What Were the Radical Changes That King Akhenaten Made Essay

What Were the Radical Changes That King Akhenaten Made Essay.

Akhenaten was known as a “heretic” pharaoh due to the radical changes he made during his reign as an Egyptian pharaoh. The people of Egypt had been worshipping many different deities all the time and Akhenaten was the first pharaoh to break the tradition by introducing monotheism, which was the worship to only one god. Other than reforming the religious beliefs, he also introduced arts of different styles to worship the Sun god, Aten. The changes made during Akhenaten’s reign had no doubt brought some effects to the lives of the Egyptians and also people from other countries later on.

Life Akhenaten, formerly known as Amenhotep IV, was the pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt. His period of reign was also known as the Amarna Period. He started his reign in Egypt around 1353 BC and it lasted for 18 years. His father, Amenhotep III, had a long and prosperous reign of about 37 years. Amenhotep III died and left Egypt under the hands of his son, Akhenaten, who was then crowned as Amenhotep IV.

Back then, Thebes was the religious capital of Egypt and the state god was Amen.

The name of Amenhotep IV literally means “Amen is content”. Within the first few years of Amenhotep IV’s reign, he introduced a religious conversion. He decided to eliminate all gods and worshipped only the sun-disk god, Aten. He built temples of Aten with different artistic styles. His actions led to the rebellion of Amen priesthood in the city of Thebes. During the fifth year of his reign, Amenhotep IV decided to leave Thebes because of the corrupting power of the priests. He found a virgin land on the east side of the Nile surrounded by high cliffs.

This land was religiously pristine and there he created the city of Akhetaten, which was also known as “Horizon of the Sun Disk”. The city was built very quickly and the royal family moved to Akhetaten, along with his fellow citizens. At the same time, Amenhotep IV officially changed his name to Akhenaten, which means “Effective Spirit of Aten”. To further reinforce the monotheistic worship of Aten, Akhenaten shut down temples worshipping other gods, scratched out the names of other gods from the inscriptions and even changed he word “gods” into “god”. Akhenaten did not reign for a long period of time.

He died in his eighteenth year of his reign due to unknown causes. However, the changes he made did not last long due to the sentiments of the strong Amen priesthood and the angry Egyptians whose traditions were destroyed by Akhenaten. His name and reign were erased from the royal records of the Egyptian Pharaohs. His city, Akhetaten, was dismantled by his successor and the stones were moved to Thebes for the building of other monuments.

His religious and governmental reformations were undone, and the religious capital was back to Thebes with polytheistic beliefs. To add salt to wound, his coffin was defaced and his royal nameplate was erased. It was believed to be an ultimate disgrace to a Pharaoh as this punishment was meant to keep his soul from recognizing his body in the Afterlife and his soul would wander around forever without being able to reincarnate. This showed that the Egyptian people were very patriotic but at the same time, very stubborn. They were satisfied and appreciated what they had in their lives.

From the way they treated Akhenaten’s corpse and abandoned monotheism after Akhenaten’s death, we can deduce that the Egyptian people were conservative people who refused to accept changes applied on them, even if it was for the sake of their own good. Religious ReformFor all of the years, Egyptians had been worshipping a pantheon of gods who were represented in many ways, such as in human form, animal form or animal headed human form. One of the most important gods was Amen and there was even a priesthood of Amen. During the first few years of Akhenaten’s reign, he introduced the worship of Aten, the sun disk which can be seen in the sky.

At that time, Thebes was the capital of Egypt and Amun was the state god. Aten was raised to the level of being the ‘supreme god’ by Akhenaten in Thebes. In his fifth year of reign, Akhenaten started constructing his new city, Akhetaten (also known as El-Amarna), and two years later, the capital of Egypt moved from Thebes to Akhetaten. Later on, he declared that Aten was not merely the ‘supreme god’, but the ‘one and only god’ to be worshipped. He forbade his people to worship other gods in order to reinforce monotheism in his city.

To make things worse, he even sent workmen to destroy temples of other gods and cut off their names and images from the inscriptions. His actions further deepened the hatred of the Egyptians and the Amen priesthood, which led to his downfall later on. However, Akhenaten’s idea of monotheism was not like what we have today. Akhenaten placed himself between Aten and the people of Egypt, like a representative of god. The people were supposed to worship Akhenaten and his royal family rather than Aten itself, and Akhenaten would in turn worship the sun disk god.

