The Importance of Gear Accountability and Retention Essay

The Importance of Gear Accountability and Retention Essay.

There are many reasons to be checking your gear constantly to keep Marine Corps issued gear accountability. It is the United States Marine Infantryman’s responsibility to always have proper Marine Corps issued gear accountability at all times. Whenever you have a pause through your patrols, raids, or movements you always want to take a quick check to make sure that you have your Marine Corps issued gear as well as everything else that you or your team of Marines came with.

It is your job to take responsibility and check yourself as well as your other Marines. Proper Marine Corps issued gear accountability can range from the most important pieces of Marine Corps issued gear such as your rifle all the way down to your small equipment like cleaning gear. You always want to have serialized Marine Corps issued gear such as your night vision goggles, rifle, PEC 16’s, and RCO’s, dummy corded together or to your body. If your Marine Corps issued gear is dummy corded to you, will have a lower chance of losing any of your gear or anything else you are carrying with you.

This will allow a Marine to be at ease even while moving or running with serialized gear, knowing that if it comes loose from the pouch or pocket you are carrying them in they will not come completely off your body. The reason you must take the accountability of your gear, serialized or not serialized, is simple, just put it into a scenario. Say that a Marine loses something small, like his cleaning gear for example. Cleaning gear is easily replaced and not really looked at as super important. But say it were dropped and lost, that Marine now has no way to clean his weapon without borrowing another Marines cleaning gear. No once his weapon gets dirty enough, he has no way to clean it. Then when he needs it most, he can no longer rely on it because it can now succumb to jams. But say you take it into a bigger picture, say that Marine loses a rifle, an M16 to be exact. The enemy, whoever at the time that may be, may have weapons that are not as accurate or advanced as ours.

Now the enemy can reach us from a further distance away, thus taking away the edge we had on them, and possibly Marines lives. All gear that we have, we have for a reason. If we wanted the enemy to have M16s instead of AK 47’s then we would probably give them to them. What about things that we don’t really think about what about “dead” batteries? Many cases have found that most of the IED’s that have been killing US and allied troops have been powered by batteries, that they dropped. Batteries are not exactly gear, but shows how big of an effect a little mistake can make. But you can’t just look out for yourself because it’s usually not the one who loses their equipment that gets killed or wounded; it’s the man to their left and right. Having poor gear retention is not always a mistake that can be stopped.

Gear could be lost in a firefight or raid where you’re doing everything at once, or taken and never given back. But those problems can usually be fixed, because of accountability. Just like a headcount, gear can be counted and eventually found. But that wastes time, and you can easily save that time by not losing or misplacing gear to the best if not better than your abilities. Although dummy cords are useful and easy to get and use, they are not the only means of retaining you gear. Slings work just as good and are often less annoying, and allow you to sling you rifle around your back. Having your rifle on your back keeps your hands free and your rifle retained.

The Importance of Gear Accountability and Retention Essay

Army Profession of Arms Essay

Army Profession of Arms Essay.

The Profession of Arms Campaign is mandated by John M. McHugh, secretary of the Army, and Gen. Martin E. Dempsey, Army chief of staff, to assess the state of the Army and take a critical look at how the past decade of war has impacted the military and civilian workforce.

“The overall objective of the campaign is for Soldiers and leaders to refine their understanding of what it means to be professionals — expert members of the Profession of Arms – after over nine years of war and to recommit to a culture of service and the responsibilities and behaviors of our profession as articulated in the Army ethic,” Dempsey said.

Another Army leader talked about what the campaign means for all those serving in the Army, whether Soldier or civilian, and how it is designed to help transition from the past decade of continuous conflict into a still-uncertain future.

“The Army has decided to introduce the campaign for the Profession of Arms to develop leaders of character and competence required to meet the dynamic challenges of the 21st century,” said Lt.

Gen. Robert L. Caslen, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center and Fort Leavenworth, Kan., commanding general. “This campaign is designed to define and reinvigorate what it means to be a professional in the Profession of Arms. As we embark on this mission, we must reflect on the values and traits that define and distinguish us as a unique profession.”

Lt. Gen. Richard P. Formica, U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command commanding general, has initiated a command-wide review of what it means to be in the Profession of Arms.

This review is part of a broader Army wide effort and leaders across the command are getting involved in this open collaborative process to solicit and capture feedback from its Soldiers and civilians. This campaign will also be a teaching opportunity to help better understand what it means to be in this profession and what it means to be in public service that distinguishes a profession from a career.

For the workforce at USASMDC/ARSTRAT, the Profession of Arms Campaign is a chance to give input to the Army on how the past decade has influenced, both good and bad, those serving their nation in wartime.

“For the Army as a whole, this is a chance to assess a lot of what impact the last 10 years of being at war has had on our workforce. It is a chance to take note of what we need to do right now, what we need to do in the future and what direction we need to go in, and I think this could have a great effect on SMDC as a whole,” said Lisa Ratley, Concepts Division, Future Warfare Center-Battle Lab. “We will conduct some roundtable groups and town hall-type meetings with civilians, officers and noncommissioned officers that will take input from everyone.

“This is a great opportunity for SMDC to gather input and have something to say to the Army as a whole,” she added.

In the Profession of Arms Campaign, there are five ‘cohorts’ that the Army is looking at. They are officers, noncommissioned officers, warrant officers, junior enlisted Soldiers and civilians.

The campaign focuses on three questions:

— What does it mean for the Army to be a Profession of Arms? — What does it mean to be a professional Soldier? — After nine years of war, how are we, as individual professionals and as a profession, meeting these aspirations?

“The Army chief of staff and secretary of the Army are concerned about what effect the last 10 years of war is having on the Army,” said Donald Long, FWC-BL. “They want to assess the impact of it and to keep ahead of what has actually changed, and how do we implement fixes to any problems or issues that may come up so we can continue to be a professional Army.

“The Profession of Arms Campaign was officially going to end in December but the commanding general of SMDC wants to extend it to include the next 18 to 24 months of professional development for the civilians, Soldiers and officers in the command to provide professional development on what it means to be a professional in this Profession of Arms,” Long added.

The Army has also sent out 20,000 surveys to civilians across the Army to get an input from the workforce.

“To me, working for the Army is not just a job, it is an understanding that we are here to serve the American people,” said Ginny Partan, FWC-BL. “I think the Profession of Arms Campaign is going to help us bridge the gap between 10 years at war and where we need to head in the future. It is going to help us take a hard look at ourselves, across the spectrum from Soldiers to civilians, to see what we are doing right and where we can improve so that we are better in the future.”

