Class Prophecy of Batch 2010 in Morms.Doc Essay

Class Prophecy of Batch 2010 in Morms.Doc Essay.

Most of us would agree that the days we spent in high school were certainly the best days of our lives. Memorable ones I suggest. It was in high school that we made our grown-up friends, competed to excel, hoped for places in the sports team, toiled to lead in the student council, and yielded to take part in the school organ. It was also in high school when we first felt and experienced to love – puppy love as people say.

Thus, it is indeed in this chapter that we learnt lessons about life; that what lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us. And it is inevitable that we encounter obstacles along the way, from which we learn to fight and to be strong.

The class of 2008 has come along way since the freshman year at San Francisco High School, and memories come flooding back every time we reminisce each high school happening.

All of which were joyous, worth remembering and unique in their own right.

I. Igniting the inner light – freshmen year

Anxiety filled the air as freshmen wandered during the opening classes in San Francisco High School. All of whom were thinking who their adviser, teachers and classmates may be. And as the school bell rang, every freshman began to walk hurriedly along the school grounds to finally reach their destination – their new home. Thus, the meandering class of 2008 came together under one roof in the white walls of Molave Building. Consequently, here is where our story began.

Everyone leapt unto their respective classrooms, and as they found themselves seats to sink in, murmurings started to conquer the place. Then a glaciating breeze seemed to stun every freshman and jerked them silent, way too different from the usual noisy chitchats, chants and laughter heard within the four corners of a classroom.

The first day of classes in high school signifies that to be a freshman is to be in possession of a wonderful thing: time. There is time to figure out what you want to do with your life, time to figure out what books you want to read. There is time to make friends.

This was the time of building friendships again, for each may have parted with old friends and that new sets of close acquaintances are to be developed. That I think is what being a freshman is all about – to begin again.

Our freshmen year may have been unique compared to the other years for it was in our time when the school decorum or dress code was changed, so that the boys could wear black pants instead of kaki pants. It was also in our time when the Department of Education first launched a project to further intensify the form of education in public high schools: the Bridge Program. Yes, we will never forget this program. Every time we remember it, a painstaking examination flows back into our minds. And as days passed, we encountered several more mind-boggling and constraining tests to cogitate on. Take the National Achievement Test that welcomed us at our first year at SFHS as an example. But through all these, we came to the extent to study more, learn more and acquire more knowledge.

Our days in San Francisco High School continued to pass by and progress started to set in to our school as it welcomed development and change. The usual flood-prone and muddy area by the entrance of the Molave Building was then transformed into something more accessible as the drainage was improved and pathways concretized. Likewise, the school cafeteria with dull, tedious and wearisome ambiance has become lively, bright and auspicious, but was unfortunately set on fire months after the renovation.

Notwithstanding the aforementioned concerns, every freshman continued to weave a strong bond of relationships with their new classmates and schoolmates, overcoming the sadness they felt as they went separate ways amongst elementary friends. And the once aloof, coy, and cold-hearted freshmen were turned steadfastly amicable. Hence, this was the time of being true and showing who you really are . . . again.

Sometimes our light goes out but is blown again into flame by an encounter with another human being. Each of us owes the deepest thanks to those who have rekindled and ignited this inner light.

II. Shoreline of growing up – sophomore year

Don’t be afraid to take a big step if one is indicated; you can’t cross a chasm in two small jumps.

This is the time of schooling where learning requires maturity; where the playful freshmen turn out to be dreamers. And that these dreamers learn to plan for their lives – on what they desire to become and what paths they ought to take. It is in our sophomore year that we began to write our own plans and arrangements for our own future.

As San Francisco High School welcomed back the class of 2008 for their sophomore year, the school then waved goodbye to Dr. Consolacion Montano, principal, as she moved to another high school. SFHS then warmly opened its gates for the arrival of their new head of authorities, for their new school principal, Dr. Milagros San Juan. This was surprisingly a news breaking event for the school at that moment.

