Automatic Traffic Light Control(Presidency University) Essay.
Azimur Rahman Schooll of Engineering Presidency University Design and Implementation of Automatic Traffic Light Controlled System Approval “Design and Implementation of Automatic Traffic Light Controlled Syetem” was prepared and submitted by Md. Humaun Kabir (ID:091-033-040),Amam hossain Bagdadee(ID:101-205-041),Md. Rabiul Islam(ID:091-033-040),Md. Nurul Alam(ID:071-012-040) and as been found satisfactory in terms of scope ,quality and presentation as partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Bachelor of Science in Electrical and Electronic Engineering in Presidency University.
Cheeked and approved by Thesis Supervisor …………………………………………………………………………………………. Professor Dr. Tapon Kumar Chakraborty Dean and Department Head Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Azimur Rahman School of Engineering Presidency University Design and Implementation of Automatic Traffic Light Controlled System Acknowledgement Dreams never turn to reality unless a lot of effort and hard work is put in to it. And no effort bears fruit in the absence of support and guidance.
It takes a lot of effort to work your way through this goal and having someone to guide you and help you is always a blessing.
We would like to take this opportunity to thank a few who were closely involved in the completion of this project. Ingenuity and popular guidance are inevitable for successful completion of a project. We are indebted to all sources that helped them in working out this project at each steps of its progress. Particular we extremely grateful to Project Supervisor Professor Dr.
Tapan Kumar Chakraborty, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering for his valuable suggestion and proper guidance to complete my project. Above all we thank the lord almighty for giving me all the confidence and ability to achieve this dream ! Design and Implementation of Automatic Traffic Light Controlled System Abstract Traffic signal controlled is playing more and more important roles in modern management and controls of urban traffic to reduce the accident and traffic jam in road.
The gas lantern was turned with a lever at its base so that the appropriate light faced traffic. Unfortunately, it exploded on 2 January1869, in during the policeman who was operating it. The modern electric traffic light is an American invention. As early as 1912 in Salt Lake City, Utah, policeman Lester Wire invented the first red-green electric traffic lights. On5 August1914,theAmerican Traffic Signal Company installed a traffic signal system on the corner of East 105th Street and Euclid Avenue in Cleveland,Ohio.
It had two colors, red and green, and abuzzer,based on the design of James Huge, to provide a warning for color changes. The design by James Hog allowed police and fire stations to control the signals in case of emergency. The first four-way, three-color traffic light was created by police officer William PottsinDetroit, Michigan in 1920. In 1923, Garrett Morgan attended a traffic signal device. It was Morgan’s experience while driving along the streets of Cleveland that led to his invention of a traffic signal device. Ashville, Ohio claims to be the location of the oldest
Working traffic light in the United States, used at an intersection of public roads until 1982 when it was moved to local museum. The first inter connected traffic signal system was installed inSaltLake City in 1917, with six connected inter sections controlled simultaneously from a manual switch. Automatic control of inter connected traffic lights was introduced March 1922 in Houston, Texas. The first automatic experimental traffic lights in England were deployed inWolverhamptonin 1927. Ape-man chenpedestrian traffic signals have come to be seen as a nostalgic sign for the former German Democratic Republic.
The color of the traffic lights representing stop and go are likely derived from those used to identify port (red) and starboard (green) in maritime rules governing right of way, where the vessel on the left must stop for the one crossing on the right. Figure: 4 Lanes Road. TECHNOLOGY Optics and lighting:- In the mid-1990s, cost-effective traffic light lamps using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were developed; prior to this date traffic lights were designed usingincandescentorhalogenlight bulbs.
Unlike the incandescent-based lamps, which use a single large bulb, the LED-based lamps consist of an array of LED elements, arranged in various patterns. When viewed from a distance, the array appears as a continuous light source. LED-based lamps (or ‘lenses’) have numerous advantages over in candescent lamps; among them are: •Much greater energy efficiency (can be solar-powered). •Much longer lifetime between replacements, measured in years rather than months. Part of the longer life time is due to the fact that some light is still displayed even if some of the LEDs in the array are dead. Brighter illumination with better contrast against direct sunlight, also called ‘phantom light’. •The ability to display multiple colors and patterns from the same lamp. Individual LED elements can be enabled or disabled and different color LEDs can be mixed in the same lamp •Much faster switching. •Instead of sudden burn-out like incandescent-based lights, LED start to gradually dim when they wear out, warning transportation maintenance departments well in advance as to when to change the light. Occasionally, particularly in green LED units, segments prone to failure will flicker rapidly beforehand.
