of literature share the pain, strength, heartache and will to go that each of these individuals experienced. The first reading is, To My Old Master, by Jourdan Anderson. This piece of literature is Anderson’s response to a letter he has received from his old master. It is a compelling story about how terrible and bad the Whites treated the African Americans. The master want’s Anderson and his family to come back and work for him.

He reminds the master about how poorly they were treated while working for him.

Anderson states, “Although you shot at me twice before I left you, I did not want to hear of your being hurt, and am glad you are still living. ” (1865, p. 15). Anderson tells the master that he is making money and his family is living and doing well. He even expresses that his children are receiving an education now. It is very apparent to the reader that Anderson’s wife does not want to return and work for the master. “Mandy says she would be afraid to go back without some proof that you were disposed to treat us justly and kindly; and we have concluded to test your sincerity by asking you to send us our wages for the time we served you.

” (1865, p. 16). Anderson remembers how horribly the woman and girls were treated, and he will never allow his daughters to go through that experience. “I would stay here and starve- and die, if it come to that- than to have my girls brought to shame by the violence and wickedness of their young masters. ” (1865, p. 16) The end of the story the reader still feels Anderson’s resentment and bitterness toward the master. The next story and the one piece I enjoyed the most is, “White Folks Treated Us Good” by Marriah Hines. Hines states, “My white people treated us decent.

” (p. 32). She goes onto further explain how her master feed, dressed, and kept them well. Hines explains how terrible master’s treated other slaves. “Some unfortunate individuals practically have nothing to eat. Why, the way their owners treated them was disgraceful treated them like felines and canines” (Hines, p. 32). Hines sounds fortunate and lucky to have worked for her master. The master gave the slaves Sunday off to rest and even allowed them to attend Church. Unlike other slaves Hines was never raped, beaten, or treated in a physical horrible way.

The compelling part of this piece occured when the slaves were allowed to leave; most of them choose to stay. “Most of us stayed right there and raised our own crops. ” (p. 34). Hines knew of her freedom but believed in her loyalty to her master and his family. The master provided her with assistance and support. A rare occurrence to read an African American piece of literature that speaks of a master in a positive and respectful manner. This master was a different man of his time. He did not take advantage of his slaves or treat them in a horrendous manner.

This master used his slaves to care and run his property but treated them with respect and dignity, they deserved. Hines went onto, marry Benjamin F. Hines and give birth to five children. The last piece of literature is, “If We Must Die” by Claude McKay. This poem is about how horribly and disgusting Whites treated African Americans. It is written about the race riots in 1919. It describes the strength of the African Americans standing up to the Whites even if it ultimately meant dying. McKay states, “Like men we’ll face the murderous, cowardly pack, pressed to the wall, dying but fighting back!

” (p. 378). This poem exemplifies the bravery and the will to fight for what is right otherwise these people would have been beaten and killed for the rest of their lives. There will always be a presence of racism in the world and specifically in the United States of America. Still today African Americans are treated equally as Whites. Although we as a country have come a very long way there is still work to be done. The more we educate people the less we will experience ignorance. The hate and the idea of inferiority will slow diminish if people become educated.

I can end proudly stating that I am married to a Black man and we have two beautiful daughters, and I give an enormous amount of respect to those who fought for what was right. References Anderson, J. (1865). To my old master. In I. Reed (Ed. ), African American Literature. Abrief introduction and anthology (pp. 15-16). New York: The Longman LiteraryMosaic Series. [serial online]. December 2005;36(4):299-323. Available from:Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed May 23, 2011. Hines, M. (n. d. ). My white folks treated us good.

In I. Reed (Ed. ), African Americanliterature. A brief introduction and anthology (pp. 21-25). New York: TheLongman Literary Mosaic Series. [serial online]. December 2005;36(4):299-323. Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed May 21,2011. McKay, C. (n. d. ). If we must die. In I. Reed (Ed. ), African American literature. Abriefintroduction and anthology (pp. 378). New York: The Longman LiterarySeries[serial online]. December 2005;36(4):299-323. Available from: AcademicSearchComplete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed Dec, 2011.

