Childhood Illnesses Essay


There are many childhood illnesses listed below are some examples……… Croup – A child can get croup at any time of the year, although it’s more likely to occur during late autumn/ early winter. This may be because there is more are :- a sore throat, runny nose, high temp and a cough. Over a day or 2 specific symptoms of croup will develop these include a bark like cough, a horse or croaky voice, difficulty breathing ( a harsh grating nois;lk.

e when they breathe in) and have difficulty swallowing. If a child shows signs of suffering with Croup seek medical advice / visit GP. Measles – The initial symptoms of measles appear around day 10 after you have had the measles infection and last for up to 14 days. The measles rash usually appears within a few days. The initial symptoms are :- cold-like symptoms ( runny nose, watery eyes etc) eyes will be red and light sensitive, a temp peaking at 40.6˚C/105F for several days ( their temp will then start to fall but will increase again once the rash appears) small greyish-white spots in the mouth and throat, tiredness ,irritability, lack of energy, aches and pains, poor appetite and a red/brown rash.

The Measles rash appears 2-4 days after thee initial symptoms and can last for up to 8 days. The rash usually starts behind the ear then spreads to the head, neck and the rest of the body. The spots will usually get bigger and join up together. If you suspect a child has Measles seek medical advise/ visit GP. Mumps – The symptoms of mumps usually develop 14-25 days after the child has become infected. This is known as “ the incubation period”. Swelling of the glands being the most common symptom that a child has Mumps (they are just below each ear). Other symptoms may include headache, joint pain, feeling sick, dry mouth, belly pain, feeling very tired, loss of appetite and a high temp (38˚C/100.4˚F) or above. Seek medical advice/ visit GP if you suspect a child has Mumps. Chicken Pox – The most common sign that a child has Chicken pox is a red rash that can cover their entire body.

However, ever before the rash appears the child may have shown flu- like symptoms. Soon after an itchy rash will appear. Some children may only get a few spots while other will be completely covered. The spots normally appear in clusters and tend to be behind their ears, on their face, in their scalp, under their arms and behind their knee’s. But the spots can appear anywhere including in their mouth and ears. The rash will start small but will develop quickly within 12-24 hours and the spots will develop into blisters and become increasingly itchy. If you suspect a child has Chicken pox seek medical advice/ visit GP. Whooping Cough – The symptoms of Whooping Cough can take between 6-20 days to develop. Whooping cough tends to develop in stages from mild symptoms at first followed by a period of more severe symptoms before improvement begins. The early symptoms of Whooping cough are often similar to those of the common cold.

These early symptoms can last for up to 2 weeks before becoming more severe. The second stage is often characterised by intense bouts of coughing. This is often known as “ the paroxysmal stage” and has the following symptoms :- intense coughing that brings up phlegm, a “whoop” sound with each intake of breathe after coughing, vomiting after coughing, tiredness and redness after coughing. Each bout of coughing usually lasts between 1-2 minutes, but several bouts may occur in quick session and last several minutes. Young children may also seems to choke or become blue in the face when they have a bout but they should return to normal once its finished. Seek medical advice/ visit GP if you suspect a child has Whooping cough. Rubella – The symptoms of Rubella take 2-3 weeks to develop. During this incubation period the child may have a slightly raised temperature and complain that they are getting a cold.

The main Rubella symptoms are the rubella rash this is a distinctive red-pink colour. The rash appears as spots which may slightly itch usually starting behind the ear before spreading around the head and neck area. They may also have swollen lymph modes and a high temp. Ear infection – A pain in the ear is the number 1 symptom of an ear infection. The child may not be able to communicate their pain but they will be pulling at their ear and it will look red in colour. Other symptoms of an ear infection are a child complaining that it hurts to swallow. They may also have difficulty sleeping due to the pain. There may also be an unpleasant smell coming from the ear. They may also appear to be unsteady on their feet due to a lack of balance and have trouble hearing quieter noises ( may request things are turned up)

If you suspect a child has an ear infection seek medical help/ visit GP has the child will require anti-biotics. Conjunctivitis – is a infection in the eye. It’s very common in the under 5 year olds. The signs to look out of ( as conjunctivitis is very contagious) are teary, red, itchy, painful eye. The eyelid may become swollen and my be weeping a yellow/green discharge which makes it difficult to open. Have a high temp and be sensitive to light. If you suspect a child is suffering from Conjunctivitis seek medical help/ visit GP has the child will require a course of anti- biotic cream. Impetigo – is one of the most common skin infections among children usually affecting pre-school and school age children.

