Microorganism Profile

Microorganism Profile Grading Rubric:

CriteriaSatisfactoryNeeds ImprovementUnsatisfactory
Structure of assigned microbe (10 points)       CSLO 2The student has thoroughly described the structure of the assigned microbe in detail, including the microbiological tools that would be necessary to observe the organism and virulence factors. (Up to 10 points)The student has partially described the structure of the assigned microbe in detail, and/or microbiological tools that would be necessary to observe the organism or virulence factors are missing.  (Up to 7 points)The student has insufficiently described the structure of the assigned microbe in detail, and the microbiological tools that would be necessary to observe the organism and virulence factors are missing.  (Up to 3 points)
Infectious Disease Information (up to 10 points)     CLSO 10The student has thoroughly described the infectious disease caused by the assigned microbe, including conditions, duration of infection, complications, and predisposing factors. (Up to 10 points)The student has partially described the infectious disease caused by the assigned microbe.  (Up to 7 points)The student has insufficiently described the infectious disease caused by the assigned microbe.  (Up to 3 points)
Interaction between Microbe and Host Immune System (up to 10 points)     CLSO 5All aspects concerning the interactions between the microbe and the human immune system were fully addressed. (all items or terms that are listed are described or explained in a very complete manner). (Up to 10 points)Some aspects concerning the interactions between the microbe and the human host were mostly addressed. (Up to 7 points)Few aspects concerning the interactions between the microbe and the human host were addressed. (Items or terms listed with very little description or explanation). (Up to3 points)
Principles of Epidemiology (up to 10 points) CSLO 6All aspects concerning the transmission of the assigned microbe between hosts are fully addressed. An original diagram created by the student is used to address epidemiology.  (Up to 10 points)Some aspects concerning the transmission of the assigned microbe between hosts are addressed. An original diagram created by the student is used to address some aspects of epidemiology.  (Up to 7 points)Few aspects concerning the transmission of the assigned microbe between hosts are addressed, and/or the diagram is not original. (Up to 3 points)
Chemotherapeutic options (up to 10 points)   CLSO 8All aspects concerning the chemotherapeutic options for the assigned microbe are fully addressed. (Up to 10 points)Some aspects concerning the chemotherapeutic options for the assigned microbe are addressed. (Up to 7 points)Few aspects concerning the chemotherapeutic options for the assigned microbe are addressed. (Up to 3 points)
Clinical Relevance (up to 10 points)   CLSO 1All aspects concerning the clinical relevance of the assigned microbe are fully addressed. (Up to 10 points)Some aspects concerning the clinical relevance of the assigned microbe are addressed. (Up to 7 points)Few aspects concerning the clinical relevance of the assigned microbe are addressed (Up to 3 points)
Scientific literacy (up to 20 points)       GEC 6Student can accurately interpret and communicate information using scientific vocabulary using written and/or graphical means consistently throughout the assignment. (Up to 20 points)Student can accurately interpret and communicate information using scientific vocabulary using written and graphical means mostly throughout the assignment. (Up to 10 points)Student did not accurately interpret and communicate information using scientific vocabulary using written and/or graphical means throughout the assignment. (Up to 5 points)
Overall Presentation (10 points)Overall presentation is 100% complete, orderly, and demonstrates scholarly achievement including APA format, proper grammar, and punctuation. (Up to 10 points)Overall presentation is mostly complete, orderly, and demonstrates scholarly achievement including APA format, proper grammar, and punctuation. (Up to 7 points)Overall presentation is two or more of the following: incomplete or does not demonstrate scholarly achievement. (Up to 4 points)
References (10 points)At least 4 sources have been referenced, cited in-text, and references are from reputable sources. (Up to 10 points)At least 3 sources have been referenced, cited in-text, and references are from reputable sources.  (Up to 7 points)Insufficient sources were referenced, in-text citations are missing, or references are from inappropriate sources. (Up to 4 points)

Total Points (out of 100): __________

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Name and describe the roles of the three main trophic categories that make up the biotic structure of every ecosystem.

Review chapter 5.1 pg. 100-105: Name and describe the roles of the three main trophic categories that make up the biotic structure of every ecosystem. Give examples of organisms from each category.

Name and describe the roles of the three main trophic categories that make up the biotic structure of every ecosystem.

Review chapter 5.3 pg. 107-110: Describe how differences in climate cause the Earth to be partitioned into major biomes. Name the major terrestrial biomes and identify their dominant vegetation and animal life for each biome.

Review chapter 5.4 pg. 113-117: Define the terms ecological succession and climax ecosystem. How do disturbances allow for ecological succession? What role may fire play in ecological succession, and how may fire be used in the management of certain ecosystems


This is a REFLECTION JOURNAL, meaning you write a short paper demonstrating your learning outcomes from ASSIGNED material. The journal shall FULLY cover the subjects as requested and be typed in and well-organized essay format (maximum 1,000 words).

The REQUIRED textbook is required and the primary study source. The page numbers must be included (e.g., biodiversity, pg.8) to show where you learn the key points, such as definitions, facts, data, and research findings when needed. The reference(s) and in-text citation (APA or MLA format) need to be correctly written and presented if using supplementary materials other than textbook(s).

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Biology – Anatomy Nursing

Jim Wolf is a 45-year-old auto-parts store owner who constantly washes his hands. He also continually checks and rechecks parts lists, equipment, and his employee’s schedules. His wife, Mary, who works in the business with Jim, has convinced him to seek medical intervention for his problem because his anxiety level has been interfering with his work performance and his ability to sleep. After testing and referral to a psychiatrist, he has been diagnosed with OCD. What can you tell Jim and Mary about this disorder? Jim asks you if you think he is crazy. How would you respond to that question? What type of treatment might he expect?

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental health condition characterized by persistent, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) that lead to repetitive behaviors (compulsions) in an effort to alleviate anxiety. It’s a relatively common disorder, affecting approximately 1-2% of the population.

Jim, you are not crazy. OCD is a treatable condition that affects many people, and seeking help is a positive step towards managing your symptoms and improving your quality of life. The term “crazy” is stigmatizing and inaccurate, and it’s essential to recognize that OCD is a medical condition that can be treated.

Treatment for OCD typically involves a combination of therapy and medication. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of psychotherapy that is highly effective for OCD. CBT helps individuals identify and challenge their negative thoughts and beliefs, which can reduce anxiety and prevent compulsive behaviors. Exposure and response prevention (ERP) is a specific type of CBT that involves gradually exposing individuals to situations that trigger their obsessions and teaching them how to resist the urge to perform compulsions.

Medications, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), can also be helpful in managing OCD symptoms. These medications work by increasing the levels of serotonin in the brain, which can improve mood and reduce anxiety.

It’s essential to work closely with a mental health professional who specializes in OCD to develop an individualized treatment plan that addresses your specific needs and goals. With the right treatment and support, many people with OCD can effectively manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

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Normal anatomy of the influential body system

Write on Seizure


 Your paper should include the underlined items below as section headings.

APA 7th edition Title page:

  • This is a separate page, with the following information in the middle: course title, paper title, student’s name, instructor’s name, and date.

Description of Pathology:

  • Start the paper on a new page.
  • In this section, you will describe the pathology (statistics, background information, etc.). Give as much information as you can about it but be sure it is relevant and not just filler. A comprehensive introductory section of the condition should be in one to two paragraphs.

Normal anatomy of the influential body system affected: In this section, you will describe what is considered normal anatomy for your particular pathophysiology. For example, if you are discussing a disease related to the brain, explain what is normal for the brain from an anatomical standpoint. You should show comprehensive knowledge of the fundamental concepts and communicate information using scientific vocabulary. There should be little to no discussion of the condition in this section.

Normal physiology of the influential body system affected: In this section, you will discuss physiology. Remember that when describing physiology, it isn’t enough to merely list body system functions (Ex: Neurons send signals throughout the body). Instead, you need to be able to describe how it does it. The show is physiology. There should be little to no discussion of the condition in this section.

Mechanism of Pathophysiology: This section will likely be the most in-depth and extended section. In this section, you will be able to explain your particular pathophysiology from a scientific standpoint. In the previous two quotes, you explained what is considered normal; in this section, you should describe what the pathophysiology is doing that is causing these issues and how the normal anatomy & physiology are affected/different in a person with your condition. You should thoroughly understand the anatomical and physiological changes contributing to the disease. Some good keywords to search for when doing your research might be “Pathology of __________, and” Pathophysiology of __________.”

Prevention: In this section, you will explain how your pathophysiology could be prevented. This should outline possible prevention protocols or indicate if none is available based on the current scientific literature.

Treatment: In this section, you will explain how your pathophysiology is commonly treated. Provide possible treatment protocols for the condition based on current scientific literature. Be sure to bring in relevant nursing information and how you might be involved in treating the disease.

