Air Pollution of Speaking Essay

Air Pollution of Speaking Essay.

Look out the window, if you serious, you can know the sky are black. The azure sky becomes cloudy. Pure color has cast a black veil. Jiangmen’s poor air quality can be solved, in part, by limiting the use of cars and improving the public transport system. Cars are major cause of air pollution in the city. To reduce air pollution, Jiangmen should improve public transportation.

Cars are major cause of air pollution in the city. Population makes the number of cars increases.

Cars burning gasoline produce the carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide full in air and break the atmospheric, acid rain is formed from drops of liquid and carbon dioxide in air. Gasoline and diesel engine exhaust emissions are the main ingredients of car air pollution. To reduce air pollution, Jiangmen should improve public transportation. People used public transportation. People used “green” transportation, for example, bicycle, walk, and run , this is low carbon environmental safe life.

Air pollution affects the human health and the air pollution makes by people, for example, in the great “Smog Disaster” in London in 1952, four thousand people died in a few days due to the high concentrations of pollution.

We can know the pollution is very serious problem! Jiangmen poor air quality direct affect human health. We need to improve the air quality makes it better than before. We used public transportation good for you, “I for all, all for one”. Protect the environment is equal to protect the earth, is each person should have obligations. Please protect the pure air.

Air Pollution of Speaking Essay

Economic Externalities – Air Pollution in Kolkata Essay

Economic Externalities – Air Pollution in Kolkata Essay.

According to statistics released by the Scientific and Environmental Research Institute, quoting government figures, Kolkata had a suspended particulate matter (SPM), the measure of pollution, at a steep 511 compared to Delhi’s 234 and Mumbai’s 322. That earns Kolkata the crown for the most polluted city in the country – a distinction reserved for New Delhi for last few years. Mumbai is the second most polluted city after Kolkata in terms of air pollution. Now Delhi ranks third while among all areas of the country following Chennai at fourth position; Vadodara is the safest city to live in.

The figures above are not merely some figures taken out from some fanciful statistician’s workbook, they mean much more to those who are affected. Kolkata now accounts for more deaths due to lung cancer and heart attack than any other city in the country including the capital city of Delhi, which had the highest level before Kolkata overtook it. More than 18 persons per one lakh people in Kolkata fall victim to lung cancer every year compared to the next highest 13 per one lakh in Delhi, according to environmental scientist and advisor of Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute (CNCI), Twisha Lahiri (1).

The most affected are children; apart from the life threatening diseases mentioned above, many of them suffer from lifelong ailments as such Asthma. People exposed to prolonged periods to this pollution, the roadside hawkers, shop owners, traffic policemen, auto-rickshaw drivers, rickshaw-pullers and others who spend long hours on the road, were the most vulnerable. Like children, they also face very high risk of potentially devastating health consequences of the pollution. So what causes this negative externality and inefficiency? Why the problem propped up to such a level? What measures can restore the health of such a common property resource like air? Major producers of the air pollution are vehicle operators in Kolkata and adjoining regions. Till December 2008, there were 14 Lakh vehicles registered in the city – among them 9.5 lakh private and 4.5 lakh commercial. Studies show that only 1 in 6 vehicles in the city gets pollution tested; although all of the commercial and private vehicles are supposed to be pollution tested twice a year.

Earlier actions by government to address the issue, such as scrapping of 15 year old commercial vehicles, could not succeed due to stiff resistance from powerful unions and lobbies. Even a court order towards that met an agitation by bus and taxi operators of the city (July 24, 2009). One of their main contentions was that measures to reduce the pollution will actually increase their marginal cost of production (transport service) and less people will avail transport services – causing industry revenue to come down. Economically, however, the output should actually go down. What is happening here is that the vehicle operators are unwilling to recognize the marginal external cost to the residents. If they recognized that then marginal social cost of their product should have gone up (Marginal Social Cost = Marginal Cost + Marginal External Cost) resulting in lowering of the level of output. Thus lowering of the output would have actually been consistent with the laws of economics. Another reason of pollution is the raising number of building construction projects around the city.

