Characteristics of each of the 5 kingdoms and their meanings Essay

Characteristics of each of the 5 kingdoms and their meanings Essay.

Every living creature on Earth belongs to a kingdom. Scientists debate how many kingdoms there are, but most agree there are five. Here is how the five kingdoms are organized. Monera Monera are single-celled organisms that don’t have a nucleus.

Bacteria make up the entire kingdom. There are more forms of bacteria than any other organism on Earth. Some bacteria are beneficial to us, such as the ones found in yogurt. Others can cause us to get sick.


Protists are mostly single-celled organisms that have a nucleus. They usually live in water. Some protists move around, while others stay in one place.

Examples of protists include some algae, paramecium, and amoeba.


Fungi are usually motionless organisms that absorb nutrients for survival. They include mushrooms, molds, and yeasts. Plants Plants contain chlorophyll, a green pigment necessary for photosynthesis, a process in which plants convert energy from sunlight into food. Their cell walls are made sturdy by a material called cellulose, and they are fixed in one place. Plants are divided into two groups: flower- and fruit-producing plants and those that don’t produce flowers or fruits. They include garden flowers, agricultural crops, grasses, shrubs, ferns, mosses, and conifers.


Animals are the most complex organisms on Earth. Animals are multi-celled organisms, eat food for survival, and have nervous systems. They are divided into vertebrates and invertebrates and include mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds and fish. Actually, there are now six kingdoms. The five kingdom was during the 1969 and it included all the bacterias within one group. The five kingdom system is as follows:

1. Monera: Bacteria. They are prokaryotic and unicellular. They are mobile. 2. protista: Protists. They are eukaryotic. Either autotrophic, heterotrophic, or even mixotrophic. They live live as unicellular, multicellular, or even as a colony. Some are mobile while some are sessile. 3. animalia: Animals. Eukaryotic and are heterotrophic. They are all multicellular and are mobile. 4. plantae: Plants. Eukaryotic and mostly autotrophic (some parasitic plants are heterotrophic). They are multicellular and sessile. 5. fungi: Mushrooms, fungus, etc. Eukaryotic and heterotrophic. They are multicellular and sessile

Characteristics of each of the 5 kingdoms and their meanings Essay

Environmental Engineering Essay

Environmental Engineering Essay.

It involves waste water management and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, radiation protection, industrial hygiene, environmental sustainability, and public health issues as well as a knowledge of environmental engineering law. It is a related study of environmental science. Main task of environmental engineers is to protect public health by protecting (from further degradation), preserving (the present condition of), and enhancing the environment.

Some work of Environmental engineers: Conducts hazardous-waste management studies to evaluate the significance of such hazards, advise on treatment and containment, and develop regulations to prevent mishaps.

Design municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems. Address environmental issues such as the effects of acid rain, global warming, ozone depletion, water pollution and air pollution from automobile exhausts and industrial sources.

Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical and biological sciences, (including but not limited to Ecology, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Soil Science, Geology, Atmospheric Science and Geography) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.

Environmental science provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. Environmental science came alive as a substantive, active field of scientific investigation in the 1960s and 1970s driven by the ff. ssues: (a)   the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to analyze complex environmental problems. (b)   the arrival of substantive environmental laws requiring specific environmental protocols of investigation. (c)   the growing public awareness of a need for action in addressing environmental problems.

Related areas of study: environmental studies  – incorporates more of the social sciences for understanding human relationships, perceptions and policies towards the environment. 2. environmental engineering focuses on design and technology for improving environmental quality. Components of Environmental Science: Ecology is the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. Ecologists might investigate the relationship between a population of organisms and some physical characteristic of their environment, such as concentration of a chemical; or they might investigate the interaction between a two populations of different organisms through some symbiotic or competitive relationship.

For example, an interdisciplinary analysis of an ecological system which is being impacted by one or more stressors might include several related environmental science fields. In an estuarine setting where a proposed industrial development could impact certain species by water and air pollution, biologists would describe the flora and fauna, chemists would analyze the transport of water pollutants to the marsh, physicists would calculate air pollution emissions and geologists would assist in understanding the marsh soils and bay muds. . Atmospheric sciences focuses on the Earth’s atmosphere, with an emphasis upon its interrelation to other systems. Atmospheric sciences can include studies of meteorology,greenhouse gas phenomena, atmospheric dispersion modeling of airborne contaminants,[3][4] sound propagation phenomena related to noise pollution, and even light pollution.

