Comparative Analysis of Art Essay

Throughout history art has served as a preservation and representation of the time in which they were made. During the Ancient Greek period art was not only mare naturalistic and humanistic but also became directly affected by the events going around. Both the Marble Statue of an Old Woman and the Marble Statue of Aphrodite are sculptures that were made during the Ancient Greek era, they each tell a story of what was going on during that point in time.

The Marble Statue of Aphrodite is the eldest of the two sculptures, it was sculpted between the 2nd and 3rd century B .

 C. During this period Greece was at its peak, the people of Greece had power and wealth. The art made at this time depicted the peace of the Greeks and power that they had attained. The Greeks believed that this greatness was due to the gods and goddesses, as they were polytheistic; keeping the gods and goddesses happy meant good things for the Greeks.

Many of the buildings that were built were built as offerings to show their beliefs and to display what mattered most to the people of Greece.

The marble Statue of Aphrodite is one of these artworks dedicated to the goddesses. Aphrodite was believed to be the goddess of love, lust and sexuality she was also a symbol of strength; she gave the men of the military hope and optimism when going into battle. As Aphrodite was the goddess of love and lust her statues and sculptures were almost always nude or partially nude. As in this marble sculpture where Aphrodite is pictured fully nude, her face expressionless which is a key attribute to the events going in Greece at the time.

Almost all sculptures during this time were expressionless as a symbol that Greece had no major worries, there was no pain or suffering amongst the people and there was a general sense of peace and stability. She is in a contro- postal pose, her feet shifted and most of her weight distributed into one leg. Her arms are now missing as they have fallen off due to the fact that the sculpture is over 3000 years old and aging has worn out the material. Another reason why the arms have fallen off is because, unlike the major societies before them, Greeks believed in humanistic art.

Societies before the Greeks, such as the Egyptians, used to keep the material between what would be spaces between arms and body and the legs. This form of art was not humanistic not realistic enough for the Greeks so most of their artwork follows the ideals of humanism. Artists would break off the extra material that would remain after the statue was fully sculpted. To further the realistic look of the Aphrodite sculpture the artist, who is unknown at this time, detailed the curves of her body. You can view the lines of her stomach and breasts which are simple and uncomplicated and create an image that looks like a real woman.

Greeks continued with the ideas of humanism and realism even as their society aged and changed. Like many great societies before them Greeks hit a climactic point in their era that had people uneasy and artist evolving away from the artistic norms that had been practiced for years; this new era was known as the Hellenistic Period. The Sculpture of an Old Woman is an example of this radical change in art; still loyal to the idea of humanism this sculpture is not of a goddess or soldier, as many arts were based on before, it was of a normal average, everyday elder woman who could have simply been walking down the street.

Not only did the artist stray away from the norms of subject matter but they also stepped away from the expressionless simplistic art that had been around for centuries. The old woman sculpted was not in the traditional contro-postal pose instead she is hovered almost as if she is being weighed down by something or perhaps just the sad truth of aging when your body is no longer as strong as it once was. Her face, which is not almost completely fallen off from the statue, may have been in some sort of realistic expression, as opposed to the Aphrodite sculpture.

I can imagine her face being in pain or perhaps sadness; I came to that conclusion based on the body language of the art. She is hovered strained from a lifetime of work and deteriorating from signs of age, similarly to Greece at the time. Like many of its time the sculpture can be seen as a metaphor for what the Greeks were going through during the Hellenistic period. No longer was the empire in control and in power instead Greece was now falling due to the Roman Empire.

The people and cities within Greece were now in chaos because the extravagant lifestyle they had grown accustomed to was being torn away more and more as each day passed. Both pieces of art were originally sculpted during the Greek period but the images that now remain were actually sculpted during the Roman era, making both pieces remakes of original pieces. Similarly, both pieces were also made out of marble, as it is a resource that is of great quantity in that area of Europe.

They are also lifelike statues not overbearingly tall nor extremely short each does fall upon approximately 5 feet or so. Although both pieces are not equally dedications to higher beings the Sculpture of the Old Woman has artifacts sculpted within it that can be attributed to the idea that the old woman is making offerings to a higher being in order to help her through difficult times. It is most interesting to see how the current events of ones lifetimes can affect the art that is made.

Most people believe that the only way to tell these stories is through books and other forms of writing. Personally it is more amazing to see how creative an artistic can get to convey a message from a visual aspect rather than clearly writing what the art was based on. Looking at both sculptures side to side I could not help but to feel for the people living during these times, going from a peaceful and prospering power to having everything torn away and having to live through the chaos.

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Comparing Medieval Art to Renaissance Art Essay

Medieval art period

Medieval art covers a large scope of time. The period covered over 1000 years of art in Europe, Middle East and North Africa. The period was characterized by major art movements based on national art and regional art. There was also the aspect of revivals and artists crafts. Art historians have been successful in classifying medieval art into major periods and styles. This is often characterized with significant difficulty. The major periods of art in medieval period include, the early Christian art, the migration period art, the insular art, the Pre Romanesque art, and lastly the Romanesque art.

Gothic art was also a prominent period on medieval art. In addition to these periods, each region which later became nations had its own distinct artistic style. Medieval art was basically produced in a large array of media (Veronica, 2008). The works have remained significant and large in number. They include illuminated manuscripts, stained glass, sculptures and mosaics. Paintings were also a common occurrence during this period.

Historians have pointed out that medieval art in Europe grew as a result of artistic heritage that highly influenced by the Roman Empire.

There is also an influence of iconographic traditions in this art period. It has been noted that these artistic source we mixed with what warfare to as barbarian artistic culture of northern Europe to provide excellent pieces of art. Byzantine art was one of the most influential arts during medieval time. This art form was basically influence by the Byzantine Empire and went on to be accepted in major areas. From the period of the late antique in the medieval period, there emerged the Byzantine Art (Veronica, 2008). Although it basically originated from the catholic Europe, the art was embraced by all as a result of its originality. During the period of 730 to 843, there were a large number of icons that were destroyed and therefore very little remain today to present the originality of this era in medieval art.

From the medieval eras, there came prominent artist by the name of Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti, commonly known as Michelangelo. The most famous piece by Michelangelo was his art work done on the Sistine Chapel in Rome: the scenes from Genesis on the ceiling and The Last Judgment in the altar wall. His works were inspired by the developments of the time. His works encompassed rhythm and contrast in a way that brought out the basic details of the artistic works. He used dull colors to reflect his somber mood while also embracing balance as a way of inspiring the generations. Most of his notable artistic works were influenced by color and balance.

He used these two aspects of art to bearing out a message through his works. There is a major understanding the medieval art period was the real cause for the developments in the renaissance period (Lawrence, 2007). It is also argued by historians that as a result of the best steps taken by artists of the medieval period especially the late medieval period, the artists of pre renaissance period were able to build their trade. The argument is informed by the fact that during the late medieval period, there were early renaissance period artistic representations that were present. There is the basic understanding that the two periods ran concurrently for a certain period of time before they partied ways. The later medieval period gave rise to the early renaissance period.