Conclusion: Finally, you should summarize your findings. All good research papers should include a decision where you wrap up and digest all of the essential points made in your form.


  • As with the Title page, this should be a separate page.
  • All references should be included in correct and complete APA format.
  • All references must be cited appropriately in the paper using APA-style in-text citations.
  • A minimum of three reputable sources are required for this assignment.

Requirements for Length & Submission

The length requirement for this paper is between 4-6 total pages of content, double-spaced – this does not include the Title page and the Reference page (both on separate pages) that do not contribute to page count. Using images/tables/diagrams will not count for the total page number either.

Their instructor will assign students topics related to physiology and pathological conditions of physiological systems. You must write your paper based on your given topic.

Your paper must be submitted as a PDF (.pdf) or Word document (.doc or .docx). These are the only file types that will be accepted.

Assignment Checklist

CheckboxSections & CriteriaTitle pageDescription of Pathology

The body of the paper should include the following sections:

  • Normal Anatomy of the body system
  • Normal Physiology of the body system
  • Mechanism of Pathology
  • Prevention
  • Treatment

ConclusionReference pageBetween 4-6 total pages of content, double-spaced –  Title page and the Reference page (both on separate pages)  do NOT contribute to page count. Using images/tables/diagrams will not count for the total page number either.
Be sure to include in-text citations where appropriate. You should have a minimum of one in-text for every final reference you have listed.
A minimum of three reputable sources are required for this assignment. All sources must be appropriately cited in APA format – in-text citations and references.

Times New Roman, 12 pt. font

Note: Turnitin report should be added.

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Plate Tectonics

Plate Tectonics
(from the Greek word tektonikos, meaning “to build”)

I. The Theory (in a nutshell):  Continents and ocean floors are fractured into separate lithospheric plates (i.e. crust + uppermost mantle) that move independenly and in different directions…  This results in earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the building of mountains. 

  1. Origins of the Theory
    1. Abraham Ortelius was first to speculate on continental fit (1596)
    1. Alfred Wegener (called Father of Continental Drift / Plate Tectonics):  This German geophysicist and meteorologist publicly presented his theory in 1912, then published it in 1915.  The theory was considered revolutionary.  He studied rocks, plants, fossils, and the “fit” of the continents. This was NOTsufficient proof for scientists.
  1. The Evidence to Support the Theory (list is roughly in chronological order)
    1. Matching Coastlines (Continental Fit):    The shapes of the coastlines – especially around the Atlantic Ocean – appear to match.  Modern underwater surveys have documented a much closer fit beneath the surface than is observed at the surface.
  • Matching Geology:   Scientists have documented numerous examples of RARE AND UNIQUE rock samples separated by thousands of miles of ocean.
  • Matching Biology (both living and fossilized):  Scientists have documented hundreds of examples of related species (and/or groups of species) of plants and animals which are separated by oceans; in many of these cases the species ARE NOT able to float, swim or fly.  Also, many RARE AND UNIQUE fossilized species are found separated as well.
  • Ocean Floor Topography (Bathymetry):    Long mid-ocean ridges and long oceanic trenches found in linear patterns around the world.
  • Global Earthquake Patterns:    Linear patterns of earthquakes match pattern of mid-ocean ridges and oceanic trenches around the world.  The patterns actually form shapes!!!
  • Linear Chains of Volcanoes:      Linear volcanic mountain ranges and volcanic island chains match pattern of oceanic trenches around the world.
  • Ocean Floor Rock ALL VOLCANIC!!!!       All ocean floor rock comprised of basalt – a volcanic rock!!!!
  • Heat Emanating from Mid-Ocean Ridges: Likely from slow cooling of lavas, which can take millions of years.
  1. Age of Ocean Floor Rock:      Rock at mid-ocean ridges is consistently the youngest, becoming older as you travel away in either direction.  In general, there is no “old” rock  on the ocean floor (oldest is ONLY 208 millions years).
  • Earthquake Depth Pattern near Trenches :   Earthquake origins shallowest at trenches, and increasingly deeper toward associated volcanoes…evidence of “diving” plate.

    • Extrusion of Magma at the Sea Floor:  It was only recently (last fifteen years) that magma was actually observed erupting at spreading centers.
  1. The Basics of Plate Tectonic Theory:  Theory became widely accepted in the late 1960’s; renamed Plate Tectonics (previously called continental drift).

A. Structures Critical to Understanding Plate Tectonics (review)

  1. Lithosphere (Crust + Uppermost mantle):  review earlier description
  • Asthenosphere: review earlier description
  • Processes Critical to Understanding Plate Tectonics
  1. Sea Floor Spreading (accretion):  Magma rises along zones beneath the sea floor.  It then splits the plate, fills the new gap, and finally cools, creating new ocean floor made of mostly basalt.  Accretion refers to the addition of new crust material.  The Atlantic Ocean is growing due to this process (e.g. at the Mid Atlantic Ridge).
  • Subduction (consumption):  Where one plate dives beneath another and is consumed (melted).  Consumption is the subtraction (or destruction) of plate material.  The Pacific Ocean is shrinking due to this process. (e.g. at the Peru-Chile, Japan, Marianas, and Aleutian Trenches).
  • Past Continents, beginning with Pangaea (approx. 225mya):  Wegener called his original supercontinent Pangaea (meaning “all Earth”).  It split into:
  1. Laurasia:  Laurasia eventually became N. America, Europe, and Asia.
  • Gondwana:  Gondwana eventually became S. America, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica.
  • Movement Continues:  Lithospheric plates are in constant motion, usually moving in sudden jumps, felt as earthquakes.  The lithospheric plates move at an approx rate of 5-10cm/year (50-100km per million years).
  • Plate Boundaries (simplified summary)
   Divergent Boundaries (forces of extension): Sea Floor SpreadingContinental Rupture
Text Box: These are the mountain building processes!!!   Convergent Boundaries  (forces of compression): Oceanic vs. Continental (subduction)Oceanic vs. Oceanic (subduction)Continental vs. Continental (continental collision or “suture”)
             Transform Boundaries (shearing forces)

Detailed Plate Boundary Review

Major Plate Boundary TypesSub-TypesSelected Important
Global Examples
Selected Important
Regional Examples
Associated Faulting and Volcanism**
Divergent (extensional forces)  Sea Floor Spreading*Mid-Atlantic Rift and RidgeGorda Rift and RidgeGulf of Californianormal faultingshield volcanoeseffusive eruptions
Continental RuptureEast African RiftGreat Basin (from Gulf of CA northward into Nevada)
Convergent (compressional forces)  Oceanic vs. Continent* (subduction)Peru-Chile Trench and Andes RangeCascade Trench and Cascade Range (Lassen, Shasta, Hood, Baker, Rainier, St. Helens…)reverse and thrust faultingcomposite volcanoesexplosive eruptions
Oceanic vs. Oceanic (subduction)Marianas Trench and IslandsPhilippines Trench and IslandsJapan Trench and IslandsAleutian Trench and Islands (Alaska)
Continent vs. Continent (continental collision) Himalayas (India vs. Asia)AlpsRockies
Transform (shearing forces)  (some on land, some on ocean floor, all are similar)North Anatolian (in Turkey)San Andreas Faultstrike-slip faulting (right and left lateral)volcanic activity uncommon

*You must be able to draw a profile diagram of these processes – see next page.   **These topics will be covered in depth in next module.

volcanic mountain range(ex. CASCADE RANGE)  




oceanic trench (ex. CASCADE TRENCH)  

mid-ocean rift and ridge (ex. GORDA RIDGE)  

Speech Bubble: Rectangle: Magma:

uppermost mantle  
uppermost mantle  

continental crust  
oceanic crust  
uppermost mantle  
oceanic crust  

Profile Diagram of Sea Floor Spreading and Oceanic vs Continent Subduction
<<<This is critically important!!!!!>>>

The Tectonic Setting of Western North America

                                        (adapted from Fig. 10-11a, pg 322)

Practice Map for Locating Plate Boundaries  
See next page for sample questions >>>>>>  

Sample Questions:  Questions similar to these will be on your exam.  As you study you should anticipate how I might use these questions to create new questions on the same concepts.