The massive high rises and glitzy malls are coming up in a very short period of time. Construction projects are creating fine dust particles that are crowding the air of Kolkata. Surely the pace of so called development is actually causing the air full of silica, which is very harmful for the human lungs. Here also we see that firms (construction companies) producing output at a higher rate than what is socially acceptable. We also witness moral hazard on the part of government officials and industry bodies, who are well acquainted of the pollution issues, who are turning a blind eye to the issue. In many occasions they refuse to recognize the marginal external cost of residents due to this pollution or attribute a lower marginal external cost to the problem. There are other more complex reasons that attributed to the pollution problem. Due to lack of industrialization of the state of West Bengal, the demand for labor has become less (the demand curve shifted left).

Also due to historical reasons such as influx of refugees during partition of India, the supply of labor has always been more than adequate. Due to efficiency wage theory, there has always been some unemployment. Prevalence of unions in the state also made sure that the employment remains less than the point of economic equilibrium. Adding all those, the state and its capital got a very high rate of unemployed population, mainly youth. They constitute the most of the auto rickshaw drivers, the heavily polluting unlicensed street food vendors etc. As the issue of pollution, in this case, is intermingled with the issue of economics that drive employment as well.

While the residents of Kolkata had started to rise up to the issue of pollution almost a decade back, a movement for cleaner environment never really reached a significant level. As air is a non-exclusive public good, majority of the population remained free riders in the hope that small number of environment activists will ensure pollution free air in the city. There also has been a concern that strict measures to curb pollution could raise the transport costs significantly. Kolkata Municipal Corporation faced resistance from not only from construction industry but from common residents when it tried to enforce stricter requirements for construction projects as they feared increase of already skyrocketing property prices due to those requirements. In short, most of the measures proposed for cleaner air were defeated as majority of the city dwellers were not ready to pay price for a cleaner air and wanted to enjoy free riding.

The only hope now rests on the recent court judgments forcing both local government and the polluting industries to take appropriate measures to control pollution. By doing that, judiciary actually recognized the property right of clean air for Kolkata residents. In a landmark high court directive on auto rickshaws, the court has asked the vehicles older than 15 years, which emit 20 times more fumes than new ones, to be withdrawn from the city roads. The court directed that all auto-rickshaws, irrespective of their date of registration, will have to convert to either compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). These directives might not clean the city’s air immediately, but it is sure to reduce pollution significantly going forward


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Economic Externalities – Air Pollution in Kolkata Essay

Causes and Effects of Haze Essay

Causes and Effects of Haze Essay.

Haze consists of tiny elements which occurs naturally or is a result of daily human activities. Smog produced by factories and automobiles as well as fire smoke is the main contributing factors of the existence of haze. The one of the main cause that touches off haze is the industries who evil mind construct the smog that had over the standard and the smog seriously influence the air become air pollution. The components that make up haze are carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, dust and metals which may have negative effect on one’s health especially that of the children and the elderly.

Also not excluded are those who have certain diseases such as asthma, allergy, and pneumonia and lung disease. Workers working in the open air have high risk in their health. As a result, a vehicle such as cars and trucks what is burning fossil fuels is also the cause of haze. Vehicles have exhausted the black opium during the vehicle driving on the road which had compose the haze happened.

Besides the ships such as boats and steamers had worn out the harmful smog had invented haze happened to. Therefore, haze had affected individual’s activities badly. Haze prevents one from carrying out his normal activities.

Residents are also advised to abstain from outdoor activities who are farmers fishermen have to find alternative ways to earn their income for the time being. In addition, forest fires that used to clear land are the reason of haze too. The authorities concerned prefer used the way forest fires to clear land because they think so it was the fastest way to clear land. But, forest fires make their work complete faster at the same time forest fires also made-up the haze. When the haze situation becomes more difficult, it is able to carry about a huge change. It could strain the nation’s income if country’s economy sector is affected.

