Do you live in an area with abundant natural soils or in a city or town with little exposed soil? How will the quality of the soils in your area affect agricultural productivity, water quality and runoff, and the long-term sustainability of your region?

Do you live in an area with abundant natural soils or in a city or town with little exposed soil? How will the quality of the soils in your area affect agricultural productivity, water quality and runoff, and the long-term sustainability of your region?.

Quality of the soils in your area affect agricultural productivity

Soil conservation is an important component of sustaining our way of life.  All of our food is grown either in or on soils!  Nevertheless, every year we lose thousands of acres of prime farm and grazing land to soil topsoil erosion, development, soil pollution and other factors.  Watch this Youtube video to learn more about soil conservation in the United States.

A Culture of Conservation

Once you have watched the video, write a 4 to 5 paragraph essay reflecting on the following questions:

  1. Observe the soils around where you live.  What are the factors that influence soil erosion (both positive and negative) around you?  Identify some of these soil erosion factors and describe whether they increase or decrease erosion.
  2. Do you live in an area with abundant natural soils or in a city or town with little exposed soil?  How will the quality of the soils in your area affect agricultural productivity, water quality and runoff, and the long-term sustainability of your region?

Each paragraph should average 4 to 5 full sentences.  I’m looking for a complete, well thought out essay here.  Be thorough and descriptive in your essay and be sure to draw on the materials covered in the course directly.  For full points, you should not simply write an opinion piece – you must back up your opinions with facts derived from the video and your readings and assignments.

Do you live in an area with abundant natural soils or in a city or town with little exposed soil? How will the quality of the soils in your area affect agricultural productivity, water quality and runoff, and the long-term sustainability of your region?

Contract analysis scenario one—damages determination: Alfred and Barbara own adjoining farms in Dry County, an area where all agriculture requires irrigation.

Contract analysis scenario one—damages determination: Alfred and Barbara own adjoining farms in Dry County, an area where all agriculture requires irrigation..

Contract analysis scenario one

Contract analysis scenario one—damages determination: Alfred and Barbara own adjoining farms in Dry County, an area where all agriculture requires irrigation.

Alfred bought a well-drilling rig and drilled a 400-foot well from which he drew drinking water. Barbara needed no additional irrigation water, but in January 1985, she asked Alfred on what terms he would drill a well near her house to supply better-tasting drinking water than the county water she has been using for years.

Alfred said that because he had never before drilled a well for hire, he would charge Barbara only $10 per foot, about one dollar more than his expected cost.

Alfred said that he would drill to a maximum depth of 600 feet, which is the deepest his rig could reach. Barbara said, “OK—as long as you can guarantee completion by June 1, we have a deal.” Alfred agreed, and he asked for $3,500 in advance, with any further payment or refund to be made on completion. Barbara said, “OK,” and she paid Alfred $3,500. Alfred started to drill on May 1.

He had reached a depth of 200 feet on May 10 when his drill struck rock and broke, plugging the hole. The accident was unavoidable. It had cost Alfred $12 per foot to drill this 200 feet. Alfred said he would not charge Barbara for drilling the useless hole in the ground, but he would have to start a new well close by and could not promise its completion before July 1. Barbara, annoyed by Alfred’s failure, refused to let him start another well.

On June 1, she contracted with Carl to drill a well. Carl agreed to drill to a maximum depth of 350 feet for $4,500, which Barbara also paid in advance, but Carl could not start drilling until October 1. He completed drilling and struck water at 300 feet on October 30. BBA 3210, Business Law 5 In July, Barbara sued Alfred, seeking to recover her $3,500 paid to Alfred, plus the $4,500 paid to Carl. On August 1, Dry County’s dam failed, thus reducing the amount of water available for irrigation.

Barbara lost her apple crop worth $15,000. The loss could have been avoided by pumping from Barbara’s well if it had been operational by August 1. Barbara amended her complaint to add the $15,000 loss. In a minimum of a 1,000-word contract analysis, discuss Barbara’s suit against Alfred. What are Barbara’s rights, and what damages, if any, will she recover? Cite any direct quotes or paraphrased material from outside sources. Use APA format

Contract analysis scenario one—damages determination: Alfred and Barbara own adjoining farms in Dry County, an area where all agriculture requires irrigation.