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African American Essay Essay

Counseling African Americans Essay

Counseling African Americans Essay.

Sue and Sue’s Chapter 14 Counseling African Americans spends a great deal of effort exploring cultural particulars and corresponding clinical implications while working with African Americans; factors such as family dynamics, educational orientation, spirituality, and the pressures and stress of racism and marginalization. This offered me perspective through a lens much broader than my own somewhat narrow, predominantly white, and fairly privileged way of relating to the world. Before understanding culturally appropriate interventions, one must have an understanding of the cultural context or the cultural word of an individual.

For me, this first means that differences must be noted, either literally in relationship with the African American client or simply as a clinical observation I make on my own. Of course the difference in the two will depend on the client, context, and general relevancy in the moment. In my own experience, noting racial difference aloud with a client has been most helpful in that it gives permission for the potentially “taboo” topic of race and differences to be considered, brought into the space at a later time, and even into the forefront of consciousness.

Apart from the explicit therapeutic relationship, noting difference is a personal reminder that I am no expert on anyone’s experience but my own, I may make mistakes (and probably will), I should steer clear of assumptions, it’s ok to be curious, and to do my homework. Once a general understanding of differences is established, then one can begin to consider appropriate therapeutic interventions. Let’s take the issue of racism and discrimination; the byproduct of these atrocities oftentimes manifests as defense and survival mechanisms in Black Americans.

Which can lead to a general mistrust or as it’s stated (by Sue and Sue) a “healthy cultural paranoia”, as a way of coping. This mistrust can be of individuals, entire races of people, the government, social service providers… With this in mind, it’s important to determine what the client’s feelings and understandings about therapy are. To touch base and explain what kind of therapy I engage in, how it can be helpful to them, and what can be expected of our time together. Hopefully this will help to assuage uneasy feelings of fear of the unknown or mistrust, as well as set up a foundation for a healthy therapeutic alliance.

Although Sue and Sue’s Afrocentric perspective can be helpful it can also simultaneously be viewed as reductive. It’s important not to discount individual differences by universalizing traits of African Americans. Self cannot be defined as a unitary concept evolving from a single defining variable, such as race or gender (Williams, 1999). For instance, not all women are nurturing, caring, and relational. Similarly, not all African Americans possess an African ethos of communalism or spirituality. Race, class, sexual orientation, and gender are all complex interactive components that make up the self.

To approach a client through the lens of only one of these variables, means potentially silencing a central component of their identity. Additionally, it is also necessary to consider an internal state without regard to the social demands of each variable. Collectively, these considerations can aide to a more holistic view when working with African American clients. Part Two After spending a year in practicum at the SF county jail, I feel as though I’ve had a fairly decent introduction to working with African American females.

When I began practicum I had had very little training in diversity or cross-cultural counseling. Turns out that a year in the jail was one large training in diversity and cross-cultural counseling! Now I’m able to pin my personal experience against the readings and gauge my success as a culturally competent therapist. When assessing my strengths, I find that I possess a keen and tremendously empathic understanding of how the stress of racism, sexism, and oppression can manifest in African American women. Oftentimes the byproduct of this stress is what brings the individual to jail.

As a clinician, I can confidently say that I am able to enter the therapeutic relationship with a greater capacity for empathy because of this understanding and build a strong alliance as an ally as well as a therapist. I’m not afraid to make mistakes and have no attachment to being “right”; these qualities will only support me as a clinician. In addition, my upfront demeanor and willingness to self-disclose have had a remarkable impact on the therapeutic relationship. My empathy is strongly with women and their plight of identifying and addressing all the “isms” that stand between them and equality, wholeness, and health.

