Negotiating Anger among the Ilongot Headhunters Essay

Negotiating Anger among the Ilongot Headhunters Essay.

Headhunting among the Ilongot of Northern Luzon served as the bedrock of their society. The underlying principle of the Ilongot’s headhunting tradition is to remove the burden carried by the headhunters. The act of throwing the head relieves that person of his burden. Throwing the head symbolically throws the burden away. The headhunting ritual among the Ilongot plays a big part in the life cycle of man. Though men and women are relatively equal, by means of headhunting tradition men could achieve a form of transcendence not available to women (Rosaldo 1980).

Headhunting generates several consequences: it thus creates tensions and conflict among the group involve during the raid. While it spawns conflicting society it also build solidarity within the aggrieved party. Some structural functionalist viewed conflict as abnormal and rare while conflict theorist such as Max Gluckman emphasized the importance of conflict in maintaining the state of equilibrium within the society. “Social life breeds conflict, and societies by their customary arrangements’…accentuate conflicts.

The conflicts in wider ranges compensate one another to produce social cohesion” (Barret 1997). Which leads us to the aim of this paper that is to probe on the function of headhunting tradition among the Ilongot. How do the Ilonggot negotiate anger and conflict? Is there a need for a mediator to solve the crisis? Are there any rules to follow in solving the particular case of misunderstanding? Are these rules a distinct Ilongot custom vis a vis universal to all? How does language plays an important role in bargaining conflict among the Ilongot? Is conflict imperative Ilongot society?

Do Ilongot society reflects bargaining and/or settlement culture of the Philippines? ILONGGOT PEOPLE Ilongot people are tribal society who inhabits the hills of Northern Luzon, primarily in the Nueva Vizcaya region. The Ilonggot’s conception of men and women are represented in the imagery of hunting and horticultural magic. `Women,’ she said, cannot “reach” a man’s “anger”; look at the way they climb trees and carry huge logs; do you think we could garden if men did not go before clearing the forest…” (Rosaldo 1980). Men in the tribe clear the forest for gardens, fished and hunt.

Deer and wild boars are the most sought after source of protein. Both are ideal complement to rice for their daily consumption. Hunting dogs, bows and arrows were use during their chase. Whereas the women do most of the garden works. They tilt the land. Rice is the most abundant source of carbohydrates. They also grew sweet potatoes, taro yams, tobacco and bananas. Ilongot traces their relatives through a bertan1. They perceive it as timeless and discrete collections of related persons who share an origin from unknown common ancestors who once lived together.

Ilongot viewed themselves as essentially egalitarian in their way of life. Family plays a significant role in the Ilongot society. Its primary responsibility is to provide for the needs of their unmarried children as well as their socialization. They called their family as – tan tengeg2 or sometimes they called it matambe yek3. The Ilongot people prescribe a universal rule of uxorilocal type post marital residence. But with few exemptions married sisters, parents and/or daughters can live within one local cluster but this is not agreeable to the case of married brothers and/or sons.

The name of the local cluster can signify a name of a river or any other things. These groupings are fused together largely by the male within the society. Mainly because they engage themselves in the hunting game intended for their subsistence. There are no clear settlement boundaries. Individuals may come and go as well as visitors and guests (Rosaldo 1980). BRIEF HISTORY OF ILONGOT HEADHUNTING Ilongot people began practicing headhunting since 1919, people within the tribe desire even more to behead someone, this mostly happen between different bertan.

This however resulted into a more complicated situation. Feuding among neighbors marked this era. During 1923 there are troops who entered the Ilongot territory it is also believed that a certain Ilongot from the perimeter of their territory lead these troops. The primary motive of this Ilongot man is to take vengeance of previous beheading. Much violence took place between 1919 to 1928. Retaliation resulted from these beheading. It seemed to be a vicious cycle among the Ilongot. Near the beginning of 1929 not far off from1935 the practice of headhunting come to an end.

In fact many men married without taking a head. Despite the fact that many people are eager to take heads, no heads were taken during this time. Peasant uprising took place in the lowlands between 1936 and 1941. The Ilongot people took advantage of this situation; they carry out raids within the lowland communities. Several headhunting raids were executed during this period. When the Japanese soldiers landed on the Philippine shores many Ilongot were forced to move to the interior to part of the mountain.