Renaissance Art

Renaissance Art period is conceivably one of the utmost celebrated art periods in the history of mankind. The period was characterized by a wide array of disincentive artistic talent that put paint to work producing excellent results. Some of the notable artists of this period include Leonardo da Vinci, Robert camping, Santos Botticelli, Raphael and titian. There have been arguments in the artistic historical world whether the period was the best period in the history of art. Renaissance art originated from the renaissance period (Johnson, 2009). According to art historians, the period was characterized by sculpture, painting and decorative arts that formed the renaissance period in history. The period emerged with its distinct style in about 1400 parallel to developments in philosophical, literary and musical industries.

The period art is referred to as the rebirth of ancient traditions and has its roots in the classical antiquity. The period has transformed by the absorption of recent developments to give a different approach to art in the northern Europe through application of contemporary scientific knowledge. The renaissance art period was also characterized by the renaissance humanist philosophy that spread throughout the western history. This affects both the artists and the patrons of their works. There was a development of new techniques and also new artistic sensibilities. The renaissance period was basically the time from medieval period to early modern age. One of the most respected pieces of art of this period was the Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci.

The artistic representation of the last supper has been addressed as one of the unsurpassed in the history of mankind. This has given Leonardo da Vinci an upper hand among his peers of the renaissance period. The absorption of recent developments in the early modern age characterized a radical shift in renaissance art. It is believed that this change of tact formed the basis for the new approach on the aspect of artistic representation of ideas. Historical facts show that early renaissance art was infarct produced parallel with the late medieval art. By 1500, the renaissance part was declared the better of the time thereby prevailing over the late medieval art. The late renaissance art was later called mannerisms and developed to become a fully fledge artists pattern. This pattern took distinctive attributes of each region and merged them together (Johnson, 2009). The proto renaissance period was basically I Italy and ran from 1280 to 1400.

By the late 14th century, Italy had already been introduced to the new version of the renaissance era. That period was characte4rise by outstanding arts like the sculpture of Nicola Pisano and also Giovanna Pisano. There was a major development in figurative painting where precedence was set on naturalistic and three dimensional approaches that classified the classics it into different categories (Charles, 2009). The period was viewed as aim of classifying and rebirth of art from different perspectives. Leonardo da Vinci work captured all the major aspect of art including color, balance rhythm and balance. He used bright colors in his trademark works including the Last Supper. The use of bright colors was restricted to the foreground on f the pictures while the background was characterized by dark colors.

In conclusion, there was an aspect of balance in both periods as they seek to balance different occasions with specific colors. There is a major understanding that both works have a similar approach to balance. The use of rhythm in the latest installations of these works in the periods offered a new way of understanding art. The two periods have emphasized on the need to build themes based on the current issues of the time.

References
Charles, A, 2009, ‘Renaissance Art’, Washington: Parkstone International Johnson, A, 2009, ‘Renaissance Art: A Very Short Introduction’, Washington: Oxford University Press Lawrence, N, 2007, ‘Early Medieval Art’, Washington: Oxford University Press Veronica, A, 2008, ‘Medieval Art’, Washington: Oxford University Press

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Limiting the Extent of Party Discipline in Canada Essay

Party solidarity and cohesion have always been an integral part of the Westminster Parliamentry system. The leaders of the political parties of the Canadian House of Commons , with the assistance of ‘whips’, very strongly discipline their party members to vote on issues as a single entity, especially in plenary sessions (Olson, 2003). Although, some degree of party discipline is essential for any political party to maintain their power as they require the confidence of the majority of the legislative branch of the government, this practice does not really reflect a democracy.

This paper argues that implememnting a large extent of party discipline undermines the spirit of democracy as the politicians become more concerned with appeasing their party leaders for their personal benefits, instead of truly representing the desires and demands of the citizens of their respective constituencies. As mentioned previously, it is argued that strict party discipline is necessary to ensure that the current governnig party maintains its power since a vote of non confidence in the House of Commons can ultimately lead to federal re-election, or re-appointment of the prime minister.

However, as Kilgour et al. rgue in Crosscurrents: Contemporaty Political Issues (2013: 205), enforcing strict cohesion strategies to ensure party unity leads to members of Parliament to become extreamly passive as they no longer think for themselves, but merely conform to the demands of their party leaders. Their opinions and thoughts are constrsained by a fear of a loss of majority in the House Of Commons. It is very crucial for any political party to value and respect the opinions of its members to assess a situation more closely and obtain diverse opinions. However, strong party discipline stifles the values and opinions of individual members of party.

Consequently, this diversity of imagination is replaced by a single unit of party that reflects a single, rigid opinion on most issues. This devalues the sense of liberty and freedom that is cherished by democracy. Often times, it is observed that the members of a party vote in a similar fashion, not just to ensure a majority confidence motion, but also to derive personal gains. If a member of parliament wishes to advance their political career and gain quicker promotions, he or she muct act according to the command of their party leaders (Kam, 2006).

Expression of dissent from the MPs can have dire consequences for their career. They can be warned about the lack of financial support, or even be ultimately expelled from the party caucus. Kam (2006) also suggested that the promotion of ministers is greatly manipulated by the prime minister to ensure maximum conformation to the party’s position. Sometimes, certain ministers of parliament are deliberately brought into the cabinet as it is too dangerous to leave them as a backbencher (a member of House of Commons) where they can openly challenge and vote against the position of the leader of the political party.

This suggests that the deliberate promotion, or demotion, ministers of parliament is not due to their, merits or demerits, but is rather strategically devised to overall benefit the party. In addition, the vote of the members of the House of Commons not only does not represent the opinions of individual ministers, but also it not a representation of a member’s unyielding and unconditional loyalty to his or her party.

Rather, it is a conscious decision to vote according to the wishes of the party leader to maintain the imge of conformity and ensure personal gains and benefits for the members of parliament, which would reward in the form of more opportunities to ascend the political ladder and make personal and professional gains that do not particularly benefit the citizens of the consituency that elected the member of parliament. It is unquestionable that voting in the Canadian House of Common is extremely disciplined and very highly regulated by emloying various methods.

The study of the patterns of recorded votes shows that majority of votes show almost no dissent from the party members. Also, rejection of major government motions due to dissent of the members of the House of Commons is extremely rare (Malloy, 2003). Canada operates on a system of majoritarian parliamentary government. Cohesion of political parties is very essential to maintain a majority rule by ensuring that vote of non confidence is not ever issued (Kam, 2001).