Causes and Effects of Haze Essay

Effects of Pollution in China Essay

Effects of Pollution in China Essay.

In the last two decades, the air pollution in China has increased substantially. The lack of good air quality is especially prominent in the more urban, industrialized areas of China. Environment Minister Zhou Shengxian warned, “If China meant to quadruple the size of its economy over 20 years without more damage, it would have to become more efficient in resource use. Otherwise, there would be a painful price to pay” (BBC News).

The topic of air pollution is not a new concern to the world; however, the effects of air pollution, especially to the hundred of thousands of people directly or indirectly harmed by the side effects of “bad air,” should be of grave concern.

According to the Ministry of Health, air pollution has made cancer the leading cost of death in China. Air pollution not only affects the people, but also the quality of fresh water, produce, and other natural resources. These kinds of environmental outcomes may seem erratic in other countries but unfortunately, it has become the norm in China.

In fact, air pollution in China since the 1980’s has gotten so bad that many of the industrialized areas in Beijing and Shanghai rarely see the sun but rather clouds of smoke and fog. China, with its infamous reputation of becoming a global economic powerhouse, is ironically becoming its own downfall. In the midst of their tremendous economic and industrial growth, the energy outputs to support this growth are reaching an all-time high which means there is more residue of coal and fuel burning released in the atmosphere.

In order to understand the extent of pollution in China, one must understand the environmental, social, and political aspects of it. Currently, China is the leading nation in terms of population. Even though China has approximately 1. 3 billion people living in its territory, the dangerous effects that pollution has taken upon the population is still of high concern although many people and government officials choose to not talk about it in order to not cause more burden on the already stressed country. According to the World’s Resource Institute, “respiratory disease is the number one cause of death in China” (World’s Resources Institute).

In some regions, especially the major industrial zones in Hebei Province, rates of chronic lung disease are at least five times higher than the rest of the country. Even the women who do not smoke cigarettes and are living around those areas have the highest rates of lung cancer globally that pertains to the population of women who do not smoke (World’s Resources Institute). It is estimated that annual premature deaths attributable to outdoor air pollution were likely to reach 380,000 in 2010 and 550,000 in 2020 (BBC News).

With these potential outcomes that are doubling every decade, China will face even more problems if these environmental issues are not dealt with now. In addition to air population, there is also the concern of water pollution which coincides with the big cycle of environmental distress. In addition, many people who live near concentrated areas of pollution do not know how to protect themselves well because they are unaware of the long term effects of inhaling the air and drinking the water. Nearly half of China’s population consumes drinking water contaminated with animal and human waste and acidic rain and erosion.

While there has been an overall decline in mortality from infectious diseases, diarrheal diseases and viral hepatitis, both associated with fecal pollution of water, are the leading infectious diseases in China (World’s Resources Institute). Because of contaminated, polluted water, China has the highest liver and stomach cancer deaths in the world. While the government is preoccupied with wanting to censor all this preventable chaos, many more people are becoming ill and dying from the lack of clean resources. Water pollution has become an intricate part of the problem as well.

Many of the main rivers flowing through China have been the target for dumpsites for years. Because of its mass and distance, many people do not think twice when they dump their small amount of trash or waste inside the water; however, if twenty thousand other people are having the same exact justification, then it now becomes an environmental safety hazard as well as a social problem. As a result, it is estimated that three-quarters of the rivers running through Chinese cities are so polluted that they cannot be used for drinking or fishing. Even the infamous Yellow River is suffering from man-made environmental problems.

Once the country’s second biggest source of fresh water, the river is now so polluted that almost 70% is hazardous to drink; moreover, because the river has been the target for over-exploitation for many years, the water tends to dry up before it reaches the sea for almost a third of the year. According to the World Health Organization, reports estimate that diseases triggered by indoor and outdoor air pollution kill 656,000 Chinese citizens each year and polluted drinking water kills another 95,600 (Platt). The majority of the air pollution in China is generated by the burning of coal and fuel oil in order to generate electric power.