These also serve as a chance for the Ilongot tribesmen to have strength in numbers. According to historical facts, Ilongot headhunting reached its peak during this year. Feuds broke up and beheadings took place. Peace probably came about at some point in 1974. Though headhunting didn’t stop all together during this time relative peace was experienced. Not until the rumors of firing squad began Ilongot bring to an end their headhunting practices. WHY AND HOW DID THE ILONGOT’S HUNT HEADS?

That ritual itself is a symbolic performance which actually unite the members of a category of people in a shared pursuit that speaks of, and to, their basic values or that creates or confirms a world of meanings shared by all of them alike, in this case it pertains to the Ilongot people (de Coppet 1992). “ Ilongot see headhunting as the product not just of vengeance, but of desire – the goal of hopeful youths whose numbers were increasing and who, through tears and songs or constant sulking, indicated that their hearts were ‘twisted up’ with liget4 and anxious to ‘reach’ the violent feats attained by ‘fathers’ in the past” (Rosaldo 1980).

Negotiating Anger among the Ilongot Headhunters Essay

Evaluation of John Osborne’s Look Back In Anger Essay

Evaluation of John Osborne’s Look Back In Anger Essay.

On Thursday 8th November, I went with a group of drama students to see a production of Look Back in Anger by John Osborne, which was being performed at the Norden Farm Arts Centre in Maidenhead. This theatre is quite modern and has a spacious bar area, which has been upgraded to give the foyer of the theatre a contemporary look. The audience was seated either in the stalls, the raised back and sides, or on the balcony. The play, Look Back in Anger is set in post war London in the late 1950s, a time where the English society started slowly reforming itself to the new circumstances, after the war.

John Osborne used a very naturalistic style for this play and he uses various slang words, which gives the impression of real life and brings out the characters and a genre of realism. Overall, Look back In Anger is quite a disturbingly realistic drama which provided a turning point in the mid fifties and could be described as post war modernism.

The play features the characters of Jimmy, a frustrated sweet shop owner, Alison, Jimmy’s middle class wife, Cliff, their welsh friend, who also works in the shop, Helena, an actress friend of Alison and Alison’s Dad who only appears briefly.

The play is about Jimmy Porter, a very “angry young man” who feels that the world is against him and how he takes this out on his wife by making her life a misery and seducing her best friend; a woman he originally despised. This play is a realistic, social documentary which gives an insight into society of the late 1950s. The play is set in one room, the dingy bedsit where Jimmy and Alison live, which is situated above the sweet shop that they own. Their friend Cliff also works in the shop and lives above it but in a separate room in the house.

The room is very dark and drab; it is mainly coloured in brown and there is only one window. The furnishings and appliances are limited, there is a small kitchenette, a dining table with chairs, a double bed with a shelf holding books and a small old-fashioned wireless, one armchair, a dressing table and a small space for storing clothes, shoes, cleaning paraphernalia, etc. The bedsit is very dull and depressing; the old furniture and brown colouring of the room help create this atmosphere.

The layout of the room and the cramped living conditions indicate claustrophobia and how the characters are trapped in this life style -which could be a source of Jimmy’s frustration and bitterness. One gets the feeling that there is no possibility of change or improvement in their situation. The lighting was on full throughout the majority of the performance and there were no special effects other than a spotlight on Jimmy and Alison in the final scene of the play. There was no particular dramatic effect created by the lighting.

However, this does contribute to the idea of tedious normality and the lack change in their lives. The sound was also focused on the idea of everyday life; the only sound effects were from the outside world, emphasising their confinement. The lack of music in the play highlights the sense of documentary and demonstrates that the visual imagery was more important in creating the mood than the music. When the lights went down popular 50s tunes were played which indicated the period in which the play is set.

The way in which the characters present themselves can give us an insight into their state of mind. Alison, for example, is always dressed in drab, frumpy and poor quality clothing and this tells us that she is not wealthy, she doesn’t focus on her outward appearance and she is suffering from low self-esteem. Her choice of colours, such as grey and brown, enhances this picture of her miserable life because it is in direct contrast to the way Helena dresses in bright reds and more positive colours. Alison is rarely made up during the play and her hair is put plainly up in a bun.

