Japan, Korea, and Vietnam in the Process of Sinification Essay

Japan, Korea, and Vietnam in the Process of Sinification Essay.

The elites in all three civilizations actively pursued the Chinese way of life. In both Japan and Korea, almost all traits of Chinese culture and political organization had to be modified to fit the ancient traditions of these societies, while the Vietnamese mainly learned from the Chinese’s military organization. The Korean elite controlled every aspect of their society, and shaped Chinese values to their own principles. Although Buddhism was favored among the elites of all three societies, there was never a complete imitation of China in any due to each region’s unique characteristics and traditions.

While Japanese rulers embraced Chinese culture, and especially Buddhism, the aristocracy and Buddhist monks sometimes at odds and sometimes in concert, opposed Sinification.

Court culture borrowed heavily from China, although indigenous traditions contributed. Korea was originally settled by peoples who were unlike those that created China and had a longer tradition than Japan of development independent from China. Sinification was limited to only the upper level of society.

Like Korea, the Vietnamese people were culturally distinct from China and, moreover, separated by mountainous regions. Like Korea, Vietnamese elites were most heavily influenced by Chinese culture.

Use of Chinese models of military and political organization aided the Vietnamese against their southern neighbors. In all three, Sinification was sought, and Chinese culture was viewed as more sophisticated than native culture. Chinese culture had an impact on all sides of the three cultures. Despite different patterns, the power of Chinese model had one other important result for Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Contacts with other parts of the world were nonexistent, because there was no sense that any other place had examples worth emulating.

Japan, Korea, and Vietnam in the Process of Sinification Essay

Geopolitical Importance of Pakistan Essay

Geopolitical Importance of Pakistan Essay.

Defination:The study of the relationship among politics and geography, demography, and economics, especially with respect to the foreign policy of a nation. ‘’ The foreign policy of a country is determined by its geography’’. (Napoleon) This may be an exaggeration, but there can be no question that geography has had decisive effect upon civilization and upon national development.


In 1947, possessing a unique geographical location, Pakistan consisted two distant parts; the West Pakistan, in the Indus River basin and the East Pakistan (later on became Bangladesh in December 1971) located more than 1000 miles (1600 kilometers) away in the Ganges River delta.

Separated from each other, these two wings had 1000km wide Indian territory between them. On the West, Pakistan borders with Afghanistan, whose one kilometer narrow Wahkhan strip kept the defunct Soviet Union away from Pakistani frontiers. To the North, she has the Peoples Republic of China. The oil rich heart of the Persian Gulf region-Iran, is in the northwest of Pakistan.

In the South, the Arabian Sea, the northwestern extension of the strategically important Indian Ocean washes Pakistan’s coastal shores.

The vitality of Indian Ocean has remained unquestionable throughout the known history as it provides not only a commercial and trade link between Europe and the Far East but has also remained a key to the seven seas. The East Pakistan was separating the Pacific Ocean from the Indian Ocean and bordered Burma on the East (Mohammed Ahsen Chaudhri, 1993). Thus, looking from the strategic point of view, Pakistan was and is still at the crossroad of Central, South and Southwest Asia and is the easiest link between the oil-rich Persian Gulf and the East Asia. In short, Pakistan is situated in the region called ‘fulcr..

Geo Strategic Importance of Pakistan

Geo strategic means the importance of a country or a region as by virtue of its geographical location. Geo political is defined as, stressing the influence of geographic factors on the state power, international conduct and advantages it derives from its location. Stephen Cohn describes this importance “While history has been unkind to Pakistan, its geography has been its greatest benefit. It has resource rich area in the north-west, people rich in the north-east.” Pakistan is a junction of South Asia, West Asia and Central Asia, a way from resource efficient countries to resource deficient countries. The world is facing energy crisis and terrorism. Pakistan is a route for transportation, and a front line state against terrorism.

Geographical Importance:

Bridge between South Asia and South West Asia; Iran and Afghanistan are energy abundant while India and China are lacking of. China finds way to Indian ocean and Arabian Sea through Korakaram. China with its fastest economic growth rate of 9%; is developing its southern provinces because its own port is 4500 km away from Sinkiang but Gawader is 2500 km away. Pakistan offers to CARs the shortest route of 2600 km as compared to Iran (4500 km) or Turkey (5000 km). land locked Afganistan now at the phase of Reconstruction, finds its ways through Pakistan. Gawader port with its deep waters attracts the trade ships of China, CARs and South East Asian Countries.

ASEAN Economic Blocs: SAARC, ECO. Iran is struggling to export its surplus gas and oil to eastern countries. Qatar Pakistan and Turkmenistan Pipeline projects highlights the position. Pakistan would get 400 million dollar annually if IPI gets success. Mountain Ranges: Himalayas, Hindu Kush in the North are plentiful in providing water and natural resources.

