Public Speaking Anxiety Essay

Public Speaking Anxiety Essay.

From a tender age, I was always nervous about speaking it public or rather being in situations where I had to address people or read in public, be they my peers, or those older or younger than me. Still, within me, I admired numerous eloquent speakers both on television and other areas of social life, though I could not muster enough courage to publicly address others. Consequently, throughout childhood even college; I managed to avoid those situations that required me to be in the limelight addressing others.

My first public speaking experience happened in college where, as part of the required course work, every student was supposed to conduct a study on a social issue or topic of their choice, and present their findings in a college symposium that would combine colleges from our school district.

The presentation was scheduled for the last weeks of the college semester hence we had enough time to prepare. Accordingly, i chose to conduct a study on the attitudes of young people in my community, regarding obesity.

I was extremely conversant with this issue thus the research part was easy. The presentation required a discussion of study’s background, the methodology used as well as the key findings. The thirty minute presentation was to be accompanied by a PowerPoint presentation which I proficiently prepared. However, I lacked any experience in public presentation and was scared of facing audiences. Consequently, for several days before the presentation, I would be incessantly overwhelmed with waves of physical anxiety that led to escalated feelings of stress, insomnia, and an outbreak of continual negative thoughts. Sitting in the audience on the day of the symposium, I began feeling exceedingly anxious, had sweaty palms, my mind was racing, and my heart was pounding as I watched my classmates ace their presentations.

When my turn on the podium came, I was so nervous, I could not talk let alone introduce myself. When I finally did speak, my voice shook, and my hands shook, and I was barely able to discuss my study. At some point, I let the PowerPoint presentation run without any commentary. I was paralyzed. After almost 15 minutes, I finished my disoriented presentation and left the podium. Unlike the previous presentations, there was no response from the audience. Furthermore, as expected, I scored poorly in the course yet I had conducted an excellent research. Later, after self reflection and discussions with my instructor, I discovered that I suffered from a severe case of public speaking anxiety or speech anxiety. Public speaking anxiety or Speech anxiety is also referred to as communication apprehension, which is generally a fear of public speaking. Public speaking anxiety emanates from a fundamental fear of being analyzed, studied or assessed by others.

Public speaking anxiety is a common phenomenon, whereby almost 70% of individuals experience a certain degree of speech anxiety, according to the University of Southern Mississippi Speaking Center. In fact, according to the University of Tennessee College of Communication and Information, various poll results prove that, compared to other stressful events, including divorce, bankruptcy, and death, public speaking intimidates Americans more (Verderber, Verderber and Sellnow, Essential Speech 32). Speech anxiety arises from the speaker inherent feelings that he or she may be unsuccessful in satisfying the expectations of his or her audience. In particular, the composition and make-up of the audience is the underlying cause of speech anxiety especially when the speaker perceived audience expectations do not match the perceived speaker abilities. Key research has shown that public speaking anxiety causes both psychological and physical symptoms.

These include physical anxiety symptoms like increased sweating, rapid heart and breathing rate, flushing, shaking, dry mouth, upset stomach or butterflies, dizziness, and voice changes. Psychologically, speech anxiety may manifest as feelings of fearfulness, uncertainty, humiliation and general lack of control. Moreover, in the course of the speech, an individual may develop fears that the audience is impervious to his or her message, and henceforth act nervous or ultimately forget his or her speech (Verderber, Verderber and Sellnow, Essential Speech 30-60). Accordingly, after discovering the cause of my poor public speaking skills I sought to find out how to cope with the diagnosis and eventually, improve my speech skills.

This was imperative since I also intended to join the broadcast journalism profession which requires excellent speech skills. Moreover, I understood that being fearful of social experiences and public speaking diminished my ability to appreciate life and attain goals. As such, I decided to change, acquire techniques and most importantly, overcome my communication apprehension. This decision prompted me to enroll at broadcast journalism course so that I could learn the art of public speaking, professionally. Subsequently, in this quest, I discovered a variety of coping skills ranging from before the speech, during the speech and after the speech.

Before the Speech or Preparation for the Speech

1.Isolate the cause of the nervousness. I discovered that it is necessary for any public speaker to determine the source of his or her nervousness. This is best accomplished by making a deductive list on the perceived reasons for the nervousness to explain the reason behind the reason. This technique is particularly helpful in pin-pointing problem areas that require further refining. 2.Subject selection. Another cardinal rule in coping with speech anxiety is the capacity to choose a speech topic that one is interested in and one that the individual is comfortable with. As such, this makes it easy for the speaker to present his or her ideas logically and enthusiastically. 3.Thorough preparation prior to in the speech event. In most cases, speakers do not always realize the acute role of preparation in suppressing nervousness before an audience. For instance, in my case, I believed that since I had prepared the research presentations adequately, and was conversant with the topic, it would be easy to deliver.

However, there are numerous facets of preparations that are essential for the success of any public speaking event, these include developing the right body language, making eye contact and effectively utilizing the time allocated for the speech (Hamilton 71). 4.Maximize the introduction and conclusion of the speech. Research shows that, in many cases, speech anxiety lessens significantly after the first thirty seconds of a presentation. In this regard, it is essential that the speaker memorizes his or her opening and closing remarks in order to capture the attention of the audience and also avert fears of imperviousness among the targeted audience (Witt and Behnke, Anticipatory Speech Anxiety as a Function of Public Speaking 167-177). 5.Avoid memorization of the entire speech. Instead, it is more productive for the speaker to prepare short notes from which they can speak or refer. In this way, the speaker can organize his or her thoughts to eliminate disorientation during presentation. 6.Audience and venue reconnaissance.

Another main tenet of public speaking understands of the target audience in terms of their characteristics, size and age group. The identification of the audience helps the speaker formulate specific behavioral mechanisms or adaptations for the type of audience. Furthermore, assessing the venue gives the feel of the event as well as allows the speaker to familiarize themselves with the equipment and technology to be used for the event. In addition, visiting the venue also helps the speaker to understand physical arrangements of the setting. In this sense, it is also essential to test the equipment to identify any issues prior to the event (Witt, Roberts and Behnke 215 – 226). 7.Adequate practice in speech delivery and timing. This is essential so that the speaker does not exceed set time parameters.

Effective time management is vital for the speaker to deliver an organized and consistent message. Further, during practice, it is advisable to continue to the end of the speech, even if one forgets a part of speech. This way, the speaker can master how to overcome instants of failed memory or to deal with errors. 8.Set realistic expectations. It is a fact that no human being is truly perfect. Similarly, in public speaking everyone is bound to make mistakes in their presentation. Consequently, it is more effective to move away from unrealistic goals such as flawless speech delivery, and focus on realistic tactics like, consulting one’s notes in the event of a failed memory or deviation (Griffin 221). 9.Use visualization techniques to imagine an ideal presentation.

Research shows, speakers who practice visualization techniques before their public speaking event report declined levels of communication apprehension. Indeed, visualization of the presentation helps purge negative thoughts about the event and replace them with more positive thoughts that are more empowering (Hamilton 1-71). 10.Continued practice. I discovered that sustained practice is critical for the speaker to develop eloquence and cope with speech anxiety in public speaking. In this regard, it is necessary to find opportunities that expose the speaker to mild to moderate stages of anxiety that challenge their ability to succeed. Through this, the speaker reinforces himself psychologically to operate at certain levels of anxiety.

During The Speech

A variety of scholars have suggested numerous principles that are essential for effective speech delivery. These include:. 1.Dress appropriately and comfortably. Studies have shown that the way a speaker presents him/herself in terms of attire influences the connection he or she makes with the audience. It is beneficial therefore, for the speaker to dress appropriately to the type of event. Besides, wearing outfits that one is comfortable and those that allow freedom of movement boosts their confidence in their presentation (Ferguson 32-56). 2.Relaxation techniques. To overcome communication apprehension, it is recommended that the speaker practices effortless relaxation techniques to help them focus on the task ahead. These relaxation techniques include deeps breaths, contraction and relaxation of muscles and visualization (Griffin 221-240).

3.Body language. Throughout the presentation, it is vital for the speaker to exercise control over the body signals he or she sends to the audience. At all times, it is essential for the speaker to suppress his or her anxiety by acting confident. Research has shown that most of the speakers’ anxiety is always invisible to the audience. Consequently, when the speaker acts confident the audience will perceive him or her as so and hence offer positive feedback (Hamilton 179). 4.Audience. Categorically, most of the communication apprehension emanates from the audience. Accordingly, the speaker should at all times concentrate on the audience rather than him/herself in order to identify signals of understanding. For instance, in the case that the audience seems drifting or uncertain, the speaker may introduce an attention-getting stratagem, such as a question, or use creative anecdotes to clarify a confusing idea. Furthermore, the speaker should sustain direct eye contact with the audience and center on friendly faces that boost his or her confidence (Hamilton 180).

Conducting prior audience analysis has a significant impact on how the speaker may control or handle the audience. Audience analysis helps the speaker define the demographic, psychographic and situational characteristics, as well as, fundamental cultural beliefs and values of the audience. By establishing the demographic nature, their dispositions about the theme of the speech and the knowledge base of the topic of the audience, the speaker can incorporate the right information and language into the speech delivery (Ferguson 52). 5.Speech structure. Almost every speech has a three part structure that is introduction, body and the conclusion. The speaker should begin with an arresting introduction that leads into a categorical statement of the main subject or topic (Hamilton 181).