Time flew and San Francisco High School started to embrace changes and improvements initiated by the effort of the newly appointed principal of the school, Dr. San Juan. In the first three months of her service, she revised the mission-vision of the school focusing on academic excellence and the realization of students’ and teachers’ giftedness, which dramatically changed the attitudes of both the teachers and students.

Also, Dr. San Juan organized an infrastructural set-up in the school to produce a more conducive learning environment among the students and in lieu of the pending condemnation of the old Narra Building. Indeed, through the collaborative endeavour of the school administrators, stakeholders and Quezon City Government, a four-storey 18-classroom building has started its structural foundation in San Francisco High School and has become operational in our junior year. Meanwhile, the Dao and PUP Buildings in SFHS underwent renovation for replacement of roofing and repainting.

Clearly, Dr. San Juan’s vision for SFHS in pursuit for academic excellence beyond mediocrity has slowly made possible and she cited that SFHS will regain its pride in due time.

It was also in the plight of Dr. San Juan’s arrival that SFHS first celebrated its founding anniversary after many years . . . after several decades. And from boring and tiresome schooldays, the students then enjoyed various school activities such as seminars, workshops, symposiums and trainings which honed their virtues and intellect, all necessary as they grow.

The growing students of class 2008 have come to the point of hitching their wagons to a star. Believing that dreaming is the beginning of success, these sophomores then begun to mold their future in their young minds. It is clear that the future holds great opportunities. It also holds pitfalls. The trick of succeeding is to seize the opportunities and avoid the pitfalls. Opportunity comes only once, but when it does not knock, you must learn to build a door.

Growing up is not that easy for growing requires valor and bravery as one meets challenges and hindrances along the way. It takes courage to grow up and become who you really are.

III. Steering with countless effort – junior year

The best helping hand that you will ever receive is the one at the end of your own arm.

All downhill comes this year. It is circumstantial that in this chapter of high school life, a myriad of responsibilities is at par facing the junior students for here is where they are trained and honed in preparation for the duties that await them.

All new academic school year at San Francisco High School and all new happenings for the juniors to encounter and celebrate. First was the transformation of the school library into something innovative as it coped with the technological advancements of the community – the school library went online. Thanks to the Quezon City Government and Quezon City Division of City Schools. Second in line was the commemoration of the school’s 49th founding anniversary – again, a day of joy and euphoria.

Nevertheless, the feeling of excitement aroused upon each junior when the news about the Junior and Senior Promenade came about. February passed and March came. Finally the prom was held . . . after years. This most awaited moment was jam packed with programs, great music, tasty food, glamorous formal attires, and the highlight of the evening – the ball. Not to mention the turn-over ceremonies of responsibilities from seniors to juniors that indicates relief to the fourth years, but the beginning of busy schooldays for the third years. However, the night was then enjoyed with relish and zest by all, particularly the juniors, setting aside the duties that await them. The prom was over and each student went home with smiles on their faces.

Looking back weeks before the prom, the Supreme Student Government (SSG), formerly Student Council had its election of new set of officers for the next academic school year. The positions from the President down to the year level representatives were opened to those who are willing to dedicate their service, time and effort for the school. All of which were struggled by the three competing party lists namely: Uno Kabataan, YOUNG and CUP. All were devoted to serve the school, but only a few were to be chosen.

After a democratic school wide voting, the student body has elected their new leaders. The juniors turned leaders, Alexis Ailex Villamor Jr., President; Rose-lyn Ann Reyes, Vice-President; Leira Anne Nolasco, Secretary; Adelpha Gonzales, Treasurer; Armie Saces, Auditor; Judith Regine Santos, P.I.O; Mary Grace Papa, Peace Officer; and the so called “Magic Four”, Ma. Rose Solas, Ferdie Javier, Janine Joy Ilagan, and Kristine Joy Torela, fourth year representatives, then metamorphosed to responsible students for they ought to show off what they can do next year.