Frequently, those “isms” are at the hands of men and I certainly have a bias towards this, and towards men in general. It’s no accident that I spent an entire year of practicum working solely with women; although it wasn’t a conscious choice, I believe on some level I chose not to work with men. I have incredible biases towards men as perpetrators and oppressors and men and their privilege, African American men as well as Caucasian. These biases keep me terrified at the thought of working with male clients. I imagine heaps and heaps of countertransference between male clients and myself; countertransference that is full of pain and rage.

I’m not sure that I have much to offer men inside the therapeutic space. I don’t believe this to be my “final answer”, I just know that I have some work to do around my relationship with men before I make the leap of working with them in such sacred space. Essentially, it all comes down to two core qualities- and they are humility and flexibility; humility in all that I think I know and the flexibility to shift or discard that knowledge. My experience of working with, knowing, and reading about African American culture, difference, and oppression may or may not serve me as a therapist at any given moment.

What works for and makes sense in the context of Client A, may not be so for Client B, and vise versa. Although it is crucial to have fundamental knowledge of the legacy of oppression against African American people and to consider factors such as interdependence, collectivism, and emotional vitality as presumed long- standing black personality traits, I must also be able to draw connections between those factors and the individual experience- much like the womanist techniques mentioned in Carmen Braun Williams’ article African American Women, Afrocentrism and Feminism: Implications for Therapy.

As a therapist, I am responsible for guiding and supporting the client in making the shift from object to subject; transferring ownership of self from one whose self is externally determined to one who is self- determining (Freire, 1990). And practice practice practice, with an open heart, ears, and mind. References Braun Williams, C. (1999). African American women, afrocentrism and feminism: Implications for therapy. Women & Therapy, Vol. 22(4) 1999. Freire, P. (1990). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum. Sue, D. & Sue, D. (2008). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice, Chapter 14.

Counseling African Americans Essay

African American and Ebonics Essay

African American and Ebonics Essay.

What if all of America spoke in Ebonics? “What up cuz” or “Holla at me. ” That would be crazy right? Sharice, Travis, Rickia, and I did a report on the evidence for the critical element of the Oakland school board proposal and the convention that temporary African American Vernacular Forms (AAV) of speaking show strong influence from West-African languages. The Oakland school board proposed to the state that the kids learning will be improved with the recognition and understanding of Ebonics.

My article came from the internet, and it is titled “A Case of Ebonics. ” Ebonics is a critical language, with powerful elements of a distinct language, spoken by many Americans of African descent, a language marked by a long and rich history. While most other languages are restricted to specific geographical regions, Ebonics is a way of speaking shared by a large percentage of African-Americans living everywhere in the United States. Ebonics has been branded as a poor form of Standard English.

Some think of it as lazy lips and lazy thinking. Because Ebonics held on to many leftover characteristics from West African languages, there has been debate as to whether it is a language of American English or another language altogether. Ebonics has a long history that began in Africa. It started when people from many different African villages were brought to American slave markets. The slave owners often purposely mixed the slaves by tribe so that they could not communicate directly in the language of a single tribe.

For them to communicate with each other, the slaves developed a pidgin language, a mixture of various African languages. Over the centuries, this early pidgin blended with aspects of “Standard English” to form “Black English” but it still has many of the features of its ancestor. That is, many of the unique forms of Ebonics can be identified as leftovers of West African languages. For example some researchers say that the word for cat in several African languages also means “man. ” For this reason our expression “cool cat” is derived from Ebonics.

Despite these differences, Ebonics is a language that fully serves the needs of its users. Its grammar is just as complicated as Standard English. It’s just a different grammar. The meaning of “He didn’t do nothing” is perfectly understood by all Ebonics speakers, and by standard English speakers as well. A man by the name of Ishmael Reed makes clear the use of Ebonics indicates neither a lack of education nor an inability to speak in other tongues: “You not gone make me give up Black English.