A child is more likely to develop impetigo if they have already been irritated by other skin problems such as eczema, poison ivy, insect bites and cuts/grazes from a recent injury. The symptoms that a child has impetigo are clusters of red bumps/blisters around an area of redness. There may be fluid oozing from the blister or look dry and crusty. The sores usually appear around the mouth and nose, or on skin not covered by clothing. Seek medical help/visit GP if you suspect a child has impetigo has its highly contagious and the child will need a course of anti- biotics.

Children of the City Essay

Amadis ma Guerrero was born in Ermita, Manila in 1941, hegraduated from the Ateneo de manila in 1965 from theUniversity of Santo Tomas in 1959. His short story “Children of the City” is a departure from his usual style. It won the PalancaAwards in 1971.


This story happened in the late 1980’s. Everything occurredin the dark perilous busy streets of Manila. Boulevard . streets of avenida Characterization

He is a boy from Intramuros. At the age of eight, he loses hisfather and his mother abandons him for some other man.

He ishired as a newsboy by his uncle and starts his life on the streets.Innocent and young, he ponders on the menace and vices of hiscolleagues and the people all around him. -Victor’s Dad

A good-natured man and a loving father to Victor, he was apart of a worker’s strike. The man loved his son dearly and hisdeath brought a huge blow to Victor. -Victor’s Mom

She loved Victor’s dad but never cared felt any affection forher son.

She took her husband’s death grievously. But later on,she ignores Victor, becomes a prostitute, then leaves Victor to hisUncle to go away with her new lover. -Tio Pedring

Victor’s uncle, he adopted victor after the leaving of hissister. He forces victor to become a newspaper boy. -Nacio
He is a newspaper boy. He was victor’s new friend. Thoughfull of cruel vices, Victor took his death as another major loss.

The father of the boy Victor got involved in a strike. He actsas though it was nothing and takes Victor to night walks aroundManila. He takes Victor’s mind off vices and promises Victor abright future someday.One day, during the strike. Victor’s father was shot dead inthe heart. His wife mourned greatly and his son was subdued.

Thewife began to disappear late at night and come home early dawn.She refuses to take care of Victor. And then, she comes homewith some goon, telling that the goon will be Victor’s new dad.Victor didn’t like the stranger at all. As often as possible, he triesto stay out of his mom and her lover’s way.And then, Victor just woke up with his mother and the mangone. His Uncle Pedring introduces to take care of him. Herecruits Victor to a newspaper job. The man does not treat Victorwell unless he brings home money.During his job, Victor meets Nacio.

Nacio was also anewspaper boy. He taught Victor various tricks in newspaperselling. They become close friends.Victor’s job grew prosperous. Soon, his “Boss” starts to trusthim with a ration of 20 papers a day. He becomes contented withhis life until-Nacio was run over a car. He was dead. Victor grieved for hisfriend just like the way he did with his father. He gets beaten upwith the other kids.His colleagues beat him up whenever he refuses to smoke orsay curse words… Victor was defiant at first. But after long, tiredof being tossed around like a stray dog-Victor finally gave up.

Moral lesson

The story ended when the author realized how cruel theworld is…”… And Victor, swirled the life of the city: this city, flushed withtriumphant charity campaigns, where workers were made to signstatements certifying they received minimum wage, wheremillionaire politicians received Holy Communion every Sunday,where mothers taught their sons and daughters the art of begging, where orphans and children from broken homes slept onpavements and under darkened bridges, and where best friendsfell out and betrayed one another.”