The following arguments should aim at elaborating and developing the main theme persuasively and efficiently, while maintaining precision or succinctness. The conclusion should restate the main them and summarize the arguments presented. A strategic way to ensure smooth flow within the speech stricter may be by presenting the speech in reverse where the speaker begins with the conclusion that summarizes the main message, while abridging and restating the preceding information. This way, the speaker imparts unity, coherence, and places emphasis of the entire speech (Neale and Ely 15). 6.Use of visual aids. Visual aids should serve to guide the audience through the presentation in order to reinforce the key points, capture their attention and augment message retention.

As such, the speaker should strive to deliver the speech effectively and transition smoothly in between slides (Verderber, Verderber and Sellnow, Essential Speech 246). One strategy to effective PowerPoint presentations is timing, where the presentation must be well paced to accord the audience time to process and absorb the content. The speaker should at all times maintain eye contact with the audience instead of the visual aid. In addition, it is essential to make effortless transitions between speech and the visual aids. Visual aids should not be a distraction rather; they should be an extension of the speech. In essence, practice and cognizance of the transition timing ensure effective delivery (Verderber, Sellnow and Verderber 59).

After The Speech

In case that the speech was not proficient to the individual personal best, it is beneficial to review the event by relating to the “ten-year rule”. This rule helps determine whether the event will be pivotal in ten years’ time. In all prospects, the event may only remain relevant to the speaker in a year or two. More importantly, no one but the speaker will actually care about the events in the speech. Consequently, public speakers should learn not to incline on the way that they behaved or conducted themselves while delivering a speech. The best way to cope with anxiety after delivering a speech is through focusing on the impact their speech will have on the audience. Another best way to suppress anxiety at this stage is through engaging in dialogues with friends, workmates and other participants who encourage positively.

This helps in reassuring the public speaker of their capabilities. However, the presentation speech should not be the main theme of these talks. In conclusion, communication apprehension or speech anxiety can sidetrack speakers from achieving their best and thereby diminish the effectiveness of the speech performance. However, the reduction of anxiety through numerous techniques and principles contributes to positive outlooks and more successful public speaking presentations. On a personal level, the know ledge gained during my course has been extremely helpful towards building my public speaking skills. Even though, I am in the novice stages, I have discovered through the application of the strategies outlined herein I am, more confident in addressing my peers as well as conducting academic presentations.

Works Cited
Ferguson, Sherry Devereaux . Public Speaking: Building Competency in Stages. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Griffin, Cindy L. Invitation to Public Speaking. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning, 2011. Hamilton, Cheryl . Cengage Advantage Books: Essentials of Public Speaking. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning, 2011. Neale, Thomas H. and Dana Ely. Speechwriting in Perspective: A Brief Guide to Effective and Persuasive Communication. CRS Report for Congress. Washington: Congressional Research Service, 2007. Verderber, Rudolph F., Deanna D. Sellnow and Kathleen S. Verderber. The Challenge of Effective Speaking. Boston,MA: Cengage Learning, 2011. Verderber, Rudolph F., Kathleen S. Verderber and Deanna D. Sellnow. Essential Speech. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning, 2010. Witt, Paul L. and Ralph R. Behnke. “Anticipatory Speech Anxiety as a Function of Public Speaking.” Communication Education, Vol. 55, No. 2 (2006): 167-177. Witt, Paul L., Mendy L. Roberts and Ralph R. Behnke. “Comparative Patterns of Anxiety and Depression in a Public Speaking Context .” Human Communication Vol. 11, No.1 (2007): 215 – 226.

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Public Speaking Anxiety Essay

All Stressed Out Essay

All Stressed Out Essay.

This activity examines the way that psychologists conceptualize stress, emphasizing that stress is a biopsycho-social process. You will explore the sources of stress in your own life, review your body’s response to stress, and then learn how cognitive appraisal dramatically affects how much stress you actually experience.

Checking the Level of Stress in Your Life
• What was your “Stress Test” score? _______30_____

• Do you think that such a test accurately captures your experience? What other stressors should be included?

I do not feel that it rates high enough on some aspects that are heavily weighing on a person’s chest.

I think they should add an area for personal responsibilities and problems with children.

Stress, Stressors, and Coping
• Psychologists differentiate stressors, strain, and stress. What does each of these terms mean?

Stressors- an external event, situation, or other demand that triggers coping adjustments in a person. Strain- the outcome of stress such as loss of sleep, headaches, and lack of concentration.

Stress- the process by which we perceive and respond to a certain event that we appraise as threatening or challenging.

The General Adaptation Syndrome
• Describe Selye’s general adaptation syndrome.

When something occurs that takes your body away from its original homeostasis state, into fear or rage, and then into exhaustion.

The Biology of Stress

• Although both men and women experience the fight-or-flight syndrome, some scientists argue that women also can experience stress differently (tend-and-befriend). Briefly explain this hypothesis.

This is because natural selection developed stress relieves differently as they grow of different ways and situations.

• Can you think of why this alleged gender difference in fight-or-flight and tend-and-befriend may “make sense” from an evolutionary perspective?

Because natural selectionwas developed in ways that the fittest was more successful than the weaker people.

• Outline the body’s two-part endocrine response to stress.

Hypothalamic, pituatary adrenocortical system is a delayed response that function to restore body to normal, and the Cortisol which affect glucose metabolism.

Stress Harms Your Body’s Organ Systems
• List the effects of stress on:

o the heart: Raise the heart pressure

o the digestive tract: Reduction in enzyme digestions in blood flow.

o the brain: It can damage the neurons involved in learning and in memory, hypocampus is smaller in stressed patients.

Cognitive Appraisal – The Filter Through Which Stressors Are Processed • According to the transactional model, what triggers the process of stress?

By considering it as a transaction in which each person makes continual adjustments to everyday circumstances. It is triggers when we exceed the ability to cope with all our problems in life.

All Stressed Out Essay

Stress and Anxiety in Sports Essay

Stress and Anxiety in Sports Essay.

Introduction:

Sports have been a part of my life for as long as I can remember, and I know from countless experiences how stress and anxiety can affect ones performance. Anyone involved in sports in anyway will understand the feelings that rush through you when you are in a high risk, and high pressure situations. Those final moments of a close game, or even the night before your big match or competition, are great examples of situations that would create the sudden rush of these feelings; and therefore, triggering a spike in anxiety.

Whether you are in the stands, on the bench, playing or coaching, you get that “butterfly” feeling in your stomach. The difference between success and failure is how you deal with high pressure situations. If you let nervousness and anxiety overcome you, it could cost you and your team the match or that podium spot you worked so hard for. The question is, how do you control it, and how important is it that you control it?

The Issue:

“Anxiety is a negative emotional state characterized by nervousness, worry, and apprehension and associated with activation or arousal of the body” (Robert S.

Weinberg, Daniel Gould, 2007). When given the opportunity to shoot that final shot for the championship game, or that final at bat, most don’t take it as an opportunity but rather a curse. In these high risk, and high pressure situations, the fear of failure taints their view of these possible opportunities to excel. This is what causes their stress and anxiety levels to rise at a drastic speed. Look at athletes such as Kobe Bryant and Tiger Woods. These are two athletes who are considered to be two of, if not the most clutch players in their respective sports. Do you think that when Kobe Bryant has the ball in his hand with 10 seconds left on the clock, he has any doubt in his mine that he will not make the shot? Not even in the slightest. When Tiger Woods is about to shoot a must needed approach shot? No, he sinks his chip shot to go on and win the 2005 Masters Championship. Sure, they may miss; they do miss in many cases for that matter; but the probability of success they have skyrockets when they have faith in themselves and believe that they are going to make that shot.

The opposite affect occurs when there is doubt in your mind. You tense up, your heart races, and your mind races with negative thoughts about all the possible things that could go wrong with all these thoughts going through your head it prevents you from focusing on the task at hand, and what needs to be done for you to get the best opportunity to win the game. Athletes such as Bryant and Woods embrace these opportunities and have enough confidence in themselves to help them sculpt the careers they have had, the championships they have won and of course all the handy money, fame, and endorsements that come along with it.

Measuring Arousal and Anxiety:

“Arousal is a blend of physiological and psychological activity in a person, and it refers to the intensity dimensions of motivation at a particular moment” (Robert S. Weinberg, Daniel Gould, 2007). To determine how to work through periods of high stress/anxiety, you must first distinguish the type of anxiety and its severity. How do we measure anxiety/arousal? The physical effects of anxiety, such as increased heart rate and respiration and arousal increase in severity as the anxiety increases.

Physical signs of arousal are things such as increased heart rate and respiration, where symptoms of anxiety can be anything from feeling nervous, to becoming physically ill. When experiencing symptoms of stress, take a deep breath and gage the amount of side-effects that are occurring. The gage in which we measure anxiety and arousal differ from person to person. To accurately measure this we must identify certain triggers that are unique to individuals and find ways to cope with them. Everybody has their own reasons to be afraid of failure, for they have their own unique consequences. What they have to find is a way to deal with these consequences and control the outcome.