1Which of the following was NOT used as evidence in support of Plate Tectonic Theory? Global map showing the location of earthquakesGlobal map showing the location of landslides and mudflowsGlobal map of showing the location mid-ocean ridges and oceanic trenchesGlobal map showing the age of ocean floor rockHundreds of examples of related plants and animals – unable to float, swim, or fly – which are separated by 1000s of miles of ocean.  
2Where on the ocean floor will I find the oldest rock?   A. near sea floor spreading centers   B. far from sea floor spreading centers  
3What type of forces are evident at convergent plate boundaries?   A. shearing   B. extensional  C. compressional   D. recessional  
4What was the name for Wegener’s original supercontinent?  A. Laurasia   B. Gondwana   C.  Rodinia   D. Pangaea   E. Fossillia  
5At what type of plate boundary might I find reverse faulting?  
6A volcanic island chain such as the Marianas Islands is formed at what specific type of plate boundary? A. divergent    B. convergent (oceanic vs. oceanic)   C. convergent (oceanic vs. continental) D. convergent (continental vs. continental)      
7Which land mass was once connected to Laurasia? India     B. North America      C. South America    D. Antarctica     E. Australia  
8Which land mass was once connected to Gondwanaland? Greenland     B. Asia      C. North America    D. Antarctica     E. Europe  
9Approximately how fast do lithospheric plates move across the Earth?  A. 0.5 mm/yr    B. 5cm/yr   C. 5 meters/yr   D. 5km/yr   E. 500km/yr  
10Which of these processes is probably most responsible for driving (or causing) tectonic plate movement? A.  upwelling of magma at divergent boundaries      B. tidal fluctuation   C. upwelling of magma at “hot spots”     D. subduction  
11Where is subduction occurring?    (You will be shown a map on the exam.)  
12At which location did a continental collision (also called continental suture) occur in the past?  (You will be shown a map on the exam.)
13At which location is a continental rupture (split) occurring?  (You will be shown a map on the exam.)
14POSSIBLE ESSAY QUESTION:  In the future the Atlantic Ocean will likely become larger than the Pacific.  Explain this statement using plate tectonic terminology and give details and examples.
15CRITICAL DIAGRAM QUESTION:  Provide a thorough and detailed profile (sideview) diagram of sea floor spreading and subduction.

GOOD NEWS!!!  The practice questions above – plus many, many more – can be found in the online practice quizzes discussed in your syllabus and in class.  You can take each quiz multiple times, and each time you will get some new questions.  Once submitted, the quizzes are graded automatically, with the correct answers provided immediately.  This is a great way to prepare for the exams!!!    


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Differences of Individualistic and Collectivist Cultures in Shaping Behaviors

Differences of Individualistic and Collectivist Cultures in Shaping Behaviors

Culture is defined as the amalgamation of values, beliefs and norms that a specific group of people shares. The fact that culture is shared among a group of people, it influences that way in which people learn, live and behave (Hagger, Rentzelas & Koch, 2014). Some theorists posit that culture is criticalv in shaping a person’s personality. That is why it is asserted that people who are born and bred in within an environment that embodies the same culture share common personality traits.  The purpose of this task is to explore the differences in culture and how individualism and collectivism culture influence people’s behaviours.  The task will mainly in focus on the collectivism in oriental cultures and individualism in western cultures and determine how the two cultural approaches differ and their impact on the behaviour of those who ascribe to them.

Culture and Self-construal

The interpretation of cultural differences is mainly explained using the concept of self-construal.  Self-construal depicts how an individual perceives and understands her/himself. For instance, Western culture promotes the independent self-construal where an individual is perceived as a separate entity from other individuals in the society and emphasizes the value of self’s independence and uniqueness. On the other hand, the East Asian cultures promote the aspects of interdependent self-construal (collectivism) with a self that is more interconnected with others and operates rationally and harmoniously in society. Researchers have provided a glimpse of the connection between the self-construal, brain and interpretation of culture. Studies have established that self is formed based on the context of cultural script and practices and increased involvement in cultural tasks that reflect the values of independent (individualism) and interdependent (collectivism) self-construal (Gavreliuc & Ciobotă, 2013). Therefore, the way a person behaves is culturally patterned since culture plays a critical role in the establishment of the construction of self. A study by Ames and Fiske (2010) established that culture also shapes the brain’s functional anatomy and neural activity. The study was based on the participants from America (Western Culture) and China (Collective culture). Both groups were asked to think about themselves and their mothers or a public person. The fMRI data indicated that parts of the brain were activated when both of the groups were asked to think about themselves. However, the Chinese participants’ parts of the brain were activated when asked to think about their mothers. That indicates the influence of the collective culture on the brain neural activity and behaviour of the Chinese participants. Evidently, culture has a significant impact on the way people represents themselves in the context of their daily lives. It has been established that when the neurons fire is repeatedly scripted in a way for a prolonged time, brain pathways can be reinforced and established to promote seamless execution and cultural tasks and enhance the biological adaptation of culture.

Some of the theorists posit that personality is gained through culture and not biology. According to the cultural relativism theory, the differences between people in various societies usually stems from the cultural differences installed during childhood. The personality development of a person is set during early childhood development based on unique cultural traits (Park, Norasakkunkit & Kashima, 2017). The personality differences are attributed to the differences in childrearing which indicates significant similarities between childrearing and adult personality types.

On the other hand, the human social order as a normative order postulates that social system is saddled with reciprocal roles that are shared by members of the social group and acquired from a previous generation. The reciprocal roles are critical in satisfying society functional requirements of adaptation, adjustment and integration. According to the human social order, human characteristics are not acquired through learning but through but based on the norms and rules in the environment that an individual occupies. The norms and rules provide accustoms a person with the way of behaving. Custom in anthropology is depicted as the socially acquired behaviour pattern widely performed by society members or a constituent group social group. Without the customs rules, human behaviours can only be interpreted as individual action through social interactions. Therefore, customs significantly impact how an individual behaves since that contains rules and norms that guide the proper performance of actions among people sharing a common culture. The values in culture are unconscious, and they are only realizable when meeting a person who is different from you. The tendency to judge others based on one’s culture lens increases the propensity to raise conflict.

Differences Between Individualistic and Collectivist Cultures

As aforementioned, culture is one aspect that influences how people think and behave in a social setting. Significant differences exist between individualistic and collectivist cultures that impact human behaviours differently. On the one hand, the individualistic culture stresses the needs of the individual over the group needs (Li, Vazsonyi & Dou, 2018). In the individualistic culture, people are viewed as independent and autonomous. The social behaviours of individuals tend to be dictated by the attitudes and preferences of individuals. The individual rights take centre stage, being dependent on others is considered shameful, people tend to be self-reliant, rights of individuals tend to take higher precedence, and people take greater emphasis on standing out and being unique (Okely, Weiss & Gale, 2018). Unlike in the collectivist culture where people are considered important for being generous dependable and helpful to others, the individualistic culture considers a person great for being self-reliant, strong, assertive, and independent.

People in the individualistic culture tend to go alone even when faced by challenges in life. They rarely turn to their families and close friends for help to overcome their challenging life situation. Subsequently, self-sufficiency is considered as an important aspect in promoting the independence or uniqueness of an individual in the individualistic culture.  Therefore, many of the individuals in the individualistic culture are selfish and are in continuous competition to control resources that would give them autonomy and self-sufficiency in society (Zha et al., 2006). For instance, in the individualistic culture, a person cannot forego individual comfort for the good of another person. The individualistic culture teaches that a person should have his own well-being over the good of the group. The high sense of identity and autonomy that is promoted in the individualistic culture plays a critical role in influencing the way people behave ranging from the career that a person chooses, the products that a person buys, the social issues and a wide range of other things (Volkema et al., 2016). Individualistic culture promotes the elements of materialism where people try to attain independence by controlling as much wealth as possible.

Relationships in the individualistic culture are mainly controlled by the value that one brings in the relationship. The relationship is viewed as voluntary, and it can be ended any time one party perceives that it is not beneficial for both parties. In the individualistic culture, there is no burden of being close to others. Relationships are not intended to be permanent and stable since the benefits that the parties involved in the relationship gain are what controls the value of the relationship.


Gavreliuc, A., & Ciobotă, C. I. (2013). Culture and self-construal: Implications for the social cognitions of young cohorts in Romania. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences78, 270-274.

Hagger, M. S., Rentzelas, P., & Koch, S. (2014). Evaluating group member behaviour under individualist and collectivist norms: A cross-cultural comparison. Small Group Research45(2), 217-228.

Li, J. B., Vazsonyi, A. T., & Dou, K. (2018). Is individualism-collectivism associated with self-control? Evidence from Chinese and US samples. PloS one13(12), e0208541.

Okely, J. A., Weiss, A., & Gale, C. R. (2018). The interaction between individualism and wellbeing in predicting mortality: Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Journal of behavioral medicine41(1), 1-11.

Park, J., Norasakkunkit, V., & Kashima, Y. (2017). Cross-Cultural Comparison of Self-Construal and Well-Being between Japan and South Korea: The Role of Self-Focused and Other-Focused Relational Selves. Frontiers in psychology8, 1516.

Volkema, R., Kapoutsis, I., Bon, A., & Almeida, J. R. (2016). The influence of power and individualism-collectivism on negotiation initiation. Revista de Administração Contemporânea20(6), 673-692.

Zha, P., Walczyk, J. J., Griffith-Ross, D. A., Tobacyk, J. J., & Walczyk, D. F. (2006). The impact of culture and individualism–collectivism on the creative potential and achievement of American and Chinese adults. Creativity Research Journal18(3), 355-366.