Taking the example of the global warming phenomena, physicists create computer models of atmospheric circulation and infra-red radiation transmission, chemists examine the inventory of atmospheric chemicals and their reactions, biologists analyze the plant and animal contributions to carbon dioxide fluxes, and specialists such as meteorologists and oceanographers add additional breadth in understanding the atmospheric dynamics. 3. Environmental chemistry is the study of chemical alterations in the environment.

Principal areas of study include soil contamination and water pollution. The topics of analysis include chemical degradation in the environment, multi-phase transport of chemicals (for example, evaporation of a solvent containing lake to yield solvent as an air pollutant), and chemical effects upon biota. As an example study, consider the case of a leaking solvent tank which has entered the habitat soil of an endangered species of amphibian.

As a method to resolve or understand the extent of soil contamination and subsurface transport of solvent, a computer model would be implemented. Chemists would then characterize the molecular bonding of the solvent to the specific soil type, and biologists would study the impacts upon soil arthropods, plants, and ultimately pond-dwelling organisms that are the food of the endangered amphibian. 4. Geosciences include environmental geology, environmental soil science, volcanic phenomena and evolution of the Earth’s crust.

In some classification systems this can also includehydrology, including oceanography. As an example study of soils erosion, calculations would be made of surface runoff by soil scientists. Fluvial geomorphologists would assist in examining sediment transport in overland flow. Physicists would contribute by assessing the changes in light transmission in the receiving waters. Biologists would analyze subsequent impacts to aquatic flora and fauna from increases in water turbidity. Ecology study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. – starts as early as 300 BC with the Greek named Theophastus, his interest with the interrelationship between organism and the living environment, become his as the Father of Botany. Environment refers to the sum of all the external forces and conditions acting on an organism or community of organism. – oekologie was coined by the german zoologist, Ernst Haeckel, comes from the greek word oikos, meaning home or a place to live in. defines as the relationship of animals both to the organic as well as the inorganic environment,             – in the mid-1900’s two group of botanist, one from the Europe and America, become interested in the study of plants communities, the Europeans concentrated on the composition, structure and distribution of plant communities, on the other hand the Americans concentrate to the development of plant, eventually they become interested at the animals as well, and gave a greater emphasis on inter-relationship of animals and plants.

This become the birth of ecology as the formal field of study. – British economist, Thomas Malthus, gave special attention to population in the early 19th century, his the first one o recognized the conflict between expanding population and earths capability to supply it. – scope of ecology, organism (eg. Proto-plasma, cell, tissue, organ, organ system), population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere. Organism: Levels of organization of life (inside the organism): Protoplasma – it makes up the living substance of the cell.

Cell – basic unit of life Tissue-group of cell performing specific functions Organ- group of tissue carrying a particular functions Organ system – group of organ doing s specific function. Levels of organization of life (inside the organism): Population – group of organism of the same kind or species occupying a particular place at a particular time. Community – a group of populations occupying a given area. Ecosystem –  basic unit of ecology, refers to the interaction between the organism and environment. It includes population, communities, habitat (the place where the organism lives) and the environment. eg. forest, grassland, river, etc. ) Biosphere – world of life. It is the portion of the earth where in life on its any form existed. Components of ecosystem: Biotic – they are the living components of ecosystem consisting of plants, animals and bacteria. Abiotic – they are the non living component that consist of substratum, light, rainfall, nutrients, soil, temperature, etc. Biotic Components: Green plants      known as the producers. They capture the energy coming from the sun and together with the CO2 in the air and H2O converts this into food energy.

They are called autotrophs (self nourishing), they manufacture their own food through the process of photosynthesis. There are also microscopic green plant called phytoplanktons, they give the green color to the bodies of water such as lake and rivers   Animals Known as the consumers. Obtain other food sources to other plants and animals they are called heterotrophs. Three types of consumers: Herbivores – that eat plants only Carnivores – animals that eat other animals. Omnivores- eat both plants and animals.