The operational expenses of LED-based signals are far lower than equivalent incandescent-based lights. As a result, most new traffic light deployments in the United States, Canada and elsewhere have been implemented using LED-based lamps; in addition many existing deployments of incandescent traffic lights are being replaced. In2006, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada completed a total refit to LED-based lamps in the cities over 12,000 Intersections and all pedestrian crosswalks. Many of the more exotic traffic signals discussed on this page would not be possible to construct without using LED technology.
However, color-changing LEDs are in their infancy and may surpass the multi-color array technology. In some areas, LED-based signals have been fitted (or retrofitted) with special Fresnel lenses (Programmed Visibility or ‘PV’ lenses) and/or diffusers to Limit the line of sight to a single lane. These signals typically have a “projector”-like visibility; and maintain an intentionally limited range of view. Because the LED lights don’t generate a significant amount of heat, heaters may be necessary in areas which receive snow, where snow can accumulate within the lens area and limit the visibility of the indications.
Another new LED technology is the use of CLS (Central Light Source) optics. These comprise around 7 high-output LEDs (sometimes 1 watt) at the rear of the lens, with a diffuser to even outland enlarge the light. This gives a uniform appearance, more like traditional halogen or incandescent luminaries. Replacing halogen or incandescent reflector and bulb assemblies behind the lens with an LED array can give the same effect. This also has its benefits: minimal disruption, minimal work, minimal cost and the reduced need to replace the entire signal head (housing).
THE PROJECT Design of Traffic-Control System: Through the project ‘Advanced Vehicles and Vehicle-Control Knowledge Centre’, the Hungarian National Office for Research and Technology supports the design of intelligent traffic-control systems. The main goal of the project is to interlace technological transfer by connecting universities, research centers and leading industrial partners. Automotive technologies are gaining ground in modern road traffic-control systems, since the number of road vehicles and passengers is rapidly growing.
There is a perpetual need for safety-critical traffic automation, and traffic engineering makes the dynamic or static analysis and the synthesis of automotive vehicle technologies possible. The main goal of engineering is the planning and management of traffic systems. The project supports the development of reliable and optimal control structures for urban traffic and for motorway systems. The intelligent and cooperative set-up of actuation and its linkage to the central control system is vital for avoiding traffic jams and accidents.
Moreover, environmental costs (e. g. pollution) can be decreased. The control architecture of systemic shown in Figure 1. | Figure 1: General traffic management and control structure. | | One aspect of the project aims at developing a traffic control algorithm for future technology. The design of the traffic control system can be evaluated in two steps – synthesis and analysis. Several models and multiple control strategies exist, and engineers must decide between them using a priori knowledge of the real system.
Previously collected information can help to choose the appropriate model, parameters, measurement and control methodologies to create the optimal solution. In many cases, control-related variables are almost inaccessible for design unless estimation techniques are applied. In a situation like this, the approximation, computer-based estimation of the variables could be useful. Traffic simulations can be classified in several ways, including the division between microscopic, macroscopic and macroscopic, and between continuous and discrete time approaches.
The methodologies of static and dynamic analysis of traffic systems are known. Several state variables, derived from the description of the dynamic system, can be used for operational and planning aspects. A newly emerged area is demand estimation through microscopic traffic modeling. The dynamic aspect of traffic simulation requires previously measured or estimated volumes of traffic. Since the measurement of certain variables in the dynamic description is rather costly, one tries to estimate them.
For instance, the observation of constantly varying turning rates at a simple intersection is fairly costly. However, the number of turning vehicles could be applied to traffic light harmonization, or generally speaking to traffic light control. | Figure 2: Traffic jam in Dhaka City. | | Some time has passed since traffic issues were first addressed; in fact, traffic lights apparently existed a century ago. When they were first introduced, their purpose was to ensure the safety of people in the traffic, but as time has passed and traffic has become denser, flow-control issues have become important.