This continues the theme of her drab and poor lifestyle and displays the normality of her character; when she is at home she doesn’t bother with make up, she wears casual clothing and slippers. The way the actor, who played Alison, used her voice is another way of identifying her character. The high pitched tone of her voice is irritating and nervous, she is not confidant and we can see this through her continued high pitched tone and the way she reacts in a submissive manner. However, her middle class background is shown through her accent and choice of vocabulary when she speaks.

Her body language is also a telling sign of her mental state. She moves with little conviction and when she approaches Jimmy she is extremely hesitant, whereas when she is approaching Cliff or Helena she is much more relaxed and there is less tension in her body. Her posture is also contrasting with Helena, she holds herself in an awkward and introverted manner, suggesting her level of self-esteem, yet Helena holds herself very well which puts across a confidant attitude. All the elements of Alison’s character are symbolic in the understanding of her relationships with other characters (especially Jimmy).

Helena is, on the other hand, quite opposite to Alison in her disposition. She wears very fashionable clothes of the period in bright positive colours, giving off an air of confidence. Her hair is always fashionably styled and she is always made up as if she is trying to impress. This shows that she takes pride in her appearance and is much more confident than Alison is, as she has the esteem to wear bright colours. This is not just as a visitor, when Helena is living with Jimmy indefinitely she still dresses up; this is shown pointedly when attending to household chores.

At the beginning of the play Alison is shown doing the ironing dressed in casual clothing and slippers, whereas towards the end of the play when the scene is almost copied, Helena is doing the same action but she is significantly dressed in her bright fashionable attire sporting high-heels. This is a direct way of communicating the differences between the two women. Helena’s voice is another contrast to Alison because her tone is much more controlled and strong also showing her confidence. When she argues with Jimmy she stands up to him and she doesn’t become a victim in the way that Alison does.

Helena is also very direct and she walks with conviction. Her body language tells us that she is confident and authoritative because she holds her head up high, she stands tall and her high-heels give the impression of authority because the other characters wear flat shoes. She also walks confidently and has conviction in her step; when approaching other characters she knows exactly where she is going and is in complete control of her body. This is shown when she slaps Jimmy because it was a bold action and an invasion of his personal space, which would require confidence and conviction.

Also when she kisses him, because this would also need confidence, if he hadn’t kissed her back it would have been extremely embarrassing and it is an action that requires a certain amount of self-confidence. Her voice is other proof of her confidence as her projection is loud and clear in comparison to Alison’s uncertain and feeble tone. She also uses her language to show her class as she is quite articulate and her accent is well pronounced and genteel. The mannerisms of Cliff, the loyal friend of both Jimmy and Alison, are quite significant throughout the play.

Although Cliff wasn’t one of the main speakers, the audience was given a number of clues to his character throughout his performance. I noticed from the very beginning of the play his infinite fondness of the character Alison and I was in fact unsure of the relationship between the three characters, wondering which two was the married couple. It was unclear because his body language towards her is very affectionate and when moving into her space or when addressing her he seems totally at ease, even natural, suggesting a very close relationship.

This affection for her is continued throughout the play; when Jimmy has a go at her Cliff picks up the pieces, when Helena moves in it is clear that his loyalties lie with Alison and he acts very reservedly towards her, and he generally treats Alison with total respect. But he is also loyal to Jimmy, we can see this because when Alison and Jimmy fight he remains impartial and when Alison moved out things were the same between Jimmy and Cliff; providing a significant balance in the household that only a third party can do.

His character seems thoughtful as a number of times I noticed his action to be listening to other characters and striking thoughtful poses. His voice is very gentle and kind, especially so towards Alison, and his accent tells us that he is welsh. His voice is also not particularly middle class and the language he uses isn’t complex, which perhaps tells us a little about his background and his schooling. In comparison to Jimmy he is extremely calm and his caring attitude tells me that he is a genuinely nice person.