Due to this constant threat of the possibility of loss of majority and formation of a coalition, political parties are very strongly disciplined by their leaders. A coalition governmet is not necessarily always detremental. It can help to foster more cooperation in different political parties and compel the members of a party to consider the opinions and views that are different from the ideology shared by their party. It also provides an opportunity for a greater debate and consideration before arriving at a common decision.

Maintaining strong party discipline just to eliminate the possibility of the formation of a coalitions limits the possibilities for political experimentation and possible positive growth. The change is not just welcomed, but also deliberately resisted using the traditional practice of oppressive party discipline. The members of parliament are elected by, and are required to respresent the citizens of their respective constituencies.

The common vision shared by their party and party leader may or may not reflect the wishes of the citizens. The first and foremost duty of an MP is to cater to the needs and the demands of the citizens who democratically elected him or her. The loyalty to one’s party should be a secondary priority. However, as observed, most times, this is not the case. This severely debilitates the sole purpose of a democratic government which demands the citizens’ voice and opinions to be heard above all others.

Although some degree of party discipline may be required to control and maintain cohesion within the House of Commons to propose policies and arrive at a firm decision, it does not really encompass democratic ideas. Party discipline compells the members of a party to not pay heed to the needs of the citizens, but to blindly follow the demands made by their party leaders.

This practice is also morally questionable as the political success of ministers of parliament is largely based on their loyalty to the party’s alues, even if they contradict his/ her personal opinions. Instead of being constantly threatened by the possiblity of losing the confidence of the majority of the House of Commons, fundamental changes need to be made to change the Westmister Parliamentry structure to alter, if not eliminate, this system that makes it almost mandatory for the parties to implement rigid party discipline. Limiting the extent of the party discipline would help to make the Canadian government more democratic by accomodating more diverse ideas and opinions.

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Studio Art Potential Direction Statement Essay

Throughout Unit 3, I have been exploring the themes of summer and how it causes girls to feel vulnerable and self conscious but also how it allows girls to feel carefree and relaxed. The following potential directions are for my two artworks for Unit 4, the first artwork being a collection of 2D works and the second, being a collection of digital photographs. These potential directions were selected from my folio that were created and explored throughout Unit 3 and will need to be further refined during Unit 4.

They are clearly marked in my folio with pink post-its.

I have selected these exploration works for best representing and expressing my theme, whether it be the vulnerability of summer or the confidence of freedom. This is reflected in the position of the model’s form and postions in the photographs and the use of gestural, lineal shapes of the drawn women in my 2D works. The explorations of watercolour painted backgrounds on Potential Direction #1, #2 and #3 is contrasted against the gloomy and smooth, navy blue figure and the white pearl wash over the photo in Potential Direction #10.

The brightly coloured and patterned wash over Potential Direction #11 and #12 reflects the opposite side of this, forming the basis of the overall artworks. Using the aesthetic qualities in my 2D drawings, I have explored confronting images. This is done through the use of definitive and gestural lines that outline either the underweight, boney bodies or the round and curvacious bodies. I have cropped areas of the woman’s form and focused specifically on the torso and legs of the body, as seen in Potential Direction #4, #5, #1 and #8.

This idea removes the identity of the woman because her face is not included and to some extent, not important to the overall concept. The sexualised images of the woman creates vulnerability because it suggests that she is an object and nothing more. I believe this contributes to the aesthetic qualities of summer and how self-consciousness girls feel, I would like the audience to question their own feelings and how they feel during these times.

I wanted to focus on these feelings further through the subject matter as females are often seen in almost nothing, which centres attention onto their bodies and as result, creates the feelings of self-consciousness. Colour plays an important role in my 2D works as it seperates what is to symbolise the bad and the good of summer, seen in Potential Direction #9 and #3. I trialed different compositions but decided the centred images were then the centre of attention, leaving the viewer with no where else to look besides the confronting drawings.

In Unit 4, I want to continue to refine the smooth surface and fluent shape of the figures in Potential Direction #1, #2 and #3, although I will need to further refine the material I am working on such as watercolour paper, illustration board or cartridge paper. I will further refine the brushstrokes and the colour of the watercolour background and whether it changes for each work in the collection or stays the same for all three. During the Design Process, I have explored different ways of symbolising and signifying both sides of summer in my digital photography by the poses that the model was fixed in.

Potential Direction #13 and #15 effectively communicates vulnerability, due to the hunched over position of the body, knees slightly buckled suggesting she has emotional weight pulling her down and exhausting her. However, the poses of Potential Direction #11 and #14 both suggest freedom and happineess as in #11 her arms are held out in a horizontal line, calming for the viewer to look at. Potential Direction #14 shows an arched back and arms flung backwards proposing the idea that something, perhaps the self-conciousness and vulnerability, is parting from her through her chest due to ‘feelings’ of summer.

Potential Direction #10 and #12 poses are both gentle, placid and docile, symbolising a weak and vulneable person. The pearl, white wash of watercolour painted over Potential Direction #10 and the coloured washes over Potential Direction #11 and #12 help to symbolise the happiness and lighthearted effect of summer, however, I believe the colours in #11 were too overpowering, making it difficult to see the photo behind the paint whilst #12 is balanced more evenly.

I also trialled black and white edits, seen in #13, creating a subtle and restrained effect for the photo, creating high contrast, adding a small amount of drama, which is also confronting. As this did not fully represent the opposite side of summer, I experimented with spot colour (#14), the maroon, red top, symbolising the happiness and passion of summer, however, red may also symbolise anger, blood and fire. In Potential Direction #15, I have edited the photo to have a purple, blue filter creating a calm and cool feeling to the viewer.

Lastly, in Potential Direction #16, the images have been printed onto a sheet of thin, paper cardboard creating a vintage, nostalgic effect due to the prickled, dark and faded surface of the photo. I really enjoyed this effect as the photos did symbolise vulnerablilty. The effect of the cardboard encourages the viewer to look back on old memories through photos. I plan to further refine the exact method I will use, to represent the opposing sides of summer that I am trying to reinforce. Throughout my folio, I have annotated all these works in more detail, the Potential Directions being marked with pink post-its.

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Martin Gansberg Thirty-Eight Who Saw Murder and Didn’t Call the Police Essay

The article by Martin Gansberg, Thirty-eight who saw murder and didn’t call the police, is about an isolated event. I don’t think something like this happens a lot. Normally people would call the police or do something to help the victim. But unfortunately sometimes people can be very cold or even cruel, like in this case. Some people just don’t care about what is going on around them, if someone is in need of help or some cooperation.

It’s more typical for those who live in big cities because in a busy urban life, in the crowd current they don’t have a time to stop and analyze what would be the right thing to do and they just don’t want to get involved and put themselves in troubles. In small towns people are more responsive, and the situation like this would less likely to happen. Another thing that is influent is crime and violence scenes that people constantly see on television, internet, movies.