Political importance: -US interests in the regions to contain the Growing China, nuclear Iran, terrorist Afghanistan, and to benefit from the market of India. Security and Business are two main US interests in the region while Pakistan is playing a front line role against terrorism. Today the political scenario of the region is tinged with pre emption policy and US invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan, Iran’s nuclear program, India’s geopolitical muscles(new strategic deal with US) to gain the hegemony and to counter the ‘The Rise of China’ which has earned all the qualities to change unipolar world into Bipolar world. In all these issues, Pakistan is directly or indirectly involved, especially after Al Qaeda operations. The American think tanks have repeatedly accepted that war against terror could never be won without the help of Pakistan. Pakistan has rigorously fought, and ongoing military operation in Wazirstan is also targeting the suspected Taliban in the bordering area.

Main threats to Pakistan: Balochistan and Wazirstan conflicts are posing threats to any economic project like IPI gas pipeline. Negative role of India, US, Iran in this conflict ridden area. Kashmir is flash point, accelerating nuclear race in the South Asia. Instable governments in Pakistan have contributed in weakening the strong position. Natural Resources:-Pakistan has the best natural resources of the world. Lack of technology fragile infrastructure and limited financial resources are the main hurdles in the way to explore and utilize these resources.

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Geopolitical Importance of Pakistan Essay

Importance of Cca Essay

Importance of Cca Essay.

From my research, the MOE says, CCAs has been important in the past and it will be more important in the future. This is because some of the key traits that our young need to succeed in the future, a more complex and frequently changing future, will be cultivated most effectively by engaging them in CCA, in teams as well as in individual pursuits. It is fundamentally a more uncertain world, wherever they go. A world not just of change but of unpredictable changes.

Global competition is intense, and filtering into every segment of economic activity. Leadership in any industry is also more fluid, with late starters catching up with and overtaking established leaders.

The old totem pole, with the developed countries on top followed by the newly industrializing economies of NIEs and next the emerging economies like those in Southeast Asia and then ex-socialist countries like China, is gone. No lead is given for very long. And also whole industries such as telecommunications, chemicals, finance and transport being reshaped under the impact of new international competition, and new technological opportunities.

The restructuring is continuous, over and over again, not once-off.

A future of frequent and often unsettling change will call on more than academic abilities. It will require certain tenacity among the people. They will need a robust attitude to life and the surprises that it brings. They must have more of a spirit of ‘can-do’, the willingness to try your hand at something new and even untried, when something else fails. This tenacity will hold our young well, and hold Singapore well. We must also redouble our efforts to preserve and strengthen racial harmony, in an environment that will often challenge what we have achieved. Schools have reinforced this with a range of programmes and informal practices aimed at increasing understanding and mixing between the races.

Importance of Cca Essay

Shokan Ualikhanov Essay

Shokan Ualikhanov Essay.

Shokan Valikhanov – scientist, historian, ethnographer and folklorist, traveler, educator. Father: Chinghis Valikhanov. Mother: Zeynep Chormanova. Wife: Aysary Valikhanova. He was born in 1835 in the fortress Kusmurun (Kushmurun). At birth he was named Muhammad-Kanapiya and his mother called him Shokan. In private elementary school of aul Kushmurun, Shokan learned the basics of Arabic, Persian, medieval Turkic languages. His upbringing was influenced by his grandmother Aiganym.

Since childhood Shokan was attracted to science.

Since 1847 Shokan began to study in Omsk Siberian Cadet Corpus, which was considered the best educational institution in Siberia.

Much attention there was paid to the geography of Kazakhstan, as well as the history of the Kazakh people. 1853 – Shokan Valikhanov finished military school in Omsk with poet S.F. Durov. 1855 – First trip to Semirechie.

1856 – Expedition in the Semirechie and Issyk-Kul. Trip to Ghulja. Acquaintance with the scientist-explorer Semenov-Tyan-Shansky. For Outstanding Service was promoted to lieutenant. 1857 – Elected as an active member of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society. Trip to the Semirechie and Issyk-Kul to prepare an expedition to Kashgar.

1858, June 28 Looking as a merchant joined a caravan traveling from Semipalatinsk to Kashgar. 1859, April 12 – returned with a caravan to Vernyi.

1860 – In the beginning of the year came to Petersburg. Report to the Geographical Society, intensive scientific, social and literary activities. 1861, May – Returning home from St. Petersburg. 1862 – Was chosen to be Senior Sultan of Atbasar district, but has not been approved by the Governor General. 1863 – Participation in the committee to collect people’s views on judicial reform. Thus, in the years 1858-1859 Shokan went to Kashgar, which was a” blind spot” in European science, acquainted with the political and economic systems of East Turkestan, collected materials on the history and ethnography of the region, has acquired a number of important scientific collections, manuscripts , made sketches. His major work” About condition of Altyshar …” gave analysis of the history, geography and social life of the people of East Turkestan and was highly regarded in the scientific world.