How is this dependence on potatoes seen as a possible parallel to the events of the early twenty-first century and our dependence on computer technology?

How is this dependence on potatoes seen as a possible parallel to the events of the early twenty-first century and our dependence on computer technology?.

Dependence on potatoes

Write your answers to the following questions in Short Essay Format. Be sure to explain your viewpoints completely. Total length of response for this assignment needs to be a minimum of 2 full pages total for all three (3) partsmaximumresponse is 4 pages total for all three (3) parts. Use MS Word or its equivalent. File formats that are acceptable for this assignment include: doc, docx, txt, and pdf.

Background:

Computers seem to be everywhere: at work, at play and in all sorts of places in between. There are perhaps a million large computers, tens of millions of personal computers, hundreds of millions of programmable calculators, and billions of dedicated micro-processors built into other machines of every description in use in America today. The changes these machines are bringing to society are profound, if not revolutionary. However, our dependence upon technology is nothing new; numerous previous societies have also depended upon technology in different ways for their survival and existence.

In Ireland in the nineteenth century, the predominance and dependence of mono-cropping potatoes led to massive starvation and one of the largest migrations of that time, all because of a blight (disease) that wiped out the crop over a series of years. Much as we have become dependant on computers for our economy, the Irish had become dependant on the potato for their agriculture and to feed their families. The entire system of villages and tenant farming was centered in this one product. Its failure created untold hardship, both in the crop failure itself and in the political and economic upheavals that followed.

Conditions:

For the purpose of this assignment, you are to use the scenario that the world has just suffered a global EMP-based war. Everything that is connected to networks of wire, or uses transistor circuitry and newer electronics is now unusable and un-repairable. If you are unfamiliar with the Irish potato famine, you are allowed to do research to gain a better understanding of what happened.

Assignment:

Answer the following 3-part question in your own words.

  1. How is this dependence on potatoes seen as a possible parallel to the events of the early twenty-first century and our dependence on computer technology?
  2. What would society do if all computers and all other equipment that uses processors suddenly stopped working?
  3. What lessons can we draw from these two examples?

Formatting:

Text Size: All of the text in this assignment needs to be set in 12-point size.

Double Spacing: For this class select all of your text and set it for double spacing. This includes the name block, title and body of your work.

Margins: One-inch margins mean one (1”) on all sides. The only text that ends up on the outside of the one-inch margin is the page number.

Name Block: Place the name block in the upper right corner of the page. In this class, the name block only needs to be on the first page. Put your name first, then the class title and then the date. Example:

Your Name

TECH 393 Technology in World Civilization

May 31, 2018

Title: All homework assignments have a title. Please place the title just below the name block. The title for thisassignment is “Project 4”.

Spelling/Grammar Checking: Remember to do your spelling and grammar checking before turning your assignments in. Proofread your work.

Paragraphs: The first word of the first sentence in a paragraph needs to be indented.

Page Numbers: Any homework that has more than one page, needs to have page numbers on it. Please place your page numbers on the bottom of the page.

Content:

Opinion: When a question asks for your opinion, its answer is exactly that – your opinion. It is not a researched answer. Feel free to use your own opinion.

Stating the Question before Answering It: While some reports require that you state the question before your answer, in this class this is not required. If you place the question before your answer, the space that it takes up will not count towards the minimum of 2 pages worth of writing.

Short Essay Format

Short essay format is a format that requires at least 2 paragraphs for each answer. Please remember that a paragraph is not just one, two, or three sentences in length.

How is this dependence on potatoes seen as a possible parallel to the events of the early twenty-first century and our dependence on computer technology?

“Focus on” disciplines: Agriculture, Criminology, Economics, Education, Environment, Health & Education, History, Law, Literature, Politics, Psychology, Public Health, Social Science, Sociology, or The Stock Market

“Focus on” disciplines: Agriculture, Criminology, Economics, Education, Environment, Health & Education, History, Law, Literature, Politics, Psychology, Public Health, Social Science, Sociology, or The Stock Market.