People getting used to seeing that on tv all the time in real life perceive it like another show and just watch without any action and some of them even get excited about how it’s all going to end. Luckily I have never been in situation when I had to report a crime in progress, but I know if something happens I am not going to stand there and watch. And hopefully I will never get in situation when I’m the one who needs help and no one helps.

The opening line of the Martin Gansberg’s article “Thirty-eight who saw murder and didn’t call the police” states: “ For more than half an hour 38 respectable, law-abiding citizens in Queens watched a killer stalk and stab a woman in three separate attacks in Kew Gardens. ” But it doesn’t mean that they were staying around like in arena watching the killer slaughtering a victim from the very beginning to the end. The author uses little exaggeration to dramatize what happened. It may not be the fact but it expresses author’s position. It shows how angry and disappointed he is, it shows his condemnation.

Although writers, especially reporters, have an ethical responsibility to be accurate, little exaggeration and distortion can take a place, what can help author to express their position and their point of view. What matters is what exactly and how much has been distorted. For example, article says that the killer made three attempts to kill the woman. If indeed the victim died from the first attempt and the killer run away after that, but author changed the story to make it more dramatic, that would be very serious distortion of the story.

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Why Does the Earth Support Life Essay

Earth is where all of us live in. Earth is the 3rd Planet from the sun, as well as the 5th largest planet in our solar system. As far as humans know Earth is unique in the Solar System as being the only planet which is able to support life in all its forms: from basic micro-organisms to highly sophisticated human beings. There are many reasons why this happens. In this Research paper I will be dividing the reasoning into 5 parts.

The list is as follows, * Atmosphere * Climate * Water * Light * Sun.

Atmosphere

As of now Earth is the only planet that has an atmosphere where lives can strive. What I mean by that is, Oxygen being the gas that is required for the life of most creatures. This is present in Earth’s atmosphere and also in water. Oxygen is constantly put into the atmosphere by plants and trees. Earth’s atmosphere also contains a small amount of carbon dioxide. This is a poisonous gas which makes up most of the atmosphere of planets like Venus and Mars and makes them incapable to support human life.

However, its smaller presence on Earth is useful as it helps to moderate the planet’s temperature and is absorbed by plants during photosynthesis to produce oxygen. Earth’s atmosphere is kept on the planet by its pull of gravity. Mars and Mercury are too small to keep atmosphere. As a result, Mercury has no atmosphere, and Mars’ atmosphere is very thin, containing gases which have not managed to escape into space yet. Earth’s atmosphere is thick enough to prevent poisonous rays of radiation from getting through it. Earth’s Atmosphere can be divided into 5 main layers. They are as follows, Troposphere – The troposphere is the first layer above the surface and contains half of the Earth’s atmosphere. Weather occurs in this layer. The troposphere is mostly heated by transfer of energy from the surface, so on average the lowest part of the troposphere is warmest and temperature decreases with altitude Stratosphere – To put it in context, many jet aircrafts fly in the stratosphere because it is very stable.

Also, the ozone layer absorbs harmful rays from the Sun. Temperature increases with height due to increased absorption of ultraviolet radiation by the ozone layer, which restricts turbulence and mixing Mesosphere – Meteors or rock fragments burn up in the mesosphere. Temperature decreases with height in the mesosphere. Thermosphere – The thermosphere is a layer with auroras. It is also where the space shuttle orbits. Temperature increases with height in the thermosphere from the mesopause up to the thermo pause, then is constant with height. Exosphere – The atmosphere merges into space in the extremely thin exosphere. This is the upper limit of our atmosphere. The exosphere is the outermost layer of Earth’s atmosphere, extending beyond the exobase at an altitude of about 600 km, that’s exactly 372.823 miles.

Climate

Earth has a suitable climate for life. This is caused by the moderate amount of carbon dioxide in the planet’s atmosphere, which is constantly refreshed whenever there is a volcanic eruption. Volcanoes are normally considered a disadvantages occurrence. However, Volcanoes provide resources for energy extraction, also called geothermal resources. Heat from the earth’s crust is being converted to energy. The big advantages to this type of energy are that it is very clean and the resources are nearly inexhaustible. When a volcano erupts it throws out a lot of ash. At short notice this ash can be very harmful to the environment, but on the long term the ash layer, which contains many useful minerals, will be converted to a very fertile soil.

This is a example as to exactly how earth has adopted. The temperature on Earth does not go from one extreme to the other either. Mercury can be anything from 200°c below freezing to 375°c above. At 375°c, water would only exist as a gas, and the planet would be completely dry. In Comparison, Venus has a surface temperature of 480°c, which would be much too hot for anybody to live in. Mars, although it can reach 25°c, can be as cold as -140°c, a temperature which would freeze blood and water. The other planets are colder still. Additionally an issue that we currently face in the modern World is Greenhouse emissions. This is a process that is slowing heating our climate causing increased temperatures. The process of the Greenhouse effect is shown in the picture below.

Water

Earth has water! Water is believed to be the most important chemical necessary for life. It contains the oxygen needed for life. Other liquids contain poisonous elements. Water doesn’t burn skin (like liquids containing acids do), it is drinkable, and it allows life-providing molecules to move around easily. Other moons in the Solar System, such as Europa, a moon of Jupiter, are believed to have oceans of water under its icy surface. Scientists believe that, if they could find traces of water on Mars, the possibility of life existing on that planet would be greatly increased. Water on Earth can be found anywhere, in its three states. It can be frozen, taking the form of ice. It can be liquid, seen in seas and oceans and lakes. It can also be a gas, seen as clouds. In the picture below, we can see water in its three states; a solid, a liquid and a gas. The blue glow at the top of the Earth is the planet’s thin atmosphere.

Light

All planets receive light from the Sun, but no planet uses it as usefully as Earth. Trees and plants on the planet produce oxygen through a process called photosynthesis. Plants need the Sun to grow. Look at plants in windows and notice how they usually seem to grow towards the Sun. Try growing a plant in a dark room and in a light room. Notice which one grows quicker. The one which has grown quickest is the one which also produces more oxygen. It is believed that if we were able to get plants to grow on another planet, such as Mars, they would begin putting oxygen into the planet’s atmosphere and increase the possibility of life. Saturn’s moon, Titan, has an atmosphere containing mainly nitrogen.

If this moon was to possess oxygen too in its atmosphere, by a plant photosynthesizing on it, it could have a similar atmosphere to Earth. Something else which helps the plants to photosynthesis on Earth is the length of time the planet takes to spin once on its axis. Taking just under 24 hours means that each side of the planet receives sunlight regularly. If we look at a planet like Venus, which takes 243 days to spin on its axis, it means that for a large period of time certain parts of the planet are in complete darkness. So even if the planet could support life, it would struggle to do so.