Controlling It:

The first stage in controlling your stress and anxiety levels is acknowledging the fact that you experience these symptoms, identifying common triggers, and finding ways to work through these periods of anxiety. A very important and useful way in coping with stress and anxiety is to train at a maximum level. “Aim to exercise regularly. Exercise dissipates the adrenaline that builds up in stressful situations and leaves us feeling with a sense of achievement and control” (BrainMac Sports Coach, 2011). If you know at critical points in your sport that you have trained to your maximum level, are convinced that you are more prepared, physically stronger, and more focused than your opponent, your stress levels deplete and you are now prepared for the task at hand.

A great technique which many coaches have taught and used with me is the use of visualization methods. Studies show that if you take time before every match, or even if you are lying in bed the night before your match, and visualize yourself hitting that game winning shot over and over in your head, it will put you in a more positive mindset; therefore, improving your chances at being successful. It is a technique that requires much attention and detail as possible; visualize the sound of the crowd, the colours all around you, your teammates, etc. The more detail in the event you put into it the more it resonates in your mind.

When it comes time to hit that shot, if you are able say to yourself, “I’ve already hit this shot 100 times last night,” your anxiety will drop, and your mind will be focused on all the possible successes instead of possible failures. There are also very knowledgeable sports psychologists in the field that are very helpful with understanding the importance of controlling your stress and anxiety. “Sport psychology consultants can work with athletes to strengthen their mental preparedness in order to enhance and improve athletic performance” (Ott & Van Puymbroek, 2006). They are trained to help you understand the pressure you are under and give you ways how to deal with it.

Conclusion:

For some athletes sports aren’t just games to them they have that extra competitive edge which can sometimes be a good thing, but can also lead to a lot of external pressure and internal stress. There are many athletes that take it upon themselves to be perfect and when mistakes come they shut down and do not know how to deal with the overwhelming pressure that they put on themselves. There are also external factors such as coaches, parents, friends etc. that can also put even more pressure on you which is why athletes who have problems dealing with stress need to try and block out some of these factors and focus more on themselves.

“Concentration, confidence, control and commitment (the 4C’s) are generally considered the main mental qualities that are important for successful performance in most sports” (BrainMac Sports Coach, 2011). If you can concentrate on the task at hand, have the confidence that you will beat your opponent, control your state of mind, and commit to what needs to be done you should have no problem with stress and anxiety. With these 4C’s and use the techniques explained above, it should help you immensely in helping you push through those stressful situations you may encounter.

References:
Weinberg, R. & Gould, D. (2007) Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology Ott, K. & Van Puymbroeck, M (2006) The Sports Digest
http://www.brianmac.co.uk/stress.htm
http://www.brianmac.co.uk/psych.htm

Stress and Anxiety in Sports Essay

Feminist Times: a Jury of Her Peers Essay

Feminist Times: a Jury of Her Peers Essay.

Susan Glaspell was born in 1882; she wrote a short story called “A Jury of Her Peers” based on her play Trifles. Susan Glaspell received a degree in philosophy from Drake University. She became a newspaper reporter in Des Moines. The writer married a freethinker who believed in free love. In 1916 the author was inspired to write the play Trifles based on a murder case she covered on the job.

One year later in 1917, she creates the short story. Mrs. Glaspell has stated that promotes all progressive movements.

Her short story “A Jury of Her Peers” is very touching and judgmental. In her story she is revealing moments that define the women’s personalities and lives. This short story is symbolizing how the women felt, what roles they play in society, and what the women saw as a worry was considered little to none importance by men.

In this short story, how women felt was of no matter. For instance, Minnie Wright’s life was compared to the life of a bird in a cage.

Mrs. Wright’s life was full of loneliness with nowhere to go. She was trapped in a cage just like the bird. Mrs. Hale remembered Minnie Wright as Minnie Foster before she got married to John Wright. Mrs. Hale states that Minnie Foster once had a beautiful voice just like the bird once had one too. “I wish you’d seen Minnie Foster when she wore a white dress with blue ribbons and stood up there in the choir and sang.” (Glaspell, Page 264) The beautiful voice of both Minnie Wright’s and the birds was taken away by a heartless man. Men in those times had no respect for how women felt. John Wright was a cruel man who killed the bird with disregard to her feelings. As the bird died, a piece of her heart died as well.

“She was going to bury it in that pretty box.” (Glaspell, Page 264) Her only friend and connection to the world was taken away. As a consequence, Mr. Wright’s life was taken.  During the old time, the role that women played in society was based on their husbands. For example, Mrs. Hale was married to Mr. Hale who was a farmer. She was known as the farmer’s wife. Mrs. Peters was married to Mr. Peters who happened to be the sheriff. In the eyes of society she was known as the lady married to the law.

In the book Mr. Peter’s states “Married to the law!” (Glaspell, Page 265) These women have no individual identity. Who they were, was determined by their husbands. The women were never called by their first names. They were called by their husband’s last name. In those days, women had no say or opinion. They had to do what their husbands would tell them to do. Who they would be for the rest of their life was established by the man they married.

Decades ago, what women saw as a worry was considered little to none importance by men. Men back then were ignorant to what was obvious and right in front of their faces. The women saw the small details of what was happening or did happen. They put those small details together and found the motive as to why Mrs. Wright killed her husband. In the story “A Jury of Her Peers,” Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters noticed all the small details that were clues. When Minnie asked that they check on her preserves. Mr. Hale commented “women are used to worrying over trifles.” (Hedges, web)The quilt was one of the clues that gave the ladies a scare.

They were trying to figure out why the quilt was done so well, but towards the middle looked wrong. The ladies were puzzled as to if Minnie Wright was going to knot or quilt it. They understood that it described Minnie’s life. It looked nice and pretty on the outside, but on the inside her life was mess. The men didn’t see or understand it. Mr. Henderson the county attorney made a brief smirk about the ladies wonders. “They wonder whether she was going to quilt it or just knot it!” (Glaspell, Page 260) The ladies knew something was very wrong. The men saw it as nothing. The women found a beautiful little box at the bottom of the sewing basket. In the box they found a dead bird, but did not mention it to the men.

The men were too busy looking for the big clues that they found nothing. All the small details that would convict Minnie Wright were in her personal belongings. Everything that had to do with her everyday life was considered small details or of no value in the men’s eyes. In reality, it was all the clues they needed, but overlooked. The small worries of women should never be underestimated and should be considered when trying to understand them. A woman’s small worries are the clues to discovering the answers.

In this mystery of finding all the right clues, the two ladies found them all. This story shows that women are just as smart as men. Sometimes women are even smarter. These two ladies read between the lines and figured out Minnie Wright’s life story in just a short period of time. “For these women, solving the murder is not a disinterested act, but a cooperative endeavor which leads them to a knowledge essential for their survival as females in a hostile or indifferent world.” (Ortiz, web

) As the men searched for big clues, they found nothing. The women understood what Minnie had endured in her life and choose not to tell the men about the clues. It was their choice not to tell the men and none of them would ever know that the ladies had defied them that day. It was one step closer to gaining their rights.

Feminist Times: a Jury of Her Peers Essay

Anxiety of High School Students Essay

Anxiety of High School Students Essay.

1.1Introduction

Anxiety is a general term for several disorders that cause nervousness, fear, apprehension, and worrying. These disorders affect how we feel and behave, and they can manifest real physical symptoms. Mild anxiety is vague and unsettling, while severe anxiety can be extremely debilitating, having a serious impact on daily life. People often experience a general state of worry or fear before confronting something challenging such as a test, examination, recital, or interview. These feelings are easily justified and considered normal.

Anxiety is considered a problem when symptoms interfere with a person’s ability to sleep or otherwise function. Anxiety occurs when a reaction is out of proportion with what might be normally expected in a situation. Anxiety disorders can be classified into several more specific types.

The most common are briefly described below. •Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a chronic disorder characterized by excessive, long-lasting anxiety and worry about nonspecific life events, objects, and situations. GAD sufferers often feel afraid and worry about health, money, family, work, or school, but they have trouble both identifying the specific fear and controlling the worries.

Their fear is usually unrealistic or out of proportion with what may be expected in their situation. Sufferers expect failure and disaster to the point that it interferes with daily functions like work, school, social activities, and relationships. •Panic Disorder is a type of anxiety characterized by brief or sudden attacks of intense terror and apprehension that leads to shaking, confusion, dizziness, nausea, and difficulty breathing.

Panic attacks tend to arise abruptly and peak after 10 minutes, but they then may last for hours. Panic disorders usually occur after frightening experiences or prolonged stress, but they can be spontaneous as well. A panic attack may lead an individual to be acutely aware of any change in normal body function, interpreting it as a life threatening illness – hypervigiliance followed by hypochondriasis. In addition, panic attacks lead a sufferer to expect future attacks, which may cause drastic behavioral changes in order to avoid these attacks. •A Phobia is an irrational fear and avoidance of an object or situation. Phobias are different from generalized anxiety disorders because a phobia has a fear response identified with a specific cause. The fear may be acknowledged as irrational or unnecessary, but the person is still unable to control the anxiety that results. Stimuli for phobia may be as varied as situations, animals, or everyday objects.