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Book Review: The Boy Who was Raised as a Dog

This assignment aims to analyze the text, The Boy Who was Raised as a Dog by Bruce D. Perry and Maia Szalavitz.

By completing this assignment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following competencies and behaviors:

Competency 4: Engage in Practice-Informed Research and Research-Informed Practice.​
C4.GP.B: Apply critical thinking to engage in the analysis of quantitative and qualitative research methods and research findings.​
Related Assignment Criterion:
2. Integrate multiple sources of knowledge, including research-based knowledge.​
Competency 6: Engage with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities.​
C6.GP.A: Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks to engage with clients and constituencies.​
Related Assignment Criterion:
5. Apply theories to social work practice using a case study about an individual or family and using the person-in-environment perspective.
Competency 7: Assess Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities.
​C7.GP.B: Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in the analysis of assessment data from clients and constituencies.
​Related Assignment Criterion:
5. Apply theories to social work practice using a case study about an individual or family and using the person-in-environment perspective.
Competency 8: Intervene with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities.
​C8.GP.B: Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in interventions with clients and constituencies.
​Related Assignment Criterion:
5. Apply theories to social work practice using a case study about an individual or family and using the person-in-environment perspective.
Competency 9: Evaluate Practice with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities.
​C9.GP.B: Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks to evaluate outcomes.
​Related Assignment Criterion:
5. Apply theories to social work practice using a case study about an individual or family and using the person-in-environment perspective.
Assignment Description
After reading the book, you will answer the questions listed below. Some questions will solicit your personal opinions or experiences, while others require you to cite evidence to support your response. Still others will require you to provide examples to support your work. All questions require you to think critically about what you read. To show comprehensive analysis in response to each question, you will need to do the following:

Integrate multiple sources of knowledge, including research-based knowledge.
Use social work databases as appropriate to support responses.
Use scholarly evidence to inform analysis of social work practice.
Use the textbook materials to apply the person-in-environment perspective in social work practice to the individual or family in the case study.
Remember this is a written assignment, and it should follow current APA formatting for written assignment submission.
Assignment Instructions
Answer the following questions using the guidelines provided above:

In the introduction to The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog, Perry distinguishes between being human and humane (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, p. 12).
What are the differences? Provide a personal or historical example to illustrate your point.
What is the author’s main idea? Summarize it in 1–2 sentences. Does he consistently come back to this idea in each case he examines? Explain using examples from the various chapters.
In many sessions Dr. Perry has with the children, he describes doing a coloring activity with them. How does this help his relationship with the children? What are some of his techniques?
Do the children you read about in The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog have an opportunity to experience a normal adult life? Explain your answer; cite the text if possible.
In Chapter 4, “Skin Hunger,” Perry describes and explains the concept of the “failure to thrive” (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, pp. 89–91). What does this mean? What key points about the ability to thrive were made in the chapter? What are some of the causes and lasting problems associated with the condition?
What is a good environment? Does this vary based on cultural or economic reasons?
According to the text, why was Tina unable to behave normally for a child her age? Is she a “lost cause,” as they say, or does she still have the ability to overcome the difficulties of her youth? Cite the text, and provide evidence to support your opinion.
In Chapter 5, “The Coldest Heart,” Leon is diagnosed as a sociopath (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, pp. 112–113). In your well-read opinion, who is responsible for his condition? Explain, providing textual support and evidence. What can we learn from his story?
Summarize the story of Chapter 6, “The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog,” in 5–8 sentences. What lessons did Dr. Perry learn from Connor and Justin?
Which is more important, nature, which is biology, or nurture, which is the environment? Provide an example.
Are the roles of socioeconomic class and race important elements in the work that Dr. Perry does? Does he handle these issues well? Explain.
What is RAD (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, pp. 192–194)? How does a child acquire the disorder, and what are the symptoms?
In his conclusion, Dr. Perry gives a summation of his ideas. What are some of the ways in which Dr. Perry suggests children, and all people, can thrive?
In Chapter 11, “Healing Communities,” Dr. Perry states, “The world we live in now is biologically disrespectful” (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, p. 262). Explain what he means, and interpret the idea. Do you agree?
Perry, B. D., & Szalavitz, M. (2017). The boy who was raised as a dog: And other stories from a child psychiatrist’s notebook—What traumatized children can teach us about loss, love, and healing (3rd ed.). Basic Books.

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The focus of the students is to consider that the quality of the service offered in the college is outstanding not considering other issue that pertains to their wellbeing.

Student Focus

The focus of the students is to consider that the quality of the service offered in the college is outstanding not considering other issue that pertains to their wellbeing. The analysis noted that high concentration of was on the quality of meals and library service offered. 


There was lack of focus noted to the students when they were conducting online exams especially in technical courses. This was because most of the students were not able to get tutorials of using the portal. 

The other issue is that the students were not able to use incorporate the online library and the manual catalogs, most of them lost their focus. 

Student Choices

There are many articles endeavoring to illuminate Student choice and the administration nature of the office, likewise attempt to figure out what their effect is on each other and on different builds. A standout amongst the regularly cited meanings of choice is that offered by, “Shopper choice with an item alludes to the idealness of the individual’s subjective assessment of the different results and encounters connected with purchasing it or utilizing it”. In the connection of instruction, student choice alludes to the positivity of a student’s subjective assessments of the different conclusions and encounters connected with training. Since choice is focused around experience, student choice is continually being impacted by the understudies’ general encounters and what happens to understudies in the classroom and with their scholarly decisions is no autonomous of all different encounters on facilities life and the mix of all encounters influences the general choice with the establishment.


The ability of the students making choices of what to do with the new systems and the traditional one was an issue to them. 

Student Satisfaction

The relationship between students’ satisfaction and mechanical preparing project “Offered probabilities to improve relational abilities” was stronger than any of alternate components. This recommends that the characteristics of the modern preparing project itself appear to be the essential issue in students’ impression of the accomplishment of a mechanical preparing system. Specifically, today’s specialists need relational abilities which including oral, composed, and mechanical. As per (David, Goetsch & Davis, 2010), successful relational abilities are profoundly required in any industry particularly industry that give administration, for example, friendliness industry. It is imperative to get satisfactory delicate ability, especially relational abilities that will make them more occupation open door. As per Eletto, Dersh & Argon (2010) late research on relational abilities recommended that great relational abilities are the keys to open the entryways of achievement. Eletto, Dersh & Argon (2010) proposed that great relational abilities are seen as imperative and an included point of interest as any business association will see experts having solid hang on relational abilities as an advantage. As indicated by (Groovejob.com, 2001), modern preparing system is an incredible chance to enhance both oral and composed relational abilities. This is essential on the grounds that the majority of individuals are not used to associating with a differing populace. Henceforth, students will surmise that modern preparing system giving a stage to them to improve their relational abilities. 

            As per Eletto, Dersh & Argon (2010) Industrial preparing project is a time of extreme physical and enthusiastic anxiety. Outrage, misery may happen at high rates amid preparing period and may be connected with substance misuse, poor employment satisfaction and other feeling. Extreme encounters and anxiety, particularly if joined by reflection and passionate help, may advance more noteworthy mindfulness and bring about self-awareness or self-improvement. Other than that, Eletto, Dersh & Argon (2010) likewise expressed that students can make true and unmistakable commitments amid their modern preparing system while intensifying both their self-awareness and their vocation improvement. Then again, it was fascinating that the relationship between “given chances to self-advancement” and modern preparing project satisfaction was discovered to be weaker than “picked up meeting expectations experience”. There is couple of conceivable clarifications for this finding. Clench hand, students may not see that the opportunity for self-advancement picked up is not important as others advantages which they picked up from their experience. An alternate reason is students possibly don’t see much of self-improvement in a brief time of modern preparing project (Mitra, 2012).

Monitoring and Continuous Improvement

            There is evidence that the planning and quality loss identification processes are working as intended; however, analysis and the resolution of quality loss issues is not being carried out as intended. There is confirmation that the arranging and quality misfortune recognizable proof techniques are filling in as planned; then again, examination and the determination of value misfortune issues is not being done as proposed. We expected that the Quality Verifications (QV) be done as arranged and that distinguished Quality Loss Issues (QLI) would be fittingly investigated and determined. We found that quality check work arrangements are consistently created regarding National direction and are by and large being conveyed. The behavior of QVS likewise gives an apparatus to show supervisory vicinity, an import continuous control. Taking into account our examining results, conveyance of the work arrangements are bringing about the ID of value misfortune issues. Be that as it may, the QLIS, especially systemic issues are not being tended to (Mitra, 2012). 