The Sun

All of the reasons given above for life existing on Earth are only possible because of one main reason. The Sun! Put simply, if there was no Sun, there would be no life on Earth. Technically, Earth probably wouldn’t exist either! Because of Earth’s ideal distance from the Sun, it receives the perfect amount of heat and light to allow life to be created and to support it. Imagine what would happen if the Sun suddenly vanished. How would you keep warm? How would you see? How would you get food and drink? How would plants and trees grow? How would they photosynthesis? Where would Earth go? The Sun’s gravity keeps Earth in its orbit, but if the Sun vanished, Earth would simply float away.

Conclusion

Earth is the only planet known to humans where life can exist. Every aspect of earth has been developed to support life. At the same time external forces such as the sun assists life in a great way as well. All these pieces of earth come together and join to make a planet that can sustain life. So it is our duty to make sure Earth stays healthy for many years to come.

You may also be interested in the following: how does earth support life

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Artificial Insemination Notes Essay

Artificial Insemination

Artificial insemination achieved widespread popularity as an infertility treatment in the 1970s. Intracervical insemination (ICI), the original technique used for artificial insemination (AI), is fairly uncomplicated in nature. The most common AI technique used today, intrauterine insemination (IUI), offers certain advantages over ICI. Below you will find information on artificial insemination, including the benefits and cost of artificial insemination and an explanation of the different artificial insemination procedures performed.

What is Artificial Insemination?

Artificial insemination, or AI, is a fertilization procedure in which sperm is artificially placed into a woman’s cervix (intracervical insemination) or uterus (intrauterine insemination).

During artificial insemination treatment, the woman’s menstrual cycle is closely monitored using ovarian kits, ultrasounds, and blood tests. The semen to be implanted is “washed” in a laboratory, which increases the chances of fertilization while removing unnecessary, potentially harmful chemicals. The semen is inserted into the woman, and if the procedure is successful, she conceives. DocShop can help you find a fertility specialist in your area today.

Success rates for artificial insemination vary based on the type of fertility problem being treated and the age of the patient. Most women who choose artificial insemination have a 5 to 25 percent chance of becoming pregnant with each menstrual cycle. These chances increase if you take fertility drugs in conjunction with the procedure.

Artificial Insemination Procedures

Artificial insemination procedures are advanced forms of fertility treatment that involve the use of a thin, flexible tube to precisely place donor sperm into a woman’s reproductive tract. Before the procedure, the sperm to be used is washed and concentrated to increase the likelihood of a conception. Below is a brief overview of the two main types of artificial insemination, intrauterine insemination (IUI) and intracervical insemination (ICI), both of which can be performed by a reproductive specialist at your local fertility clinic. Please use the links provided for a more comprehensive examination of artificial insemination procedures or to learn about in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Intracervical Insemination (ICI)

Intracervical insemination, or ICI, is one of the most commonly performed types of artificial insemination. ICI is a relatively quick and usually painless procedure that deposits donor sperm directly into the cervix, dramatically increasing the chances that the sperm will make its way through the uterus and fallopian tubes, where it can fertilize the egg. Typically less costly than intrauterine insemination (see below), the ICI procedure produces high success rates. To help you learn more about this method of artificial insemination, DocShop has provided additional information on intracervical insemination.

Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)

Intrauterine insemination, or IUI, is the most commonly performed method of artificial insemination by husband (AIH). Often simpler and less expensive than in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination is an effective treatment for some forms of infertility. When combined with ovarian stimulation, IUI – which places sperm in the fallopian tubes – produces high fertilization success rates. As a form of artificial insemination, IUI is good for couples with unidentifiable sources of infertility as well as for couples in which the man has some sperm deficiencies or the woman has cervical mucus problems. DocShop has provided additional information to help you learn more about intrauterine insemination.

Artificial Insemination Using Donor Sperm

Married women can choose to be inseminated with their husbands’ sperm (provided the sperm is viable) or with the sperm of a donor from a sperm bank, a process called artificial insemination by donor (AID). A married woman may use a sperm donation if artificial insemination by husband (AIH) is not an option due to male factor infertility; a single woman may elect AID in order to have a baby by herself. Artificial insemination using donor sperm may also be a solution to patients who cannot afford more advanced treatment such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or for couples whose male partner could transfer genetic disorders to the embryo. Using a screened donor’s sperm eliminates this danger.

Benefits of Artificial Insemination

Artificial insemination is a revolutionary fertility procedure with numerous benefits. The AI technique creates an avenue to pregnancy for couples faced with male infertility or female infertility. Further, AI by donor allows sperm to be tested and screened prior to insemination, reducing the likelihood of passing a genetic disorder on to the child. Another benefit of artificial insemination is that it allows same-sex couples to conceive a child. A fertility specialist in your area will be able to provide you with additional information on the benefits of artificial insemination.

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An Analysis of New York City in Martin Scorsese’s Essay

Among the stellar names in the film directing profession in the world, Martin Scorsese’s is most likely near or at the very top of the list—as bright as the city he has chosen to showcase in most of his career pieces. Using New York City as his backdrop, Scorsese has created landmark films that explore the intricacies of specific human qualities, tightly connected to themes of identity, religion, and psychology.

Three of his films—Mean Streets, Taxi Driver, and Life Lessons—bear the distinct signature of an artist with an immediate message, which is clearly influenced by the dynamics of the inimitable lifestyle of New York City.

A native of Flushing, New York, Martin Marcantonio Luciano Scorsese started planning his life as a priest—which is not at all surprising, considering his Italian and Catholic upbringing. However, he shifted goals at some point and graduated with a film degree from New York University in 1964, when he was twenty-two.

Soon after that he became involved in film productions under the tutelage of several directors and producers, and finally emerged with his first notable feature film, Mean Streets (Brown, 1996).

This particular work signaled the birth of Scorsese’s iconic style, which is defined by idiosyncratic characters and their internal struggles, marked by various circumstances exposing violence, racism, and oppression. Religious topics and details are also common in Scorsese’s work, which, in the past, received the ire of staunch religious groups.

Scorsese is also known for building the careers or collaborating with specially-chosen actors, such as Robert De Niro, Harvey Keitel, and, in recent years, Leonardo DiCaprio. Each of these actors has starred in at least one iconic Scorsese film: De Niro and Keitel in Mean Streets and Taxi Driver, and DiCaprio in The Aviator and Gangs of New York. Common among most of these films is still the appropriation of New York City as the influential setting in playing out each character’s goal and dilemma.

Credibility and accuracy in portraying the life inherent in New York City are integral in Scorsese’s work, and the nature of the city as a melting pot of cultures and its reputation for being the end goal of all personal ambition provide more than enough motivation and reason for the many twists and turns that take place in the characters’ minds and on the streets. II. Living the Gangster Life: The Italian Identity in Mean Streets

One of the most definitive of New York City’s life and color is the presence of a multitude of cultures; this is largely caused by the representation of immigrants from all over the world, who have brought with them the distinct traditions and values of their countries of origin. The Italian community is mainly known for its influence on New York City cuisine, religion, and, as historically documented, organized crime in the form of the Mafia. Mean Streets is inherently Italian in identity, as it is set in New York’s Little Italy in the early 1970s—the territory and environment of most known Mafia-gangster groups.