When you ask me to give up Black English you askin me to give up my soul. But for reasons of commerce, transportation, and hassle less mobility in everyday life, I will talk to 411 in the language both the operator and I can understand” (Lederer 4). I agree with Reed that everyone needs to learn and master Standard English to have the best chance to succeed in America. In certain contexts, someone (like a manager) might make a judgment about the way we black people talk. If we want to become successful we must learn Standard English.

I hope that the movement of correction for Ebonics movement will work against the widespread disrespect of the way most African-American youth talk. People should be less defensive about the language in which we live and move and maybe we can better position to employ both the Ebonics and the standard codes and to reap the full fruits of our American civilization. If people were less defensive about Ebonics maybe then we as people could associate Standard English with Ebonics. And with all of this we could reap the full fruits of our American civilization.

African American and Ebonics Essay

African American Heritage Paper Essay

African American Heritage Paper Essay.

This paper explores the African American heritage and also identifies the significance of nurses being culturally aware, sensitive and competent when caring for people of African American heritage. Although these terms mentioned above are used interchangeably, they have different meanings. Cultural awareness is appreciating the external or material part of the culture, such as the music, arts, and physical characteristics, and dress. Cultural sensitivity is the personal attitudes toward the culture, such as not saying things that is offensive to someone from a different ethnic or cultural background (Purnell,2013, p.


Cultural competence is putting it all together; by using your knowledge to provide culturally congruent care and to be able to work effectively with people in cross- cultural situations. African Americans are the second largest ethnocultural groups in the United States; however, it is one of the most misunderstood cultures. This culture is so unique because they have mixed their cultures from their different homes of origin in Africa, along with American culture.

This paper overviews the history, communications, family roles, workforce issues, biocultural ecology, high-risk behaviors, pregnancy and childbearing practices, spirituality, health care practices, nutrition, and death rituals in the African American culture.

It is important that nurses see themselves as becoming culturally competent when caring for African Americans, and this involves incorporating cultural desire, cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural skill, and cultural encounter with the people of African American heritage (Campinha-Bacote, 2009). 2 A NURSING METHOD TO AFRICAN AMERICAN HERITAGE One of the largest minority groups in the United States, African Americans culture includes the various cultural traditions of different African ethnic groups.

“Data from the U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census (2001) reveals that there are approximately 34,333,000 African Americans residing in the United States, representing 12. 1% of the total population” (Campinha-Bacote, 2009). They were forcibly imported into the United States as slaves from 1619 to 1860 (Purnell, 2013, p. 21). During slavery, they incorporated their culture from their homes of origin, and as a result, their culture included several cultural traditions of African ethnic groups. Many African Americans live in poverty due to discrimination and lack of proper education.

Most families of African American heritage value education, but they still struggle to have equal representation in the workplace, and are more likely to work in a hazardous environment, resulting in job related diseases and illness. Due to the lower-level positions and the difficulty in achieving higher opportunities in the workplace, some African Americans continue to feel discouraged. Nurses need to address discrimination and also issues that create ethnic or racial tension in the workplace.

English is the language spoken by African Americans, however, people of lower socio economical status communicate in an informal language known as African American English (AAE) (Purnell, 2013, p. 22). According to Campinha-Bacote (2009), the major problem that AAE speakers face is prejudice. Most people believe that AAE is inferior to Standard American English. As a result, African Americans who speak AAE are sometimes misinterpreted as being uneducated.

Nurses should be aware not to stereotype African Americans as only speaking AAE, and also not to stereotype them as uneducated based on the way they communicate. African Americans are expressive when 3 A NURSING METHOD TO AFRICAN AMERICAN HERITAGE communicating and often use body languages to convey their feelings. Their expressive language and body movement can be misconstrued as anger or provocation.

Nurses need to be familiar with these characteristics and not misinterpret them. As a nurse, when interacting with African Americans for the first time, be sure to address them formally, until given permission to use other names, such as their first name. The African-American family has evolved over the last two decades and still continues to evolve. A person that is brought up in a traditional nuclear family is more likely to continue that tradition. Whereas, a person that is brought up in a single parent home is more likely to continue that same tradition.