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Army Profession of Arms Essay

Reflection Paper on Organizational Behavior Course Essay

Reflection Paper on Organizational Behavior Course Essay.

When the Philippine Army (PA) gave me a Masteral Degree Scholarship, I was told to take a Human Resource Management (HRM) course. Since I chose to take my graduate course in UP Diliman {where I took my BA in Public Administration undergraduate course before going to the Philippine Military Academy (PMA)}, I enrolled in the School of Labor and Industrial Relations (SOLAIR) because they have an equivalent graduate course in HRM, which is the Master of Industrial Relations where I can specialize in Human Resource Development.

The intent of my graduate study is to educate me with the latest trends, principles, procedures, programs, policies and concepts in HRM, and be able relate and apply them in the personnel management of the Philippine Army. Although the MIR at SOLAIR is more of the empowerment of labor, enlightened industrial relations and social justice, still there are courses that would be very useful and relevant for the Philippine Army. Among those relevant course is IR 213 or Organizational Behavior in Industrial Relations, which covers interactions of organization, individual and group in unions, management and government in IR situations, with emphasis on sociological, psychological and cultural factors.

I took this elective course because when I saw the description of the course I immediately believe that this would be very relevant for me. I came from an organization that is among the largest single employer in the country, which is the Philippine Army. We are more or less 85,000 strong, and with that number cultural and social diversity is a certainty. Thus for an officer like me who would be handling a large number of personnel in the future, a course in organizational behavior would be essential. Although I already took a similar course in my BS major in Management at the PMA, still that is an undergraduate course and I believe the level of teaching and approach would be higher, and that the focus would be more of the professional level since my classmates would be graduates students many of whom are already practicing their professions.

At the initial part of the course I was a little bit overwhelmed by the volume of readings required for a three hour once a week class with a quiz on said readings at the beginning of each class. Although I was not that surprised since my instructor for said course, who is Prof. Ronahlee A. Asuncion, PhD, or “George”, happens to be my instructor also in my IR 202 Class the previous semester where the same technique was used in our class. But as with my previous class, I have learned to appreciate this style of “semi” forcing in effect each student to really read all the readings. Indeed somehow that “torture” like shock for the second time around, was replaced with my curiosity and enthusiasm as the semester went by.

Unlike my undergraduate course in organizational behavior, where I never really had much appreciation, maybe because it’s more of the theoretical level, this course now really enabled me to get involved on how it is in the real situation. My experience with the Philippine Army, especially in my field assignments in the Visayas and Mindanao, enabled me to handle from 30-100 men in a combat area, initially as a platoon leader and later on as a company commander. During this time I have to be a leader, adviser, counselor, brother, father, friend and commander all at the same time. Although I am not really that good or efficient on the roles I just mentioned, since it’s my first time to be assigned in the field, perhaps my leadership training at PMA and other experiences in life allowed me to somehow overcome my shortcomings and finish my tour of duty with flying colors.

But looking back at that episode in my career and as I relate those that were discussed in IR 213, I just wondered if I had taken this course prior to that experience, would I have been a better leader of men and a more efficient commander of a unit.

It is common knowledge that the military is a highly regimented organization, wherein everybody must strictly obey orders from commanders, if not you will be punished under the articles of war or the military version of the penal code. So in a way many would say that it is very easy to manage a military unit or organization since everyone must follow orders, but this is easier said than done. In my experience, especially in my field assignment in a combat unit in a critical area, as a platoon leader I had my initial challenge as an officer. “Greenhorn” as I am, leading a group of majority veteran soldiers, wherein their previous area of operations enabled them to be involved in combat encounters with the communist insurgents with a more experienced and senior platoon leader, it is like a rookie trying to be a go to guy in a basketball team, where I have to earn their respect first before being accepted truly as their leader. Yes, they will follow your orders, but there will be times where this rule will be challenged especially in combat situations. Now here lies the relevance of the course on organizational behavior.

Knowledge in human personality, perception and attitude would indeed be very important in this situation, although this is well covered in my undergraduate course in management, the ideas of Fred Luthan’s on the chapter on Personality, Perception and Employee Attitude; and Natasha Marinkovic Grba’s (Lisa Matthewman, et al. “Work Psychology”, Chapter 3) chapter on Personality and Individual Differences refreshes my previous knowledge on the topic and gave me new incite on the nurture-nature debate on personality, the “Big Five” personality traits, the Myers-Brigg types, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behaviors.

I really can relate on the issue whether personality is genetic or influenced by the environment. As I was observing then the individual personality and attitudes of my men, I can really distinguish what part of their personality and attitude were really is a result of their training in the military, so I have no problem with that since most of that pertains to discipline and technical expertise as a soldier. Now the problem lies on what other individual personality and attitude that may have been inborn or environment influenced that could affect my relationship with them. Although their initial indifference on my leadership is a group learned attitude, wherein it’s a kind of an initiation period where I must first pass before being accepted in the group, still I have to consider their individual personality, perceptions and attitudes in dealing with them individually.

I consider the topic on organizational commitment essential, since this pertains to the very essence of a military organization. As defined by Luthans, organizational commitment is a strong desire to remain a member of a particular organization, a willingness to exert high levels of effort on behalf of the organization and a definite belief in, and acceptance of, the values and goals of the organization. In short loyalty to the organization is what’s keeping discipline and order in the military organization. Perhaps a lecture on this organizational commitment to soldiers on my future unit assignment would be inspirational and reassuring for this will strengthen their zeal as soldiers and allegiance to fight against the enemies of the Filipino people and the state.

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs) is also very much military in nature. Everything that are ideal behaviors in a military organization may be considered as organizational citizenship behaviors. Actually military discipline, which is discipline or following an order in the absence of a commander, is part of these so called OCBs, and this really what differentiate the military organization from other organizations, and what makes it very efficient and effective. A review and reorientation of the OCBs in the military would also be very important and fundamental in keeping the military highly motivated and committed to the call of the service. Thus I really appreciate being reoriented in these OCBs, for this will also be included on my future lectures to my would be soldiers in my next tour as a field unit commander.

Another very relevant part of the course where I can really relate to is on the topic on stress. A soldier’s job is very demanding both physically and psychologically, and this what makes it very stressful. Identifying these sources of stress is crucial in enabling commanders like me to provide opportunities for my men to cope up with stresses that they would encounter on the job.

Fred Luthans pointed out on the Chapter on Stress and Conflict of his book on Organizational Behavior, (1) that stress is not simply anxiety, (2) that stress is not simply nervous tension, and (3) that stress is not necessarily something damaging, bad or to be avoided.