            The National QMS group produces volumetric reports to screen the QV conveyance rates. These reports are created quarterly and are dispersed to Area Executive Directors, Regional Directors and the Vice President of Operations. Our audit of the reports demonstrated that the QMS QV conveyance rate for FY 2012-13 has expanded from the earlier year (2011-12) with most Areas demonstrating conveyance enhancements: West has expanded from 84 to 87%, Quebec from 59 to 65%, Ontario from 88 to 100%, and Atlantic stayed unaltered at 84%.  Taking into account our specimen, recognized quality misfortune issues were not satisfactorily dissected and determined. In a specimen of 120 quality checks, 121 particular (nearby) issues were recognized and 235 deliberate (national) issues were distinguished. The review demonstrated that just 53% of the recognized particular issues and 5% of systemic issues contained archived resolutions. It was noted, in light of talks with that some particular issues may be determined instantly at the neighborhood level without being archived. A percentage of the helping variables for the low rate of determination recognized by the review incorporate the absence of aptitude in information examination, absence of underlying driver investigation, restricted between extension engagement and the breakdown of reporting of Qlis into the move up reports (Area and National). Regarding reporting, there were distinguished holes in the convey forward of recognized Qlis from the Quality Verifications, to the Supervisor’s Quarterly Report, the Semi-Annual Report, and the National QLI log. 

Recommendation 3.0:

The Vice-President of the Operations Branch ought to execute productive and practical examination and execution reporting procedures to guarantee precise QLI ID and successful remedial activity arranging and determination.


ISO Reference (ISO 9001: 2008


Standard Requirements RecordsResultsQuestions Comments 
Students Focus The students should be focused on academic and other Institutional Issues

This can be found from Deans Office on students records 

It can also be found at the faculty and the registrar’s office

Most of the students were focused expect those with disciplinary issues  

Did the students attain needed focus

If not explain why

What was the impact of the focus to the student and the college

Student Choices The selection of the courses amid other issues. Registrar’s office The choice depended on economic and social factors, the quality level was however high What choice did the student make and how did this affect quality of services to them?
Student Satisfaction How did the quality of service have impact to the students Dean of students offices High satisfaction was noted after the changes How did the quality of service have impact to the students?
Monitoring and continuous evaluation How effective and how did the service help them as a student Faculty offices The changes and the recommendations were successful leading to positive results  How effective and how did the service help you as a student?



David L.. Goetsch, & Davis, S. (2010). Quality management for organizational excellence:          Introduction to total quality. Pearson Education International.

Eletto, D., Dersh, D., & Argon, Y. (2010, July). GRP94 in ER quality control and stress    responses. In Seminars in cell & developmental biology (Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 479-485).            Academic Press.

Mitra, A. (2012). Fundamentals of quality control and improvement. John Wiley & Sons.

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Ethics of Abortion

Ethics of Abortion

Abortion is described as the process of removing the fetus from the uterus that results in termination of pregnancy. This process is among the known medical procedures carried out in America and other nations every year. Several research studies done indicate that more than 30 percent of the [G1] [G2] [G3] women end their pregnancy through abortion. Currently, abortion has become a crucial ethical issue in the field of politics, law and also religion as each sector has its interpretation and opinion toward this topic. Abortion is often depicted as a two-sided debate that includes those who identify themselves as pro-life and pro-choice. Pro-life followers do not support it as they believe that it[G4] [G5] ’s murder. On the other hand, pro-choice followers support abortion. However, the issue of abortion is quite multifaceted, and it also includes speculations on biology, ethics, and constitutional rights. [G6] [G7] The paper outlines the different views and understanding to this controversial topic (Baird & Stuart, 2001).[G8] [G9] 

Ethics deals with what is right and wrong conduct. It explains what should be done and what should not be done. Medical ethics concerns how healthcare professionals should handle moral problems arising out of the care of patients. Most of the clinical decisions consider more than just the patient’s condition. The ethical principles that guide medical workers in making clinical decisions include autonomy, veracity, beneficence, nonmaleficence, confidentiality, role fidelity and justice (Morse, 2007). Ethical issues arise when all values cannot be respected. It, for this reason, requires prioritizing the values in conflict and justifying bleaching the values that are not respected. Research have proved that ethics is not the only discipline that deals with these issues: the law and religion also plays a significant role.[G10] [G11] 

Nurses as the clinicians must understand the ethical principle concepts so that they can make sound clinical decision whenever they are faced with various ethical issues such as abortion. [G12] Ethical principles form a significant reference guideline of the health ethics. The principle of beneficence concerns itself with the well-being of the person involved. It means that people should strive in doing well and avoid harming others by all means[G13] [G14] [G15]  (Morse, 2007). The principle of autonomy describes the importance of independence. It explains that people’s choices should be respected. Giving patient independence should be regulated so that they don’t end up making decisions that can harm others or themselves. The principle of non-maleficence describes importance of avoiding harming others. It’s stated as “above all do no harm to others.” People should not harm others intentionally or involve themselves in activities that can hurt others. The principle of justice describes that all persons should be dealt with fairly. All people should be equally treated unless there is a genuine reason as to why an individual may be [G16] [G17] treated differently from others (Bastable, 2003). Veracity is the principle that obligates a person to tell the truth. Confidentiality is the principle that ensures the protection of the privacy. The principle of role fidelity requires loyalty, fairness, truthfulness, advocacy and dedication.[G18] [G19] [G20] [G21] [G22] 

There are different viewpoints on debates on whether it’s ethical or moral to terminate the fetus’ life during the pregnancy and before the normal childbirth. Currently, modern medical technology allows people to have an abortion based on their will and needs in many countries. However, people ask themselves whether it’s ethical to abort (Baird & Rosenbaum, 2001). For us to understand this ethical issue we need to understand some crucial questions that are triggered by this issue. People ask whether a fetus is a human person who has rights, self-conscious and self-aware. The fact is that there is no satisfactory answer or solid evidence for this question. Some people say that the fetus can feel pain between twenty to twenty-six weeks of [G23] pregnancy. Whatever the answer is the best way is to apply this issue with different philosophical perspectives on multiple situations.[G24] [G25] [G26] [G27] 

We shall discuss this issue first in terms of two opposite views from Immanuel Kant and Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism. Kant, a German philosopher, believes that all human have in[G28] dividual dignity and command of respect ([G29] Gillon, 2001). According to him, all behaviors and actions are done by the people merely because [G30] they are the right things to do. Secondly, people do things based on whether they are moral and not on other purposes. Kant would believe that an abortion is morally incorrect because it not right to kill a person, and it[G31] ’s considered as a murder in any circumstances (Hewson, 2001). In simple words, no matter what circumstances a woman encounters during her pregnancy it’s not morally right to consider an abortion of the fetus. This view considers an abortion as immoral because Kant believes that it’s a murder to another person no matter what those reasons for pregnancy.[G32] [G33] [G34] 

Jeremy Bentham is British philosopher who started the theory of utilitarianism that rejects the points of view of Kant. An abortion under Bentham’s opinion can be permissible under certain circumstances. [G35] [G36] For instance, when the mother does not have financial resources to bring up this future child. Also, when the mothers know that the fetus will be born with physical disability, abortion can be allowed for the purpose of achieving a[G37] [G38] [G39] [G40]  balance of pleasure over pain (Baird & Rosenbaum, 2001). If the kid will  be born with innate disability that cannot be cured by any medical means, his or her life might be miserable from the mother’s point of view. I[G41] [G42] [G43] f it’s already known that the child is going to suffer for the rest of his life, why not choose a better way of relieving pain. Hence, turn that into [G44] [G45] [G46] [G47] [G48] [G49] happiness for both sides (Gillon, 2001). There is no absolute distinction between what is right and wrong based on Bentham’s view, only if the consequences are the most favorable for the person’s greatest happiness. As a result, an abortion is decided by careful consideration of the overall [G50] [G51] utmost and happiness as a whole. [G52] [G53] [G54] [G55] [G56] [G57] [G58] [G59] [G60] [G61] [G62] [G63] [G64] [G65] 

The issue of abortion raises many ethical questions. To get the answers to these questions, we can group the issue into two different groups that include: pro-life argument and pro-choice argument. Pro-life people are against abortion. Using Science, we know that  the unborn are distinct[G66] [G67] , living and whole human beings from the initial stages of development ([G68] Baird & Rosenbaum, 2001).  Embryology supports this by asserting that a zygote is the beginning of new human being.  Pro-life advocates believe that abortion unjustly takes the life of defenseless human beings. They believe that aborting a fetus treat a distinct human being with inherent moral worth like just a disposable object (Hewson, 2001). They also argue that abortion results in complications later in life such as ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage. Pro-life advocates do not support this issue as they equalize it to murder that is going against the human rights. [G69] [G70] [G71] [G72] [G73] [G74] 