Although these situations are more likely, they are not always so. To provide the most competent care, the best thing for the nurse to do would be to ask the patient in a non-judgmental way about family dynamics and also ask them what they would feel the most comfortable with when it comes to decision making for their care. The nurse should then accept this decision. Being knowledgeable about this cultural group’s family values and beliefs are crucial for providing care for the African American patient (Revell & McGhee, 2012).

A high percentage of African American households are matriarchal and fall below poverty level. With that being said, it is wise for nurses to make a point of including women when discussing health care issues. Nurses also should take note when dealing with homosexual individuals in this ethnic group, not to break confidence by sharing their lifestyles with others. This information can jeopardize and cause conflicts within the family and ruin relationships. Romantic relationships of the same-sex are not totally acceptable within this culture.

4 A NURSING METHOD TO AFRICAN AMERICAN HERITAGE As in many culture, social status is important in African American community. African Americans are often met with negative atmosphere and prejudice attitudes based on their cultural background and skin color. Assumptions are made based on AAE spoken by some as an indication of unintelligence and the lack of education. These assumptions sometimes affect employment opportunities and job promotions. Nurses should be cautious not to fall into the stereotyping African Americans based on these characteristics.

African American skin color ranges from light to very dark due to the combination of a gene pool of more than 100 racial strains (Purnell, 2013, p. 25). When assessing for cyanosis in dark-skinned African Americans, be sure to pay attention to the oral mucosa or conjunctiva. When assessing for pallor, note the absence of the underlying red tones that give the skin it’s glow. Lastly, when observing for jaundice, be sure to look at the sclera of the eyes, the soles of the feet, and the palms of the hands for any yellow discoloration (25).

Health care is a luxury that low socioeconomic African Americans may not be able to afford. Meeting their daily needs takes priority over what they believe to be minor health issues. Consequently, diseases that could be treatable might end up being a life- threatening situation. African Americans are family orientated, because of this; some tend to initially seek medical attention from family members rather than going to a health care professional. Health care professionals need to be aware of this and work toward teaching and distributing health information via church and community centers. Most African American women are against abortion due to religious, cultural, and moral beliefs.

As a result, there is a delay in making a decision until it becomes too late. 5 A NURSING METHOD TO AFRICAN AMERICAN HERITAGE Family support is crucial for pregnant African American women. Gichia (2000) studied and found out that African American women look for role models such as older female relatives, or if they have none, they look for someone who seemed like a mother to them, such as a neighbor. These role models can provide the pregnant woman and new mother with needed support. According to Abbyad & Robertson (2011), nurses caring for pregnant African American women need to be informed about the variety of ways in which childbirth preparation can occur, as in any other group of pregnant women.

Moreover, nurses need to consider the ways in which their attitudes and behaviors send unwelcoming messages to African American women seeking prenatal care or childbirth classes. These attitudes can discourage the African American woman in seeking further care. “Culturally competent care for the childbearing African American woman includes addressing all components of care including the use of complementary and alternative medicine” (Revell, 2012).

The childbirth nurse that is providing culturally competent care should be aware that the perceived norm is different for every family. African Americans are spiritual and are usually affiliated with some religious order. Historically, the church has played a major role in the life of African American culture. The church is a place where they can meet on common grounds. Faith and prayer is one of the most important attributes of Christian African Americans. They believe that God has the power to heal them, and he also has the power not to. They believe that whatever happens to them is according to God’s will. Food is very valuable in the African American culture.

It symbolizes health and wealth. It is derived from African descent. When food is offered to someone, it means that the person is valued; and by offering food, they are given you something that is 6 A NURSING METHOD TO AFRICAN AMERICAN HERITAGE valuable to them. When it comes to nutrition, some African American diets are high in cholesterol and fats. According to James (2004), “African Americans will need information on basic nutrition topics such as serving sizes and reading food labels”. Nurses that work in African American communities should be involved in programs that promote healthy food choices.