This eliminated the need of forming priesthood and thus preventing the formation of opposing power against the worship of Aten. Some historians believed that the reason behind Akhenaten introducing monotheism was to get rid of the Amen priesthood because the Amen priests were wealthier and together they held more power than the pharaoh alone. He forced his citizens to convert into worshipping Aten so that the power of the Amen priesthood could be reduced. In one way or another, Akhenaten was trying to eliminate his threats and secure his place as an absolute ruler of Egypt.

It was said that Akhenaten’s introduction of monotheism had a significant effect on other religions such as Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. In fact, Akhenaten’s Hymn to the Aten actually bore resemblances to the Hebrew’s Pslam 104. It is true that Akhenaten was the first man to come out with this idea of worshipping only one god, but whether or not this has influenced other religions, it is still debatable. Art As for the works of arts, Akhenaten made artworks to focus more on Aten. Most of the creations, such as temples, statue and hymns, were made to worship the god Aten.

The main topic of traditional Egyptian arts was about eternal life, whereas arts during Akhenaten’s time made clear about the importance of the sun, which was also Aten. They believed the sun was the symbol of life force and that they existed because of the existence of the sun god. Aten, the sun disk god, was abstract, genderless, and was portrayed as a round circle with lines diverging out. Akhenaten and his family, on the other hand, were shown with weird, elongated skulls, pot-bellied, thick lips and big chins.

They were often portrayed in the arts, worshipping the sun or carrying out daily activities under the sun. From the physical human figures shown in these statues or artworks, we could distinguish between the royal family and ordinary people. The artworks also showed that only the royal family was permitted to worship the sun disk god. Moreover, Akhenaten also changed the traditional building architecture and building methods. Stone buildings and structures were built up using smaller stones with strong mortar, probably because smaller stones would be easier to be transported.

The traditional Amen temples were roofed and covered, whereas temples of Aten were open to the sun in order to allow the sun rays to shine into the temples. The area where the wealthy people lived was well planned with nice houses and a huge wall to separate the wealthy area away from the poor area. However, outside the walls were poor people living in shacks which were all crammed side by side. The mistreatment of the poor people was probably one of the reasons which led to the downfall of Akhenaten’s legacy. Akhenaten might have been too obsessed in his religion that he did not put his attention towards the welfare of his citizens.

Conclusion From my point of view, the reason why Akhenaten tried to change the old traditions was for the sake of his country. A country would not grow if all the people stick to their old thoughts and traditions. They would not know what was right and wrong, and they would just blindly follow what their ancestors had taught them to do. Some changes were essential to improve the lifestyle of the people, and they also made people think what was best for them. But at that time, it was clear that the Egyptians were not ready to accept changes.

It could be explained by the fact that the Egyptians had these traditions being passed down for thousands of years, and it was not easy for these people to abandon their traditions in such a short period of time. Needless to say, Akhenaten was no doubt the most revolutionary pharaoh in the whole Egyptian dynasty. It required a lot of courage and a strong determination to go against the will of the priesthood and the people. Nevertheless, Akhenaten still managed to create such radical changes and influences towards the people around the world.

What Were the Radical Changes That King Akhenaten Made Essay

Dung Bettle Essay

Dung Bettle Essay.

Called the dung beetle because of its practice of rolling a ball of dung across the ground. The Egyptians observed this behavior and equated it with the ball of the sun being rolled across the sky. They confused this balled food source with the egg sack that the female dung beetle laid and buried in the sand. When the eggs hatched the dung beetles would seem to appear from nowhere, making it a symbol of spontaneous creation. In this role it was associated with the sunrise.

Khepri was the scarab headed god. The Scarab personified the god, Khepri, a sun god associated with resurrection. As such, the large winged scarab and the heart scarab were considered good luck beetles and placed on mummies for protection against evil. These amulets were often inscribed with a spell from the Book of the Dead, which entreated the heart to, “not stand as a witness against me.” Scarab beetles lay their eggs in dung, which they roll into a ball and roll into a hole.

The Egyptians equated this with the movement of the sun and its daily resurrection. Ancient Egyptians believed that a winged scarab flew across the sky each morning carrying the sun. The scarab was a symbol of the rising sun and as a protector from evil; it is also a symbol of rebirth, regeneration, creation, transformation and was commonly worn to gain strength. In one version of the creation myth of ancient Egypt, a lotus flower rose out of the primeval waters of Nun, the infinite ocean of chaos. The petals parted to reveal a scarab beetle. The scarab then transformed itself into a boy, who wept. His tears then became humankind. Along with the pyramids, sphinxes, and mummies, the scarabs are one of the most familiar objects representing Egypt. Scarabs have been collected for centuries and were particularly popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Popularity decreased during the Great Depression and they have never regained their status as a hobby collectible of the elite.