Agriculture, Criminology, Economics,

Statistics are all around us, whether or not we notice them being used. From public policy, health, economics, science, culture to which foods a fast-food restaurant is going to serve next can all be influenced by how the results of statistical studies are operationalized and interpreted.

Each chapter of your course text concludes with two “Focus on” sections that go into depth on important issues of our time. The topics of these sections were chosen to demonstrate the great variety of fields in which statistics plays a role. For this Discussion, you are going to review and compare two statistical studies.

To prepare for this Discussion:

  • Think about your degree major and your areas of interests, and then concentrate on two of the following “Focus on” disciplines: Agriculture, Criminology, Economics, Education, Environment, Health & Education, History, Law, Literature, Politics, Psychology, Public Health, Social Science, Sociology, or The Stock Market
  • Review the readings from this week’s Learning Resources, as well as the complete list of the “Focus on” topics to choose from
  • Choose two of the studies to compare for this Discussion
  • For each study, consider the sample population used, errors that could occur in the research process, and how meaningful and important the results of the study are

Post a 2- to 3-paragraph response that includes the following information:

  • Identify two “Focus on…” sections you have chosen to review and provide a brief summary of the content.
  • For each topic, discuss whether you think the sample is representative of the population being studied. What criteria did you use to decide this?
  • Was the sample chosen in a way that is likely to introduce bias? What kinds of errors are likely to be associated with each study? Explain.
  • Based on what you read, do you believe that the results of each study are meaningful and important? Explain.
  • Based on the responses above, which do you think is the stronger study? Why?

Reference to files below:

Bennett, J. O., Briggs, W. L., & Triola, M. F. (2009). Statistical reasoning for everyday life (3rd ed.). Boston: Addison-Wesley.

“Focus on” disciplines: Agriculture, Criminology, Economics, Education, Environment, Health & Education, History, Law, Literature, Politics, Psychology, Public Health, Social Science, Sociology, or The Stock Market

Sewage Sludge Applied to Agricultural Soil

Sewage Sludge Applied to Agricultural Soil.

Sewage Sludge Applied to Agricultural Soil

 

The increase in population, urbanization, and industrialization in the world has resulted to increased levels of waste products that the relevant authorities have to deal with to prevent the adverse effects associated with these waste materials. In most cases, the local governments in most towns have constructed sewerage systems with consolidating the waste product in one region for treatment and recycling of wastewaters. The recycled water is reused again for domestic purposes by the city and town dwellers during the by-product of treatment, sludge may be used for other purposes majorly in agriculture. Sewage sludge may be defined as the semi-solid residuals produced as a by-product during sewage treatment of industrial or municipal wastewater. This paper will explain the sewage sludge applied in agricultural soil, its economic benefit, merits, and demerits.

Due to the increasing amount of sewage sludge over time, industries and municipals have adopted various methods of disposing of the sludge. According to Saabye (1997), the various method used for disposing of the sewage sludge included; land-filling that has been the major method in Europe constituting about 50-75% while the remaining percent has been disposed of in Agricultural lands. The latter method has been encouraged since it is the modest way of recycling the waste although incineration has been viewed as the worst procedure due to high levels of pollution. When the wastewater arrives at sewerage treatment plant, it passes via physical, biological, and chemical a process that purifies the wastewater and eliminates the solids that are termed as sludge (Fao, 2015). Due to the foul smell in the solids, the pH of the solids is raised remove the odor using lime and the wastewater is sanitized to control the pathogens in solids.

Since the wastewater in the sewage is a composition of large effluent from industries, households, and run-off, the sludge may contain heavy metals that might be toxic to plant and human health. Therefore, EU countries have been restricted on the use of the sludge in agricultural activities until tested for the chemical composition. To utilize safely the sewage sludge in agricultural soil, the raw sludge must undergo the treatment and processing to form Biosolids. According to United States Environmental Protection Agency (2012), Biosolids are the resulting materials after the treatment and processing of the raw sewage sludge that contains organic nutrients. These left over are applied as fertilizers in agricultural fields after they have been ascertained to be within the regulatory requirement.