Continuity of vision and specified goal are necessary requirements for upcoming seniors, significant aspects in striking the aim. Obstacles come at every chance and these are those frightful things that one sees when he takes his eyes off his goal. All that one can do is spit in the eye of his fears by living each day with as much passion and commitment as possible to what truly counts, such as love and justice. To give into the fear and hopelessness would be to declare defeat; something that one is not ready to do while there is still the will to struggle.

To be nobody but yourself in a world which is doing its best, night and day, to make you everybody else means to fight the hardest battle which any human being can fight; and never stop fighting. Remember that we cannot direct the wind, but we can adjust the sail.

All our dreams for our school, family and ourselves can come true . . . if we have the chivalry to pursue it. Go for it now. The future is promised to no one.

IV. Setting adrift – senior year

Do not follow where the path may lead. Go, instead, where there is no path and leave a trail.

Senior year: the final lap. New dreams are to be dreamed; new hopes are to be hoped for, and a lot new works are to be worked on. The once little youngsters have now grown and became young adults, that from playing and chatting, they will now embark and handle over great responsibilities and obligations duly bequeathed unto them by the previous senior students. In line with their duties in school, they then approached the instance of making the hardest decision. That their future counts on the manifestation of this decision. Eventually, stories of triumph, success, loss and frustration are expected from this new journey.

In preparation for the opening of classes, the Brigada Eskwela of San Francisco High School, spearheaded by the School Governing Council (SGC), went beyond the National School Maintenance Week and won 2nd place, welcoming the students with festal pleasure and felicity. This was made possible by the noble and spectacular work of the SGC.

Gradually moving forward, the seniors went to school with vigor as the school year started. The first week of school was a mere catastrophe, if I may say. For the school cafeteria alongside the Narra Building was torn down accidentally by the SM construction team, leaving the area with looms of rocks, shuttered glasses and cluttered pieces of wood. However, the company vowed of replacing those that were destroyed in due time. However, classes continued and academic club elections were held, signifying more obligations for the seniors to deal with.

Through the commitment of the Hon. Cong. Vincent “Bingbong” Crisologo to ensure that government resources entrusted under his discretion be utilized for the general welfare of the citizenry; he gracefully turned-over an audio-speech laboratory to the school for the productivity of the English language amongst students. The laboratory was built at the fourth floor of the SB Hall. Our profound gratitude to Congressman Crisologo! But our thoughts of gratitude have not stopped there, as part of San Francisco High School’s Anniversary Celebration, the SGC and SM Foundation jointly conducted medical-dental-optical missions last July and August, and it turned out to be a big success. Another record in school history. Thanks to the SGC’s continuing support, camaraderie and rapport!

After all the effort of the School Governing Council, its time for the Supreme Student Government to step its foot in preparation for the school’s Golden Jubilee Celebration. To prove that the officers of the SSG were indeed capable of leading the school, the organization volunteered to preside and prepare the programs for the celebration. After several discussion and meetings, the SSG decided to hold a Sports Festival, which served as a treat to the students and teachers. They also came up with the theme: S.O.S (Save Our Students) – Needing collective efforts towards academic excellence, with the help of Dr. San Juan herself and Mrs. Virginia Amin. With only one week preparation, the SSG, administrators and stakeholders furnished out the program and other necessary materials and equipments for the celebration.

The 29th of September came, and the 50th Founding Anniversary of San Francisco High School was successfully commemorated in spite of the not-so-friendly weather. Surely, happiness and enjoyment aboundingly invaded everyone’s hearts as they involve themselves in the historical event of the school. Other programs that kept students involved were: the Mr. and Ms. San Francisco ’07, the Leaders for Juan seminar and workshop, Books in Motion of the English Club, Poster, Logo and Slogan Making Competitions, Student Debate regarding Honesty, Industry and Nationalism, Tutorial Sessions, “Gulayan sa Paaralan” of the PTA and a lot more.