Luthans said anxiety operate solely in the emotional and psychological sphere, whereas stress operates there and also in the physiological sphere. Thus stress may be accompanied by anxiety, but the two should not be equated. It’s good that Luthans clearly differentiate anxiety with that of stress, because soldiers sometimes only suffers from anxiety and at times real stress, knowing what is from the other enables me to provide the appropriate approach or method for them to cope up with either one or both.

Luthans also said that like anxiety, nervous tension may result from stress, but the two are not the same. He further said that unconscious people have exhibited stress, and some people may keep it “bottled up” and not reveal it through nervous tension. Soldiers do suffer nervous tension, thus I must consider the fact that stress could complicate things that may result in a more damaging situation than just a simple stress for the soldier.

Luthans further pointed out that eustress is not damaging or bad and is something people should seek out rather than avoid. He mentioned that the key is how the person handles the stress; distress may be prevented or can be effectively controlled. As mentioned there are stresses that soldiers encounter that are positive in nature and thus may not have to be avoided, and furthermore negative stress may be prevented or effectively controlled by using coping up methods. Survival in combat situation is a skill that every soldier must possess. This skill is the reason why the PA or the entire military organization is very strict in its recruitment of soldiers, neuro-psycho test is one very stringent examination wherein it must be proven that the recruit is psychologically prepared in becoming a soldier.

I also mentioned that I must also be a counselor to my men. Since all of us are away from our families and civilian friends, and at times we are in combat situations, stress will definitely be a problem if it will not be addressed. John W, Newstrom mentioned on the chapter on Stress and Counseling from his book “Human Behavior at Work”, that stress affects performance; it can either be helpful or harmful to job performance, depending on its level. Thus to enable commanders like me to maximize soldiers performance, I must consider stresses that tends to increase performance or avoid stresses that tends to decrease it.

Indeed stress management is a must in every organization, Newstrom mentioned that in attempting to manage stress, individuals have three broad options (1) is to prevent or control it, (2) escape from it, or (3) learn to adapt to it (handle its symptoms). Adapting these steps will enable commanders to reduce or eliminate stressors for soldiers. Newstrom mentioned about social support, which he defined as the network of helpful activities, interactions and relationships that provides an employee with the satisfaction of important needs. That’s where commanders like me come in; first I had to provide the necessary opportunity for my soldiers to have social interactions with fellow soldiers and at times with the civilian populace around our area of assignment; and then I must also be available always to provide counseling to my soldiers as the need arises.

Newstrom mentioned about relaxation and sabbaticals both designed to give soldiers a peace of mind and time to somehow escape the world of combat that we are living in. We regularly schedule field trips and social events that soldiers engage into when situation allows it. Rest and recreation for soldiers are periodic where every soldier has the opportunity to go home to their families in a certain period of time.

Another issue I am concerned with regarding stress and counseling is the debriefing of soldiers after a combat operation wherein they are exposed to violent actions and at times incurring casualties in our ranks. During my time in the field this so called after operation debriefing to soldiers does not exist, every soldier is just expected to recover psychologically on their own, since they are supposed to be psychologically prepared when they entered the military service.

As defined by the handbook on military combat and operational stress, traumatic stress injuries are literal damage to the brain and mind due to an experience involving real or threatened death or serious injury, or its aftermath. Not everyone who is exposed to real or threatened death or its aftermath is damaged by that experience; most people are not. But everyone is susceptible to experiencing intense terror, horror, or helplessness when confronted with their own or their peers’ mortality, and each soldier’s susceptibility varies over time due to the accumulation of stress from other causes. No one knows how common traumatic stress injuries are among soldiers engaged in combat operations because most are minor, more like bruises than fractures, and most heal quickly on their own without help from others. Even more serious traumatic stress injuries tend to be disabling for only a matter of seconds or minutes, although completely normal functioning may not be regained for days, weeks, or months.

Although now this problem is being addressed by the PA, wherein support to field units on these matters are increasing. I consider this issue as very crucial one since we have been witness to several fatal effect of combat and operational stress that led to several deaths and injuries by soldiers running amok in barracks or at home killing members of their families and neighbors. Newstrom said that counseling is discussion with an employee of a problem that usually has emotional content in order to help employee cope with it better. Its goal is improved mental health and it is performed by both managers and professional counselors. In a similar fashion that appropriate leader actions for managing traumatic stress injuries are analogous to those for managing physical injuries in soldiers, including (1) applying psychological first aid for affected individuals, (2) applying psychological first aid for affected units, (3) assessing the need for professional care, and (4) monitoring healing and mentoring back to full health and readiness.

Another relevant topic in IR 213 that I want to emphasize is on organizational development (OD). According to Newstrom organizational development is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels (group, intergroup and total organization) to bring about planned change. Whereas according to the book of Lisa Matthewman, et al in their book, ‘Work Psychology”, strategic change is concerned with broad, long-term organizational issues, which involves OD programs designed to change vision, mission or corporate philosophy on matters such as growth, quality, innovation and values. It is this kind of OD that the Philippine Army is undergoing right now.

The PA has crafted the Army Transformation Roadmap (ATR) which is a transformation program that highlights the commitment of the PA to pursue genuine reforms founded on good governance and performance excellence. Its primary purpose is to transform the Army into a more capable, responsive, reliable, and professional organization committed to its mandate. This was not made by one man for one unit. This was created by several people representing different units for the Philippine Army and the people it serves. As mentioned by Newstrom OD requires transformational leaders. These are managers who initiate bold strategic changes to position the organization for its future. They articulate a vision and promote it vigorously; just like what senior commanders in PA are doing under the direction of the Commanding General of the Philippine Army, the PA is promoting a newly crafted vision that is “By 2028, to be a world-class Army that is a source of national pride”.

I am also part of these so called transformational leaders, where I am tasked to take up a Masters Degree in HRM and be able to contribute in the transformation of the personnel management of PA. Also it is very important to take note of the sources of resistance to change, thus my part in making sure that the resistance among the personnel of the army would be addressed so that complications arising from these resistance would be avoided.

For years, the Philippine Army has been viewed negatively by the very people it aims to serve. But times are changing and so are the needs of the nation. Although war fighting is still the core function of the Armed Forces, the Army is increasingly expected to perform non-traditional roles such as disaster response, humanitarian assistance, peacekeeping operations, and support to national development. Thus I believe the topic on organizational development would equip me somehow to enable me to relate them in my attempt to contribute in the area of Human Resource Development for the PA.