The uses of treated sewage sludge, Biosolid, have various economic benefits. Since the Biosolids contains essential minerals such as nitrogen, phosphorous and various micronutrients, it has greatly reduced the cost the farmers would have incurred in purchasing the fertilizers with all these nutrients. Additionally, Biosolids fertilizer is cheaper compared to inorganic fertilizers and readily available to the farmer. Therefore, they have significantly led to a reduction in production cost of crops, which have enabled the produce to compete effectively in the market. Also, the use of Biosolids has improved the yield of some crops which has resulted to increased revenue due to increased sale of the produce. In addition, the improved yields have enabled farmers t export the produce to other countries at relative prices that have helped the country in the balance of payment.

Moreover, application of treated sewage sludge in agricultural fields has helped in reducing the cost of disposing of the by-product of wastewater. In the past, most European countries were disposing the sludge in the ocean, abandoned lands, and landfill disposals among others that were environmentally unfriendly (Saabye, 1997). Due to increasing level of waste, these methods proved expensive in term of transportation of sludge and management. Therefore, treatment of sludge for application in soil was a cheaper an environmentally friendly alternative of disposing of the by-product that has greatly reduced these costs. Furthermore, since the governments used to set aside a huge amount for rehabilitating the damaged environment, this money has reduced and hence being utilized in another sector for the growth of the economy.

Due to continued reduction in utilization of inorganic fertilizers by the farmers, the governments has benefited due to the reduced importation of chemical used for manufacturing these fertilizers. This is essential in the economy for the balance of trade between imports and exports. Similarly, the applications of sewage wastes in agricultural soils have saved the government and municipal funds that could have been used in the purchase of land for disposal of sludge. This has allowed these authorities to utilize these funds in other sectors that could benefit the farmers. Furthermore, due to the reduced cost of production and increase in output, the agriculture sector has attracted many individuals hence reducing the level of unemployment in the country.

Treated sewage sludge also has other benefits apart from an economic perspective. According to Bishop (1995), disposal of sludge in agricultural soil has greatly aided in the reduction of minimization of energy utilization and air pollution. This is because some of the methods used in the past such as incineration heavily polluted the air. He also claimed the land application of sludge has reduced other pollution threat such as water pollution as well as protecting the aquatic life. This is because municipals used to dispose of by-product in oceans or other coastal waters that are the habitat of marine animals. The other benefit is that application of sludge in the soils over time has improved the soil properties. According to Roig, Marti, Nadal, Sierra, Schumacher, and Domingo (2012), sludge enhances soil acidity, nitrogen levels, organic carbon measures, organic matters, and other microbial activities in the soil. Consequently, this has improved some soil structures regarding aeration, permeability, as well as water holding capacity.

In addition, enhanced soil structure has an advantage of minimizing the risk of soil erosion that is highly contributed by surface run-off. Another merit is that sewage Biosolids are readily available at a considerable price. Since the wastewater has been increasing due to growth in urban migration and increase in industrial activities, the amount of sludge has also increased hence benefiting the farmers with both small and large-scale production. Also, the transportation of Biosolids to the farms is cheaper as compared to the primary untreated sludge that is more fluid and has a bad smell.

However, before application of the Biosolids in agriculture soil, several measures must be adhered to obtain the permission to use the sludge. The factors that are required to be fulfilled include the following; first, the soil must be within the required buffers in areas around the stream and wells. Secondly, the composition of metal and nutrients in the Biosolids must be with the specifications of EU policy. Thirdly, the farmers or gardeners have to produce the test results of the soil in their farms. This aids in determining the level of nutrients and metals already in the soil to avoid increasing them to toxic levels that might affect plant or even human health. The test results are accomplished by calculation of the right agronomic rate. Lastly, the farmer must exhibit the calculations of the amount of Biosolids to be applied in each specific field and maintain the records of the amount of Biosolids that has been on those fields. These records will assist in determining the accumulation of nutrients and other metals in the soil for safety control.