Pro-choice people support abortion. These people believe that the fetus become self-conscious and self-aware at around twenty-six weeks after conception. [G75] This group argues that a woman should never be strained to undergo pregnancy or childbirth if she is not willing to carry the pregnancy (Gillon, 2001).  The group suggests that the woman should be free to ask for an abortion if it is performed at an early stage before a fetus reaches the status of a person. They also argue that the government should accept the decision of a woman who seeks an abortion. They also state that abortion is a safe medical procedure. The majority of women who have an abortion have it during their first three months ([G76] [G77] [G78] [G79] Greenwood, 2001). Medically performed abortions have less than 0.5% risk of developing complications and do not affect the woman’s health or her ability to have a child. Pro-choice believers[G80]  encourage women to abort their fetus if they have a substantial reason for terminating the pregnancy.  [G81] [G82] [G83] [G84] [G85] [G86] [G87] [G88] 

The rights of the pregnant woman are another[G89]  issue to consider when deciding whether abortion is right or wrong. Women possess certain rights that entitle them to abortion. One of them is the right to privacy. This right is outlined in the case of Roe and Wade where women were given the right to end their pregnancy in the first trimester. The other one is right to ownership of one’[G90] [G91] [G92] s body (Gillon, 2001).  A person possesses the right to do what she wants with her body. The [G93] other one is right to equal treatment.  Women argue that men can’t get pregnant and thus they should not be forced to carry an unwanted pregnancy as they are equal to men. The other one is the right to self-determination[G94]  (Hewson, 2001). Women have the right to decide about their futures, and it’s immoral to force a bear a child against her will. Many feminist see the issue of abortion within the context of history of oppression of women and history [G95] of danger and death for women when abortion is illegal. These women rights complicate the issue of abortion.[G96] [G97] [G98] [G99] [G100] [G101] [G102] [G103] [G104] [G105] 

The issue of abortion is multifaceted, and it also involves ethics, religion, and law. Ethics has to do with what is right or wrong. The principal argument  advanced on the issue of abortion include[G106] [G107] [G108] [G109] [G110] s the view that a fetus is an innocent person. It also includes the view that it’s morally wrong to end the life of an innocent person. As a result, [G111] [G112] it’s morally wrong to end the life of a fetus (Baird & Rosenbaum, 2001). The religion holds that the issue of abortion is morally wrong, and nothing can justify this evil act. The law is [G113] [G114] not consistent from one country to another. Some states legalize abortions while it is illegal in others. Even in those countries that [G115] [G116] [G117] it’s legal, physicians fear to engage in this practice. The issue of abortion is controversial.[G118] [G119] [G120] [G121] [G122] [G123] [G124] [G125] [G126] 

Nurse practitioners, as clinicians have the role of understanding the ethical principles so that they can apply them to solve ethical issues such as abortion. Patients cannot make a reliable decision [G127] [G128] on such a controversial issue as abortion w[G129] ithout the help of a clinician (Morse, 2007). They are expected to make a sound judgment about ethical issues that they [G130] [G131] [G132] [G133] encounter in daily practice. For instance, the principle of autonomy grants the patient the right to make independent choices about their health but the clinician must regulate those choices to ensure that they are beneficial to the patient. The clinician should also use the principle of non-maleficence to advise a person who is seeking abortion without a medical indication that they are harming others (Morse, 2007). In this case, such a person wants to harm the innocent fetus and this advice can assist the person to make a [G134] sound decision about the issue. The nurse practitioners, as a clinician should advise the client that she should strive to do good according to this principle.[G135] [G136] [G137] [G138] [G139] [G140] [G141] [G142] [G143] 

The principle of justice describes that all people should be dealt with fairly. The clinician should advise the client who wants to abort her fetus without medical indication that even the fetus deserves[G144]  a fair treatment (Greenwood, 2001). The clinician should also apply the principle of veracity to tell the truth to the client concerning the issue of abortion. He or she should ensure that whatever they discuss with the client re[G145] garding this issue remain private [G146] [G147] (Bastable, 2003). The clinician should also ensure that he or she remain loyal, fair, truthful and dedicated while advising the client on the issue of abortion according to the principle of role fidelity. Thus, nurse practitioners, as a clinician plays a pivotal role in assisting the client to make substantial decisions about this controversial issue of abortion. [G148] [G149] [G150] [G151] [G152] [G153] [G154] [G155] [G156] [G157] [G158] [G159] 

From the above argument and understanding, the abortion issue is controversial as there is no precise decision that brings a satisfying solution to the act. People are presented with so many philosophies and arguments that leave them confused on which is best to follow. The issue is multifaceted involving ethics, religion, politics and the law. Clear understanding of the ethical principles can help healthcare providers to make a reliable decision about this issue. Healthcare [G160] [G161] providers play a pivotal role in assisting clients address this issue. The issue of abortion remains a controversial all over the world.  [G162] [G163] 


















Baird, R. M., & Rosenbaum, S. E. (2001). The ethics of abortion: pro-life vs. pro-choice.

Bastable, S. B. (Ed.). (2003). Nurse as Educator: Principles of te[G164] aching and learning for nursing practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.[G165] 

Gillon, R. (2001). Is there a ‘new ethics of abortion’? Journal of Medical Ethics, 27(Suppl 2), ii5-ii9.[G166] [G167] 

Greenwood, J. (2001). The new ethics of abortion. Journal of medical ethics, 27(Suppl 2), ii2-ii4.[G168] [G169] 

Hewson, B. (2001). Reproductive autonomy and the ethics of abortion. Journal of medical ethics27(Suppl 2), ii10-ii14.[G170] [G171] 

Morse, J. M. (2007). Ethics in Action: ethical principles for doing qualitative health research.[G172]  Qualitative Health Research17(8), 1003-1005.[G173] 

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A comparative study of boys’ and girls’ creative writing within the curriculum, in a year two class

A comparative study of boys’ and girls’ creative writing within the curriculum, in a year two class



Junior school curriculum in the United Kingdom has undergone tremendous changes over the last five decades. This curriculum shift in favour of reading and writing preparedness has in effect been pivotal in addressing boys’ weaknesses and girls’ strengths. Two further changes have recently been proposed: first, alternative group activities as well as non-verbal skills must be introduced. Secondly, boys should be encouraged to begin their kindergarten programmes as soon as they turn five years. Thereafter, they should enter contemporary kindergarten at age six having completed one year of alternative kindergarten. Girls should continue entering kindergarten at age five. This therefore means that most of the boys will enter grade 1 at age seven and girls at age 6. Such a change is deemed to be beneficial to both boys and girls especially. In one way the system is likely to keep the academic skills of both boys and girls at par as it will enhance effective competition among the two genders. 


Purposes and Aims of the research study 

There has been a rising debate over the last few decades with regards to the increasing gender gap in academic attainments assessments across the English curriculum in all schooling years. More recently, in particular the underachievement of boys’ in the literacy curriculum within primary educational settings has become a topical concern and taken a focus in itself.  

Mcnaughton et al (2007) suggest that research is a process which can help to understand child development and professionalism. This research project stems from a personal interest in trying to understand gendered differences within the literacy curriculum. This curiosity was initially sparked upon discovering an article whilst undertaking voluntary work at a local primary school. The booklet, ‘Confident, capable and creative: supporting boys’ achievements’, stated that all children should have equal opportunities to encounter a stimulating learning environment disregarding any differences including their gender (DCSF, 2007). 


With more involvement in the classroom, a greater realisation with regards to the pedagogical practices that teaching staff employed in trying to provide an enriched learning environment began to be realised. It also came to notice the difficulties that teachers faced in promoting inclusive literacy experiences for both genders. Much research has been done on gender differences within literacy; however specific focus on the writing component within literacy has not been as extensive. Thus, whilst a holistic approach which includes all concepts of literacy including reading, writing, speaking and listening will be examined, the project will predominately focus on ‘creative writing’ to provide a more detailed insight.


Research is not necessarily undertaken with the need for government reform, but as a tool to develop individuals’ knowledge through extensive research carried out by themselves (Roberts-Holmes, 2005). With the focus of the project being on a ‘hot topic’ in the perception of the main policy makers, this research can be useful for all practitioners, student teachers, teaching staff who already work or are interested in seeing a career in educational settings. With government also recognising the importance of home- school partnership projects, the study can also be beneficial for parents and carers. It can also serve an interest to those people who have a general curiosity in children’s writing. 


The aims of this research are to understand the inherent differences associated in writing between the two genders. In particular, the different strategies and techniques introduced in schools today to try and motivate both genders to write will be examined. The study will also endeavour to try and understand the constituents of different motivational attitudes and experiences that both genders bring with them into the social context of the classroom, and whether these have an influence on their writing.   


Research questions:

  • What possible differences are there between boys and girls writing within the literacy curriculum?
  • What possible challenges do teachers face in teaching boys and girls to write?
  • What possible factors, attitudes or experiences affect boys’ and girls’ motivations to write?