And finally, the experiences that were shared by my classmates in class is priceless, for as a military and government worker, their opinions and shared actual on the job know how both in the private and public sector setting, has given me better understanding of theories applied to actual practice. Indeed this makes graduate school better, since many of the students are practicing professionals, wherein their shared work experiences and higher level of opinion on relevant matters would be an additional learning experience aside from what the instructor would be teaching the students. It has been a long while for me since I returned back to civilian school, and I’m glad I returned to my Alma Mater for it brought back memories and pride in my being a UP student, I’m not disappointed with this course and as in the other courses that I took in SOLAIR, for it really educated me on matters that I really need to. My work as an officer in the military allows me to interact with many military personnel and my rank allows me to occupy position that is managerial in nature thus this course on organizational behavior has equipped me with the knowledge that I have just enumerated. I believe the objective of the course has been achieved, and I do hope that it will continue to do so for the other students that would be taking this course.

Reflection Paper on Organizational Behavior Course Essay

The Charge of the Light Brigade Essay

The Charge of the Light Brigade Essay.

The 25th October 1854 marked the day of the Battle of Balaclava in the Crimean War plus one of the most famous and ill-fated events in British military history, the so called ‘Charge of the Light Brigade’. Great miscommunication between commanders led to an error in military execution, the Light Brigade were mistakenly ordered to charge, although heroically, to their deaths. There is debate over the success or failure of the attack; some reports describe it a successful operation of war, although misguided.

It is argued that if the Light Brigade has been supported then control of the Russian held guns could have been taken. In addition, it was thought that the courage the British demonstrated frightened the Russians who never dared to face them again on an open battlefield.

The Battle of Balaclava is widely seen as a defeat due to the great human loss, however a military historian could see it as a Pyrrhic victory. The British regiments at Balaclava were granted battle honour, victory being a pre-condition, due to the achievement and exhibited courage of the Charge of the Heavy Brigade, the Thin Red Line and the Charge of the Light Brigade.

The charge is now set in legend, it has been immortalised in writing through the works of the famed ‘military correspondent’ Sir W.H. Russell and the then Poet Laureate Lord Alfred Tennyson. In this essay, I shall examine the extent to which Tennyson replicates Russell’s prose account in terms of its ideological, emotional and stylistic qualities.

Russell tells of the charge in vivid detail in his dispatches whilst Tennyson does so in his thundering verse in the poem ‘Charge of the Light Brigade’. Russell although very vivid at times, generally writes in the ‘Plain style’ also know as ‘Alfredian style’, perhaps due to his experience and knowledge or war. Tennyson on the other hand who was clearly influenced by Russell’s reports, displays a strong sense of patriotism; he uses imagery and figurative language to create a tone of exhilaration and a theme honoring the qualities of the Light Brigade. Both writers have admiration for the British Army and do glorify the nature of war, however there are underlying messages present in their work. The actions of the commanding officers are questioned and the theme of ‘blunder’ and unnecessary death sits quietly in the shadow of the heroic depiction of the British soldiers.

‘The Charge of the Light Brigade’, first published in the December 9,1854 issue of the London Examiner became Tennyson’s most famous poem, written in commemoration of the brigade’s courage allegedly only minutes after reading Russell’s account in The Times. The poem was immediately popular and widely read, even reaching the troops back in Crimea where Tennyson sent thousands of copies to soldiers in Sevastapol for their inspiration1. Although one of his most famous poems it interesting to note that Tennyson did not want the poem to be associated with him as his typical work, many books on Tennyson barely even speak of the poem’s existence nevermind analyse it2. The poem consists of six stanzas and Tennyson uses such stylistic devices as rhyme and repetition to put forward his message.

Much of the authority of the poem is in the movement and of the charge, in the unhurried pace of the repetitions which seems to dull individual feeling3. There is no regular stanza structure however a distinct rhyme scheme remains. There is a triplet in most stanzas (“shell, well, hell”), the order of which is always changing and at times is repeated by the same word (“them, them, them”). Anaphora is displayed in stanza three (“cannon, cannon, cannon”), which helps the poet build his battering verse by amplifying the stress on the first beat; there are similarities to this feature throughout the poem and the beginning of stanza 5 is identical.

There is also an element of false rhyme between “blundered,” “thundered”, “sundered,” “wondered” and “hundred’ which as well as depicting the irregular beat of galloping hooves could on a subtextual level could represent the miscommunication of orders that occurred in the battle. The metre of this poem is uncomplicated, which allows him to speak for his countrymen with compelling simplicity. The prosody takes the form of dactylic dimeter, the stressed syllables coming at the beginning and middle feet of each line (“Forward, the | Light Brigade! | Was there a | man dismayed?”). This style allows Tennyson to dramatically echo the movement of the brigade and the galloping of the horses, thrilling the reader giving a sense of animation.

The striking and most important link between the two texts is the fact that there was “a hideous blunder”. Russell stated this which was then paraphrased by Tennyson as “someone had blundered’, becoming the keynote that inspired the metre of the poem and a line neither writer felt needed any repetition. This is the only line that significantly questions the judgement and competence of the leadership, the slight differences being that Tennyson maintains anonymity of any commanders whilst Russell named certain men who gave or interpreted the orders to charge. Both Russell and Tennyson respect and admire the British forces greatly.

However, rather than almost solely celebrating the heroism and gallantry of the British Army like Tennyson, Russell adds more of an insight and doesn’t refrain from highlighting negatives as well as positives. His reports exposed the sufferings of troops and medical failure whilst at the same time identifying with the British forces and praising British heroism. Notably Russell did not emphasize officer privileges and he identified officers he saw unfit to command. Perhaps unjustly in November 1854 alleging Lord Raglan was ‘utterly incompetent to lead an army’ and making him the main scapegoat for the Charge of the Light Brigade deaths. Tennyson refrained from any accusations as not to undermine the potential admiration of soldiers the poem could and did achieve.

Russell was not a great writer but his reports were vivid, dramatic, interesting and convincing4. Before his account of the Charge, he calls attention to what seems to have been the root of the miscommunication leading to the charge, when he tells of the tense relationship between Lord Lucan and his brother-and-law Lord Cardigan, who both commanded the Light Brigade. In hindsight this is a very inappropriate relationship and situation to have; the incorrect order to charge probably would have been prevented if the original command had been questioned and discussed properly. Russell also described the overambitious and ultimately fatal indiscretion of Captain Nolan who relayed the order from the high command to Lord Lucan. Russell’s somewhat harsh criticism of the officers, noting that Russell belonged to the same social class, was somewhat softened by his attempted obituary of Nolan who was killed by the first Russian shot: ‘A braver soldier than Captain Nolan the army did not possess.