Nonetheless, although the sewage sludge has a wide range of benefits, it has several disadvantages that should be looked into. According to Gaskin, Risse, Segars, and Harris (2012), these demerits may be categorized with respect to odor, availability of specific metals, pathogen concerns and the risk of over-application of some nutrients. First, although treated and processed, Biosolids may also have a foul smell with may be an issue of concern to the public. However, to curb this issue, some techniques have been employed to reduce these odors. They include; use of buffer vegetation, Biosolids incorporation in the soil, timely planning of the application, etc. Secondly, some metals in the sludge may be of quantities hence toxic to plants, animal health, and even the human health. In pursuit of mitigating the risk, the 503 regulations by EU has set the maximum limit to be complied with during the application of the sewage sludge to reduce the risk. Thirdly, over-application of Biosolids can lead to increase in levels of some nutrients, which can contaminate surface and underground water. For instance, excess phosphorous can and nitrogen. Therefore, the application of nutrients should be limited to requirements of plants and soils. Lastly, there may be some pathogens causing diseases in the Biosolids. The presence of the pathogens can be reduced by extensively treating the sludge (Gaskin, Risse, Segars, & Harris, 2012).

In conclusion, it is clear that as the population of the world is growing exponentially, the way to curb the increasing wastewater from urban centers and industries can be utilized effectively and in an environmentally friendly manner. After recycling the water, the by-product of treatment that used to cause the problem to many municipals can now be utilized to make fertilizers that have benefited the farmers in the agriculture sector. After treatment of the sludge, it has become economical to apply the Biosolids to the farms hence reducing the cost of its disposal and consequently reducing the cost of production of farm produce. Additionally, this alternative disposal of sewage sludge has reduced pollution in air and water that have been a major problem in the past methods of disposal. However, caution should be taken in the application of Biosolids to reduce the chances of the pathogen, over-application of some nutrients and metals that may be harmful to plant, animals, and even human beings.

 

 

 

References

Bishop, P. (1997). Municipal sewage sludge: Management, processing, and disposal. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

FAO (2015). Agricultural use of sewage sludge. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/t0551e/t0551e08.htm#6.4%20effects%20of%20sludge%20on%20soils%20and%20crops

Gaskin, J., Risse, M., Segars, B and Harris, G. (2012). Beneficial Reuse of Municipal Biosolids in Agriculture. Retrieved from http://extension.uga.edu/publications/files/pdf/SB%2027_3.PDF

Roig, N., Sierra, J., Martí, E., Nadal, M., Schumacher, M. & Doming, J. L. (2012). Long-term amendment of Spanish soils with sewage sludge: Effects on soil functioning. Agriculture, ecosystems, and environment, 158, 41-48.

Saabye, A. (1997). Sludge treatment and disposal: Management approaches and experiences. European Environmental Agency, 7, 1-54.

United States Environmental Protection Agency, (2012). Water: Sewage Sludge (Biosolids). Retrieved from http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/wastewater/treatment/biosolids/genqa.cfm

 

Sewage Sludge Applied to Agricultural Soil

Vegetable Garden Design

Vegetable Garden Design. Vegetable Garden Design

 

Objective: The purpose of this creative assignment is for you to have some additional experience in developing a plan for either a warm-season or cool-season vegetable garden.  This creative assignment is worth 25 points.

 

There are two distinct gardening seasons in Phoenix. Begin this assignment by first deciding whether you will focus on developing a plan for a warm-season or cool-season vegetable garden. Next, select three vegetable plants that you would like to plant and eat (for example, corn, squash and peppers). All three vegetables plants that you select MUST be either a cool- season or warm-season vegetable. The three videos and the web resources in the external link section on vegetable gardening will be helpful sources of information.

 

 

First answer these two questions:

 

  1. Is your garden a warm-season or cool-season garden?                              

 

  1. What three garden vegetable plants did you select?

 

  1.                                                      

 

  1.                                                      

 

  1.                                                      

 

 

 

Now, accomplish the following four tasks.