The benefit of diminished popularity for collectors today is that very rare and interesting scarabs are far more affordable than might be expected for such important historical pieces. Scarabaeus sacer is the Latin name for the dung beetle. Today most people do not have great appreciation for this insect, but this variety and several other members of the family Scarabaeidae, were sacred to the ancient Egyptians. They connected the beetles’ habits of rolling balls of dung around their eggs with the concept of eternal life in the after-world. The meaning of Kheper or Scarab was “becoming, being, metamorphosing, generation, new life, virility, and resurrection.” Representations of the beetle were an essential symbol in Egyptian art and a whole class of seals and amulets were made in its image.

These little amulets of beetle form often bear hieroglyphic designs on their base including good luck wishes, the names gods, and the names of individuals both noble and common. The most obviously interesting scarabs are those with names of kings, of the royal family, and of officials. Pharaohs were worshiped as gods, and the names of the current pharaoh or a popular deceased pharaohs, such as Thothemes III, were used to bring good luck to the bearer. Scarabs were manufactured in a wide variety of materials including steatite, faience, stone, glass, and bone, from the Old Kingdom through the Roman period. The most common material used was Steatite.

Scarabs are always to be understood to be steatite or schist unless otherwise described. Steatite is also known as soapstone, a medium for carving for thousands of years. Steatite also denotes a glassy ceramic material made from soapstone, used by ancient civilizations to make beads, amulets, seals and scarabs. To make the ceramic-like material, steatite was sometimes mixed with additives, it was either carved or molded into the desired shape, and was then heated to a temperature between 1000 and 1200 °C. At that temperature the surface of steatite will vitrify, fusing into the glassy substances enstatite and cristobalite. On the Mohs scale, the change increases hardness from 1 to between 5.5 and 6.5.

To the novice, all styles of scarabs probably look much alike; but to an accustomed eye the specialities of each dynasty, and even of separate reigns, are very clear. The distinction of the styles of scarabs is as much a special subject as the discrimination of the manner of painters, and as invisible to those who are unfamiliar with the study.

All the brown scarabs (which are a majority) were originally green glazed; while most of the white ones (excepting possibly some of Amenhotep III) were originally blue. There are also the white and grey ones without any glaze remaining, which were either blue or green. The evidences for these transformations are innumerable in the half-way stages, not only scarabs, but also ushabtis. Where the color has changed and the original can be still see, it is usually noted; as green gone brown or blue gone white, for example.

Heart scarabs functioned as a replacement of the heart organ of a mummy, and represented the person or spirit of the deceased individual. The earliest heart scarabs appeared during the second intermediate period (c. 1700 B.C.) and became relatively more common during the New Kingdom. If inscribed, heart scarabs, usually include text from chapter XXXb of the Book of the Dead…

Scarabs serve an extremely important role in the discovery of Egyptian history, much as coins serve in the discovery of Western history. The names of most known pharaohs have been found on scarabs. Although the most popular pharaohs’ names were revived and used on commemorative scarabs hundreds of years after their death, most scarabs were made during the lifetime of the individuals named. Some pharaohs and officials are known to us only from scarabs and the dates of their reigns were determined only by the archaeological context of scarab finds and by the art and fabric of the scarabs that name them. Scarabs not only have identified the names and dated the reigns of the pharaohs, changes in the style and manufacture of scarabs serves as an index to changes in the civilization. Without the study of scarabs, a large part of our knowledge of ancient Egypt would have been lost.

Dung Bettle Essay

Columbian Food Exchange Essay

Columbian Food Exchange Essay.

Columbian Exchange Food/Ingredient Project By: Aaron Poulin Mr. Yonkers 6th Period What is the origin of your food/ingredient? Cinnamon originates from the islands of Shri Lanka (formerly called Ceylon), southeast of India. It is also native to southwest of India and the Tenasserin Hills of Burma. Cinnamon is part of the Lauraceous, a branch of the Laurel family of spices. Although there have been many versions of cinnamon with stews, desserts, and everyday food, I am focusing on cinnamon buns, also known as sticky buns, a delicious by-product of cinnamon and bread rolls combined.

Both cinnamon and bread rolls are ancient foods, but when did they first combine? According to early spice historians, the history of cinnamon is unclear. Dr. Ronald Wirtz (American Institute of Baking) has researched sticky buns in depth. He begins with the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. Wirtz believes that our modern sticky bun owes some of its origins to British cooking and baking, perhaps with some degree of influence from the Dutch and Germans.