A matchless horseman and a first-rate swordsman’. Twinned with this supposedly necessary, respectful and yet almost false ‘flattery’ Russell forbears from pinning direct blame to protect Nolan or any other officer, whose families undoubtably would be reading the reports in The Times back in England. However his rather twisted final sentence, ‘God forbid I should cast a shade on the brightness of his honour, but I am bound to state what I am told occurred’ almost condemns Nolan and holds him responsible. Nevertheless Nolan can still be held in high esteem and not be demonised as a man careless with human life. He led the charge, unlike the commanders of World War One and Two who ordered men ‘ to go over the top’ whilst themselves remaining in a positions of safety.

Throughout Russell’s dispatches he demonstrates ‘Plain Style’, a style of which later, George Orwell could be considered to be the Arch-Exponent. Russell’s reaches a wide range of audience capacity, and is easy to understand; his point cannot be confused. He tells factually most of the events he observes, sometimes having the tendency to detach himself from the scene and describe it almost as if he was writing a scientific study, (“the bodies of numbers of men were swollen and bloated to an incredible size,”). The quasi-anthropological nature of his reportage can enthrall the reader and the detail he goes into can make the reader feel like they are reading a novel. This characteristic of his writing appears early in his report when he describes the first sight of a Russian (“They’re they were, ‘the Cossacks’, at last! – stout, compact-looking fellows with sheepskin caps, uncouth clothing of indiscriminate cut, high saddles, and fiery little ponies, which carried them with wonderful ease and strength”).

This highly descriptive style and immersion in the subject is very Dickensian and could be a contributing factor to Russell’s success as a journalist. Two things are apparent after reading his early accounts of the Crimea. Firstly, the fact that it was not for certain there would be any war and that Russell still had to captivate readers somehow. Secondly, his obvious admiration for the ‘enemy’ gives readers the first glimpse of the ‘Theatre of War’ and the almost greedy way Russell records visual detail through his telescope a type of Scopophilia. Regardless of his role, Russell was still a gentlemen following an army and any warfare could be seen as an exciting spectator sport.

Russell’s deliberately un-excited and restrained tone gives more room for evolution of his accounts and a gradual raising of tempo. This evolution is obvious as soon as Russell begins to depict a scene of battle, his language becomes markedly more romanticised. Russell’s ‘Plain Style’ is dropped as he moves to the realm of the Sublime. This modulation is effective, and succeeds to build up tension to give the romantic and frequently metaphorical description more impact. Hugh Kenner writes about the plain style in way applicable to Russell’s work: ‘What the masters of the plain style demonstrate is how futile anyone’s hope of subduing humanity to an austere idea. Straightness will prove crooked, gain will be short-term, vision will be fabrication and simplicity am intricate contrivance. Likewise, no probity, no sincerity, can ever subdue the inner contradictions of speaking plainly5.

The theme or idea of the ‘Theatre of War’ is very much present in the account of the ‘Charge of the Light Brigade’. As the first Russian shots are fired the brigade is described with grandeur (“ They swept proudly past, glittering in the morning sun in all the pride and splendour of war”). As the battle escalates, the Russians are almost de-humanised as a beast which the British are attempting to slay (‘the whole line of the enemy belched forward, from thirty iron mouths, a flood of smoke and flame, through which hissed the deadly balls’).

The Brigade on the other hand are portrayed as so magnificent and courageous as to almost be saintly: ‘with a halo of flashing steel above their heads, and with a cheer which was many a noble fellow’s death cry’. A discerning and well-read reader of this report could perhaps see a subtext emerging at this point. Russell seems to reference the tale of Saint George and the Dragon, to further glorify the Brigade. However, there is not necessarily enough evidence to confirm this sub-text, if it was intentional then Russell must have also ignored the contrary endings of events and that Saint George is also a saint in Russia. Nevertheless, Russell’s language entices the audience and truly draws their attention, cementing the Charge of the Light Brigade in history. He is ideologically manipulating the reader in a far from ‘plain’ way.

Thus, preliminary findings might indicate that both authors have similar stances ideologically, emotionally and stylistically even though they have produced different kinds of work, a poem and a newspaper report. Great patriotism is displayed, especially on Tennyson’s part being Poet Laureate who was not writing for a newspaper but for his country. Russell, in spite of his perhaps ill-advised publication of strategic details, (an act some called treacherous) speaks as a patriotic gentlemen with full support of the British army. Tennyson definitely replicates Russell, the only difference being he always shed a positive light on his subjects, never introducing a negative feeling into the poem. Tennyson’s goal was to presumably honour and motivate Britain and their troops, whilst Russell’s was to educate and in turn provoke change. Russell’s impact is evident after what the Duke of Newcastle remarked after the war, ‘ It was you who turned out the government Mr Russell’6.

Bibliography
Martin, Robert Bernard, Tennyson: The Unquiet Heart (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980), p.381.

Meller, Paul ,Jonathon 2010) The Development of Modern Propaganda in Britain, 1854-1902, Durham theses, Durham University. Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/246/ (p. 84.)

Thompson, Alastair W., The Poetry of Tennyson (London and New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986), p.214

Sims, Norman, ed. Literary Journalism in the Twentieth Century (NY/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990) p. 190.

Stearn, Roger T., ‘Russell, Sir William Howard (1820–1907)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Oct 2006 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/35889, accessed 23 Nov 2012]

The Charge of the Light Brigade Essay

Battle of Lexington and Concord Essay

Battle of Lexington and Concord Essay.

The first problem between the British and the Americans happened on April 19,1775 in Massachusetts. General Thomas Gage wanted his men to ruin all of the Americans supplies and guns that were placed in Concord. He also wanted John Hancock and Sameul Adams to be arrested. Joseph Waren figured out Gage’s plan. He immediately called for William Dawes and Paul Revere to go to Concord and warn the minutemen to be ready. The two of them split up along the way and took different routes.

They each had different plans and followed each and every one of their instructions. Finally they arrived to Concord and warned the minutemen. They were then taken and hidden in a safe hiding spot, while Captain Jonas Parker and 130 other minutemen stood ready to prevent the British soldiers. At approximately 4:30am British soldiers arrived while Parker only had 70 men standing and ready because the rest had gone home to their families. As the 600 men British army approached, Parker ordered “Stand your ground!” “Don’t fire unless fired upon!” “But if they want a war, let it begin here!” When they were asked to leave by Parker the men held their ground.

Then once again Parker ordered the men to disperse, and that they did. Unfourtunatly the British wanted to destroy the supplies so bad that a shot was fired. Then several more shots were fired following the “Shot heard round the world.” Parker and 7 other americans were shot and killed.

Battle of Lexington and Concord Essay

Dangerous Jobs Essay

Dangerous Jobs Essay.