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For example, agoraphobia occurs when one avoids a place or situation to avoid an anxiety or panic attack. Agoraphobics will situate themselves so that escape will not be difficult or embarrassing, and they will change their behavior to reduce anxiety about being able to escape. •Social Anxiety Disorder is a type of social phobia characterized by a fear of being negatively judged by others or a fear of public embarrassment due to impulsive actions. This includes feelings such as stage fright, a fear of intimacy, and a fear of humiliation. This disorder can cause people to avoid public situations and human contact to the point that normal life is rendered impossible.

•Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by thoughts or actions that are repetitive, distressing, and intrusive. OCD suffers usually know that their compulsions are unreasonable or irrational, but they serve to alleviate their anxiety. Often, the logic of someone with OCD will appear superstitious, such as an insistence in walking in a certain pattern. OCD sufferers may obsessively clean personal items or hands or constantly check locks, stoves, or light switches.

•Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is anxiety that results from previous trauma such as military combat, rape, hostage situations, or a serious accident. PTSD often leads to flashbacks and behavioral changes in order to avoid certain stimuli. •Separation Anxiety Disorder is characterized by high levels of anxiety when separated from a person or place that provides feelings of security or safety. Sometimes separation results in panic, and it is considered a disorder when the response is excessive or inappropriate.

1.2 Background of the Study

Anxiety is an unpleasant emotion experienced as dread, scare, alarm, fright, trepidation, worry, and uneasiness, which triggers mechanism for self-regulation strategies that facilitate performance (Schultz and Davis, 2000). Minimal amount of anxiety can mobilize human beings to respond rapidly and efficiently, but excessive amount of anxiety may foster poor response and sometimes inhibit response (Simpson et al., 1995). The quantity of anxiety experienced by the learner and the negative effects of it on their academic achievement are one of the major reasons for educators to be concerned about (Price 1991, and Clement 1997).

Anxiety is a common symptom found in different population especially among students. Researchers have focused on the role of anxiety in their attempt to understand these difficulties. Anxiety difficulties in certain students may be related to motivational orientation and the lack of effective study skills and test-taking skills. These students may not utilize cognitive, metacognitive, and self-regulated learning strategies effectively. Therefore, for these students, anxiety becomes an issue during course instructions and academic performance suffers.

Educators are perceived to have enormous task and responsibility in helping the students reach their career goals. They play a very important role in making the learners realize their full potentials by helping them overcome the various obstacles they encounter in the process. The experience of anxiety seems to be inescapable in the phenomenological-existential world of these learners. Hence, an imperative need is felt by the researchers to further investigate this problem about anxiety.

The present study is relegated to the high school students in a public Secondary Education Institution in Manila. The respondents chosen for the study were from the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Laboratory High School. Curriculum on this institution imposes a student to strive for academic excellence because of high standards and policies for grades. The schedule for these students is very demanding and requires attendance in class, laboratory work, six days a week along with daily homework. Frequent testing of students is necessary throughout the program for evaluation of progress in mastering content. Students verbalize and exhibit a great deal of anxiety regarding examinations, practicum, projects and other requirements.

This study on the anxiety of high school students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines Laboratory High School is conducted to provide baseline data for the guidance and counseling department to plan and map relevant intervention programs to address this specific concern of the recipient students. The findings gathered by this study can be of great help to the students, educators, parents, and the school administrators of the institution in arriving at solutions to the problem of anxiety among learners.

1.3 Theoretical Framework

This study is anchored on the theory of Sigmund Freud (Freud, as cited by Fiest & Fiest, 7th Edition). He emphasized that anxiety is a felt, affective, unpleasant state accompanied by a physical sensation that warns the person against impending danger. The unpleasantness is often vague and hard to pinpoint but the anxiety itself is always felt. In one point of hid theory, he indicated that anxiety is a signal from the ego about a real (existing) or potential danger (Theories of Anxiety, Strongman, 1995). This study is also concerned o how anxiety relate to physical state of the students. In connection with this, researchers shall explore the physiological and neurological theories of anxiety. They account for anxiety as involving particular parts of The Central Nervous System, with addition of general arousal and their overt effect on the body, like perspiration and fast heart beat. According to the biological theory, the GABA system is responsible for the motivation of fear and anxiety.

GABA is known as Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid, it is a naturally occurring transmitter inhibitor. It is a substance in the body which helps us to maintain an optimal flow of stimulation or information thereby reducing the flow of neural transmission. There are GABA receptor sites which the GABA will bind and produce the effects mentioned previously. The ability to bind is not fixed, and is dependent on the presence of benzodiapines. This benzodiapines are anti-anxiety drugs such as Valium, Librium, and Alprazolam, which help regulate neural transmissions.

The body naturally produces this chemical, but it has not yet been isolated. When the benzodiapines bind to the sites, it increases the ability of GABA to bind to its own receptor sites (Tallman et al., 1980). The GABA receptors then trigger the opening of Chloride channels which leads to a decrease in the firing rate of critical neurons in many parts of the Central Nervous System. Those who experience more anxiety than others (high level of anxiety), fail to produce or release benzodiapines which are necessary for the amount of GABA needed to regulate neural transmission.

This study wants to determine the level of state anxiety, the level of trait anxiety and the student’s perception of situational threat. State anxiety, like kinetic energy, refers to palpable reaction or process taking place at given time and level of intensity (Batoc, 2011). Its intensity is expected to be in high in circumstances perceived as a threatening and low in non-stressful situations. While trait anxiety, like potential energy, refers to individual differences in reactions (Batoc, 2011). It implies differences between people in the disposition to respond to stressful situations with varying amounts of state anxiety (Spielberg, 1982).

The State-Trait Anxiety Theory which was developed by Spielberg gives the foundation for identifying the different psychological construct properties of state anxiety and trait anxiety, and for categorizing the different variables in studying anxiety. He postulated the State and Trait Anxiety are analogous in certain respect to kinetic and potential energy (Spielberg. 1985). While in Cognitive Perspective, loss of control and inability to make a coping response are two main focuses.

Loss of control refers to a situation when there are unpredictable or uncontrollable events in one’s life which lead to anxiety and/or depression. As a result, feelings of helplessness develop. The unpredictability which may be associated with a task may cause anxiety (Seligman, 1975). The inability or perceived inability to make an adaptive response to a threatening event or the fact or perception that no such response is available will lead to feelings of anxiety. Since anxiety is very ambiguous, it is the key which prevents the elaboration of clear action patterns to handle the situation effectively (Lazarus, 1991).

Anxiety of High School Students Essay

Epicurean Ethics Essay

Epicurean Ethics Essay.

Upon understanding the brief and general philosophy of how to live a good life from an Epicurean’s viewpoint, I too thought that his philosophy centered around the self, how to achieve pleasure for the self, how to avoid pain to protect the self, all of which did seem very egoistic. However, throughout reading some of his theories and ideas, analyzing them, as well as reading other philosophers’ interpretations, I was able to see how this can be misunderstood if not given careful thought.

This common misconception of his philosophy was widely misunderstood because although his philosophy centered around gaining pleasure for the self and avoiding pain, it also focused on not acting upon greed when on the search of pleasure, and only satisfying needs that are natural and absolutely necessary for the survival of an individual, rather than on the kind of pleasure that is achieved by eating luxurious foods, drinking fancy wines, having a high social status and indulging in materialistic things.

Aside from having pleasure as the primary goal in life, Epicurus focused a good deal on how to avoid pain as well.

In fact, Epicurus defines and measures pleasure not by how much happiness it may bring to the soul and body, but by the absence of pain which is the only way to achieve pleasure. He categorizes pleasure into three different parts which will be discussed later in this paper, as well as how one can have a peaceful and tranquil mind. To achieve the state of mind that Epicurus believes will bring pleasure to an individual’s life, one must eliminate all fears and anxieties over the unknown such as the power of God and how much of one’s life is dependent on the higher being.

To ease these frightening thoughts and anxieties, Epicurus believed it was necessary to explain all of the unknown factors of the supernatural such as the fact that Gods have no interest in human affairs and live in their own society. He also thought that much of the stress and anxiety came from not knowing what happens to the body and the soul after death. Being a naturalist, he thought it was best to explain his theory in scientific terms that are more clear and concise rather than something that was mythical and could have been made up.

Although he used the atomist theory to inspire his own, he made significant changes to it explaining exactly what does happen to the soul and the body and how there should be nothing to fear and be anxious over. Epicurus was a naturalist and adapted the concept of the atomist theory to his own beliefs. As briefly stated before, he believed that fear and anxiety comes from not knowing the unknown, such as supernatural occurrences, the concept of God, and life after death.

Therefore, by explaining how the divine and all powerful works and advising one not to fear the Gods, as well as using the atomist theory to come up with his own theory so that one knows exactly what will happen to the body and soul after death, he believes that there would be much less anxiety and fear in the mind of an Epicurean. According to the atomist theory, the universe is composed of only two things which are infinite shapes and sizes of atoms, and an infinite void. The atoms of which our universe is composed of are infinite in number, unchangeable, and are unable to be cut or divided.