They do not have that much hydropower, power that comes from the energy of massive moving water, to help with demand and supply and, therefore, rely on the burning of coal. Coal is a natural resource that is abundant in amount but requires a lot of manpower and miners to obtain it every year. Because of its population and carrying capacity, China burns more coal to produce electricity than the U. S. , Europe and Japan combined. Air pollution and acid rain, which comes from the coal residue evaporating in the form of smoke into the atmosphere, is killing people.

In addition to chemical and industrial factories producing all this dirtiness into the air, vehicles of transportation also add to this pollution epidemic. In the 1990s, the number of vehicles on roads increased very rapidly, especially in medium-sized and large cities. In Beijing, the number of vehicles increased by a factor of 4, from 0. 5 million in 1990 to 2 million in 2002. In addition, the emission factor, the amount of pollution emitted by one car, in China is much higher than in developed countries because China has much lower emissions standards for automobiles (The Chinese Academy).

Thus, the drastic rise in the number of vehicles and rapid development of industries in cities has led to worsening air quality, particularly higher concentrations of nitrogen oxides. The burning of poor quality fuel only adds to urban air pollution. Considering the amounts of traffic that the more urban, centralized cities deal with on a constant basis, the amount of fuel being burned into the atmosphere is reaching tremendous heights. Over the years, the government had implemented their own ways of dealing with the pollution problem as well as progressing social development.

Embarrassed by the repercussions of industrialization and urbanization, China’s environmental agency insisted that the health statistics be removed from the published version of media reports because the government did not wish to cause social instability. According to Spiegel Online International, in 2007 the Chinese government put pressure on the World Bank to take potentially damaging statistics out of a report on pollution in China (Spiegel Online International). Reportedly, the World Bank reluctantly agreed to the demand of the Chinese government and this report about pollution was never published.

Many people did not believe the Chinese government undergone such secretive endeavors to “protect them but rather it was just the Communist’s instinctive response to every case of bad news – to cover it as much as possible. The Chinese government often has had a hard time prioritizing pressing issues at hand and, therefore, chooses to suppress it until the issue starts developing more and then reaches the attention of foreign countries. This kind of pattern has affected the Chinese government for many years now because of its lack of aggression towards personal, current issues.

In terms of the environmental issues, China’s model of pollution compared to that of the United States and Europe is worse because the density of its population is greater and people do not know how to protect themselves properly from the essential tools of life, water and air. Because of China’s reputation as being one of the leading nations in fast economic growth, the government places economic growth before any other problem the nation might have. Some may say, the country is addicted to fast growth and instances of progression.

Having a strong, solid economy would place China on the map as a great superpower and can very well earn them the respect and recognition from every other nation. If China starts to slow down their industrial development and economic growth at all, the effects would be social instability, the potential to lose foreign business and trading partners, and takes away China’s hard-earned reputation. Slowing down production to solve such insignificant problems may be a stretch for the Chinese government; however, the threat of pollution is very much real and staggering, which in the long run, would affect the economy in a negative way.

With the amount of health-related issues due to the environment, health care costs have climbed sharply. The lack of clean water has affected the farming and crop industry tremendously. The amounts of high energy-dependent industries create greater need for imported coal and fuel; therefore, the environmental problems gradually get harder and more expensive to address the longer they remain unresolved.

According to National Geographic, the rate in which this pollution is harming women and hildren would have a great effect on the next generation of China’s leaders, especially with the many recorded incidents of birth defects and brain damage that pregnant women are inhaling everyday of their lives. The pollution in China is not just a current problem but an issue that can surely affect the future of China extensively. In recent years, the Chinese government have been striving to address these environmental issues and making reforms to reverse some of the effects.

The government has set goals in order to reduce the emission of fuel and to conserve energy by reducing the level of energy that industries use as well as slowing down the demand for coals. Taking ideas from the United States, China has set to develop alternative methods of energy such as solar power. Yet most of the government’s targets for energy efficiency, as well as improving air and water quality, have not been reached. Although there are many targets and goals set forth by the government to fix this “pollution problem,” no real concrete actions has taken effect.