The organization that I am studying and proud to be associated with is the United States Army. Most of the jobs in the Army are dangerous in there on way. The one particular job or Military Occupation Specialty (MOS) comes to mind the Army Explosive Ordnance Disposal solider 89D (MOS). The Explosive Ordnance soldiers are the Army’s finest tactical and technical explosive experts.

These soldiers are warriors who are properly trained, equipped, and integrated to attack, defeat, and make use of unexploded ordnance (UXO) bombs, improvised explosive devices (IED) bombs that had a specific use that have been modified to cause death or dismemberment, chemical, biological, and nuclear ordnance and weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD).

Explosive Ordnance soldiers are the culmination of the best tactical and technically trained the Army and civilian and academia can provide.

The soldiers of the explosive ordnance corps know the risks and the dangers of their job, one may think that these soldiers are adrenalin junkies or risk takers.

These soldiers are thorough about their work and don’t take unnecessary risks. I feel as if the risk is accepted because the soldiers and leaders know the dangers of their mission. All of the mission these guy’s and girls are put on are dangerous, everyone from the top to the bottom is informed of the dangers and risk of the mission.

Regardless of the threat the explosive ordnance soldiers always try and mitigate the risks, they use high tech equipment like robots and mechanical arms to view and disarm explosives. Sometimes when this special equipment can’t take care of the job they have to take a walk to the danger area and do their job of disarming the explosive. Only the soldiers of the explosive ordnance teams know how it feels to take that long and lonely walk down to take care of that (IED) improvised explosive device or roadside bomb an ordinary soldier will never know the feeling. That’s why I feel as if this is the most dangerous job in the military.

Dangerous Jobs Essay

Honor, Courage, Commitment Essay

Honor, Courage, Commitment Essay.

Throughout its history, the Navy has met all its challenges with success. The United States naval service began during the American Revolution, when on October 13, 1775; the Continental Congress authorized a few small ships be constructed. These small ships created the Continental Navy. Commodore Esek Hopkins was appointed commander in chief and 22 officers were commissioned, including The famous Captain, John Paul Jones.

From the very beginning of naval service, certain key principles or core values have carried on to today. They consist of three basic principles, HONOR, COURAGE AND COMMITMENT.

Those three words are the backbone of every man and woman, officer or enlisted who has served or is serving in the United States Navy. Values are defined as ideals, beliefs, customs, or principles that a person holds dear. Values are learned and picked up throughout our lives. Here’s what I, a US Navy sailor, think of these values. Honor to different people can mean completely different things, so it’s almost impossible to come up with one solid definition of what honor is.

To some people being a brave soldier and dying for your country is honorable. For others, it’s being a missionary in a poor African country. While the deeds that are considered honorable may be different, I think it all goes back to my point of being an individual and doing what you think is right.

Those missionaries don’t go to Africa for a vacation. They go there to bring the word of God. Those soldiers, sailors, marines and airmen aren’t out there dying for no reason, they are risking their lives to ensure America stays free. While those instances maybe different, they have one thing in common, and that is that in both instances the actions are done because of some moral conviction to do what is right. These people are few and far between these days, and it’s really a breath of fresh air to see people with some kind of morality these days. Courage comes from the strength of mind or will. Physical courage depends on one’s physical strength. A weak; and sickly person is hardly seen to be physically courageous. Because his ill health does not permit him to take an aggressive view in life, although he may be mentally bold. But a person, who is bold and strong, both in body and mind, is normally found to be courageous.

The question of physical courage arises in the event of any danger or difficulty that suddenly appears, when imme¬diate protection or security from that fear of massacre or destruction demands physical courage. Commitment means giving a piece of ourselves in what we do. It sounds simple but it is not. It’s not simple, nor is it obvious. The obviousness got lost in the dominance of the “everyone for his or her self” discourse. For those who can not give that piece of his or herself in his or her actions, it is difficult to understand why some of us do commit ourselves.

Often we even cannot give a exact reason of why we are committed. Commitment must be experienced and not explained that is why my explanation here, can never match the experience of commitment. We must always abide by an uncompromising code of integrity, taking responsibility for our actions and keeping our word. We shall earn respect up and down the chain of command. Be honest and truthful in our dealings with each other, and with those outside the Navy. Accordingly, we shall conduct ourselves in the highest ethical manner in all relationships with peers, superiors and subordinates.

Honor, Courage, Commitment Essay

Defining Military Discipline and Values Essay

Defining Military Discipline and Values Essay.

Military Discipline is a state of order and obedience existing within a command. Self discipline in the military is where soldiers do the 4 rights without being told, even in the absence of the commander. Discipline is created within a unit by instilling a sense of confidence and responsibility in each individual. To strengthen discipline, senior leaders need to give praise to their subordinates, either individually or as a whole, for tasks done well. By doing this, it will accomplish every commanders goal of having a unit that functions well and builds a bond which binds together the team.

Everything in life requires some sort of discipline. Whether it is hitting a baseball, learning to sew , playing a musical instrument, making good grades or brushing your teeth it all comes down to a matter of discipline.

The dictionary defines punctual as: Acting or arriving exactly at the time appointed, prompt. Under the rigid and disciplined structure of military life there is no margin for error.

Procrastination or being late may cost lives on the battle field. There are many examples of where being late for something could cause dire consequences, such as showing up later than the appointed time for guard duty could cause a breech in security and cause a brutal massacre of the base. Being punctual also helps your leaders to know where you are at all times. If they do not know where you are they might not know you are sleeping in your bed and might think that you were in a car crash or even kidnapped by terrorists because you chose to display you name or rank at your house.

Loyalty is defined as a strong feeling of support or allegiance. I agree fully with this definition. Being loyal is one of the most important of the Army values. Being loyal is sticking up for someone or something even though it isn’t the normal vernacular or behavior of society or even your social circle. An example is when a soldier is talking bad about an NCO and another soldier sticks up for the NCO not only because they can get into trouble for talking like that, but because it is the right thing to do. It helps build a unit and unites them and builds trust. Missing PT on Wednesday was a prime example of disloyalty. If I was punctual and made sure the alarm was set the night before, I wouldn’t have let the team down. It showed the unit that I couldn’t be trusted with the smallest of tasks, such as being on time. Had I been more disciplines, I would have been more aware of the fact that the alarm was not set.