It also states that our senses originate from atoms being cut off by objects Epicurus however, believed that our senses originate from our judgments and perceptions of these atoms rather than atoms being cut off by objects. Although Epicurus adapted this theory, he also made significant changes to it in support of his teachings on living a life of a tranquil mind. He emphasized it’s importance to prove that people shouldn’t have fear of life after death because if death means the loss of all consciousness in the mind and the dissolution of the body into atoms, then we have nothing to fear.

Our perceptions, judgments and experiences of the world are no longer in our consciousness, because death is the lack of all these things, therefore once death comes there would be nothing to fear or feel such as pain because our consciousness which gives life to all these things would be completely gone. Epicurus encourages his students to live a life free from the stress and anxiety of the unknown life after death, giving them a tranquil and peaceful state of mind.

This in turn contributes to his theory that to live a complete and happy life of pleasures, one must be free of all worries and anxieties, as well as avoiding bodily pain. Epicurus also believed that the source of trouble in our consciousness and what causes stress and anxiety in the mind is the fear of the divine and all powerful God. Although Epicurus is not an Atheist and was like most others during his time a polytheistic believing in many Gods, his views on religion and the all powerful God varied greatly from the rest.

Epicurus never denied the existence of Gods but held a belief that Gods and human beings had no relation to one another. He believed that Gods were not concerned with human affairs and rejected the widely held belief that Gods gave us reason to live in peace and harmony so that we can be happy and live a good life. He also rejected the idea that Gods held complete control of the path of our lives and worried over us and our conflicts greatly and instead, believed that Gods had their own separate lives and affairs and were always in the highest state of happiness.

According to Panichas’ essay in Epicurus on “Theology”, it is believed that Epicurus never fully justified why he believes that Gods are always happy but says that his belief in Gods came from the idea that we are all born with an innate knowledge of Gods existence. This means that newborn children don’t need to be given the knowledge of the existence of divine power, but are already born with that idea implanted in them.

His supporting argument for the existence of Gods is that since everyone is born with the innate idea of their existence, and everyone already has an established opinion of the Gods, then they must exist. Epicurus’ argument against the popular belief of Gods having extreme concern of human affairs and conflicts was that Gods didn’t care for human affairs because they were extremely happy living their own separate lives. Therefore, if Gods were concerned with human conflicts and troubles then they wouldn’t be happy but rather stressed, worried and anxious, which would then make them unhappy.

Epicurus’ goal in presenting his arguments using physics and atomism, against religion and its superstitious beliefs, was a way of assuring his students that they shouldn’t disturb the mind because of worries and anxieties over the belief that happiness, misery, and life after death are completely dependent upon the Gods because this in turn comes in conflict with the primary goal of life on earth which is happiness. Instead, he emphasized the importance of attaining courage through meditation on the purpose of life so that human beings can master the fear of death and the gods.

A life of happiness and pleasure in Epicurean terms is defined as having a calm and peaceful mind, free of anxieties and worries, as well as a body free of pain. By teaching his students the idea of atomism which frees people from the stress and anxieties of life after death, and the belief that the Gods are not in complete control of our lives and are merely part of their own separate society, Epicurus is able to liberate their anxious and unhappy minds and allows them to live a conscious free life from disturbances and stresses of the unknown world.

Epicurus most likely felt the need to fully explain the aspects of supernatural causes which society at the time thought to be controlled by God, as well as other natural phenomena such as how things came about on earth, so that people had a clear understanding of things they had not known before, and in turn no longer fearing them.

Popular belief of mass society during the Hellenistic period was that any supernatural occurrences of the world such as the creation of the universe, the existence of human beings, or the world having just enough resources for human beings to be able to survive were all of Gods creations. However, Lucretius who was an Epicurean student stated that the world could not have been created by the Gods because it is imperfect and such perfect beings could not have created something so imperfect as the universe.

He proves this idea in support of his argument, by stating that the world in itself which is full of imperfections, giving an example of the large amount of land that is completely useless to mankind but is inhabited by wild animals, or death that stalks every minute of our lives, could have been the creations of the divine and all powerful because if they were, then that would mean that Gods themselves are the sources of all pain and evil.

Lucretius also states that an Epicurean must accept the fact that the natural world is mortal, which means it can that it can be diseased with corruption, war, and greed and follows a cycle of creation and destruction within itself. He elaborates on this statement saying the world must be thought of as a mortal body with a beginning, and an end.

As stated before, Epicureanism holds the belief that like everything else, Gods are composed of atoms, but atoms that are different than those of human beings. These atoms in On the Nature of the Universe are described as very flimsy atoms that are ethereal, and can be barely perceived by the mind, therefore they cannot be touched. It also says that they exist somewhere among their own nature, which means that they do not exist anywhere near the society of human beings.

In explaining this theory to his followers, he did so to prove that there is no reason to live in fear of Gods because they live in a society that is completely separate and different from ours, and as stated before, they are engaged in their own affairs and have no concern for the welfare of human beings. He stressed the importance of this because Epicurus believed that all fear arises from the unknown. The unknown as being what happens to the soul, body, and life after death, and the fear and anxiety over Gods’ declaration punishments or rewards towards human beings.

By explaining all the unanswered questions of life, rejecting the idea of Gods being in complete control in the affair of our lives, in simple and naturalistic terms that can be proven through metaphysics, rather than relying on retold myths that cannot be proven, seen, or sensed, he is able to direct their minds towards a positive light in which they can achieve a state of mind that is at peace, allowing them to live their lives in pleasure and happiness.

Epicurus’ view on the soul and what happens to it after death greatly varied from the Platonic and Homeric view of the soul. Unlike Plato who believed that the soul became part of a heavenly pilgrimage, and the Homeric view that the soul descends into the darkness of the kingdom of the dead, Epicurus believed that the Soul merely dissolves upon death, which is without sensation. This means that since something that dissolves upon death is free of sensing and feeling, then there is no pain, and therefore there is nothing to fear.

Although Epicurus agreed with both the Platonic and Homeric view that an individual is composed of the body and the soul, and that upon death, the soul leaves the body, he disagreed on their views of what happens to the soul after death. Epicurus believes that the soul is corporeal, which means that what happens to the body and the soul is a physical occurrence, and once the body starts dissolving, the soul along with the body begins undergoing a physical transformation in which it also dissolves, the process therefore being void of the sensation or perception of what is happening.

The soul according to Epicurus was mainly made of breath, heat, and air which he considered to be made of a material substance. These three elements were used by Epicureans to explain the differences in characters and moods of feeling in both humans as well as animals. Aetios sums up the functions of these elements saying that the element of breath gives the soul the power to move, the air gives it tranquility and calmness, and the heat produces the perception of warmth from the body.

Epicurus also believed that the soul was made of an unknown element as well, that is much more advanced in structure and its function in the soul which allows it to feel in harmony with the rest of the elements as well as the body. Lucretius further elaborated on this hidden fourth element by stating that it is a crucial part of the soul because it provides the soul with sensation. Although the soul is the major cause of sensation, it cannot sense without the body. This then means that the soul cannot sense without the body, and the body cannot sense without the soul.

Lucretius states that the soul and the body must be united for a human being to have full access to sensation, therefore one cannot survive without the other . This theory is used in support of their argument of what happens to the soul after it is released from the body, which is that since the soul which brings sensation, reason, and perception of the outside world to the body, is released from the body, the body can no longer feel or come up with reason or judgment of what is occurring.

The soul however, has a more significant role in the making of an individual than the body does because if a part of the body is lost, such as a leg or an arm, the soul is able to remain in the body and still give an individual sensation, whereas the part that was lost such as a leg or an arm although still exists, it can no longer have the soul be a part of it or retain any sensation.

In general, the body can be viewed as the home and protection of the soul, and if the body is destroyed, then it can no longer protect nor shelter the soul, and as a result, the soul scatters into tiny separate creative energies. All of Epicurus’ teachings and doctrines can be traced back to, and are in relation to attaining pleasure which is the main goal in life. Epicurus defines pleasure as not having certain sensations of happiness, but rather as the absence of bodily pain and mental disturbance.

He also believed that pleasure and pain are the main driving forces of a human being, saying that desire is driven by pleasure, and avoidance is driven by pain. Although many view Epicureanism as a form of egoism in which all actions are taken for the benefit of the self, and although this is true, Epicurus’ theory on attaining pleasure and happiness can be seen as something that is able to balance out, and in turn, become a life of virtue. A balanced life of happiness and virtue according to

Epicurus can be attained by being prudent and having a sense of discernment when it comes to pleasure. Therefore, someone who is able to do this by acting carefully when it came to the desires and the indulgences in life, and being virtuous to this belief isn’t necessarily set and done on his/her quest for pleasure, but on the right path to attain it. Epicurus believes that without the ability to sense things such as the sight of beauty, the taste of food, the sound of music, or the feel of an object, true pleasures and happiness cannot be achieved.

Therefore, the act of sensation is of extreme importance to an Epicurean because without sensation, the good life is unattainable. Epicurus also states that there is nothing more truthful than sensation. This means that the act of sensing doesn’t need to be proven because we sense things exactly for what they are. Sensations are also not voluntary and are received through direct contact with an object or thing through the five sense organs which are sight, touch, taste, sound, and smell.