The portrayals of Charlie and his friend Johnny Boy—Keitel and De Niro, respectively—are excellent examples of life within the gangster reality, of non-negotiable orders, surprises and sudden decisions, the possibility of assault and instant death. This kind of life, however, is not always chosen by those who find themselves in it; Charlie, for one, lives by the dictates of family and religion, and refuses to take a stand on anything—even if he is plagued by his own guilt.

Johnny Boy, on the other hand, is the quintessential gangster, the product of family legacy and history and his pleasure in romanticizing violence and aggression. These two personas reveal some of the most prevalent yet opposing attitudes regarding life in New York City—the struggle to accept a predetermined career, and the assertion of identity based on others’ experience. New York City is indeed a complex mixture of culture and identity, and these are often appropriated by those who desire to make their voices heard in the din of success, failure, and everything else in between.

Religion, ethnicity, family, and other inherent traits that contribute to create an identity that can set one apart from the faceless rest are apparent means for survival, which is essential in the midst of such an unforgiving address. III. Left Alone and Unnoticed: Idealism, Racism, and Violence in Taxi Driver De Niro’s portrayal of Travis Bickle in Taxi Driver symbolizes the outcome of a person left to survive on his own in the complicated maze that is New York City in the mid-1970s.

What begins as a man with fervent dreams of success and fulfillment in the capital of realized wishes can end in cynicism, hopelessness, and despair. Idealism sets the pace for the ultimate acts of violence and racism, played out by succeeding episodes of rejection and perceived injustice—specifically in the context of sex and acceptance. Bickle’s downward spiral into madness is caused by his own set of values, which includes his idealization of women, superiority of race, and self-entitlement coming from the war experience.

Finding himself in a world where he is rejected by a woman he admires, where immorality and child prostitution exists, and where blacks are shown to call the shots through violence and extortion, are enough to shape Bickle’s concept of reality and purpose. Ultimately, he decides to take matters into his own hands, in a defining act that finally pronounces his voice and presence. Rejection and disappointment are part of the New York City lifestyle, given the constant struggle and competition naturally occurring within such a lucrative environment.

Likewise, the reality of prostitution and other forms of immorality are necessary effects of the ongoing tests of one’s desired fate, since negation and failure will always need a stopgap measure and means for release or revenge. This complicated economy may not always be easy to comprehend, much less seen as one’s way of life; that Bickle is established with traits akin to surreal idealism makes New York City a symbol of both fulfilled dreams and unrealized goals. Bickle’s persona is common among many who have decided to find their success in the city yet is only armed with traditional ideals of morality, justice, and equality.

Race is an evident issue, particularly if it figures in the equation of opportunity and chances for success; blacks, to the white Bickle, represents all things he finds wrong in the city. Finding people of a different set of morals is also a trigger for Bickle’s downfall, since he finds himself unable to impose his own ideals on them. New York City is shown here in its element, with the images of political action and objective during the day and graphic evidences of violence and the sex trade at night.

These two pictures of the city plainly show that it is not for the weak, nor for the idealistic; what is essential is toughness and open-mindedness in order to understand the nature of New York City as a place where everything can and will happen. IV. The Master and the Servant: Creativity and Political Economy in “Life Lessons” This installment in the bigger project that is New York Stories is Scorsese’s contribution to the collective efforts made with fellow film icons Francis Ford Coppola and Woody Allen.

“Life Lessons” is a simple story about artist Lionel Dobie, played by Nick Nolte, and his lover/apprentice Paulette, portrayed by Rosanna Arquette, who both engage in the literal and figurative significance of a two-way relationship. Dobie, being a famous abstract artist, imparts his knowledge, skill, and social connections to Paulette, who in turn repays him by serving as his muse and sex partner. Their relationship comes to a turning point when Paulette decides to move on and see other men, which causes Dobie to become insanely jealous.

But it is this jealousy that eventually drives him to create his best work, and thus he forces Paulette to stay with him by selling her on the idea that New York City is the only place for an aspiring artist like herself. Evidently, Dobie lives on his negative emotions to survive, and has done exactly the same in his past relationships. In the end, Paulette makes good with her original decision and leaves, and soon Dobie is shown meeting another young female artist whom he convinces to become his new apprentice.

This scene is shown with much sexual connotation, leaving the viewer to conclude that Dobie has once more found his muse. Art is never just for art’s sake in New York City; while some of the best minds are indeed residents of the locale, the competitive conditions and social norms that define it are also necessary factors to consider in appraising one’s success. Talent is never just the sole requirement in making it big in New York City, mainly because of the sheer number of individuals of excellent gifts trying to make names for themselves.

Thus this brings about the reality and importance of social connection and status; in order to succeed in a place abound with skill and opportunity, one must look beyond the singular benefit of talent and employ all possible elements that can directly or indirectly help realize his or her goal. In this kind of situation, not everyone asked to assist will want to do so without claiming anything back—after all, the brand of opportunity existing in New York City is essentially available whenever and wherever one sees fit to call it forth.

Intrinsically, New York City is probably the one significant environment where making and dealing transactions is the name of the game; to participate, one must have something to sell and/or buy. V. Conclusion Martin Scorsese’s depiction of New York City in the three films mentioned is, quite understandably, based on his own perceptions and experiences. These bases, however, are truly authentic and real—enough to convey a significant concept of New York City, as well as its nuances.

The appropriation of identity in Mean Streets, idealism in Taxi Driver, and creativity in “Life Lessons” is truly apt and relevant, considering that these three themes are probably the most prevalent notions that define the city, albeit taken to each theme’s extremes. New York City may result in an assertion of identity or its eventual loss, depending on a person’s chosen path or decisions. It could progress the concept of idealism to its highest degree, particularly when success is met and values are replicated, yet it could also result in the erosion of idealist thinking, if all experiences are negative and disappointing.

Lastly, the New York City experience can stimulate one’s creativity, since it is the one of the world’s capitals of art, yet can also diffuse the fire that burns one’s passion, if the right connections and exposure are not met. Nothing can be simply in the middle ground with regard to life in this city, as most things either fulfill or destroy existing beliefs and objectives. New York City is truly an enigma, a place that exists both in the mind and in its physical sense; while these two spaces may not always have the same traits or premises, the fact remains that it is an aspiration, where one should ‘make it’.