Year 2008 was a leap year and with the phenomenal February 29, the 2008 Junior and Senior Promenade was held. Though the seniors’ excitement was not as much as last year’s, everyone still enjoyed the evening. Thus, emotion of sadness abound the dance floor as seniors danced along with slow music, knowing that this was the last prom that they would attend. Yet, tears have no place on the center stage when loud music jammed, breaking the silence.

The celebration still continued as our days in San Francisco High School passed, for our batch has successfully brought honor and pride to the school as we reaped places in annual competitions: Secondary Schools Press Conferences: district , division and regional levels and qualified the national level, Student Technologists and Entrepreneurs of the Philippines (STEP) Skills Competitions: district and division levels, Values Education Competitions: district, division and national levels, Dance Competitions topped by the schools pride, Pamanadanse, Poster and Slogan Making Contests, Essay Writing and Oratorical Competitions outside school, Math Challenges, and in the SB Centrex, Center for Excellence – a help in regaining the school’s prowess. And we are happy that we would be leaving San Francisco High School a better place for what we have done and what we have been.

Hence, as we set adrift, as we leave our Alma Mater, and as we venture through another life, we can presume that we have left a legacy; a trail that others may follow and an inspiration to those who are next in line.

Graduation day is yet to come. Graduation day fills the heart with mixed feelings – fulfilment and sadness, anxiety and eagerness. Seniors will say goodbye to the comfortable and secure life within the high school walls. Everyone must get ready to march to the beat of college life. The uncertainty of the future looms large over new graduates as they spread out their wings. Armed with diplomas and idealistic dreams, they charge ahead with enthusiasm.

The fireworks begin today. Each diploma is a lighted match. Each one of the graduates is a fuse. Each one then must dream no small dreams for they have no power to move the hearts of men. One must not be afraid on attaining great things. Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure. It is our light, not our darkness that most frightens us. We ask ourselves, who am I to be brilliant, gorgeous, talented, and fabulous? Actually, who are you not to be?

We are children of God. Our small plays do not serve the world. There is nothing enlightened about shrinking so that other people won’t feel insecure around you. We are all meant to shine, as children do. We were born to make manifest the glory of God that is within us. It is not just in some of us; it is in everyone. And as we let our own light shine, we unconsciously give other people permission to do the same. As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence automatically liberates others. Shoot for the moon, even if we miss, we’ll land among the stars; let us hit our goal so that he will hit his too.

Commencement exercises are not the end; it’s just the beginning. And as the graduating class of 2008 dresses in identical caps and gowns, each and everyone would say with pride, “The tassel’s worth the hassle!” At this moment of our lives, our families are extremely proud of us. We can’t imagine the sense of relief they are experiencing.

This must be a sign of farewell to friends, but let us not be dismayed at goodbyes. A farewell is necessary before you can meet again. And meeting again, after moments or lifetime, is certain for those who are friends.

Well, it’s March 23, 2008, and our history doesn’t end here. As days move onward, we’ll throw off the bowlines and we’ll sail away from the safe harbor. . . Then our story will begin once more. Till we meet again. Arrivederci!

For now, five days to go and we’ll set adrift, with a diploma for a sail and lots of nerve for oars.

Class Prophecy of Batch 2010 in Morms.Doc Essay

Alpha Kappa Omega Batch ’81 Essay

Alpha Kappa Omega Batch ’81 Essay.

In the Batch ’81 (MVP Pictures, 1982) by Mike de Leon used the school as microcosm of Philippine society under martial law. Seven students are simultaneously applied to be members of a fraternity. The masters asked them to do the rituals of initiations, to test their stability in the decision to be frat brother through physical and psychological torture. Repeatedly emphasized the need for the neophyte oath to be faithful to her peak of the ritual.

Misunderstanding as to have a neophyte in a collaboration of rival fraternity, there was a bloody battle that killed two neophyte lives.

In the last part of the movie, Sid Lucero (Mark Gil) the strongest applicant, now runs initiation ritual. In a scene, the master asked and if you do not answer the question correctly they press its switch button and the neophyte will suffer the current with Ronnie Roxas, Jr.. (Ricky Sandico) one of their colleagues. The question, Is Martial Law good or bad for the country?.