China’s lack of fundamental changes towards conservation and energy-efficient ways has resulted in no real progression. China refused to invest a lot of money and tax reforms to reach their supposed targeted goals. Even many bureaucratic leaders and city officials often do not invest their money and efforts into closing down factories and industries because that would hurt their local economies. In a way, the government reflects a dog-eat-dog world where everyone chooses to look out for themselves in order to prosper the most.

In attempts to stick to their original goals, China began to explore the idea of the Green G. D. P in the mid 2000’s. The Green G. D. P was “an effort to create an environmental yardstick for evaluating the performance of every official in China…it recalculated gross domestic product, or “G. D. P. ,” to reflect the cost of pollution” (BBC News). In other words, this was a way to calculate the financial loss that pollution has had on the economy and for the government to adjust their expenditures in such a way to reflect a better G. D. P.

However, the calculations for some provinces in China reach staggering amounts that was unrealistic for the Chinese government to adjust because if they did, their growth rate for certain areas would be zero which means the overall economy would decline. Because of the failing numbers of the Green G. D. P for China’s economy, the government pulled out of the project in 2007. The failed success of Green GDP for the Chinese government pushed the progression of environmental friendliness preservation back because of the financial and economic issues that arose from partaking in the Green G.

D. P (New York Times). One such issue that China struggles with is realizing that any attempt or unrealistic goal set forth to fix the environment problem will always be met with many obstacles and resistance. Such unfortunate issues are part of the reason why China is reluctant in fixing their environmental problems and plays a role in the still on-going pollution issue today. In 2011, Toyota Motor announced that they will be making low-emission cars in China.

Because China has the biggest market for cars, Toyota Motor wanted to get into that market in an environmentally friendly way. Along with having the biggest market for cars, China also has the biggest market for pollution. China was keen on welcoming the foreign aid of car expenditures to their market because of its emphasis on producing low-emission cars in the country. As China attempts to work towards its pollution problems after many failed efforts, the people foresee this as a positive business venture on both the Japanese and Chinese because it benefits both sides.

Japan would create a bigger market for themselves in East Asia and China will be on the road of becoming more green and energy-efficient, a problem that they have been facing for decades. All and all, it is safe to say that China as well as every other country around the world recognizes that the amount of pollution has increased tremendously. China has played a huge part in the matter because of its massive industrialization and urbanization that attributes to their fast economic growth.

Although there are many Chinese officials and leaders out there who fail to see the correlation between air pollution and long-term health and social effects, the growth of air pollution is not going away. Although there are very few studies attributing the socio-economic class, population size, and demographics to the growth of air pollution, the presence of air pollution affects everybody. There is, indeed, a major correlation between air pollution and increased mortality; therefore, China strived to undergo many environmental-friendly programs.

In short, there is sufficient evidence that exposure to outdoor air pollution is a health hazard in China. The importance of these increased health risks is greater than in developed countries because air pollution in China is at much higher levels and because the Chinese population accounts for more than one-fourth of the world’s total population. Future research will need to clarify the lifetime course of air pollution effects, examine the relevance of long-term exposures, understand alternative methods, and finding correlations between air pollution and health hazards for the Chinese population.

Presently, Chinese needs to find a way to efficiently reduce pollution and increase air quality and find a way for industries to be properly monitored. This will enable the people and the Chinese government to be aware of the trends and consequences of air pollution, so they can determine how to remedy the situation in the future.

Effects of Pollution in China Essay

Deat Adam Smith and the Wealth of Nations Essay

Deat Adam Smith and the Wealth of Nations Essay.

They would do this not as a means of benefiting society, but in an effort to outperform their competitors and gain the greatest profit. But all this self-interest would benefit society as a whole by providing it with more and better goods and services, at the lowest prices. To explain why all society benefits when the economy is free of regulation, Smith used the metaphor of the “invisible hand”: “Every individual is continually exerting himself to find the most advantageous employment for whatever capital he can command.