Shokan Valikhanov was a friend of the Russian writer Fyodor Dostoevsky. This friendship, that begun in Semipalatinsk, was continued in St. Petersburg. And in 1865 in the newspaper” Russian disabled” last work of Shokan Valikhanov about the rise of Dungan in the Qing Empire was published. Other studies of Valikhanov were also published in the works of the Russian Geographical Society, also published in Berlin (1862), London (1865) and were included in the 6th and 7th Volume of 19-volumes of French Universal geography by Elise Reclus .

Shokan Valikhanov left a great scientific heritage. His work” Ablai”,” Kazakh lineage”,” Islam in the desert”,” Traces of shamanism among the Kazakhs,”” About Kazakhs migrations” and others formed the basis of in-depth study of the history and ethnography of the Kazakh people. With his creativity Shokan Valikhanov made an enormous contribution to the study of a number of Central Asian nations. In addition, Shokan Valikhanov was the first Kazakh artist in the Western sense. He performed a large number of ethnographically accurate genre, portrait and landscape drawings, illustrating his research and travel diaries. Shokan died on April 10, 1865 in the Kochen-Togan, Altyn-Emel, Semirechie. Now all over Kazakhstan there are monuments of this famous scientist.

Shokan Ualikhanov Essay

Truly Asia Essay

Truly Asia Essay.

Traveling is both an educational and leisurely activity. Going to different places gives people a chance to learn about new cultures and traditions which can help in the promotion of a pluralistic society. In every place that I explore, I make sure that I enjoy the journey whether it is just by land, water, air or even walking so that I can be able to appreciate fully the destination. In 2004, I had the chance to go to Asia, in the exquisite country of Malaysia.

Malaysia is located at the Southerneastern part of Asia. This unique tropical paradise takes pride of their natural resources and Islamic customs.

Malaysia has an extensive coastline and a captivating landscape of rolling hills and mountains. These natural wonders of Malaysia have attracted many tourists to explore their beautiful scenery. According to Lonely Planet, this country is “one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in southeast Asia. ” More so, it is a spirited and rich nation that has integrated other cultures to create a diverse but a unified Malaysian society (“Malaysia:Overview”).

In addition, Malaysia is filled with diverse cities and towns and each city or town have their own unique charisma that makes each place unique.

Checking out these places will display the rich history and authentic culture of Malaysia. I have been to three gorgeous cities in Malaysia namely: Kuala Lumpur, Penang and Pahang. In Kuala Lumpur a lot of traditional and modern infrastructures can be seen in this city. In fact it has been branded as the roaring Asian tiger because it has transformed from being nothing into a contemporary city. One of the world’s tallest infrastructures which is the Petronas Tower was built in this urban haven. I was in awe of its towering height and aesthetic beauty. More so, this twin towers showcased the economic prowess and cultural wealth of Malaysia.

I was surprised to see the many free standing skyscrapers in this part of Asia. But as I walked around Kuala Lumpur, I also discovered that there were still a lot of remnants of its past and cultural diversity. There were rustic colonial houses and buildings, a lively Chinatown with lots of bet buy items and the dynamic Little India which gives a snippet of the colorful Indian culture. Kuala Lumpur is a relatively large city, my family and I opted to just walk instead of exploring the place aboard a tour bus. For me, walking is the best way to get to know Kuala Lumpur.

By just leisurely walking and not adhering to any tour schedules, we were able to visit and enjoy the different local tourist spots and attractions at our own pace. Among the places that we have explored were the Guandi Temple in China Town where the Taoists pray to their gods, the Orchids Garden where different types of orchids are exhibited, the Petaling Street Market where assorted merchandise ranging from bags to DVDs and lastly the Taman Tasik Titiwangsa where people go to unwind and enjoy the skyline of Malaysia. Moreover, since I am into sports, I also checked out some the local action in Kuala Lumpur.

There are a variety of things to do here from indoor to outdoor games and land to water sports. Both the locals and foreigners are greatly entertained by these activities. The most popular sport in this part of the country is golf followed by cycling. There are numerous golf courses and clubs in Kuala Lumpur where golf enthusiasts can practice their swings to end up with a hole in one. More so, cycling is also considered as a main sport of the Malaysians. My favorite sport is biking so I tried to navigate the city through riding a bike wherein I saw numerous amazing views that took my breath away.