Scorsese’s attempts at putting together a credible representation of New York City is laudable, but in truth, many more interpretations are still waiting to be conveyed. Such is the meaning of convergence, where anything and everything is possible. References Brown, M. (1996). “Martin Scorsese”. God Among Directors. Accessed on 10 April 2009 from http://www. godamongdirectors. com/scorsese/index. shtml Scorsese, M. (dir. ) (1989). “Life Lessons”. New York Stories. Touchstone Pictures (1973). Mean Streets. Taplin-Perry-Scorsese Productions. (1976). Taxi Driver. Bill/Phillips.

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Descartes vs Hume Essay

Rene Descartes and David Hume touched upon epistemology on the same question, “where does human knowledge come from? ” They both came to very different conclusions. Descartes claimed that our knowledge came from human reasoning alone and this is an absolute certainty principle. This faculty of reasoning is innate tool that came with human species. He called this tool, “mind,” which is separated from our body. Hume on the other hand, claimed that human learned from observing the empirical world, and connecting ideas using, “cause and effect.

Rene Descartes realized that many of the things that he have accepted as the truth was false opinions, and consequentially the principles that were built upon them. He wanted to start anew by try to find out “the truth”, and then build upon that, because the foundation of science requires absolute certainty. In his attempt to find “the truth,” he started to criticize all of the things he had formally believed: applying the method of doubts, and then remove from the foundation what he found to be doubtable or deducible.

He did this as he believed as his doubt increase, certainty decrease and vice versa. By the end of Meditation I, he was in a state called “Abyss,” where he was skeptical of all things and decided that the empirical world was presented to him by an evil demon He then reasoned that for him to be deceived by the demon, he must exist as something, a mind or a thinking thing After stating that his mind is the sole certain thing, he used wax to illustrate that human cannot achieve knowledge through sense, or imagination alone.

He stated that just from observing a piece of already melted wax, he would not be able to identify it as the same piece of wax he had seen earlier in its former form, if he had not been witnessing the melting process. So, sense alone is not the source of knowledge. If he then removed every qualities that a piece of wax can be without, what remain is “something extended, flexible and movable. ” From this explanation, a piece of wax could take any shapes and volume, which would not help him at all in identifying the nature of this piece of wax.

Thus, imagination alone also could not be the source of human knowledge. He concluded that the nature of a piece wax can only be perceived through the inspection of the mind (pure reason) as the other two, sense and imagination, were ruled out. Thus, knowledge is a priori, and Descartes was a Rationalist. However, how could Descartes deny sense data completely, if he had to acquire the appearance of a piece of wax or the knowledge of its nature through sense data in the first instance (before it was melted).

So he started the wax argument by contradicting himself by explaining to us what he sensed of a piece of wax. His reply was that an ordinary language almost as well led him to an error that he saw the wax (from sense data), but in the reality his faculty of mind interpreted the appearance in front of him to be a wax. Another of my objection to his argument is why creating a new thing, a faculty of mind, instate of combining what he already mentioned and known, which are sense and imagination.

In later Meditation, He also use a circular argument to prove the certainty of his reasoning and mind, as he prove God to assure that his reasoning is not fooled by the demon, but we cannot forget that he used his reason to prove God in the first place. His desperation to prove God, and separation of mind and body might be due to the fact that he wanted to serve both of his passions; science and religion. He might be bias in this sense as he doubted until he found want he wanted to seek. David Hume attempted to prove that human knowledge comes from the empirical data and experience.

He started by clearly distinguished between “impression” and “thought and idea” to illustrate that human applies our creative abilities, such as combine, transpose, enlarge and shrink, on our impression to generate thoughts and ideas. He gave two arguments for this position. The first one is human’s ideas and concepts are always complex mixture of simple ideas which are copies of the human’s sensation of the empirical world. The second argument is if a man hasn’t had any experience with a certain object, he would not have any ideas associate with that object.

He challenged oppositionists to prove him otherwise, by giving him an example of thought and idea that is built upon something that had not been seen or heard of before. However, Hume, himself, gave one example that answered to his challenge which was “a missing shade of blue. ” A man would be able to indentify that a shade of missing color from a color scale, even though he hasn’t seen that shade before. Hume stated this example is so singular, it is not worth considering.

Hume then distinguished between two object of human knowledge; relations of idea, which are thing which if were denied would be a contradiction to itself, and matter of fact which its contradiction would still be possible. Hume’s interest was on the later one as he thought the first one was merely a definition or a logical statement. He claimed that the connection between our ideas is cause and effect. For someone to believe that a person can drown in water (effect), he must had before witnessed a drowning incident or had firsthand experience (cause).

For Hume this connection cannot be known by a priori reasoning but always come from experience. Thus, this is a posteriori. However, he was convinced that cause and effect is merely a product of custom and habit. We experience it so many times that we generalize our future on our past, with no certain ground that it will continue to be like the past. This suggests that human knowledge is contingent. Hume could not come up with more certain explanation or step between cause and effect, but he convinced that it was there. Most Descartes was a rationalist.

His work shows that knowledge can only be derived from pure reasoning through innate ability or the faculty of mind, which is certain and proven in Meditation II. He separated this from the body. This leads to a belief that human is more special, as our mind has an ability to provide superior reasoning with give us knowledge. This was in line with Christian belief that men are created in God’s image, which makes us special. By adopting his view, we as a species can rest assures that we are rational being who separated from the rest.

Hume argued that our knowledge which comprised of matter of fact is based on experience, which human connect it using cause and effect. Cause and effect is merely human’s custom and habit. This makes human no more special than any other species in acquiring knowledge. He also implied that human knowledge apart from the relation of idea is contingent. If one has adopted Hume so strictly, one would abandon any knowledge that is not base on mathematic or experience such as metaphysic. Why believe or study it, if it base on something that is contingent, and cannot be proven in any sense.

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The Influence and Artistic Intent of Caravaggio Essay

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, an Italian painter, known to be one of the most influential painters of the Baroque period. Known for his realistic portrayal of the human state, along with the use of dramatic lighting and intense use of tenebrism. While Caravaggio’s dramatic lighting is very iconic, he was most notorious for his naturalistic and raw approach to portraying his subjects. With Caravaggio’s homicidal tendencies aside, this raw and uncensored approach that he took led him to become an infamous painter of 89 pieces during his lifetime.

Evidence can be seen from future painters and even in photography, that Caravaggio is one of, if not the most influential painter to have come out of the Baroque period. Caravaggio did not acquire this status easily and, as a matter of fact, lived a rather tempestuous life. Born in Milan to Fermo Merisi and Lucia Aratori, Caravaggio lived an unfortunate life early on. He was orphaned at a young age, and as a result, ended up as an apprentice to Simone Peterzano, to happened to have been a former apprentice of Titian.

This eventually led him to become an assistant to various artists in Rome, before setting out on his own.