Duty is the easiest to define. It is doing what you are supposed to do when you are supposed to do it. Simply, it is your job. As air traffic controllers, our first duty priority is to separate aircraft and issue safety alerts as required. If we neglected this priority, then we would lose tons of valuable lives. It was my duty to show up to PT on time. By deselecting this duty I let down my unit. Self discipline is the vital key to duty. If you don’t have self discipline you won’t know what right is, or you will know what it is but you won’t have the discipline to do it. The 4 rights take a lot of discipline. It is our duty to accomplish the 4 rights: right time, right place, right uniform/ equipment, and right attitude. By missing PT, I failed to accomplish all 4 or the rights as I was told to do so.

Respect is an enormous trait in the military. Rank and grade don’t require you to respect someone, it just means they have more experience and you have to listen to them. It takes hard work and discipline to earn and keep someone’s trust and respect. When I am late, my leaders no longer trust that I will be on time for the next formation, class, or appointment. Being punctual is the easiest way to earn someone’s trust and respect. When you are self disciplined enough to be on time it shows your leaders that you can be trusted and they will bestow more responsibility on you and will help you to be a better leader which will make them and your peers respect you more. Respect is one of those things where it takes a long time to earn but you can lose it in an instant and it takes even longer to get back the second time.

Selfless service is looking out for other people even if it won’t benefit you. It is a service which is performed without any expectation of result or award for the person performing it. A great example was when I was out at the Atnavics for the second half of the day pulling guard, the rest of the company got to go home and my NCO came out to relieve me. Even though it was hot and I know he wanted to go home, he let me go home instead. I was being selfish by not being on time. I wasted my chain of commands time to have them call me and find out that I was still sleeping and to waist my battle buddies time waiting for my NCOs to call me. The more disciplined you are the more you realize that by helping out the unit will really benefit you too. When you help your battle buddy with their rucksack so they don’t hurt themselves really you are helping the unit.

That soldier will be able to perform the mission better because you helped him. Had you not, he might have sprained an ankle or pulled a muscle, therefore, not completing the mission because he’s in the hospital. Honor can be defined in so many ways. The way that I define honor is the show of respect and esteem to another. Also, it’s the devotion to ones unit, family or country. By being undisciplined and late to PT on Wednesday, I was showing dishonor rather than honor.

I wasn’t showing that I am devoted to my unit. I wasn’t showing that I am devoted to my country. When I finally arrived to PT a half hour late, it would have been more honorable and disciplined to stay and do PT by myself, rather than leave when I didn’t see any one from my unit. In a way that I was showing honor was the fact that I managed to overcome the fear of being in trouble and still come to PT, even though I was late. If you are dedicated to your unit and are punctual and self disciplined, it will over all help the unit and your leaders keep track of their soldiers and thus, help the morale of the unit.

Integrity ties in a lot with honor. My definition is the ability to admit when you are wrong. According to dictionary.com, integrity is defined as the adherence to moral and ethical principles. I violated my integrity when I showed up to late to PT. If I had been punctual, it would have showed that I have good morals. It would have showed that I believe in the golden rule, do unto others and u would have them do unto you. I would not like it if I was an NCO and I had a soldier late, which then I would have to explain to my supervisor where my soldier was and by me not knowing would reflect bad on me. Another example of the golden rule is if I went to an appointment that I was on time for and the doctor was late, it would reflect that he wasn’t serious about his practice.

Personal courage stands out as the main trait I should have explored to ensure I was on time. I should have had the courage to ask my husband if the alarm was checked or I should have checked it myself without fear of him getting mad at me for double checking. The basic building block of selfless service is the commitment of each team member or soldier to go a little further, endure a little longer, and look a little closer to see how he or she can add to the effort. If each soldier takes the initiative to work just a little harder we can accomplish the mission that much faster and to a better degree. But it takes the whole team as a unit, as one, to attain this goal.

As I strive on to be a better soldier and take the initiative to be a leader in today’s Army, I look a little closer at each of these values. There is always something to work on personally and objectively. To me, being late to PT wasn’t that big of a deal, but if I look at the whole picture it is. If I look deeper as to what m actions are saying, I realize just how important appearance really is. If I am perceived to be a bad soldier that that is the way I will be treated. I will continue to strive to do the right thing and follow the advice of my leaders.

Defining Military Discipline and Values Essay

Across the Universe Army Draft Scene Close Analysis Essay

Across the Universe Army Draft Scene Close Analysis Essay.

Across The Universe (Taymor, 2007) is a tribute to the great 1960s band, The Beatles. It showcases, amidst an often wandering narrative, the most important songs of the band’s career. The story follows Jude’s relationship with Lucy, set against the backdrop of the Vietnam war. When Lucy’s brother Max (also Jude’s best friend) is drafted, Max is seen to ascend the stairs of the US Army building as the first bars of the song ‘I Want You’ enter the sound-scape.

The first shot we see of this sequence is a low angle which shows, quite simply, the sheer enormity of the building Max is about to enter. The shot slowly pans down as the foreboding notes of the score play, showing an equally foreboding structure. Within the first few seconds of the sequence we are aware of the Director’s intention; we are to view this building, and the events that happen within, with fear. This is a reference to the fear that the character is about to experience, but also a reference to the fears that the audience holds for the army.

The film was both set and made during times of military fear- the vietnam war and George Bush’s war against terrorism. The film is blatantly declaring its intention; it does not intend to speak well about the military, or the government. Its confidence in this portrayal shows its confidence in a positive reception. It does not expect those watching it to like the US military or government in any way.

As for the building itself, its windows barely deserve the name. Its entranceway is a vast, gaping mouth, waiting to consume every body that enters. It is clear that once you are in, there is no getting out. The building is a visual representation of all of the might of the US Army- and also its ugliness. Taymor uses this building to explicitly tell her audience that Max is not going to escape his appointment with Uncle Sam. It betrays even further her own dislike of the army. She leaves her audience with no avenues of escape- by the very formal choices she makes, she is forcing her audience to interpret the military as she wishes it to be interpreted- it is bad, bad, bad.

The lighting in the first shot, in comparison to its darker elements, is quite golden. It shows that Max, even though he is entering this inescapable fortress, still carries the hope that he will avoid the draft- he hopes to fool his examiners into thinking he is unfit to fight. However, as we see his feet ascend the stairs in the next shot, dark bars of shadow, like prison bars, cross his body; we already know that he is done for. And indeed as he walks through khaki coloured double doors two uniformed soldiers close them behind him, as if they were specifically waiting for him to arrive so they could lock him in. The final frame of the shot is him, silhouetted against what looks like a giant oesophagus- the building is swallowing him whole.

The third shot is the first in the sequence to actually show us Max’s face. As the doors close behind him we see him walking towards us, shoving a cotton ball in his mouth (in the hopes that an X-Ray will show it as a spot on his lung). His face appears calm- until the moment when the first words of the song pierce the bridge between the digetic and non-digetic and Max turns his head in horror to see the figure of Uncle Sam himself reaching out of a poster towards Max. He sings ‘I want you’, the words of the song and the US Army’s slogan.