Notably one of the applicants is the teacher, Santi Santillan (Noel Trinidad). Superior to his age he wants be a member, but he demonstrated more endurance and fortitude. If the review described him as an expression and insight of the film, appears to involve the bending Academy values ​​oppose Batch ’81.

The highlights of Mike de Leon film is the scene of fighting between Omega and Sigma Alpha Omicron Kappa Sigma. Extreme violence and bloody murder of the content of the scene but no direct manifestation of horrifying detail. De Leon attributed the Nazi perversion of the city occupied by Germany during World War the legal fraternity violence. In a demonstration of students, adapt the Alpha Kappa Omega of scenes. At the end of Batch ’81 was master SID, the neophyte who rabidly conform to the laws of Alpha Kappa Omega. He also now makes the new batch of the neophyte. Obviously the point of Mike de Leon is that Heritage of the sadism of martial law authorities, and in the future, continue the existence of cruelty and violence being implanted in the people.

Theme: To encourage the students to be a neophyte members and show the initiation rites of different fraternities.

Reaction: In this movie it shows how much obstacle you will encounter when you join fraternities. The pain will last forever and I will not even try to join in any of this fraternity.I felt sad and mercy to the people who joined in frats.

Director : Mike De Leon Miguel Pamintuan de Leon is a noted Filipino film director, cinematographer, scripwriter and film producer. His is also known as Mike de Leon. He was born in Manila on May 24, 1947 to Manuel de Leon and Imelda Pamintuan. His interest in filmmaking began when he pursued a master’s degree in Art History at the University of Heidelberg, Germany.

Alpha Kappa Omega Batch ’81 Essay

Beer Production Essay

Beer Production Essay.

Kool Breweries Ltd: An Overview Alcoholic Beverages Brewing: How Beer is made Brewing: Process Overview Beer Production: Flowchart Beer Production: Ingredients Beer Production Process o o o o o o o Mashing Lautering Boiling and Hopping Hop Separation and Cooling Fermentation Filtration Packaging 13 13 14 14 15 16 17 18 4 5 8 9 10 11 Quality Control in Beer Production 3 Kool Breweries Ltd: An Overview Kool Breweries Limited is a premium-branded beverage company dedicated to delivering quality products enjoyed by millions around the world every day.

An academic visit to the Kool Brewery manufacturing plant in Haryana was organized as a part of the course ‘Biotech Plant Site Layout’ on the 19th March 2007.

This visit provided with the opportunity to observe the different processes involved in the beer manufacturing, i. e. mashing, lautering, whirl pooling, fermentation, filtration and packaging. Also the quality control measures being adopted to maintain the quality of the beer to international standards and the basic layout of the plant were also observed.

The visit was a very useful academic as well as practical exposure and we look forward to more of such visits in future to enhance both our theoretical, technical and practical knowledge.

4 Alcoholic Beverages An alcoholic beverage containing ethanol. is a drink Ethanol is a psychoactive drug, a depressant, and many societies regulate or restrict its sale and consumption. Countries place various legal restrictions on the sale of alcoholic drinks to young people. The manufacture and consumption of alcohol is notably found (to some degree) in most cultures and societies around the world, from hunter-gatherer tribes to organized nation-states.

The consumption of alcohol is often important at social events in such societies and may be an important aspect of a community’s culture. The concentration of alcohol in a drink may be specified in percent alcohol by volume (ABV), in percentage by weight (sometimes abbreviated w/w for weight for weight), or in proof. Most yeast cannot grow when the concentration of alcohol is higher than about 18% by volume, so that is a practical limit for the strength of fermented beverages such as wine, beer, and sake.

Strains of yeast have been developed that can survive in solutions of up to 25% alcohol by volume, but these were bred for ethanol fuel production, not beverage production. 5 Alcoholic Beverages • Mead – fermented honey and water, sugar in honey is too concentrated for yeasts to grow so it must be diluted. Probably made by early humans by accident initially. Mead is made now by boiling diluted honey and adding nitrogencontaining compounds, then yeast culture. Fermentation process takes 6-8 weeks. • Wine – Yeasts are present on fruit skins so fermentation can occur naturally.