It this own advantage, and not that of society, which he has in mind, but he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote and end which was no part of his intention, for the persuade of his own advantage necessarily leads him to prefer that employment which is most advantageous to society. ” The “invisible hand” was Smith’s name for the economic forces that we today would call supply and demand, or the marketplace.

He sharply disagreed with mercantilists who, in theft quest for a “favorable balance of trade,” called for regulation of the economy.

Instead, Smith agreed with the physiocrats and their policy of “laissez faire” letting individual and businesses function without interference from government regulation of private monopolies. In that way, the “invisible hand” would be free to guide the economy and maximize production. The Wealth of Nations goes on to describe the principal elements of the economic system. In a famous section, Smith turned to the pin industry to demonstrate how the division of labour and the use of machinery increased output. One man draws out the wire, another straights it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving the head; to make the head requires two or three distinct operations. ” Also modern technology has improved the methods by which pins are produced; the principles pertaining to the division of labour remain unchanged. Similarly, other section dealing with the factors of production, money and international trade are as meaningful today as when they were first written. You can see, therefore, hat Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence and Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations have more in common that a birthday. More importantly, both contain some of the best descriptions of the principles upon which our political and economic systems are based. 2. Comprehension 2. 1. Fill in the gaps with the necessary prepositions. 1. The year of 1776 associates … the signing … The Declaration … Independence. 2. It earned the author the title “the father … economics,” Smith objected … the principal economic believes … his day. 3.

He disagreed … the mercantilists who measured the wealth of a nation … its money supply, and who called … government regulation of the economy … order … promote a “favorable balance … trade. ” 4. It this own advantage, and not that … society, which he has … mind, but he is in this, as … many other cases, led … an invisible hand to promote and end which was no part of his intention, … the persuade … his own advantage necessarily leads him to prefer that employment which is most advantageous to society. 5. … that way, the “invisible hand” would be free … guide the economy and maximize production. . Also modern technology has improved the methods … which pins are produced; the principles pertaining … the division … labour remain unchanged. 7. Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration … Independence and Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations have more … common that a birthday. 8. Both contain some … the best descriptions … the principles … which our political and economic systems are based. 2. 2. Answer the questions to the text. 1. When and where was The Wealth of Nations by A. Smith published? 2. What is a famous nickname of Adam Smith and why? 3. What economic issues did Adam Smith deny? 4.

What does a nation’s wealth depend upon according to A. Smith? 5. What was the heart of his economic philosophy? 6. In what way did he explain why society benefits when the economy is free of regulation? 7. What is “invisible hand” in the text? How do we call it today? 8. What physiocrats’ policy did Smith agree with? 9. What is described in Adam Smith’s “The Wealth of Nations”? 10. How can the division of labour and the use of machinery increase output according to Smith? 11. Is there anything common in Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence and Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations? 2. 3.

Find in the text English equivalents for: ????????, ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????? 3. Lexico-grammatical exercises 3. 1. Find out the correspondent definition to the given English business colloquialisms. Give the Ukrainian variants. Make up a dialogue about your business using 5 of the given English business colloquialisms. ColloquialismDefinition All in everything included in the price Big notesa very important person Book of wordsgenerally

Deat Adam Smith and the Wealth of Nations Essay

Co-Benefits Analysis of Air Pollution and GHG Emissions for Hyderabad Essay

Co-Benefits Analysis of Air Pollution and GHG Emissions for Hyderabad Essay.

In-country research teams, guided by policymakers and assisted by USA counterparts, identify key policy objectives and a range of conventional and innovative policy measures. The team analyzes the potential co-benefits of selected mitigation strategies and makes recommendations that inform policy decisions. Co-benefits analysis, outlined in Figure have primarily focused on estimating the human health benefits resulting from air quality improvements associated with increased use of clean energy technologies and measures. IES analysis could be extended to quantify additional benefits, such as economic development impacts (e.

g. , job creation, trade balance) and reduced traffic congestion.

Co-Benefits Analysis of Air Pollution and GHG Emissions for Hyderabad Essay