These five senses, in turn are then perceived in the mind and can be enlarged or diminished in the mind. He then considers arguments against his theory that say that just because we sense things and then perceive them in the mind that does not always make them true. A classic example he gives is an octagonal tower seen from a far distance is in actuality cylindrical, or a tall building from a far distance may look small through the sense of sight, but in reality the building only appears to be small because it is seen from a far distance.

To support his argument, Epicurus states that it is then up to the individual to use reason, logic, and our past experiences to determine whether this observation is true or not. Sensation therefore, is the basic foundation of knowledge according to Epicurus. Although sensation is of extreme importance in Epicurean philosophy, the concept of sensation still goes back to the main idea of Epicurus’ teachings which is pleasure and happiness. According to Epicurus, pleasure is the goal of all things. However, to argue against those who say his teachings are egoistic, Epicurus emphasized on the right kind of pleasure.

For example, in Epicurus’ “Letter to Menoceus” he explains that indulging in the pleasures and luxuries of life is not what makes a good life, but the choices we make when in search of pleasure and avoidance of physical or mental pain: “For it is not continuous drinkings and revellings, nor the satisfaction of lusts, nor the enjoyment of fish, and other luxuries of the wealthy table, which produce a pleasant life, but sober reason, searching, out the motives for all choice and avoidance, and banishing mere opinions, to which are due the greatest disturbances of the spirit. This quote explains that Epicurus is not concerned with the quality of material things such as fine foods and other luxuries, but rather whether these things are enough to eliminate pain so that we can have pleasure. Epicurus believes that the more we can limit our pleasures and desires, especially the ones that are most necessary and natural such as food and water to survive and avoid bodily pain, the more we are likely to attain a happy and pleasurable life.

To further understand the concept of limiting pleasures and desires, Epicurus states that when one removes all physical and mental pain, for example eating to avoid hunger, or overcoming fear and anxiety to be free of mental pain, is when pleasure can be achieved. However, it is up to the individual to not become engaged in fulfilling “natural but unnecessary” pleasures, such as eating more than needed, or having luxurious food instead of normal food. Epicurus believes that this is where we must use our judgment and good reason to pick and choose what will best fulfill our needs without being overly self-indulgent.

He divides pleasures and desires into three separate categories. The first one is natural and necessary which as stated before, are daily survival necessities like food and water. The second form of pleasure is natural but unnecessary which is a pleasure that is natural such as food, but not necessary such as having extravagant food rather than regular food that would eliminate hunger. Lastly, the third type of pleasure is neither natural nor necessary which refers to fame, having a high status among peers in society, or the desire to be accepted by others.

The ability of fully understanding these categories and practicing them religiously on a daily basis will direct one to a life that is free of bodily pain and mental disturbance. Epicurus defines the good life not by the presence of pleasure but by the absence of mental and physical pain. Once the main goal of avoiding pain and fear are achieved, the individual won’t be on the search for something that is missing because all pain is gone, thus, the desire to eliminate it is gone as well leaving the mind and body free of pain and anxiety.

Epicurus’ definition of the wise man is one who is free from most troubles. Although peace of the mind is of extreme importance in Epicureanism, one cannot achieve it without being self-sufficient. A wise man, in Epicurean standards is one who does not depend on others. Therefore high held positions such as having political power, or even something as common as marrying and having a family creates too much stress because your life becomes strained with anxiety over the actions of others which are completely out of your control.

Epicurus believes that the outside world creates too much pressure that can lead to anxiety because most of the things dealing with the outside world are outside of your control. A life of simplicity and freedom from anxiety and pain are a way of life for a wise man. When one gains complete control over these things, as well as overcoming the fears of the outside world, then one can live a happy and pleasurable life because there is no desire for things which one cannot find him/herself.

A free life according to Epicurus also means not having too many possessions because owning too many materialistic things results in robberies which only lead to more consequences and trouble all of which can be avoided. However, what a wise man should do when he is in the possession of many things is donating it and distributing them to those that are less fortunate and those in need. Epicurus says that gaining gratitude from your neighbors is more important than indulging in unnecessary things.

This thus proves that an Epicurean life isn’t egoistic as most critics seem to think but rather a way of life in which an individual can live freely without worry. Although the main idea of Epicurus’ philosophy is pleasure as the main goal, the word pleasure has a different meaning than the one we are used to. The word “pleasure” in epicurean terms means the absence of pain which is why a good amount of Epicurean philosophy discusses ways in which one can avoid pain and eliminate worries, anxieties and fears.

Pleasure according to Epicurus has nothing to do with being in the possession of luxurious items because that is not what brings pleasure to the individual but rather a peaceful mental state or being: It is better for you to be free of fear lying upon a pallet, than to have a golden couch and rich table and be full of trouble . ” Although Epicurus does not believe in a wise man having a family and advises that one should avoid conforming to society and the pressures of the outside world, he emphasizes the value of a strong friendship and believes it to be the second most important thing in a noble man after wisdom .

Even more surprising than this is the fact that Epicurus welcomed women into his school and considered them as potential friends despite the time period and social standards of Ancient Greece at the time. Epicurus welcomed all kinds of people into his school and didn’t look at gender, wealth, age, or social class to determine a person’s worth of attending. Aside from not picking student and friends based on external factors, Epicurus believed that all friendships arise from self-interest: “Every friendship in itself is to be desired; but the first cause of friendship was a man’s needs . However, friendships can’t always be seen as a relationship between two people that’s driven solely on one’s own self-interests and benefits, they should be much more and beyond that. Throughout time, Epicurus believes that a friendship that once started only as an act of self-satisfaction to benefit the self can become much more intimate and grow beyond the desire to be friends just to gain needs driven by sole self-interest.

He also advised that friendships shouldn’t be pushed to their extremes when on the pursuit of benefits and should not be pushed to the extreme if it’s completely void of all benefits because then, the individual would have no desire to keep the friendship alive at all. Once two friends can overcome that stage of self-interest and gain intimacy then all expectations of each other and what is needed for the benefit of the self is gone.

The mere fact of just knowing and having a friend and his/her company should bring enough pleasure to the individual to not care about other things that would only benefit the self. Epicurus did not believe that sexual love was of any benefit to an individual and although it can be associated with bringing pleasure, it causes much more disturbances in the mind that far outweigh the pleasures it may bring: “No pleasure is a bad thing in itself, but the means which produce some pleasures bring with them disturbances many times greater than the pleasures. Epicurus believes that fulfilling sexual desires are unnecessary for the survival of an individual and can be dealt without, considering how much mental disturbance it may bring afterwards. Epicurus categorizes this pleasure as the “natural and unnecessary” which means that although the desire for attaining sexual pleasure may be completely natural for the individual, it isn’t necessary for survival, therefore it is not an absolute necessity. This thus makes the act of fulfilling sexual pleasure to be vain and selfish, as well as bringing disturbance to the mind.

The reason Epicurus advises the wise man not to engage in sexual encounters is because the pleasure that comes from sex can be too intense for the individual to handle. When something so intense yet so pleasurable becomes a much needed desire, it is sure to bring disturbance to the mind. Another way sexual desire can be seen as creating disturbances in the mind is considering how before sexual pleasures can be fulfilled, one must pursue the person of the opposite sex and develop an intimate level of friendship or relationship.

With that relationship comes fear and anxiety over losing your partner and concerns of what the future might bring. After a relationship has been developed, child bearing is the next step which creates even more disturbances to the mind, because with children come more external and outside powers that are out of your control which result in fears, frustrations, hopes anxieties and pain all of which can be avoided if one does not become involved in an intimate sexual relationship. How does one avoid mental disturbances to achieve peace in the mind?

Epicurus believes that pleasure can still be attained without fulfilling sexual desires by simply forming strong friendships and developing a level of intimacy that would allow the friendship to survive solely on that level of intimacy and not self-interested benefits and needs. Once a deep enough level of intimacy has been developed, things such as trust, loyalty, and pleasure will surely ensue afterwards. Whereas a relationship driven by sexual pleasures will result in jealousy, hate, possessiveness, anger, and bittersweet memories that could last a lifetime.

Therefore, to avoid having to go through these struggles in life and living a life of simplicity and freedom, Epicurus advises one to seek friendships that doesn’t require too much of one’s time, energy, and physical or mental strength. Living the life of an Epicurean means living a life of simplicity, avoiding anything that is too dangerous for one’s well being even if it is the norm in society such as getting married, and being on a life long pursuit for pleasure.

As stated before, from a quick glance at Epicurus’ philosophy, one can conclude that his teachings were all self centered, however, upon further reading into his doctrines, as well as how other philosophers were able to interpret and justify some of his teachings, his true meaning of a virtuous and good life can be more clearly understood. His philosophies on how to be a wise man and achieve the good life prove how non egoistic Epicureanism is. Although it does always focus on gaining pleasure for the self, it does so only to a certain extent in which one attains enough pleasure to eliminate the pain.

Once that has been achieved, going on a pursuit for more pleasure is considered vain, and as I have discussed before, Epicurus categorizes this pleasure as the “natural and unnecessary” or “unnatural and unnecessary. ” Therefore he advises one not to seek these kinds of pleasures because that can create more disturbances in the mind. His thorough explanation and solution on how to achieve a tranquil mind by giving insight on the Gods and what happens to the soul and body after death are also a huge part of his philosophy.