Wine was probably produced accidentally as long as 10,000 ybp but that is only a guess. • Beers – have been made for at least 6000 years. Brewing has been a hit and miss process until about 200 years ago, until then it was difficult to control quality. High quality beer has three basic ingredients: barley malt, hops, and water. Adjuncts are used extensively in cheap beers. 6 • Sake – “rice wine” – Conversion of rice starch to sugar is done by Aspergillus (bread mold). Yeast are then added for fermentation, final alcohol concentration is 19% and is fortified to 20-22%.

• Chicha – corn beer, Central and S. America, made from chewed corn. • Distillation o Whiskeys – distilled from “beers” and aged – Scotch, Bourbon, Rye. o Cognacs and brandies – distilled from wines. o Grain alcohol is 95% = 190 proof o Gin and vodka – ethanol + water, gin is flavored. o Rum – fermented molasses or sugarcane juice 7 Brewing: How Beer is Made Brewing is the production of alcoholic beverages and alcohol fuel through fermentation. This is the method used in beer production. Brewing is fundamentally a natural process.

The art and science of brewing lies in converting natural food materials into a pure, pleasing beverage. Although great strides have been made with the techniques for achieving high-quality production, beer today is still a beverage brewed from natural products in a traditional way. Although the main ingredients of beer have remained constant (water, yeast, malt and hops), it is the precise recipe and timing of the brew that gives one a different taste from another. The production of beer is one of the most closely supervised and controlled manufacturing processes in our society.

Apart from brewing company expenditures on research and quality control designed to achieve the highest standards of uniformity and purity in the product, the production of beer is also subject to regular inspection and review by federal and provincial Health Departments. Substances used in the brewing process are approved by Health Canada. On average, a batch of beer will take about 30 days to produce. To be more specific, brewing takes nine and a half hours, while fermentation and aging combined take between 21 and 35 days for ales and lagers respectively.

8 Brewing: Process Overview The grain used as the raw material is usually barley, but rye, maize, rice and oatmeal are also employed. In the first stage the grain is malted, either by causing it to germinate or by artificial means. This converts the carbohydrates to dextrin and maltose, and these sugars are then extracted from the grain by soaking in a mash tun (vat or cask) and then agitating in a lauter tun. The resulting liquor, known as sweet wort, is then boiled in a copper vessel with hops, which give a bitter flavour and helps to preserve the beer.

The hops are then separated from the wort and it is passed through chillers into fermenting vessels where the yeast is added-a process known as pitching-and the main process of converting sugar into alcohol is carried out. (For discussion of fermentation see the chapter Pharmaceutical industry. ) The beer is then chilled to , centrifuged and filtered to clarify it; it is then ready for dispatch by keg, bottle, aluminium can or bulk transport. Figure 65. 8 is a flow chart of the brewing process. 9 Beer Production: Flowchart 10 Beer Production: Ingredients.

The water must be pure, with no trace of bacteria. This is vital, because it allows the other ingredients to release all their flavour. 95% of breweries have their own spring or natural well. Barley is a cereal that offers a key advantage: it can be preserved for a long time after harvesting. In order for barley to be used in the making of beer, it must first be malted. It is malted barley that gives beer its characteristic color and taste. Hops or “green gold” come from a climbing plant with male and female flowers; only the female flowers are used. There are various varieties, ranging from very bitter to aromatic.