These programs can specifically be developed for churches, neighborhood grocery stores, and local restaurants. “Health disparities among the African-American population include life expectancy, heart disease, hypertension, infant morality and morbidity rates, cancer, sickle cell diseases, HIV/AIDS, violence, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and asthma” (Campinha-Bacote, 2009). Unfortunately, they have the tendency to see a health care professional only when absolutely necessary. “Health is viewed as harmony with nature, whereas illness is seen as a disruption in this harmonic state due to demons” (Purnell, 2013, p. 33).

Recognize and support your patient cultural behaviors and believes to promote healthy interactions. In addition, always provide factual information about health practices that may not be understood due to their cultural believes and cultural differences. In conclusion, it is recommended that nurses familiarize themselves with cultural specific information in order to provide cultural competent care in African American community. Nurses should consider the following question: “In caring for African- American patients, have I asked myself the right questions.

” It is important for nurses to be aware of their biases and prejudices toward African Americans. In addition, they should possess the needed skills to conduct a cultural assessment while possessing knowledge of this cultural group (Campinha-Bacote, 2009). Lastly, nurses should always 7 A NURSING METHOD TO AFRICAN AMERICAN HERITAGE have the desire to become culturally competent not just with African American patients, but any patient that has been placed in their charge. 8 A NURSING METHOD TO AFRICAN AMERICAN HERITAGE Resources Abbyad, C. , & Robertson, T. (2011).

African American Women’s Preparation for Childbirth From the Perspective of African American Health-Care Providers. Journal Of Perinatal Education, 20(1), 45-53. doi:10. 1891/1058-1243. 20. 1. 45 Campinha-Bacote, J. (2009). Culture and diversity issues. A culturally competent model of care for African Americans. Urologic Nursing, 29(1), 49-54. Gichia, J. E, (2000), Mothers and others: African-American women’s preparation for motherhood. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 25(2), 86-91, James, D. (2004).

Factors influencing food choices, dietary intake, and nutrition-related attitudes among African Americans: application of a culturally sensitive model. Ethnicity & Health, 9(4), 349-367. Purnell, L. D. (2009). People of African American Heritage. Guide to culturally competent health care (2nd ed. , p. 21-35). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Co. Revell, M. A. , & McGhee, M. N. (2012). Evolution of the African American Family. International Journal Of Childbirth Education, 27(4), 44-48. Revell, M. A. (2012). Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the African American Culture. International Journal Of Childbirth Education, 27(3), 55-59.

African American Heritage Paper Essay

African American and Black People Essay

African American and Black People Essay.

1 . What issues most concerned black political leaders during Reconstruction? Reconstruction brought important social changes to former slaves. Families that had been separated before and during the Civil War were reunited, and slave marriages were formalized through legally recognized ceremonies. Families also took advantage of the schools established by the Freedmen’s Bureau and the expansion of public education, albeit segregated, under the Reconstruction legislatures.

New opportunities for higher education also became available with the founding soon after the Civil War of black colleges, such as Howard University in Washington, D.

C. , and Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee. The number of African-American churches grew significantly and became social and political centers as well as houses of worship. Black ministers assumed a leadership role in the community and were among the first elected officials. The most fundamental concern of blacks through all of the changes, though, was economic survival. 2.

What did black political leaders accomplish and fail to accomplish during Reconstruction? What contributed to their successes and failures? During the decade known as Radical Reconstruction (1867-77), Congress granted African American men the status and rights of citizenship, including the right to vote, as guaranteed by the 14th and 15th Amendments to the U.

S. Constitution. During Reconstruction, some 2,000 African Americans held public office, from the local level all the way up to the U. S. Senate, though they never achieved representation in government proportionate to their numbers.