The cinnamon bun or sticky bun came to Philadelphia with 18th century English and German immigrants. The cinnamon buns that reached Philadelphia were composed of cinnamon, sugar flavored yeast dough, with raisons, buts, and caramelized topping. They are now very popular in the United States and some parts of England. Why is this crop/ingredient historically important? Cinnamon buns played a historic role in Europe mostly, originating from central Europe; they formed as a tasty treat for higher-class people.

Because cinnamon was hard to harvest and only grew parts of Asia and the Middle East it was hard to transport and therefore made it pretty expensive. Many myths surrounded cinnamon and how people harvested it. The source of cinnamon was unknown in the middle ages; it was thought that the Arabs supplied people with cinnamon. It was said that giant cinnamon birds collected the sticks from an unknown land where cinnamon trees grew, and used them to construct their nests.

Fastened to sheer cliffs, the Arabians employed a trick to obtain the cinnamon. They killed and chopped up oxen and other beasts of burden into pieces, laid them near their nests and withdrew to a distance. The birds were then tempted down to carry the chunks of meat back to their nests, where the weight of the carcasses broke them from the cliffs. Leaving the Arabians to collect the fallen cinnamon. According to Herodotus until as late as 1310.

Cinnamon had many other appearances in classical literature, including Socinus’ Collecanea Rerum Memorabbilium (Collection of Remarkable Facts), Aristotle’s’ Historia Animalium (History of Animals) just to name a few. Where did your food/ingredient spread? Cinnamon became more popular than ever during the middle Ages, in a matter of years it had spread to many different countries, so popular that stories had created myths about the tasteful spice. It also made Arabia famous for its export of cinnamon. But today Indonesia is the largest exporter of cinnamon in the world.

Columbian Food Exchange Essay

Ancient Egyptians Essay

Ancient Egyptians Essay.

Bill Wilke Egyptians are highly known for their glorious pyramids, powerful pharaohs, and endless amounts of gold and Jewels. When we think of Egyptians we also think of tombs, curses, and cats being a source of protection. However, it is not known to many that they have not only defined the art, but also the meaning behind tattooing. Tattoos are the one thing still captured on the bodies of mummies, in which were discovered from over a millennium ago.

Females in particular, had specific tattoos which were used as a therapeutic role during pregnancy and birth.

Each tattoo had specific color and significance behind the symbols. Handmade tools were also used in the craft of tattooing during the Egyptian era. Now they have evolved to more dynamic equipment and use of substance. From care to the final product there is a lot of work that goes into preserving tattoos. Written records, physical remains, and works of art have changed our understanding of Egyptian culture.

There is good reason to believe that Egyptians were beyond their intellectual ability.

Their process of preparing a human as a mummy required countless steps and organization. Ancient writers and modern scientists have both attributed to the knowledge of how this Ancient tradition came about. The remains of Egyptians have been kept preserved because of their tedious attempt in the process of mummification. Mummies, for example, had the protection from chemical exposure, extreme cold conditions, very low humidity, and lack of air when submerged in tombs. The discovery of mummies from Ancient Egypt has also shown us the presence of tattooing.

Research and discoveries have pointed out that the art of tattooing was known to Egyptians, and was one of the common practices that were adopted by them. The tattoos found on their remaining bodies were known to be in many sizes, shapes, and colors. One of the earliest evidence of tattoos was identified on mummies dating all the way back from 2000 B. C. The majority of mummies discovered were identified as female, in which were covered with dot like patterns throughout their bodies. Evidence points to the fact that tattoos were an exclusively used practice among females.

One of the most famous mummies ever written about was Amunet, who was known as a deity or rather a highly known Goddess (Taylor, 1998). Other than being a traditional royal subject, tattoos had significance for female Egyptians. Lineberry (2007), “The tattooing of Ancient Egyptian women had a therapeutic role, and functioned as a permanent form of amulet during the very difficult time of pregnancy and birth” (Tattoos, para 5). Pregnancy and birth can be a life changing experience, and for Egyptian women it was also a particular time that they felt the need for protecting themselves.

The areas in which were most commonly noted with tattoos during this difficult time were on the thighs, breasts, were placed over wrapped mummies to protect them. ” She also points out that, it signified “keeping everything in” (Tattoos, para 5). This pattern is also known as a cicatrix pattern, in which was typically located over the lower pubic region. Tattoos on the abdomen of women, for example, safeguarded them during their pregnancy. As any conscious mother would do for her child, she protects her unborn willingly from harm’s way. Ancient Egyptian tattoos had many other meanings behind their symbols.