It is only then that Max seems to notice where he is- the walls glow with the khaki green of the paint, lending everything an almost sickly green light. Uncle Sam, dressed in the US colours of red, white and blue, is a menacing figure on each side of Max, reaching for him. He is the embodiment of the US government and seems almost like a druggy in the desperate way he reaches for Max and sings. Taymor uses him to show the US government’s mindless quest for war, their disregard for human life. She portrays them, as an entity, as addicted to the destruction they create, as a greedy monster, gobbling up all the country’s unfortunate sons who come within their reach.

The next two shots are quick snapshots to reinforce this. The first shows Max’s back as he flees and two uniformed arms pull him back, and then his terrified face as the soldiers drag him through the oesophagus like door under the legend ‘United States Army’. It would be almost poetical if it weren’t so mind numbingly obvious. Taymor screams again and again at the audience ‘THE ARMY IS EVIL. IT WILL EAT YOUR CHILDREN!!!’ They don’t care if your children want to fight for for their country or not; they’re bloody well going to.

In the final three shots in the sequence Max is shoved through the doors in to a long corridor. He stands on a moving conveyer belt, hemmed in on either side by a line of plastic faced soldiers. Each face is a replica of the last and their hands grab him with an almost machine-like precision as they strip him of his clothes before he is shoved off the belt into a holding room. This shot is just dripping with implied meaning. The soldiers are without defining characteristics. They speak of the uniformity of the army, the lack of personality the army allows its members. They almost seem inhuman. In fact, they most look like GI Joe dolls, a plastic product of the time designed to make children fantasize about a life in the army. This resemblance is closely linked to the action they are taking- shoving a man down a conveyer belt.

The allusions to consumer society and the production line is obvious. Taymor is telling the audience that the army produces its soldiers like a toy company produces dolls- it does not care for the individual ‘product’, only the numbers, the profits, and the end result of success. One life does not matter, it is the product that is created, the war that is created (and subsequently won), that is important. This is even further emphasised by the stripping of Max’s clothes. Clothes are a human’s most obvious way of expressing themselves. We use them to show the rest of the world something about ourselves. By stripping away Max’s clothes the soldiers are literally stripping away the visual representation of his personality. They are going to make Max just like them. Another faceless toy in a production line.

The irony is that by forcing her audience, by means of the extremely directed form she has used, to interpret the US Army as an evil entity she has in fact used the same sort of method that the army itself uses to create its soldiers. Film making is a production line that, itself, cares nothing for the individual in its creation. Even directors can be replaced (as the disasterous River Queen (Ward, 2005) production will show us). And by forcing us to experience the Army a certain way she has in fact taken our choice, our individual modes of interpretation and meaning. She herself has actually taken away any personality or humanity that might geninely exist in the army. By showing us the monster she sees, she has inadvertantly become the same monster.

However, Taymor’s intention in portraying the US Army in such a negative light is vital to the overall film. We need to dislike the army because if we didn’t, the characters’ later actions and motivations would have much less impact on us as viewers, thus reducing the overall impact of the entire film. By majorly restricting our options of interpretation Taymor has in fact performed a imperative task. Her methods are not subtle. They are not unique. What they are, is effective. She is clearly a master of manipulation and visual symbolism- which is not to be unexpected in such a respected theatre director. Her form is impeccably pointed- it has a very clear purpose, and it fills it admirably.

Taymor’s main focus in this sequence is clearly on the visual symbolism she can achieve rather than using her cinematic form in an unusual way to create meaning. She has deliberately kept it simple it seems, so as to further focus on the symbols within the shot. The music is complementary to the sequnce, which is cut to match it in turn. To fill the scene with innovative shot choices would detract the eye from the theatrical visuals that Taymor, as a theatre director, is particularly impartial to in her story telling, or from the music itself, which the sequence has been created for. The simplicity of form in this aspect lends the overall feel of her film an almost innocent, child-like appeal which bellies the innocence of the time in which it is set. And perhaps even hints at our own.

Taymor’s intention in this sequence is clear from the outset; it is imperative to the story that we as an audience dislike the army so she has sculpted the scene so we can take no other meaning from it. While a tyranical mode of directing, it is effective and beneficial to the film. We are led to feel the loss of human life and the fear of the army’s production line. We are led to fear war, and its creators. But most importantly we are led to sympathise with the people that we need to sympathise with to enjoy the film. Which is a good thing.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Taymor, J. (Director). (2007). Across The Universe [Motion Picture]. USA: Revolution Studios.

Ward, V. (Director). (2005). River Queen [Motion Picture]. New Zealand/ United Kingdon: Silver Screen Films

Across the Universe Army Draft Scene Close Analysis Essay

Why did soldiers fight in WW1? Essay

Why did soldiers fight in WW1? Essay.

There are many reasons why soldiers fought in ww1 firstly; most men were pushed into by peer pressure. But there lack of knowledge of war just seemed like an adventure to them when actually it was one of the worst things that could ever happen to them.Furhermore some soldiers fought their country e.g. patriotism and glory also in those days people thought that men who didn’t fight were cowards, when infact they just didn’t believe in war like some men were part of the nations brother hood this meant they believe all countries should be friends.

In war the conditions were diabolical and wasn’t quite the adventure soldiers thought it would be. The shell guns were one of the main aspects in war it was the main weapon and blew soldiers to pieces; of course soldiers did not know this until they actually signed for the army.

Many soldiers did not want to fight in ww1 because they were Quakers this means they don’t believe in violence or war.

And men didn’t want to get shell shocked; shell shocked is when you can’t stand the shelling. Of course in those days people just thought it was another way to get them self’s out of the war. Before men joined the war they barely knew anything about warfare they thought it was just pride and glory. Besides even when soldiers sent letters back home it was all covered up by censorship; censorship is when you cover all the bad words up in a letter any words that would not persuade men to join the army was taken out.

People who didn’t fight in ww1 were shot or tortured until they would say they would join if they didn’t they were just shot e.g. Quakers. Most men didn’t know about trench warfare because the government thought it would not persuade them to join the army and the government needed volunteers. The most effective way to get people to fight in ww1 was peer pressure because if you didn’t fight you were considered a coward and no man wants to be a coward. And the fact that they didn’t even know what they were up against must have been horrible. For example censorship is what mainly covered all the lies about warfare up. Furthermore peer pressure was affective because people could them names if they didn’t sign up like they would called you yellow and other words like coward.

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Why did soldiers fight in WW1? Essay