Nowadays, control algorithms are extremely complicated, and take traffic-dependent light-control architectures into account. Nevertheless, complementary functions exist to augment the intelligence of such systems. The behavior of traffic is influenced by two main factors: the control inputs and the disturbances incurred. The control inputs are directly related to corresponding control devices such as traffic lights and variable message signs. The manipulation of disturbance Values is not possible, but in some cases they are measurable (e. g. demand), detectable (e. g. ncident) or predictable over a certain time horizon. The most challenging issues relate to automatic incident detection, the modeling of uncertainties, providing a solution that offers robustness under external disturbances, the use of variable message signs in order to avoid traffic jams, and finding an optimal itinerary. The development of an intelligent control structure ensures an optimal solution for all participants in the transportation and road traffic system. After the first year, the most significant result of the project is the structural analysis of the references.
Several comparative studies have been elaborated to create a basis for further research on estimation and optimal light-control systems. Objective: The goal of this project is to given opportunity to practice designing and implementing sequential machine in this case, a traffic light controller. In this project, intergated circuit(IC’s) was chosen to design to traffic controller. The purpose of this project is to design an automatic, save and efficient traffic flow to assign the right way of the road. This project it was needed to design traffic control signals and implement to ensure whether this circuit is functioning or not.
From that decrease a waiting time in road can reduce traffic jam in the road. The expected results of this project are three lanes can green other lanes are red at the same time. The result of this project can implemented with bulbs. (RED,YELLOW,GREEN) Components Required 1. Integrated Circuit 1. IC-1 (555) 2. IC-2 (CD4017) 1. Resistors 3. R1 (10K) 4. VR1 (100K) 2. Capacitor 5. C1 (100mfd/ 16V) 3. Diode 6. D1-D9 (IN4007) 4. Transistor 7. T1 (BC148) 8. T2 (BC148) 9. T3 (BC148) 5. Miscellaneous 10. Three Relays 11. Battery (9V DC) 12. Neon lamp 13. Flexible wires 14. Soldering rod etc.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Figure: Circuit Diagram of Traffic System. Circuit Layout: Figure: Circuit Layout of Traffic System. PCB LAWOUT: Figure: PCB Layout of Traffic Signal. The working Principle: This circuit is self explanatory by its name, and can be used to control traffic in public places, or to demonstrate traffic rules in traffic-parks. IC2, which is heart of the circuit, is a decade counter. In this counter for every pulse fed to pin-14, potential keeps shifting from D1 to D9 in cyclic order. IC1 is used as a pulse generator and generates pulses in regular configurable intervals.
These intervals can be changed by varying VR1. The circuit is designed in such a way that out of nine pulses, relay RL1 remains triggered for 4 pulses, relay RL2 for 1 pulse and relay RL3 for remaining 4 pulses. Since D1-D4 provide current to T1, T1 is on whenever there is potential on any diode D1 to D4, which keeps relay RL1 triggered. Similarly other diodes are responsible for RL2 and RL3 triggering. Red, Yellow and Green lamps can be connected to the relays RL1, RL2 and RL3 respectively to complete your mini traffic light controller. Figure: 4-Lane Road Traffic Signal Planning.
DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS: 555 Timers –IC It is basically an 8–pin timer IC, which can produce precise time delay. It works on wide range of power supply voltage from 3V to 18V. The function of each pin of the IC is given below – * Pin–1: it is connected to ground (0V) terminal of power supply. * Pin–2: It starts up timing cycle, when its voltage is less than ? Vcc, the output of IC becomes high (1). * Pin–3: it is output pin which either source or sinks current up to 200mA. * Pin–4: it is reset pin. When it is + ve, IC works normally.
However, when it is –ve, IC stops its working completely. * Pin–5: control voltage pin. It may not be used in normal working. * Pin–6: it is threshold pin. It finalizes the timing cycle of the IC, when its voltage is equal to or greater than ? Vcc, the output of IC becomes low (0). * Pin–7: it is discharge pin. It discharges external capacitor into itself. * Pin–8: it is connected to + ve terminal of battery, generally 3–18V. When the trigger is applied (i. e. switch is closed), the ‘Trigger’ terminal (inserting terminal of lower comparator) is directly connected to the ground(0V).