Biking can really be tiring but in Kuala Lumpur biking lanes are provided that made the ride easy and hassle-free from traffic. Also, when I biked around the city, I was really having a great experience and at the same while doing this, I got a free workout. So it was like hitting two birds with one stone. Aside from biking, I also tried my hands on swimming, bowling and diving wherein I had a great time and met some of the friendly locals who accommodatingly made my stay at Kuala Lumpur very memorable. The next city that I explored in Malaysia was Penang.

This place has one of the smallest land area in Malaysia. Despite its petite size, it ranked eight in the most populated places in the country. Penang is also called “Pearl of the Orient” because of its exotic landscapes and pristine beaches. Upon arrival in Penang, I noticed immediately that it was different with Kuala Lumpur. Penang has a more rural atmosphere because of the presence of beaches, mountains and other organic sceneries while Kuala Lumpur is more of a contemporary place filled modern amenities. In Penang, we visited several ancient temples.

These places are considered sacred because they emanate the spirituality of the Malaysians. One of the temples that we visited was the Snake Temple. This place of worship got its name from a myth that upon the completion of the construction of the temple, it was swarmed by snakes from the jungle. From then on, snakes have been permanent fixtures in the temple. We also went to the temple of Kek Lok Si at Air Itam where we learned that it is one of the largest and most beautiful temple in the entire Southeast Asia.

In the temple, we saw the different designs, statues and adornments that reminded us about other cultures. Influences from Thailand, China and Burma were very visible in the architectural design and craftsmanship of the temple. In addition, the temple was highlighted by a a very tall pagoda adding up to its grandiose quality. Even though we were not fully knowledgeable about the religion and the spiritual traditions of Malaysians, we still respected their beliefs by not making noise or doing anything that will offend them especially when were inside the temple.

Aside from this, there are other things to see in Penang. I indulged in bird watching at Penang Bird Park, trekking at the summit of the Penang Hill and exploring the vastness of the Pantai Acheh Forest Reserve. This experience made me appreciate more the beauty and fecundity of nature. Moreover, since Penang is an island, most of the sport activities involve water. It can either be sailing, swimming or surfing. Since I love playing in the water, I tried to learn to surf in one of the beach resorts. Surfing may seem easy but when you are actually doing it, it can really be difficult.

But the frustration to ride the waves was properly compensated by the crystal blue water, the refreshing breeze and the warm smiles of the locals. Nonetheless, this small but captivating place has a lot to offer to locals and visitors as well. If you are looking for a place to relax and stray away from the hustle and bustle of the city, I definitely recommend Penang as the place to explore. The last place I went to in Malaysia was in Pahang. One of their main attractions is the Genting Highlands. It is a luxurious vacation retreat situated on top of a mountain.

Generally, the area of the mountain retreat is small but there is a saying that good things come in small packages and this is true in the case of the Genting Highlands. This place is packed with a variety of entertainment and leisure activities that everyone can enjoy. For me, this place is like a one stop shop where everything you need is located in one place. It has a theme park, a shopping mall, golf course, country club and a hotel so visitors would not ran out of things to do here. When we went there, we rented a car and drove there from Kuala Lumpur.

The trip was a little long but we did not notice the time because we were preoccupied by the scenic and extraordinary sights that we saw. Then, after our arrival, we rode a cable car to have a birds eye view of the estate. Since there are a lot of things to explore in Genting Highlands, we tried to make a schedule so that we would be able to all the attractions. We started first with the theme park. This park is adorned with numerous exhilarating rides. Some are located indoors while the majority are outdoor rides such as the roller coaster, cyclone and spinner.

I really had a blast with these rides. It was an adrenaline-pumping, thrilling and exciting experience for me and the rest of my family. Next to the theme park, we went to the shopping mall called First World Plaza to catch our breaths after going through all those rides. We took this time to buy things to bring back at home as souvenirs and gift for our friends. Actually in this mall, people can splurge on many fashionable items and essential merchandises available here. In Genting Highlands, we stayed at their accommodating and lavish hotel for two nights.

The staff of the hotel were very friendly who made us feel that we were home away from home. Actually, the hotel is acclaimed for its amenities and services that is why many local and international stars go here to relax and even perform for entertainment. Also, if you are not into theme parks or shopping, there are other options like playing in the casinos or if the visitor wants more adrenaline rush, you can try biking, jungle trekking or horse-riding and finishing an 18-hole golf course.

After experiencing these, I can say that all the money that we have spent here was all worth it because the memories, the adventure and the laughs we had here are all priceless. Malaysia is indeed a place where you can enjoy ancient customs and the same time splurge yourself with the modern day amenities. My Malaysian experience will forever be embedded in my consciousness for it has brought educational and memorable experiences that I will treasure for the rest of my life.

Works Cited

“Malaysia:Overview. ” 2008. Lonely Planet. 10 June 2008 <>.

Truly Asia Essay