The fact that he is living in a bedsit and working in a sweetshop says, I think, that he is not wealthy by any means and his clothes also suggest so. He doesn’t change his clothes during the play and they are quite tatty and plain. The only character in the play that shows wealth is the father of Alison. This character only makes a brief appearance but when he is on stage apparent differences are seen between him and the rest of the cast. His accent is unmistakably middle class and his choice of vocabulary also suggests his status.

He also acts in utter distaste to the state of his daughter and her ‘humble abode’. The realism of John Osborne’s writing is highlighted with the introduction of this character because contrary to the other characters he is a successful, older man and he is of the middle class status. The generation gap is important because it shows how the society at the time had changed from her father’s generation and the essence of change in the post war age. As the fifties were more enlightened times when children had grown tired of ‘turning into their parents’.

He is also dressed very smartly in a tweed suit complete with tie, waistcoat and polished shoes and his manner is quite reserved and formal, even towards his own daughter -which is a typical attribute of his class. The main character of the play, Jimmy, is described as a very angry young man. This opinion is very justified by the actions of his character. Throughout the play Jimmy expressly shows his anger by bullying his wife and seducing her best friend to strike out at her. The way he acts during the play also supports this point.

His dominance is apparent right from the beginning of the play; he is seated in the only armchair of the room, centre stage. This is significant because it immediately shows the status of the characters and their relationships. Jimmy is shown to be important because he is lounging right in the middle of the stage and the characters; Alison on his right and Cliff on his left. Alison is dutifully doing the ironing and Cliff is reading the newspaper while Jimmy yells and chatters.

Their relationships with each other are also suggested by the layout of this first scene, because Jimmy is in the middle it suggests that both Alison and Cliff are closer to Jimmy than they are to each other- like when people are seated at diner, it makes sense to be nearer to the person you know better. This first scene made me visualise Jimmy as being a King and Alison and Cliff being his servants because, he is sitting importantly on his worn throne and Alison is his maid, doing the ironing and Cliff is just his entertainer, making conversation now and again.

I also made this connection by the attitudes of Cliff and Alison towards Jimmy, they seemed a little afraid of him as if he was a bomb about to explode. This first impression was important because Jimmy’s dominance was a main theme throughout the play. The actor who played Jimmy used his body language to give the audience another hint to his character, he had a tense stature and his facial expression always suggested his sarcastic outlook of the world. The way he expressed his words, the tone of his voice, and the tension in his body suggested to me that he was forever mocking the world.

His disposition is somewhat tragic though because his actions seemed to be based on revenge rather than the pursuit of happiness. His movements also implied his anger because of the tension in his body but his movements were also very direct which told of his confidence in the security of his life and those around him. He also used his voice to good effect because his bitterness could be heard clearly and the ways in which he changed his tone indicated his mood precisely. The silences during the play helped to create the tension of his character because of the body language between the characters and the mood of the scene.

My overall impression of the play was that it was quite a dark, depressing yet naturalistic idea. The production was very well put together and the communication of ideas were clear within the plot. I found it enjoyable to watch and I particularly liked the second Act where the character of Helena was introduced and the plot thickened up. Although, I did find the final scene quite disappointing, because I had hoped that Alison was a stronger person and would have known better than to go crawling back to Jimmy. However, I thought that the ending was more realistic and more in keeping with Alison’s character and the time in which it was set.

Evaluation of John Osborne’s Look Back In Anger Essay

Comm Skills Essay

Comm Skills Essay.

Establish objectives to be achieved by negotiation. • Identify a range of outcomes from the desired ideal to the ultimate acceptable fall back position. • Use interpersonal skills to influence others in both informal and formal situations to achieve your objectives. Negotiating Skills • Act assertively to achieve objectives • Reduce resistance & minimise conflict • Know how & when to accept the opinions, values & will of others • Work to achieve a WIN-WIN situation

Negotiating Skills Negotiation occurs when there is something of value that you wish to attain • Need is the negotiators starting point • Need is also the weakness that can be exploited • Negotiation is also a process that is of benefit to all parties Negotiating Skills Ineffective Negotiation is about: • Non mutual benefit • Compromising for no return • Playing games Think of a time when a negotiation has not been successful.