 

TASK 1:

Select two varieties of each vegetable plant (sometimes called cultivars) that you have selected to be a part of your garden plan. You will have a total of 6 types of plants. In the boxes provided below, write what each of these two varieties are and what unique feature(s) led you to choose them and the citation (Website URL, catalogs, bulletins etc.) from which you got your information.

For example, ‘Abraham Lincoln’ is a heirloom variety of tomato that is resistant to forming cracks on the skin of the fruit, and ‘Ancho’ is a delicious mildly hot variety of pepper that is heart-shaped with a thick skin making it a great pepper for stuffing when cooked. Note that generic terms such as cherry tomato, bell pepper, and hot pepper are not correct answers for this task.

Vegetable plant 1 type:   

 

Cultivar 1

Name

 

 
Description

 

Citation

 

Cultivar 2

Name

 

 
Description

 

Citation

 

Vegetable plant 2 type:   

 

Cultivar 1

Name

 

 
Description

 

Citation

 

 

Cultivar 2

Name

 

 
Description

 

Citation

 

Vegetable plant 3 type:   

 

Cultivar 1

Name

 

 
Description

 

Citation

 

Cultivar 2

Name

 

 
Description

 

Citation

 

 

 

 

 

TASK 2:  Develop a garden plan. To do this, assume that your garden space is 15 feet wide and 10 feet long. Use the box below to develop your plan noting the north-facing arrow to help you visualize your garden space’s orientation. The box space provided below is partitioned into three smaller areas to help you visualize your space – this is your garden space!  Within the boxes provided, creatively locate where in your garden space you will grow your three vegetable plant types. Do this by placing small symbols representing the approximate placement of individual plants in your garden space according to their growth habit. You must use three separate and unique symbols, one for each plant type, to receive full credit. Do not simply insert one symbol/photo per plant type or fill the boxes with random symbols that do not represent a thoughtful planting plan.

 

Remember to place plants based on shading patterns (for example large plants planted in the west block would provide shade for small plants in the east block in the afternoon). Some vegetables might benefit from afternoon shade in the summer and others might need full sun. In the winter, maximum amounts of sun are most desirable. One vegetable type should be in each planting block.  Be creative, you may want to grow some of your vegetables on a trellis or use staking.

 

Task 2 Answer…..Insert your garden planting plan below

North  é

 

 

TASK 3: 

In Phoenix, warm-season gardens are generally planted when one is confident that winter cold is over and there will be no more frost events at night. Cool-season gardens are generally planted when one is confident that the persistent 100oF days of summer are ending. For this task develop a ‘gardening timeline’ for each of your three garden plants consisting of three calendar dates for each plant type.

Those dates are: 1) specific date of planting your garden, 2) specific date when you anticipate harvesting your first vegetables based on the ‘number of days to first harvest’, and finally 3) the date you expect to finish harvesting your vegetables from this garden. Predict these dates by referring to the U of A planting calendar, seed catalog websites, seed packets etc.

Note: It is most likely that you will plant all your plants in your garden space on the same day, but the days to first harvest and the duration of harvest for each vegetable plant will most likely be different.

 

 

Task 3 Answer….

 

Gardening Timeline

 

Activity

 

 

Name of Plant 1

 

(insert name)

Name of Plant 2

 

(insert name)

Name of Plant 3

 

(insert name)

Planting date
First harvest date
Last harvest date

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Task 4. Decide if you will grow your vegetable plants from seeds, bulbs, tubers or transplants in the Phoenix area. Explain why you selected these propagation methods.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vegetable Garden Creative assignment grading rubric

 

Pts Item
-5 Answering the first two questions
-20 Each of the four tasks is worth 5 points

 

 

Possible point deductions:

 

-25       Assignment e-mailed and not properly uploaded to Blackboard as an assignment

-25       Submitted work in non-Word document format

-10       Lack of attribution, no URL address for vegetable selection sources

 

 

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Vegetable Garden Design