Hops grew naturally in our regions in ancient times, and this plant has been used by brewers since time immemorial. In antiquity, it could be replaced by mixtures of aromatic herbs, in particular rosemary and thyme, which had the same preserving effect as hops but of course gave the resulting beverage a quite different flavour. Yes, it is hops that give beer its characteristic bitterness, and this plant became so successful that in the 18th century all varieties of beer contained hops. 11 Yeasts transform the sugars in the must into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

The type of yeast used varies according to the type of beer. There was a time when man had no control over yeasts in beer. Louis Pasteur was able to explain their role in the brewing process, and yeast culture was developed thanks to the work of the Danish scientist Hansen. Nowadays there are two main varieties of yeasts that are used in brewing: saccharomyces cerevisiae and saccharomyces carlsbergensis (bottomfermenting). Certain other products are used in the making of beer, in particular spices: coriander, ginger, cloves, sage, fennel, mustard seeds, aniseed, cinnamon, etc. 12 Beer Production Process Mashing.

Malt is added to heated, purified water and, through a carefully controlled time and temperature process, the malt enzymes break down the starch to sugar and the complex proteins of the malt to simpler nitrogen compounds. Mashing takes place in a large, round tank called a “mash mixer” or “mash tun” and requires careful temperature control. At this point, depending on the type of beer desired, the malt is supplemented by starch from other cereals such as corn, wheat or rice. Lautering The mash is transferred to a straining (or lautering) vessel which is usually cylindrical with a slotted false bottom two to five centimetres above the true bottom.

The liquid extract drains through the false bottom and is run off to the brew kettle. This extract, a sugar solution, is called “wort” but it is not yet beer. Water is “sparged” (or sprayed) though the grains to wash out as much of the extract as possible. The “spent grains” are removed and sold as cattle feed. 13 Boiling and Hopping The brew kettle, a huge cauldron holding from 70 to 1,000 hectolitres and made of shiny copper or stainless steel, is probably the most striking sight in a brewery. It is fitted with coils or a jacketed bottom for steam heating and is designed to boil the wort under carefully-controlled conditions.

Boiling, which usually lasts about two hours, serves to concentrate the wort to a desired specific gravity, to sterilize it and to obtain the desired extract from the hops. The hop resins contribute flavour, aroma and bitterness to the brew. Once the hops have flavoured the brew, they are removed. When applicable, highly-fermentable syrup may be added to the kettle. Undesirable protein substances that have survived the journey from the mash mixer are coagulated, leaving the wort clear. Hop Separation and Cooling After the beer has taken on the flavour of the hops, the wort then proceeds to the “hot wort tank”.

It is then cooled, usually in a simple-looking apparatus called a “plate cooler”. As the wort and a coolant flow past each other on opposite sides of stainless steel plates, the temperature of the wort drops from boiling to about 10 to 15. 5 °C, a drop of more than 65. 6 °C, in a few seconds. 14 Fermentation The wort is then moved to the fermenting vessels and yeast, the guarded central mystery of ancient brewer’s art, is added. It is the yeast, which is a living, single-cell fungi, that breaks down the sugar in the wort to carbon dioxide and alcohol. It also adds many beer-flavouring components.

There are many kinds of yeasts, but those used in making beer belong to the genus saccharomyces. The brewer uses two species of this genus. One yeast type, which rises to the top of the liquid at the completion of the fermentation process, is used in brewing ale and stout. The other, which drops to the bottom of the brewing vessel, is used in brewing lager. During fermentation, which lasts about seven to 10 days, the yeast may multiply six-fold and in the open-tank fermenters used for brewing ale, a creamy, frothy head may be seen on top of the brew. 15 Filtration.

Filtering the beer stabilizes the flavour, and gives beer its polished shine and brilliance. Not all beer is filtered. When tax determination is required by local laws, it is typically done at this stage in a calibrated tank. Filters come in many types. Many use pre-made filtration media such as sheets or candles, while others use a fine powder made of, for example, diatomaceous earth, also called kieselguhr, which is introduced into the beer and recirculated past screens to form a filtration bed.

Filters range from rough filters that remove much of the yeast and any solids (e.g. hops, grain particles) left in the beer, to filters tight enough to strain color and body from the beer. Normally used filtration ratings are divided into rough, fine and sterile. Rough filtration leaves some cloudiness in the beer, but it is noticeably clearer than unfiltered beer. Fine filtration gives a glass of beer that you could read a newspaper through, with no noticeable cloudiness. Finally, as its name implies, sterile filtration is fine enough that almost all microorganisms in the beer are removed during the filtration process. 16 Packaging.