Bacteria and Fungi They are called decomposers. They eat the dead bodies of plants and animals, where they get their energy and convert it to other nutrients back into the environment. They are popular called the janitor of the nature. Abiotic Components: Soil  the upper layer of the earth’s crust affected by plants and animals serves as the habitat and pool of nutrients for many organism. Humus dark decaying organic substance found in the soil. Physical characteristic of soil: Color The color of the soils is influence by the element present in the soil.

Soil color and element presesent: Grey (lacks of iron) Brown & red (rich in iron) Texture  the texture of the soil affects the amount of water and nutrients the soil can hold. Texture of the soil: Sandy (composed of coarse particles) Clay (consist of fine particles) Silt (composed of medium size particles. ) Loamy (mixture of clay, sand and silt) Moisture Water content of the soil. It is influence by factors such as: Texture Amount of rainfall Slope of the land Underlying rock type. pH The concentration of hydrogen ions on the soil.

The soil which contain a large amount of lime is alkaline and with large amount of granite id acidic. pH value raging from 1-6 is acidic and 8-14 are basic while those with 7 reading is neutral type of soil. Structure Refers to the arrangement of it’s particle which build up larger amount of soil structure is called peds. The peds damage will result to the poor drainage of water to the soil. 2. Water Importance of water in ecosystem: It comprise of a large percentage of the tissues of all living organism. Required by plants to support their non woody tissues.

Used by the plants as a vessel of nutrients from the soil. It is absorbed by the plant and release in the environment which produces the cooling effect. Plant adaptation to water: (Based on the tolerance of plant to water. ):                    *  Hydropytes (Plants that grow in water and waterlogged soils)                    *  Halophytes (Plants that grow in saline environment. )                    *  Xerophytes (Plants that grow in dry or arid condition. 3. Temperature Affects the plant and cooled blooded animals by controlling their metabolism. Affect the water loss of the organism.

Most organism function at temperature between 0 degree to 50 degree centigrade.. 4. Wind An agent of pollination and seed dispersal. It also affects transpiration in the plants by causing faster evaporation with in their surroundings. Pathways of energy: Energy It is needed by the organism for growth, maintenance and repair and for life. Organism obtain their energy by two ways: Autotrophy (producing their own food) Heterotrophy (eating other organism) Food Chain Consist of the sequence of organism that eat other organism through which energy is transferred. Every food chain starts a producer and end with decomposers.

Trophic levels of food chain: First trophic ( producers) Second trophic (herbivores called primary consumers) Third trophic (carnivore that eat hervobores) 4th trophic (carnivores that eat carnivores) In food chain the energy transferred from one trophic level to another is decreasing. Food web Consist of several interlocking food chain. It is a transfer of energy involving several pathways. Nutrients cycle: Classification of Nutrients: Macronutrients – those that are required by organism by large quantities. Ex. Oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen Micronutrient – are needed by the organism by smaller amounts.

Ex. Sulfur, potassium, iron, and phosphorus. Water Cycles: Evaporation (from bodies of water) Respiration ( from animals) Transpiration (from the trees) Condensation  (accumulation of all the vapors, transpiration and respiration) Precipitation (for rain) Runoff (water run from the higher grounds) Carbon and Oxygen cycle: Carbon is mostly present in the environment by cabon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is present at: It could be found at dead organism. Volcano eruption. Respiration of animals. Oxygen is abundant in plants transpiration, it is release in the air as a waste product and absorbed by animals.

Nitrogen Cycles: Nitrogen constitutes 78% of air in the atmosphere. Plants used it as a nitrates, and nitrogen converted it by two process: The action of lightning. Process of action by specialized organism such as legumes. Communities Community Group of different kinds of organism or species living together in a particular place. Worlds Major communities: 1. Dessert Biome Bushes and shrubs for vegetation Sandy, dry and loose type of soil. Less than 10 cm of rain fall in a year. Lizards, snakes, eagles, owls, toads, insects and small

Environmental Engineering Essay