This toggles the output of lower comparator from LOW to HIGH. So the SET terminal of FLIPFLOP is at HIGH, toggling the Q’ to LOW. The output is Figure: 555timer output with high frequency Figure: 555timer output with high frequency 4017 Decade Counter: The count advances as the clock input becomes high (on the rising-edge). Each output Q0-Q9 goes high in turn as counting advances. For some functions (such as flash sequences) outputs may be combined using diodes. The reset input should be low (0V) for normal operation (counting 0-9). When high it resets the count to zero (Q0 high).
This can be done manually with a switch between reset and +Vs and a 10k resistor between reset and 0V. Counting to less than 9 is achieved by connecting the relevant output (Q0-Q9) to reset, for example to count 0,1,2,3 connect Q4 to reset. The disable input should be low (0V) for normal operation. When high it disables counting so that clock pulses are ignored and the count is kept constant. The ? 10 output is high for counts 0-4 and low for 5-9, so it provides an output at 1/10 of the clock frequency. It can be used to drive the clock input of another 4017 (to count the tens).
Resistor: A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor’s terminals. Thus, the ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor’s terminals to the intensity of current through the circuit is called resistance. This relation is represented by Ohm’s law: Figure: Symbol of Resistror. Capacitor: A capacitor (originally known as condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field.
The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator); for example, one common construction consists of metal foils separated by a thin layer of insulating film. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio of charge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them: Figure: Symbol of Capacitor.
Transistor: A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor’s terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuit
Figure :Symbol of Transisitor. RELAY: A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another.
Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. Figure: Symbol of Relay Traffic light is saved by the Pest Repellent: Things you will need• IC 555 – 1 no. • Resistors- R1 – 470k- R2 – 100 ohms, – R3 – 100 ohms, – R4, R5 – 1k, R6 – 47 ohms, • LED – 1 no, Capacitors, • Speaker – 1 no, – C1 – 10 ? F / 25V (Electrolytic), – C2 – 1000 ? F / 25V (Electronic), – C3 – 0. 01 ? F (Ceramic), Battery, • Speaker – 1 no, – 9V and battery snap (1 no. ), • LED – 1 no, • Speaker – 1 no, • Soldering iron and alloy.
The ultrasonic pest repellent device available on the market but a major drawback is that their power output is low and their effectiveness suffers. This electronic pest repellent generates powerful ultrasonic signals to repel pests. That’s reason we can protect our traffic light by this device. In summer season, pest is attracted by light at night. That’s reason lights are unable to through their full focus. That’s reason we add pest repellent with Traffic Light. Advantage of Traffic Light Controller: The following is from section 4B. 3 of the Ohio Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices: When properly used, traffic control signals are valuable devices for the control of vehicular and pedestrian traffic. They assign the right-of-way to the various traffic movements and thereby profoundly influence traffic flow. Traffic control signals that are properly designed, located, operated, and maintained will have one or more of the following advantages: A. They provide for the orderly movement of traffic. B. They increase the traffic-handling capacity of the intersection if: 1.
Proper physical layouts and control measures are used, and 2. The signal operational parameters are reviewed and updated (in needed) on a regular basis (as engineering judgment determines that significant traffic flow and/or land use changes have occurred) to maximize the ability of the traffic control signal to satisfy current traffic demands. C. They reduce the frequency and severity of certain types of crashes, especially right-angle collisions. D. They are coordinated to provide for continuous or nearly continuous movement of traffic at a definite speed along a given route under favorable conditions.
E. They are used to interrupt heavy traffic at intervals to permit other traffic, vehicular or pedestrian, to cross. Traffic control signals are often considered a panacea for all traffic problems at intersections. This belief has led to traffic control signals being installed at many locations where they are not needed, adversely affecting the safety and efficiency of vehicular, bicycle, and pedestrian traffic. Traffic control signals, even when justified by traffic and roadway conditions, can be ill-designed, ineffectively placed, improperly operated, or poorly maintained.
Improper or unjustified traffic control signals can result in one or more of the following disadvantages: A. Excessive delay; B. Excessive disobedience of the signal indications; C. Increased use of less adequate routes as road users attempt to avoid the traffic control signals; and D. Significant increases in the frequency of collisions (especially rear-end collisions). CONCLUSION: Often the District is contacted by citizens that believe that traffic signal have many advantages and no disadvantages. While traffic signals can help