3. Were black political leaders unqualified to hold office so soon after the end of slavery? They were unqualified to hold office soon after the slavery because some of the amendments disqualified blacks. Yes because the amendments prevented blacks to be in the office. 4. To what extent did African Americans dominate southern politics during Reconstruction? Should we refer to this era as “Black Reconstruction” African Americans dominated the southern politics during Reconstruction because of the debate play a big part in the situation.

5. Why did the Republican Party fail to maintain control of southern state governments during Reconstruction? Because other party had more voters and stronger debates. 6. What was “redemption”? What happened when redemption occurred? What factors contributed to redemption? The return of an investor’s principal in a fixed income security, such as a preferred stock or bond; or the sale of units in a mutual fund. A redemption occurs, in a fixed income security at par or at a premium price, upon maturity or cancellation by the issuer.

Redemptions occur with mutual funds, at the choice of the investor, however limitations by the issuer may exist, such as minimum holding periods. 7. How and why did Reconstruction end? reconstruction ended because of the compromise of 1877. It was an unwritten agreement that stated Hayes would win the presidency, if he were to remove troops from southern states (political).. Reconstruction also failed because many people in the south did not want to accept a life different from what they were used to (social). 8.

How effective was Reconstruction in assisting black people to move from slavery to freedom? It was very effective because black people did get a chance to become free. 1 . How were black people prevented from voting despite the Fifteenth Amendment? Many white Americans were upset about the fifteenth amendment so they put fear in the black community by attacking them at the polls and throughout different cities. 2. How did white Americans justify segregation? They had better options than blacks. For example Blacks had to seat in the of the classroom and buses. 3.

Why did the South experience an epidemic of violence? and lynching in the late nineteenth century? Because people wanted revenge upon people in the south 4. Why didn’t more black people leave the South in this period? Because they was afraid of what people from the south might do to them. 1. How did the strategies promoted by Booker T. Washington differ from those of W. E. B. Du Bois and the NAACP? Which were more effective? W. E. B Du Bois wanted people to work for the things they wanted. Booker T Washington wanted people to find a trade and work for the stuff they want.

W. E. B Du Bois was more effective because the black community wanted to be educated was the can understand things . 2. Assess Washington’s contributions to the advancement of black people? Booker T Washington wanted people to find a trade and work for the stuff they want. 3. How did middle-class and prosperous black people try to contribute to progress for their race? Were their efforts effective?

They efforts were effective they seen that it was possible for blacks to advance in life and they wanted to progress. 4. Why did most African Americans support U. S.participation in World War I? Was that support justified? Because they loved their country, and wanted to support their families.

6. Why did many black people leave the South in the 1920s? Why didn’t this migration begin earlier or later? Because they were not being treated fair. 2. What examples of progress could leaders like W. E. B. Du Bois, James Weldon Johnson, A. Philip Randolph, and Marcus Garvey point to in the 1920s? 3. Why did so many African-American leaders reject Marcus Garvey? Because he wanted them to go back to Africa and got close with Ku Klux Klan. 4.

How did the black nationalism of the Universal Negro Improvement Association differ from the white nationalism of the Ku Klux Klan? Because they were not violent. 5. What economic opportunities existed for African Americans who had migrated to northern cities? 6. Why did the literary and artistic movement known as the Harlem Renaissance emerge? 7. What was distinctive about black writers, artists, and musicians? Were their creative works essentially a part of American culture or separate from it? 8. Did African Americans have any reason to be optimistic by the late 1 920s?

1 . Why did African Americans abandon their long association with the Republican Party in favor of the Democratic Party? Because African Americans felt like the democratic party share the same beliefs. 2. How did black radicalism influence Roosevelt’s New Deal policies and programs? 3. How did black people respond to and survive the Great Depression? How did the experiences of black women during the Depression reflect their race, class, and gender status? 1 . How did the Great Depression affect black culture? How did the WPA democratize black culture?