Literature review

The achievement dispute in gender performances within the English curriculum in primary schools has been contextualised by political agendas (Warrington and Younger, 2006). In 1991, attempts to measure the performance levels of children in primary schools for the first time led the then Conservative government to enforce formative assessments. Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) became statutory for years 2 and 6. In further efforts to raise national literacy standards, new government reform in 1997 inevitably resulted in consequent changes. The Labour administration introduced the National Literacy Strategy (NLS) (Beard, 2000). Both strategies led organisations such as the Office for Standard’s in Education, to initially raise apprehension regarding gaps in achievement between boys and girls in all areas of English and predominantly in writing (OfSTED, 1993). Consecutive government reports published in later years to come more emphasised similar concerns. 


Differences in writing skills between boys and girls can be attributed to the fact girls mature earlier than boys. Sex-linked maturation differences are apparent in all levels of analysis: from the neurophysiological level such as the cerebral blood flows to sensory function levels for instance auditory acuity to higher cognitive levels such as reading skills and language acquisition (Corso, 1959).  A child developmentally appropriate educational curriculum should be one that recognizes and accommodates these diverse but substantial sex differences.


Although assessment scores offer a basis for reflection, they need to be observed vigilantly as defining underachievement is very difficult in itself. Fisher (2006) believes that writing assessments can be discriminatory, where performances are forced to meet criterion understated by policy makers. Furthermore, formative tests implicitly assume aptitudes as being constant. Hart et al (2004) emphasises that this view is dangerous as children become identifiably labelled for their future successes. Nevertheless, these assessments as Drummond (1993) argues that these are the only measure currently used to preserve and safeguard children’s progress, development and failures. 


It is paramount when reflecting upon boys’ under-achievements to inclusively and equally acknowledge girls’ performances in writing. Thirty years ago concerns were mirrored politically regarding girls’ under-achievements in English as well as other subjects. In the 1980’s the gender underachievement seemed to have reversed and a debate transpired regarding the apparent causes for recent underachievement’s in all components of literacy and especially boys’ creative writing. 


Millard (2000) suggests that many view aptitudes results to have shifted due to teaching strategies and the curriculum targets as being more suited for girls. She expresses that previous pervasive inequalities and stereotyping of girls such as society having low expectations of them, and classrooms being dominated by their male peers were challenged by feminist movements (ibid). Delamont (1999) however perceives that boys’ achievements have remained consistent and gaps were always present, but only became highlighted following equal opportunities which allowed girls to surpass their previous successes. Furthermore, Reay (2001) argues that if boys face the challenge of feminism in today’s classrooms, then girls too face similar stereotyping and always have from masculine attitudes such as aggression and intimidation.


The neuro-anatomical differences between girls and boys can be viewed at in two ways. First are the differences in the speed and rate of maturation of brain structures in which boys brains consistently mature less than that of girls. Second is the neuroanatomical sex differences which incidentally persist into adulthood. Numerous research studies have documented reliable evidences to suggest that the brain maturation of boys and girls occur at different rates. Hedges & Nowell (1995) found that the brain of female human beings are on average more mature than those of females from ages six to twenty nine.  In this research, it was found that although the range of the girl’s ‘upper hand’ in brain maturity was more pronounced at age six, boys did not on average catch up till age 29.


Cavines et al (1996) in their study revealed that the subcortial gray matter structures in the forebrain are already at the adult size in girls at age eleven but the same structures in boys did not even approximate adult levels. 


In the same manner, Allen & Gorski, (1991) using electrophysiologic means to measures the rates of brain development in boys and girls found that the brains of girls were predominantly more mature than were boys’ in all ages from 7 to 17. These differences are translated in classroom as evidenced by higher performance among girls than boys in respect of creative writing. Recent technological and scientific advances have made it possible to establish substantial sex linked differences in the microscopic anatomy of the human brain but the exact age at which these differences show up or start to diminish is still a subject of debate and extensive scientific research.   

Apart from neuroanatomical sex differences, researches have also identified remarkable sex differences in the functional organization of the human brain which can significantly impact on their academic capabilities. A research by Cameron (1990) and his team revealed that language functions seem to be arranged in a strikingly different fashion in males than females. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the researchers found that among the right handed males, the area of the brain that is mostly affected by phonological tasks is located to the left inferior frontal gyrus whereas in females the pattern is very different and engages several neural systems which involve both the right and left inferior gyrus.


Questions whether classrooms really have been feminised and suggest that these differences in creative writing are just reflective of boys themselves. Brain development researchers regard the comparative underachievement of boys as being coherently linked to biological abilities. Biddulph (1997) implies that girls’ cognitive development is six to twelve months ahead of boys. This notion assumes that boys thus will catch up to their opposite sex peers in later schooling years but results have been found to the contrary (DfES, 2003). Boys’ masculinity has also been suggested to challenge their triumphs in school to some extent. Intellectual achievement can be perceived by boys as feministic causing some to defy their abilities and oppose authority figures (Willis, 1977). 


Blaming one gender for the others supposed failures can however be unfair as contributions of sex theories are subjective. Traits of feminism and masculinity have been categorised by society rather than biology itself and can be dependent on many other factors including culture, social class and pedagogical approaches (Connolly, 2005). However, a persistent common variation that has been found between boys and girls is the differences in motivations for writing. Warrington and Younger’s (2006) research study demonstrated that girls tended to be able to adapt to passive pedagogical approaches more easily, whereas boys generally preferred writing when teaching strategies were more kinetic.


It also showed that boys preferred writing at home where the curriculum did not restrict them to write in meticulous technical forms. Preferred learning style theories thus recommend that boys in particular need more active, exploratory strategies to motivate writing and that they were more motivated when creative writing was meaningful and purposeful to them (West, 2002). Coffield et al (2004) though deems research of learning style approaches to be inconclusive. Children’s and teachers’ reactions to these differing learning styles nonetheless demonstrate improvements in both genders’ motivation and engagement in SATs (Warrington and Younger, 2006). 

Lev Vygotsky was one of theorists who illustrated ‘social constructivism’ which concentrated on the social contexts of learning. Vygotsky believed that adults can be vital contributors in child development and that they could help to extend children’s’ learning (Penn, 2008). Furthermore, Jerome Bruner’s ‘scaffolding’ theory suggested that the teachers’ role was pinnacle in nurturing cognitive development (ibid). Teaching practice evolved from the duplicate copying exercises to a more child centred, creative, self expressive activity following the Plowden Report (Millard, 2000)


The Bullock report in 1975, drew further attention to a child centred curriculum and presented writing for an ‘audience’ (Ibid). Guidance regarding what contributes towards quality teaching practice in writing has been reassessed by government policies to emphasise on teaching strategies to create more inclusive learning environments for boys (Connolly, 2005). Misconceptions within these current teaching strategies itself have been found to have adverse effects on boys’ writing performances. Millard (2000) concludes that boys’ relative disadvantage in writing is due to the profound dependence on reading and writing of fiction in the NLS, where boys’ reading can go unrecognised by teachers. Millard (2000) also found that masculine motivational preferences for reading and writing can be deemed as inappropriate by some teachers.


 Furthermore, West (2002) suggests that teachers often assume that boys understand more than they do, such as when it comes to actually organising their writing. However, it has been argued that one cannot blame teachers for these perceivable misconceptions, as the guidance they receive in relation to the NLS is vague and unclear (Coffield et al, 2004). Coffield et al (2004) research in primary schools also suggests that the target driven curriculum poses difficulties for teachers in being able to meet the different learning styles, whilst also trying to adhere to the curriculum (ibid).


Chapman et al (1990)’s research revealed significant disparity in regional blood flow between girls and boys. The researcher consistently revealed that men have low rates of cerebral flow than have women, notwithstanding the fact that the male brain is on average ten per cent larger than that of a woman. These differences were found to be more pronounced in childhood but declined gradually throughout adulthood. 


Across a variety auditory modalities, girls have somewhat better hearing than boys, (Galaburda, Albert, & Gartrell, (1992).  According to this research girls hear pure tones at lower amplitudes than boys. For instance, the mean threshold for a 2000 hertz tone was at 5.7 dB for girls and 8.9 for boys. This means that on average girls could hear a 2000hertz tone that was less than half as loud as that which boys could hear on average. Dickinson, (1999), found that for any given mid range sound, a girl experiences that sound as being twice as loud as boys experienced that same sound. This means that the auditory stimulus volume for boys must be doubled at least so as to be significant to the boy as it can be to the girl.


Boys’ inferiority in verbal skills becomes apparent in early ages. As soon as the children begin to speak, girls seem to articulate better than do boys. Gorges, (2000) argues that girls sentences are systematically longer and more complex than those of boys. He concludes that at age two girls are more fluent than boys. Girls them maintain that leading edge throughout school years. They easily outdo their male counterparts in verbal recall tests right from the kindergarten through secondary. These superior verbal abilities for girls seem to be independent of culture and race Cameron, & Wilson, (1990). According to these researchers, girls of all races outperform boys in verbal tasks. The magnitude of these differences was fairly consistent across all races covered namely Indians, Blacks and Whites.