Traditionally, Egyptians would use specific drawings as a tribute of sacrifice to a deity. This would mean that an individual would be professing his or her entire belief for someone higher or greater than themselves. Tattoos were presumed to be part of a permanent amulet that could not be lost. An amulet is defined as a trinket, or piece of Jewelry that was thought to have magical protection against evil or disease. In other instances disease would have been another reason that Egyptian females would have acquired a tattoo as well, simply to protect their health while carrying a child.

Their significance in symbols also ranged from medical protection to fertility for women. Many tattoos that were used by Egyptians derived from their writing system, which consisted of pictures and symbols. The Scarab, also known as a eetle, was considered a symbol for renewing life. Madhura (2010), “It was also considered as one of the many royal titles used by the Pharaohs and was also found to be used by Tutankhamen, one of the most famous Egyptian Pharaohs” (Egyptian Tattoo Designs, para 4). He also explains a symbol used called the eye.

Madhura (2010), “The ‘Ankh’ or the eye is a widely identified and used symbol of Egyptian culture. In the ancient times, it represented life and was hence one of the respected symbols. Among the different designs of the Ankh, the eye of the Horus is more popular as it stands for the good luck. The eye of Horus, also known as the eye of the Ra, is believed to be the all-seeing eye that was also used in amulets worn by the ancient Egyptians. The Egyptian cross or the Ankh also stands for rebirth or reincarnation.

The Egyptian eye tattoo represents light, power and royalty and hence, is a favorite tattoo symbol” (Egyptian Tattoo Designs, para 3). Other noted symbols in which were commonly used were the Serket. The Serket is identified as a female fgure with a scorpion on her head. Also used were Kings and Queens, such as Cleopatra, and the Egyptian eye which represents light. Through Egyptian eyes, attoos satisfied various needs and interest as they do today. Their style is captivating and vivid, leading many to believe that this form of art was easily adaptive.

The instruments and tools in which were used for tattooing were dated all the way back to 3000 B. C. An Archaeologist by the name of W. M. F Petrie, discovered a tool with a wooden handle and sharp edge at the site of what was called Abydos. He had noted that the tools “resembled wide, flattened needles that could potentially make the pattern of multiple dots. ” Typically these tools would have been used for areas of the ody that females were tattooed for their pregnancy and childbirth protection. The consistency and color was that of dark or black pigment such as soot.

It has been said that the Inuit tribe used darker pigmentation or bright colors such as yellow for their tattooing. Inuit’s are also known for their “face” tattoos. The tools that are used today have evolved into more intricate ways of use. For example, several needles are used rather than a flat wide needle as the Egyptians had. The more needles you have, the detailed work. Wide range of coloring brings symbols to life as it tells a story. The etails make it look real in a 3D type of way. Instead of soot, ink is the one form of substance that provides color. There are several different types of ink.

One type of ink, for example, is black light ink. When the tattoo is under a black light lamp, it will glow. Colors range from the basic primary and secondary colors to different shades. Another option today is the ability to numb the area in which is being tattooed. Egyptians had no means of covering the painful process in which tattoos involved. The care that we provide today goes into the preservation of the tattoo, making it able o last longer. In order for the tattoo to heal correctly you cannot scrub the area, expose it to sun, and it must be able to breathe.

Care consists of wiping the skin with antibacterial soap, and then applying petroleum Jelly. Petroleum Jelly is more of a pure substance with no additives and it is easier to work with. It is used widely because it does not cause allergic reactions or pull the ink out. Other forms of Jelly include clear A&D Ointment and Bag Balm. No matter what gender a human is, tattoos are more popular today than they were a millennium ago. They represent a erson as an individual, rather than a means for protection.

Technology today has given us the ability to express the art of tattooing on a whole new level. Egyptians introduced this ability, in order for individuals to use tattoos to define their stories or personal experiences. Tattoos were once known as frightening and repulsive, and have come a long way since then. Symbols in Egyptian times have been considered generic compared to todays variety. More attention goes into the care of tattoos in todays society during and afterwards. Care is what aids in the conservation of a eautiful piece of art, whether it is a symbol, picture, or words.

From medical protection to therapeutic means, tattoos were widely used among Egyptians. With the help of discoveries, female mummies have revealed the remains of tattooing on bodies. We can now understand where tattoos originated from, and how meaningful they were so long ago.

Ancient Egyptians Essay