How did black religious culture change during this era? It rapidly increases and had black support and establish an organization. 2. How did black artists, musicians, filmmakers, and writers negotiate the dilemma of dual consciousness as articulated by Du Bois? They knew that people had to be educated to make their dreams come true. The different talents that they had needed to be shared with the world and the way they could do that is understanding how, why, when and what message will people understand them or they dreams.

This provided blacks with the opportunity to shine and show their talented. 3. How did swing-era big band music lead to bebop? What problems did the bebop musicians encounter? They were introduce to beats, It was not catching a lot of people attention. It was a culture change in Chicago and Harlem. The cities started a different age of music. Jazz and hip-hop dancing help create the renaissance in the two areas. 6. Why did black athletes become prominent during the1930s and 1940s? What was their impact on American.

African American and Black People Essay

Growing Up African American Essay

Growing Up African American Essay.

I am a member of the African American group and I would like to tell you a bit about the group of when I am a part of. Let me start by saying that my African American group originated from Africa and growing up in America can be tough for people of my race, the African Americans. My group’s history is wide ranging spanning for many years and varying from region to region within the United States. I remember when I was young I use to talk to my mother a lot and asked her many questions like “Why am I called an African American?

” She went on to explain that our race originally comes from Africa and we were part of a slave trade.

From my mother I learned that we were slaves until a law was passed to give us freedom. I use to wonder when I was young if there were other people similar to me all over America.

I also remember something my father told me once that African Americans live all over the country. My father told stories of how he used to go to an all black school could vote or sit in the front of buses. Being African Americans have faced several kinds of creation and consequence situations in the years they have been a part of the United States.

In some places cheaper labor, longer work hours and terrible living conditions. Many people of the United States have made it almost impossible for groups of another race or Ethnicity to strive and live full happy lives. I have seen over the year’s situations of extermination in some parts, as well segregation, and expulsion. In school from some of my teachers, in social interactions like just walking through a store, and especially in the work place when they’ll even give me the chance to work because it doesn’t matter I go to get a job out here.

There are some racist, even the Uncle Tom’s. I’ve done everything they ask and still I either get denied the job or they hire me and treat me like Growing up African American 3 trash until I quit, or they try to find a reason to get rid of me. Since, I don’t give them much reason to get rid of me due to my strong work ethic and performance; they usually try to break me down. Education plays an important role for most African Americans; however we are still way behind when compared to the White American which probably has a lot to do with the way some of us was brought up or our background.

Regardless of the contributions made by the forefathers of black people, there is a hesitation of acceptance of the race that has been a focus of many groups the strive for freedom and justice for all, that has not yet been rectified. The same group of people was good enough to built the country is not always seen as good enough to live in the house next door. I believe because this country is made up of many different races and ethnic groups that are steadily growing in numbers. If different races are toco exist peacefully in the U. S. , it is vital that we all become educated on the history and culture of different races and ethnicities.

According to the 2000 Census data for Lexington, MS the total population for 2000 were 2,025 male 965 and female 1,060 square miles 2. 45. Race: white (635); black or African American (1,362); American Indian and Alaska Native (1); Asian (13); and two or more races (14); and Hispanic or Latino (of any race) (40) (Fact finder Census 2000). Birthplace facts from the 2000 census data in Lexington born in the same state (1,706); born in another state (269); born outside the US (0); naturalized citizen (14); and foreign born, not US citizen (10).

Some more 2000 census data in educational attainment population 25 and older was 1,206 in Lexington: high school graduates (299); some college, or associate’s degree (349); bachelor’s degree (111); and master’s, professional or doctorate degree (60). Some enrollment population 3 years and over Growing up African American 4 enrolled in school was 627: preschool and kindergarten (83); grades 1-12 (446); and college (98) (2000 census data). Growing up African American 5 References Factfinder Census 2000 Census data for Lexington, MS My mother and father.

Growing Up African American Essay