In the bottle shop of a brewery, returned empty bottles go through washers in which they receive a thorough cleaning. After washing, the bottles are inspected electronically and visually and pass on to the rotary filler. Some of these machines can fill up to 1,200 bottles per minute. A “crowning” machine, integrated with the filler, places caps on the bottles. The filled bottles may then pass through a “tunnel pasteurizer” (often 23 metres from end to end and able to hold 15,000 bottles) where the temperature of the beer is raised about 60 °C.for a sufficient length of time to provide biological stability, then cooled to room temperature.

Emerging from the pasteurizer, the bottles are inspected, labelled, placed in boxes, stacked on pallets and carried by lift truck to the warehousing areas to await shipment. Also in the bottle shop may be the canning lines, where beer is packaged in cans for shipment. Packaged beer may be heat-pasteurized or micro-filtered, providing a shelf-life of up to six months when properly stored. Draught beer, since it is normally sold and consumed within a few weeks, may not go through this process.

The draught beer is placed in sterilized kegs ready for shipment. 17 Quality Control in Beer Production Setting up specifications is done all the time. Brewers decide on the basic properties of original gravity, color, and flavor and from this develop a formulation of raw materials and a process to extract what is wanted from them. Sensory methods: Sensory methods are not necessarily easy to apply (and often ill used) but are useful and quite cheap to do. They include an analysis of beer flavor (undoubtedly beer’s most important attribute), beer clarity, color, and foam.

Brewers who do not regularly and critically taste and visually examine their beers in a formal setting deny themselves much critical information. Beer color, on the other hand, can be measured in a comparator (just a light box set up for visually matching color – the human eye is much better at this than most instruments) or by quite cheap instruments, such as a tintometer. A standard beer set aside for color matching remains stable for quite a long time if kept cold and in the dark. Observers can rate the beers on some sensory scale.

Putting numerical values from instruments on flavor, haze, foam, color, and so forth is where the trouble starts, but that isn’t really necessary for a simple quality-control program. 18 Cycling a beer on some regular schedule (e. g. daily) between a warm place (60° C) and a cold one (40° C) will create haze; more stable beers withstand more cycles than less stable ones. Similarly, storing a beer at 25° C in an archive (a fancy name for a warm cupboard) will encourage microbial growth and other sorts of beer breakdown. Instrumental Analysis: The second kind of specification and analysis is not amenable to sensory testing.

igh on this list of “invisible” specifications has to be the original gravity (OG) and the degree of fermentability (hence alcohol content) of beers. These are most easily determined on wort but require an investment in some simple apparatus – a hydrometer and measuring cylinder. The wort OG and fermentability are fundamental specifications for a beer, because beer is made from the fermentable portion of the wort. These values also allow a brewer to calculate extract yield from raw materials (brewhouse yield) and predict beer yield.

The degree of fermentability can be determined by a rapid fermentation test in which a high population of yeast cells, with frequent agitation, rapidly ferments out the wort. At the same time, wort flavor and clarity can be noted. A sample of wort, taken under aseptic conditions and set aside in the archive, will reveal its microbiological status in a few days and tell a good deal about the sanitary status of the brewhouse. Package beer, on the other hand, must be analyzed for CO2 content (carbonation) and bottle “air” for flavor stability. 19.

The microbiological status of a packaged beer, especially one destined for a distant market, is of prime concern for beer flavor and for the safety of the consuming public (potential for exploding bottles). The only satisfactory microbiological test is to pass at least 100 ml of beer through a 0. 45 micrometer membrane, then plate the membrane on media (such as MRS) under conditions (for instance anaerobic at about 25° C) capable of detecting the target organisms in low numbers. A quick squint at a beer sample under a microscope doesn’t cut it.

Beer Production Essay