Overall, Epicureanism was a very modern school of philosophy compared to the time period, and the location of where it had been originated. Epicurus’ way of not discriminating against minorities such as women or the lower class, and not religiously worshiping supernatural beings even though that had been the norm in society, is very much like the life he preaches one should live in which one doesn’t conform to the standards of the masses but pursues a path of his own, where a peaceful mind and a body free of pain can be found.

Epicurean Ethics Essay

Descriptive Words Essay

Descriptive Words Essay.

Words Smile, grin, beam, smirk . . . Frown, scowl, glare, glower, grimace . . . Stare, gaze, gape, watch, gawk, ogle, look, examine, leer . . . Flinch, recoil, balk, cringe, shy away, pull back, wince, cower, shrink, tremble . . . Incredulous, disbelieving, skeptical, doubtful, dubious, uncertain, suspicious, questioning, vague . . . Quizzical, questioning, puzzled, surprised, perplexed, inquiring Interested, curious, involved, attentive, concerned, attracted, fascinated, engrossed . . .

Sad, gloomy, cheerless, depressing, dark, dull, thick, dreary . . Happy, content, pleased, glad, joyful, cheerful, blissful, exultant, ecstatic, delighted, cheery, jovial . . . Scared, frightened, terrified, petrified, afraid, fearful, nervous, anxious, worried, timid, shy .

. . Strong, burly, brawny, strapping, muscular, beefy, tough, fervent, intense, zealous, avid, eager . . . Coy, bashful, timid, modest, reserved, demure . . . Indifferent, apathetic, unresponsive . . . Remote, aloof, detached, distant . . Threatened, intimidated, alarmed, worried, anxious, troubled, upset, distressed, shocked, startled . . . Crash, thud, bump, thump, bang, thunder, smash, explode, roar, shout, scream, screech, shout, whistle, whine, squawk, blare, slam, stomp, stamp, noise, clap, bark, meow, moo, boom, yell, whisper, hum, snap, hiss, crackle . . . Taut, uptight, immobilized, paralyzed, tense, stretched, hollow, alarmed, strong, weak, sweaty, breathless, nauseated, sluggish, weary, tired, alive, feisty .

. .

Angry, resentful, irritated, enraged, furious, annoyed, inflamed, provoked, infuriated, offended, sullen, indignant, irate, wrathful, cross, sulky, bitter, frustrated, grumpy, boiling, fuming, stubborn, belligerent, confused, awkward, bewildered, empty . . . Angrily, anxiously, brightly, cheerfully, comfortably, curiously, delightfully, eagerly, enormously, excitedly, faintly, falsely, fearfully, foolishly, frightfully, gently, gracefully, gratefully, greedily, grumpily, helplessly, heroically, hungrily, impatiently, joyfully, kindly, luckily, magically, majestically, merrily, remarkably, splendidly, strangely, swiftly, unusually

Afraid, fearful, frightened, timid, wishy-washy, shaky, apprehensive, fidgety, terrified, panicky, tragic, hysterical, cautious, shocked, horrified, insecure, impatient, nervous, dependent, anxious, pressured, worried, doubtful, suspicious, hesitant, awed, dismayed, scared, petrified, gutless . . . Bad, worse, poor, terrible, horrible, evil, wicked, corrupt, heinous, inferior, inept, ill, unfortunate , distressful . . .

Big, huge, giant, gigantic, monstrous, tremendous , gargantuan , large, wide, important, influential, immense, massive, bulky, heavy, voluminous . . . Eager, keen, earnest, intent, zealous, ardent, avid, anxious, enthusiastic, proud . . . Fearless,, encouraged, courageous, confident, secure, independent, reassured, bold, brave, daring, heroic, hardy, determined, loyal, proud, impulsive . . . Good, excellent, fine, satisfactory , kind, generous, worthy, humane, pure, benign, benevolent , proper, valid, favored . . Happy, brisk, buoyant, calm, carefree, cheerful, cheery, comfortable, complacent, contented, ecstatic, elated, enthusiastic, excited, exhilarated, generous, glad, grateful, hilarious, inspired, jolly, joyous, lighthearted, merry, optimistic, peaceful, playful, pleased, relaxed, restive, satisfied, serene, sparkling, spirited, surprised, vivacious . . Hurt, injured, isolated, offended, distressed, pained, suffering, afflicted, worried, tortured . . Little, small, tiny, microscopic, miniscule, minute, inconsequential, Lilliputian, insignificant, narrow, thin, paltry, modest, slender, slight . . . Looked, gazed, peered, starched , stared, glanced, sighted, regarded , attended , viewed, inspected , directed, followed . . Nice, friendly, helpful, gentle, warm, inspiring, good-natured, kind, generous, cheerful, loving, happy, funny, peppy, relaxed, thoughtful, cooperative . . .

Ran, trotted, skipped, hurried, moved, sped, operated, progressed , glided, flowed, traced, pursued, galloped, loped, fled . . . Sad, sorrowful, unhappy, depressed, melancholy, gloomy, somber, dismal, heavy-hearted, mournful, dreadful, dreary, flat, blah, dull, in the dumps, sullen, moody, sulky, out of sorts, low, discontented, discouraged, disappointed, concerned, sympathetic, compassionate, choked up, embarrassed, shameful, ashamed, useless, worthless, ill at ease . . .

Said, acknowledged, acquiesced, added, addressed, admitted, admonished, advised, advocated, affirmed, agreed, alleged, allowed, announced, answered, approved, argued, asked, assented, asserted, assumed, assured, attested, avowed, babbled, bantered, bargained, barked, began, begged, bellowed, beseeched, boasted, bragged, brought, called, cautioned, charged, chided, cited, claimed, commanded, comment, commented, complained, conceded, concluded, condescended, confessed, confided, consented, contended, contested, continued, contradicted, counseled, countered, cracked, cried, debated, decided, declared, decreed, demanded, demurred, denied, denounced, described, dictated, directed, disclosed, disrupted, divulged, drawled, droned, elaborated, emphasized, enjoined, entreated, enunciated, estimated, exclaimed, explained, exposed, expressed, faltered, feared, foretold, fumed, giggled, granted, granted, grinned, groaned, growled, grumbled, haggled, hedged, held, hesitated, hinted, howled, imparted, implied, implored, indicated, inferred, informed, inquired, insinuated, insisted, instructed, nterjected, interrogated, intimated, intimidated, itemized, jested, judged, lamented, laughed, lectured, lied, lisped, listed, made, maintained, mentioned, mimicked, moaned, mumbled, murmured, mused, muttered, nagged, narrated, noted, notified, objected, observed, opined, orated, ordered, petitioned, pleaded, pled, pointed, prayed, predicted, proclaimed, professed, prompted, pronounced, proposed, propounded, protested, proved, publicized, queried, questioned, quibbled, quipped, quoted, rambled, ranted, reaffirmed, reasoned, reassured, reciprocated, recited, recommended, recounted, referred, refuted, regretted, reiterated, rejoiced, rejoined, related, relented, remarked, reminded, remonstrated, repeated, replied, reported, reprimanded, requested, responded, restated, resumed, retorted, returned, revealed, roared, ruled, sanctioned, scoffed, scolded, screamed, shouted, shrieked, snapped, sneered, sobbed, solicited, specified, spoke, sputtered, stammered, stated, stipulated, stormed, stressed, stuttered, suggested, taunted, testified, thought, threatened, told, twitted, unbridled, urged, uttered, vowed, wailed, warned, went, wept, whispered, whistled, whooped, wrangled, yawned, yelled . . . Amazing, Attractive, Authentic, Beautiful, Better, Big, Colorful, Colossal, Complete, Confidential, Enormous, Excellent, Exciting, Exclusive, Expert, Famous, Fascinating, Free, Full, Genuine, Gigantic, Huge, Informative, Instructive, Interesting, Lavishly, Liberally, Mammoth, Professional, Startling, Strange, Strong, Sturdy, Successful, Superior, Surprise . . .

Crammed, Delivered, Directed . . . Brave, Angry, Bright, Busy, Clever, Cold, Cozy, Deep, Flat, Foggy, Free, Fresh, Frozen, Gentle, Giant, Glad, Grand, Hollow, Hungry, Hurt, Lucky, Neat, New, Old, Polite, Proud, Rough, Serious, Shiny, Short, Shy, Smooth, Spotted, Strong, Tall, Tough, Weak, Wide, Wild, Wise, Bumpy, Careful, Cheerful, Chilly, Clean, Cloudy, Crisp, Damp, Enormous, Fancy, Flashy, Flowery, Frosty, Fuzzy, Huge, Icy, Kind, Marvelous, Merry, Messy, Mighty, Misty, Moldy, Plaid, Plain, Quiet, Scented, Selfish, Sharp, Slim, Slippery, Sloppy, Sly, Soggy, Spicy, Stormy, Striped, Sweet, Tasty, Thinly, Tiny, Velvety, Twinkling, Weak, Worn, Young . . .

Descriptive Words Essay

College Application Essay

College Application Essay.