Caravaggio’s first main commission was a series of three monumental canvases devoted to St. Matthew that he painted for the Contarelli Chapel in San Luigi dei Francesi. The most notable piece of art in this series is The Calling of St. Matthew. Caravaggio’s naturalistic style really came into its own in this piece. Caravaggio painted the world how he knew it, and his pieces reflected that. The subjects in his art were not idealized, such as the figures in High Renaissance art. Neither were they distorted, elongated, or overtly elegant like the figures commonly seen in Mannerism art.

This naturalistic depiction of people was shocking and seen as radical. Specifically, in The Calling of St. Matthew, Caravaggio took a religious scene and turned it into a piece depicting common looking people. Up until this point, people had never seen a sacred subject depicted in the context of contemporary low-life. This piece had elements of genre scenes in it, meaning it looked like a scene from everyday life. However, what is special about this work of art is that it does not easily become mistaken as secular or a simple genre scene. Cleverly, this is because of the gesture that Jesus is giving to Matthew.

The relaxed hand is reminiscent of God’s hand in Michelangelo’s piece The Creation of Adam. Every aspect of this piece is done in such a beautiful manner that it bridges the gap between the highly idealized and religious artwork of the High Renaissance and the common lowlifes of the contemporary period. This execution makes this work of art accessible and appreciated by the common man. Not only was Caravaggio’s naturalistic style becoming apparent in this work, but also so was his dramatic and tenebristic style. Caravaggio establishes a certain amount of intensity and drama as a result of his dark and high-contrast style.

Not only does he establish a certain atmosphere, but this style also includes within it. Through his Caravaggio’s use of tenebrism, Christ’s face becomes illuminates in the dark scene to allow the viewer to see the moment that He calls Matthew. If Caravaggio did not include this dramatic use of lighting, it would lose its sense of divineness. His goal was to make the Christian mysteries accessible to every person. While Caravaggio’s unorthodox approach to sacred stories was generally well received, not all works of his were appreciated during his time.

A notable work of art that was not appreciated by many during his time was “The Death of the Virgin”. Laerzio Alberti commissioned Caravaggio to paint this piece for his family chapel in Sta. Maria della Scale, the newly constructed church of the Discalced Carmelites. He was given a year to finish it, but in the end, it was rejected. Modern scholars as to why the picture was rejected. One reason was that the Virgin was improper. Her legs were exposed, her ankles and belly were swollen, and also, she was studied from the bloated corpse of a prostitute whom Caravaggio had relations with.

This painfully naturalistic approach caused him trouble with ecclesiastical authorities. Other forms of speculation explain that, notably, the Virgin was shown as dead instead of dying, with not transition of going to heaven. This went against Caravaggio’s contract, which required that he include the conventional rendition of Mary’s passage from her death to her Assumption. Various hypotheses are given as an explanation as to why Caravaggio took the approach that he did, but all are merely speculation and nothing has been confirmed. The general assumption an be made that Caravaggio took this approach because it is merely the manner in which he approached all of his pieces. He did not desire to idealize anyone or anything and chose to present all scenes in such a naturalistic manner that it was approachable from all levels of society. Caravaggio’s naturalistic and dramatic style inspired many, and his influence can easily be seen in many future artists’ works. After Caravaggio’s untimely death, many artists came to be considered his “followers” even though they never met or worked alongside the artist.

While some artists imitated Caravaggio for a brief time, others remained committed to Caravaggio’s style for the duration of their lives. These painters, labeled as the Caravaggisti, emulated aspects of Caravaggio’s style and technique. These followers were intrigued by Caravaggio’s gritty realism and intense use of lighting. A notable Caravaggisti would be Artemisia Gentileschi. Gentileschi personally knew Caravaggio, and evidence can be seen in her work that he influenced her to a certain degree. One of her more famous pieces, Judith and Her Maidservant With the Head of Holofernes, has influences of Caravaggio’s style in it.

Most notably is the strong use of tenebrism to create a very dramatic atmosphere to the piece. Moreover, the figures are not idealized and the subjects appear as common lowlifes. Gentileschi was not the only artist to show influences of Caravaggio. Artists such as Rubens and Rembrandt can also see slight influences of Caravaggio’s style in their work. It can be seen that Rubens adopted the religious themes and physicality of figures in his work. Along with that, it can be seen that Rubens also adopted Caravaggio’s tenebristic style to a certain degree.

This can most notably be seen in his piece, The Descent from the Cross. Rubens uses dramatic lighting to focus on Christ to create a striking focal point. Rembrandt uses this technique in a similar manner as well. A notable piece in which influences of Caravaggio can be seen in Rembrandt’s work is in the piece, The Blinding of Samson and The Nightwatch. Both pieces can be seen utilizing forms of tenebrism to create dramatic atmospheres. Not only are these atmospheres dramatic, but Rembrandt also uses the light in a manner in which he creates a strong focal point, similarly to Rubens.

Caravaggio did not only influence the painters that came after him, but also in photography of future centuries. Despite playing a key role in defining the 17th century, Caravaggio was largely forgotten until interest in him renewed in the 20th century when emerging artists were adopting techniques and imitating his style. The greatest reason for this was the popular emergence of the camera. Because of the spontaneity and directness of photographs, people began to realize the greatest of Caravaggio’s art again.

Also, Caravaggio had such a naturalistic approach to his paintings that the realism as a result appealed to many photographers. Along with this, art critic Roberto Longhi brought Caravaggio’s name to the foreground, praising him and saying, “With the exception of Michelangelo, no other Italian painter exercised so great an influence. ” These two factors revived Caravaggio’s name in the early 1900’s and made people realize his greatness. Also, there has been much speculation with historians that Caravaggio even incorporated early photographic techniques into his paintings.

They say that he illuminated models through a hole in the ceiling and the image was projected on a canvas using a lens and a mirror; an early form of camera obscura. Along with that, Caravaggio supposedly “fixed” the image, using light-sensitive substances for around half an hour, during which he used white lead mixed with chemicals and minerals that were visible in the dark, which he used to paint the images. Also, one of the elements that were used in these mixtures was mercury, which prolonged exposure to it can affect the central nervous system, which can potentially cause irritability.

Historians trace this back to potentially factoring into Caravaggio’s temper. While this is highly improbable to be the cause of Caravaggio’s temper, it can be argued that it could very well have been a direct factor. Regardless, these innovations of Caravaggio show the obvious talent that he had and why he had so much influence of future artists. From what was explained, conclusions can be drawn that Caravaggio was one of the, if not the most influential artist of the Baroque period.

With Caravaggio’s potent combination of naturalism and intense tenebrism, he created a style of gritty realism that appeal to many people and inspired the work of future artists. While Caravaggio’s unorthodox approach to his work was rather shocking, it also inspired just as many. Evidence can be drawn from future painters that Caravaggio’s style inspired many works of art. Even in today’s art, we can see hints of how Caravaggio’s raw and dramatic art has rippled forward through time and continues to influence art today.

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