Can you identify what went wrong? When you have purchased a house or a car – Did you negotiate terms? Were you successful? Negotiating Skills Effective Negotiation Is an important communication skill • Reaches the agreement that best meets both sides requirements • Should be conducted in a professional manner • Be a solid foundation on which to build future relationships Negotiating Skills Preparing yourself Preparation enables you to : • • • • • • Identify your objectives Identify targets Know your resistance point Adopt the most suitable style Time the interaction correctly Achieve a deal Negotiating Skills Traditional Negotiation Has two sides Has opposing objectives Is a form of warfare Has a short sighted approach

Formal Negotiation Favours the party with the strongest power base Limits the likelihood of informal talks Emphasises the letter of agreement Informal Negotiation Emphasises the relationship between the two parties Encourages the spirit of any agreement reached Negotiating Skills Modern Negotiation Enables strategic alliances to be built Emphasises partnerships Builds relationships Is effective long term Outcomes From Negotiation Need to achieve the objective set Be of benefit to all parties Ensuring a WIN/WIN situation Negotiating Skills Identifying Possible Outcomes

Write down all your objectives Put them in order of priority Identify issues that are open to compromise Identify those that are not Classifying Priorities Those that are desirable Those that are acceptable Those that are the minimum you/the organisation require Negotiating Skills What is influencing? Achieving a result that meets the legitimate needs of both sides Achieving long lasting results Improving the relationship of the people involved Legitimate is the important word here.

Needs must be legitimate if influencing is to be successful.

For influencing to be effective it has to be sustainable. Negotiating Skills What is influencing? When it fails The MIGHT IS RIGHT style of influencing always fails. People can appear to agree but over time they may show their disagreement by leaving the workplace. A boss who forces his influence onto his work-team may only see short term gains. The relationship of trust may be destroyed and will be hard to rebuild. Negotiating Skills Why is influencing important? Flatter organisation structures need it to be effective. Lean is mean – more stress is prevalent in current organisations.

The rise of the customer – the customer is not always right, but it is our job to make them „feel? right. Working across organisations – it? s the only positive way forward. The demise of traditional authority – all employees have a vested interest in the future success of any company/organisation. Negotiating Skills Influencing is not about : Forcing your point of view on others Nagging until they agree Giving in to someone Bargaining A debate It is about Dealing with others assertively Speaking with knowledge and confidence Listening to their point of view Appreciating the differences Showing respect

Negotiating Skills The Levers Of Influence Pull Skills Creating rapport Authentic listening Skilful questioning These Pull techniques also involve the effective use of non-verbal communication. Creating rapport : Posture Voice – Tone & Volume Gesture Eye Contact Facial expressions How we occupy our space Consider carefully how you want to build the relationship with someone who you will be negotiating with. Negotiating Skills Authentic Listening The aim is empathy – a non-judgmental state that aims to understand the other person.

Authentic Listening is : Listen for content Listening to the other messages Summarising the content Summarising the emotion Testing your assumptions Negotiating Skills Barriers to Listening Dialogue of the deal – Both sides within a discussion, intent on making their own point, may fail to listen to each other. Experience – The parties may have had bad experiences of negotiations in the past. Familiarity – Can be a crucial disabler when negotiating. Skim Listening – Picking up on key words and missing vital parts of the conversation. Attention span – Are you focused or distracted?

Negotiating Skills Pull Levers Questioning : Have a questioning strategy – USE: Hypothetical questions Defining questions Probing questions The aim is to use effective questioning skills to Help build rapport Obtain accurate information Obtain other people? s opinion Negotiating Skills Assertiveness is Saying what you mean Meaning what you say Asking for what you want clearly Listening to what the other person is saying Being honest about what is relevant Being prepared to look for a workable compromise Being Assertive during a negotiation is the best way to achieve a win/win outcome.

Conduct your conversation with clarity, confidence and an open mind. Negotiating Skills Recognising Assertiveness Effective body language – how would you describe this? Use assertive language – what is considered assertive language? Never become emotional Angry Resentful Frustrated Responding Not Reacting “Behaviour breeds behaviour” Keep the temperature low Stay detached Show respect Negotiating Skills Power In Negotiation Negotiation assumes a “certain equality” between parties Negotiation refers to obtaining something of value that someone else has.