I could barely grasp the note cards in my hands while 30 sets of eyes were glued on me. Preparing to do the unthinkable – speak in front of a crowd of judgmental peers – I constantly doubted myself, bringing my self-confidence down to its all-time low in a matter of seconds. As nine years of skills learned through speech impairment classes suddenly vanished, the teacher announced my name, signaling that it was my turn to deliver a speech that I would have to pass in order to graduate high school.

I managed to introduce myself without stuttering, but when my confidence began to rise, so did the students’ chuckles. With a shaky voice, I continued my speech. Stuttering on every other word, I couldn’t help but see my peers – some I even considered friends – covering their mouths, trying to hold back the laughter, and I knew that in their minds, they were making fun of me. I finally finished my speech and quietly sat down.

Choking back tears, I anxiously waited for the bell to ring.

As soon as it rang, I ran to the girls bathroom with tears rolling down my cheeks and sweat stains showing through my shirt. How could I embarrass myself that badly? Did people really make fun of me that much? Did I even pass my speech? Unable to think straight, I decided to go to the library rather than face my so-called friends. The next day, however, I was forced to confront them, and of course, they made fun of me and I laughed it off as if it was no big deal. From then on, I swore that I would never embarrass myself like that again.

That night, I searched through my room to find my speech impairment notes, and immediately started studying them. Of course, it was not an overnight task in overcoming my fear. I endured many other speeches, kids constantly making fun of me, and even teachers commenting on my stuttering. It took a few more tears, a lot of deoderant, and continuous practice to reduce my stuttering, which gave me the self-confidence to overcome my fear. Although not an easy task, I accomplished my goal to face my fears.

Towards the end of junior year, I presented several projects and speeches at least once in all of my classes. To many, a simple task such as giving a speech may seem like no big deal, but a young woman who has constantly struggled with speech impairment and lack of self-confidence, such as I, considers this to be a major accomplishment on the road to success. Many people fear spiders, big foot, or heights, but my fear is public speaking, whether it be in front of twenty people or one-hundred-twenty people.

To this day, I still get nervous every once and a while, but my continuous battle in facing one of my deepest fears proves my determination, courage, and commitment. Overcoming my fear has shown me that I can do anything that I can get straight A’s and I can stutter without being embarrassed, that I can make a difference. I not only gained self confidence through this obstacle on my path to success, but also the realization that I can never let something as small as a speech impairment define me. Only I can define who I am, and not through whom I say I am, but through who I show I am.

I can say that I’m not afraid to speak in front of a group of people or I could show it, I could go out and speak to a crowd of one-hundred-twenty people as I did recently at the Chicano Latino Youth Leadership Program I attended the summer of my senior year. It has given me the confidence to accomplish other incredible things throughout my life and the courage to persevere through any hardships that I may encounter. Most importantly, I have gained the self-respect, self-confidence, and self-discipline to help me succeed not only in college, but in life.

College Application Essay

Anxiety and Panic Disorder Essay

Anxiety and Panic Disorder Essay.

Everybody has experienced feelings of anxiety from time to time; and sometimes people get so overwhelmed, they go into a state panic. Anxiety is actually a normal human reaction to stress. However, in severe cases, anxiety and panic can become disabling and interfere with everyday living. For an adolescent, life is already stressful enough. How does an adolescent, then, live day to day with one or both of these conditions?

This paper will take an in depth look at what anxiety, specifically generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and panic disorder are, signs and symptoms that how severe anxiety and/or panic disorder is present in an adolescent, treatment methods for both GAD and panic disorder, and two websites offering advice and treatment for families with a diagnosed adolescent.

While there are several types of anxiety disorders including GAD, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), phobias, and panic disorder, this paper will focus on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder in the adolescent population.

Before we can discuss any aspects of GAD or panic disorder, we have to understand exactly what these two metal disorders are. Anxiety is the less severe disorder of the two. In general, anxiety is present in every human being. Feeling anxious is a normal circumstance in everyone’s life and, at times, can be beneficial in certain situations. Anxiety refers to the brain’s natural response to danger (Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders). To most people, this is referred to as our “fght or flight” response.

When an adolescent is diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder, or GAD, the anxiety has been occurring at abnormal levels for at least six months. The anxiety has no apparent trigger, is difficult to control, and inders normal everyday living (Generalized Anxiety in Referred). Panic disorder is a similar, yet, more severe disorder than GAD. Panic disorder is diagnosed when the adolescent experiences multiple, unexpected “panic attacks” continuously over time. A panic attack is a completely disabling situation.

During an episode an individual experiences intense fear, apprehension, or terror, and is often accompanied by an impending sense of death or insanity (Panic Disorder. NCIB). Panic attacks are actually considered common to a degree, affecting roughly five percent of people at some point in their lives (Panic Disorder. ProQuest). It is when multiple panic attacks occur throughout time when a panic disorder diagnosis is made. Panic disorder is often present with other mental health problems and/or poor life style choices. These include GAD, depression, tobacco use, alcohol use, drug use, and even genetics.

These all can contribute to and exacerbate symptoms of panic disorder. Generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder have similar symptoms, which we will look at Generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder have similar signs and symptoms. GAD is diagnosed when excessive anxiety is constantly present for at least 6 months. Along with the excessive anxiety and worry, these physical and cognitive symptoms can be present: restlessness, fatigue, concentration deficits, irritability, muscle tension, and sleeping disorders to name a few. GAD is harder to detect in children and normally isn’t detected until the adolescent years.

Anxiety in a GAD diagnosed adolescent is likely to emerge in the presence of normal social, academic, or sporting events. Fear of Judgment from family and peers hangs heavy on the adolescent’s mind (Connolly, Simpson, and Petty 2006). The causes of the anxiety can arise from more ludicrous worries as well. This can include worries of a plague, nuclear war, or natural disasters occurring. With the mind being boggled from all the unnecessary worries by GAD, the adolescent’s academic, social, and athletic performance is now at risk of deteriorating. Any negative impacts on the adolescent will only escalate the anxiety.

Bad decision making can now occur. Three common bad decisions are drug, tobacco, and alcohol use. To add insult to injury, if any of these decisions are made, they too will only intensify the anxiety from addiction. GAD’s symptoms, however, have less severity on performance than panic disorder. Panic disorder’s symptoms are more severe and easier to notice. Common symptoms of panic attacks include: heart palpitations, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, hyperventilation, choking sensations, chest pain, nausea, dizziness, depersonalization, or feeling a loss of identity, numbness, chills, hot flashes, fear of insanity, and fear of dying.

It is not necessary for the victim to experience all of the stated symptoms in a panic attack. However, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders states that a true panic attack is accompanied by at least four of he previously stated symptoms. Additionally, the symptoms during a panic attack intensify within the first ten minutes (Matt’s and Ollendick 2002). The symptoms from a panic attack are no laughing matter. They can render the adolescent helpless. The panic attacks can happen at any moment and make even simple tasks, such as driving or eating, nearly impossible.

As discussed with GAD, social, academic, and athletic performance is at risk; even more so than with GAD alone. Panic attacks have such severity that they can force the adolescent to miss social activities, school, and or sporting events. Drug, tobacco, and alcohol use are also at risk with panic disorder as the adolescent is trying to alleviate symptoms on their own. Unfortunately, these will only increase the frequency of panic attacks. So how does an adolescent manage a disorder of this severity? There are healthier and more effective ways to deal with GAD and panic disorder.

While there is no known cure for GAD and panic disorder, they can be managed with psychotherapy, medications, or a combination of the two. One of the more popular psychotherapies is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in which the individual works ith a trained mental health professional such as a psychiatrist, psychologists, or counselor. CBT has two components. The cognitive component helps the adolescent change the way they perceive their fears while the behavioral component helps the adolescent change the way they react to situations that trigger anxiety symptoms.

The adolescent learns coping methods that reduce anxiety levels, replace negative or non-realistic. However, sometimes CBT methods alone are not enough to control the symptoms of GAD and panic disorder. Sometimes medications are incorporated into the treatment plan. The most commonly prescribed medications used to treat GAD and panic disorder are antidepressants. There are several classes of antidepressants used to treat these disorders including Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRls), Tricyclics, and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAO’s).

SSRls are the newest class of medications and tend to have fewer side effects than the other classes of antidepressants. They work by altering the levels of a neurotransmitter in the brain called serotonin. Some examples of SSRls are Prozac, Zolaft, Paxil, Celexa, and Lexapro. A popular Tricyclic ntidepressant medication prescribed to treat panic disorder is imipramine, or Tofranil. Adolescents taking MAOIS must be careful to avoid certain foods and avoid drinking red wine. They also cannot take many common medications because they can cause life-threatening drug interactions.

Besides antidepressants, anti-anxiety drugs are another class of medications that are helpful in controlling symptoms of severe anxiety or panic. Most are Benzodiazepines, which are usually prescribed for short term use due to the risk of dependence in prolonged use. Some examples are Xanax, Ativan, and Klonopin (Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Children). Today, there are thousands of websites offering support and resources for adolescents diagnosed with GAD and/or panic disorder. However, we must be careful in knowing the credibility of these websites.

Anxiety and Panic Disorder Essay