In another research study by Farol et al, 91994) in which he tested young school pupils in verbal fluency and ability to recall stories, he found that girls outwitted boys by a significantly wide margin in both story recall capability and verbal fluency. However, verbal fluency showed remarkable interaction between sex and race. In his survey of literature on learning disability, Anokhin et al, (2000) found that the female to male ratio among school children classified as learning disabled was in some cases up to highs of 1:15. this researcher concluded that over representation of male children in disabled-children learning institutions was evident of slow brain maturation among boys. 

All these sex differences are very significant and robust enough to be seen in every aspect of consideration that encompasses comparative study of differential development of boys and girls. The first ever efforts in the United kingdom to measure performance of boys vis-a-vis girls on same examination standards were initiated at the turn of the nineteenth century (Broder, 2000). The current widespread introduction and encouraging of special care for young school children have led to recognition among education stakeholders that girls can potentially outperform boys more especially in literary skills. A 1996 study report by Allen& Gorski, (1991) revealed 21 per cent of grammar school boys received a grade of excellent compared to 51 per cent of the girls. 

In the recent past this inferior performance of boys over girls has become very obvious even in higher achievements that stakeholders have began to raise concerns about steady declines in college enrolments for males (Gutek, 1968). Education regulators and actors all over the United Kingdom have in the recent past been very vocal in calling for developmentally appropriate curriculums that can address the diverse needs of both boy and girls. They have firmly maintained that all children, regardless of their sexes should start schooling at the same chronological age. The educators have called upon all junior schools in the United Kingdom to individualize their educational services so that they can match with the diverse needs of pupils with regard to their gender differences.

This literature review considers the disparity and discrepancy between girls’ and boys’ writing achievements within the curriculum in primary schools. It has explored a historical convention in an attempt to understand adopted teaching strategies to promote creative writing for both genders in the classrooms of today. The gaps in knowledge found were that although current practice discussed some implications for children’s motivations for writing, it was limited to feminism and masculinity. A persistent idea raised from learning style approaches was the lack of control and choice that boys faced within the constrained curriculum. Another area of uncertainty was that though the literature focussed on what constitutes as superior pedagogical approaches, the actual difficulties teachers faced when trying to implement the guidance se by government in meeting different learning styles is ambiguous. This project will therefore focus on these noticeable gaps. 



Participants and site

This small scale study took place in a year two class in an inner London borough primary school. This local school was chosen because previous voluntary work was done there. The only other pertinent decisive factors chosen for the location were that the school consists of both genders and that there was a varied array of high and low achievers within the classroom. The intended participants were the class teacher, and 12 children in the class. Two boys and two girls were selected from the three literacy tired groups in the classroom. 


Research Paradigm 

A qualitative paradigm reflects on the quality of data in social contexts. Qualitative paradigm adopts the understanding of how a group of people (children in this case) make a certain topic (creative writing in this case) meaningful and relevant to themselves (Mac Naughton et al, 2007).  A qualitative paradigm is thus being used here for reasons of validity even though some argue that qualitative research approaches can produce biased findings they actually offer social representations (ibid). This approach provides findings that only reflect the chosen participants as Edwards (2001:124) suggests that this approach does not aim to argue and validate the findings of all settings in general but one that is specific to only the chosen one (cited in Mac Naughton et al, 2007:124). 

Children and adults can bring diverse understandings and beliefs with them in social contexts such as schools, which can arise from numerous origins. These differences can affect the way they learn and teach which is why an interpretivist paradigm will also be used. An interpretivist tradition perceives knowledge to only be valid if it is authentic and accurate to the participants that are being researched (Hughes 2001: cited in Roberts-Holmes, 2005: 40). 


Research Approach/strategy

The research strategy that has been chosen for this study is an ethnographic style. This approach is closely associated with an interpretivist paradigm and as Brewer (2000) defines is, ‘the study of people in naturally occurring settings or ‘fields’ by methods of data collection which capture their social meanings and ordinary activities’ (cited in Bell, 2009:16). An ethnographic approach can thus give an insight into the consequent actions and behaviour of the participants in this ‘naturalistic’ setting of the classroom. This approach has been used in form of both direct and indirect participation in interactions with partakers.


Data gathering techniques   

A data triangulation method was used as a pursuit for authenticity, and to decrease the aspects of bias from particular data sources (Edwards 2001 cited in Mac Naughton et al, 2007:124). Triangulation of data sources (see appendix 1) may also be used for validity and in avoiding assumptions, as it provided equally important views from all sides in this study; both teachers and children. Evidence was collected directly from primary sources through an empirical research approach using different data collection techniques. The data gathering techniques that were used include observations, interviews and a completed creative writing task. 

Observations took place throughout the duration of time given to complete the research. They were mostly conducted during the literacy hour; including whole class teaching and collaborate group work activities. Observation, ‘empowers the child whose ‘silent’ voice is heard by the researcher’ (Greig and Taylor, 1999:83), and thus can provide a more child centred research. Being reflexive is imperative in observations as they can help to consider different perspectives including the researcher. 


Semi-structured interviews were presented to both teachers and the group of children at some point during the research process. Interviews can provide a method to check the validity of observations that have already been collected (Roberts-Holmes, 2005). This particular questioning approach was chosen because it permits the interactions to be controlled in order to elicit particular answers of interest from participants, but also allows them flexibility to yield their opinions and views (Ibid). Interviewing children was done in groups of 4 children and consisted of both genders. Children were given the completed written task to take home after photocopies had been made to make the research more child-centred (McNaughton, et al, 2007). The interviews were audio-taped and transcribed as a form of continuing reference and were supplied with validity and accuracy of collected evidence (Roberts- Holmes, 2005). 


Ethical considerations

Before beginning any empirical research one must consider the ethical implications. A major issue associated with ethics is the attitudes held by the researchers themselves, and whether the research is being used to ultimately prove a hypothesis. Differences in social aspects such as culture and gender can also lead researchers to misinterpreting information (McNaughton et al, 2007). Being a female and researching in a predominantly female occupied work force in the early years, it might be difficult to appreciate the different learning styles of boys. A reflexive approach was thus considered throughout the project, where a critical analysis of my gender identity was sought (Grieshaber cited in Mac Naughton et al, 2007:144). 

Recent legal restrictions have made it incumbent upon all researchers to be aware of the procedures and codes of practice relevant to their intended setting of research (Bell, 2009). Upholding protection of all children and teaching staff involved in the research was paramount in all school settings. The Nuremberg Code stressed that all humans have a right to be involved in what is best for them, and suggested this can be maintained through informed consent (Roberts- Holmes, 2005). Thus firstly, written consent was required from the head teacher, providing information with regards to the nature of the project. Informed consent was also required from parents for group interviews with their children where letters were sent. Information of audio taping and the minimal risk involved with regards to gender stereotyping were revealed to all participants. All participants were also given the opportunity to terminate their involvement within the project at any time without any consequences and were made aware of this at the beginning of the process. 


Confidentiality and anonymity in the observations and interviews were preserved through alteration of names. This helped avoid unnecessary disclosure of information to unintended persons. In addition, all data and documents were stored safely and securely and used only for the research process by myself to protect confidentiality. Observing and listening can be used as tools to research children, however they can also raise concerns such as a child’s right to privacy and thus become an unnecessary interference (McNaughton, et al, 2007). Total confidentiality can also have perimeters, as Roberts-Holmes (2005) suggests that it is the duty of the researcher to divulge protection or welfare issues to relevant teaching staff. However if this is the case one must consider consulting the children before releasing any information. 

Minimal risks appeared during this project. Although influencing children with any form of stereotyping in gender issues were monitored, this project may make children more aware of gender stereotypes (Thomas, 2009



In order to prepare for research, it can be beneficial to realise the skills that you already possess and the skills that you may need to develop. Some everyday skills such as listening can be applied to the dissertation process (Roberts-Holmes, 2005). Developing listening skills for face to face interactions and interviews with participants requires the researcher to respect their opinions and views. It also requires the researcher to have patience and be honest when interpreting the observations and interviews (Currie, 2005). Working as a volunteer in a primary school setting currently gave me further practice of communication skills, and insights into understanding the importance of listening to children, parents and other team members. 

Another skill needed in research was planning and organising practically and logically, according to the appropriate time given to complete the assignment. Learning to manage time effectively can provide the benefit of avoiding last minute exertions in meeting deadlines and also relieve stress (Ibid). IT skills were enhanced by attending the ICT lecture and also consulting the education librarian. To save time appropriate references were recorded throughout the research process accordingly. 




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