The focus is upon mutual benefit. Differing power bases can lead into fighting behaviours. Parties do test each others strengths and probe into just how dependant they are on each other. A balance of power is essential if negotiations are to be successful. Negotiating Skills Influencing The balance Of Power Facts Expertise Explore Strengthen Authority Facts – The skilled negotiator has all the facts , background history and figures. Even a hardened MD cannot fail to be impressed. Expertise – Again gained by effective preparation. Explore – Pose questions in a non hreatening manner. How do we find this solution together. Strengthen – Develop acceptance and trust . Find & implement outcomes that are of interest to both parties. Authority – it is vital that both parties have the authority to make the outcome happen. Negotiating Skills Negotiation Strategy Opening Exploration Create Closure Create movement Finish The Process Agree Boundaries Deny Need Stress the Difference Agree Boundaries – On which the negotiation will focus. Deny the need – A deliberate strategy in which both parties play down their need for a particular outcome.

From the outset skilled negotiators will play up the fact that they do not believe the outcome will be successful. Negotiating Skills Opening Negotiation • Set the offer at the most appropriate level normally a long way removed from target. • Respond in a way that is deemed most appropriate, usually rejection. There is no such thing as a first offer that is too good to refuse. Openings within negotiation are like a chess match both parties will begin with an offer that is far removed from target. The opening offer is very rarely a serious commitment. Negotiating Skills Exploration Identify : Needs Wants Interests

Needs – Those things that you feel you cannot do without Wants – Those things that people would prefer to have Interests – The reasons that lie behind the WANTS & NEEDS Exploration is important because: It allows the parties to explore the situation. Needs & Wants are talked about first. A skilful negotiator can see where the other party expect the final outcome to be. Negotiating Skills Create Movement • • • • • Be prepared to compromise Explore possibilities Ask „what if?? questions Be clear about the variables Exchange During this phase it is vital that if you agree to a concession you get something back in return .

Don? t give anything away too easily – people do not value things that have been obtained with little effort. Restate your case – Ensure that the agreement is clear by going over again what has been agreed. Restate everything that you have agreed on. Minimise the perception of what is left to agree. Write it down – It may prompt some questions before the deal is closed. Prevention is better then cure. Firming Up Proposals Negotiating Skills Create Closure • • • • • Keep moving Don? t get bogged down in detail Focus on issues Give recognition Give the other party a final opportunity to clarify any issues

Negotiating Skills Closing • • • • • • List of issues from both sides Prepare a draft framework Tackle outstanding details Record each point as it is agreed Agree a process to review Agree a procedure for complaints The skilled negotiator will not be distracted from their task. Always remember that the whole point of negotiation is that two parties have something of value. Know when to stop talking Negotiating Skills Failing Negotiation Initial commitment may be based on incomplete information Negotiation may be based on false assumption People communicate using their mind & body through the use of emotion.

Misunderstandings can arise because of stereotyping. Tension is caused by emotions which can then lead to stress & anxiety. Listen actively with empathy to reduce the perceived threat and try to show acceptance and understanding. If everyone ignores the pinch then a crunch can be just around the corner. The relationship may suffer as a consequence. The secret of success is to look for the pinch before it becomes a crunch. Negotiating Skills Approaches to Resolve Conflict Skilful listening to improve understanding Assertion skills Influence by using interpersonal skills Emphasise issues, break up large issues

Make careful note of actions decided Facilitation – Helping people communicate with one another. Conciliation or mediation – Working towards resolving an issue whilst remaining independent. Advocacy – negotiating on behalf of one party. Negotiating Skills Outcomes From Negotiation In a win/lose situation one party may feel threatened by the other and react in a defensive or aggressive way to ensure they don? t get beaten into submission. In a lose /lose situation, both parties have lost and no-one gets what they really want. In a win/win situation, this provides the basis for a long lasting partnership that can be mutually rewarding.

Negotiating Skills Stages to Successful Negotiation • Exchange information • Assess Wants, Needs, Information • Find the middle ground which is fair & reasonable to both • Firm up a mutually agreeable solution Recognise these stages, work towards them. Use the notes in this course to help future Negotiations. Create a learning log – a simple diary will do. Assess every negotiation you are involved in. What went well? What could be better? What will you do differently next time?

Comm Skills Essay