This world is mean indeed… people become the way theyare, not because of fate, but of how the people around themrevolve. Children of politicians study at universities and tend toget spoiled. Whereas, orphans are shunned downwards and areleft to fill the streets and crawl under the powerful’s shoes. The story shows us the way life turns and how what webecome rests upon our defiance and decisions. This has been ahackneyed phrase through the decades but it portrays some kindof truth.

Childhood Nostalgia Essay

Childhood memories never fade easily, and I long for the life I had as a child, as many others do. Nostalgia will always be a part of me, as my childhood was simply unforgettable and wonderful. When I was a child, I lived with my grandparents for a while, as my parents are both busy with work in their company. I still have a clear visual memory about my grandparents’ traditional Chinese house. The old wooden gate with black rings on both sides displays the typical Asian atmosphere.

When I open the gate, I immediately smell the smoke of burning wood used to heat the house. The split firewood is stacked on the side wall of the house, enough for several winters. The front yard is covered in green fresh grass which turns into yellow dry grass as winter approaches. Some stones are imbedded in the grass like a bridge to the house from the gate. It was truly a view few other places can compete, and it’s a break from the concrete urban jungle I was used to in the cities.

A medium-sized pomegranate tree is planted in the corner of the yard, and its sweet sour fruits are picked and eaten. These fruits are some of the most delicious I’d ever had, and I still long for them every single day. As a child, I was always amazed how the tree bore the red delicious fruit every year. It was then I realized how food always tastes better when you grow them yourself. Finally, there is a titanic rectangular building that seems simple in shape but complex in other aspects.

The black tiled roof, in my opinion, is the most appealing strength of the house as those hundreds of tiles are engraved with delicate patterns, making the tiles bumpy and coarse. Under the roof, there is a tiny nest of swallows which symbolize peace and happiness in China. The morning at my grandparents’ house is welcomed everyday with the harmonic songs that the birds provide. These fine details of the house always linger in my head, persuading me to visit my grandparents, as these memories are simply timeless.

Relationships Between Grandparents and Grandchildren Essay

The relationships between grandparents and grandchildren vary within every family. Some families develop strong relationships with their grandchildren, while others are seemingly unrecognized by one another. For this interview, I was hoping to come into contact with an individual who has maintained a healthy relationship with his or her descendants. Originally I was going to interview someone outside of my family; however, I realized that if I were to interview my own grandmother, I could demonstrate two different perspectives of the grandparent-grandchild relationship, hers and mine.

I chose to conduct an interview with my grandmother (maternal) whom is an 82-year-old Hispanic woman who primarily speaks Spanish. She was born in Texas in 1931 and currently resides at this location. Her socioeconomic status is middle class. My grandmother is a widow. Her husband passed away 10 years ago this month. She is currently unemployed, and resides in the same home that she shared with her husband and children. She has seven children (six females; one male), eleven grandchildren (five females; six males), seven great grandchildren (two females; five males), and one great-great grandchild (female).

Considering that my grandmother is the first generation, there are still five active generations on the maternal side of my family. I would have liked to talk about my grandmother’s relationship with the fourth and fifth generations of my family, but they presently live in Georgia and unfortunately there is not much contact between them. The only child currently in the fifth generation, her great-great granddaughter, still has not met the first generation because they live so far apart from each other.

Thankfully, due to technological advancements in communication, my grandmother has been able to see pictures and videos of all the family members from all generations. In the interview, I asked her how she would describe her current relationship with her grandchildren. As expected, she said that her relationship with all of her grandchildren was great and there were no problems with any of them. Uncertain about the sincerity of her answer, I then rephrased the question to ask her how she felt about each individual relationship with her grandchildren.

I made a list of all her grandchildren and asked her to talk about each one. What I was able to draw from all the individual relationships was that she is proud of all her grandchildren regarding their accomplishments thus far. She did reveal some regretful elements that she has experienced as a grandmother to such a large family. She stated that she is sad that she does not get the opportunity to see or talk to many of her grandchildren as often as she would like.

She only has the chance to interact with some of them during special occasions such as Christmas, Thanksgiving, New Years, and other major holidays. Even then, not all of the grandchildren are able to attend those events because the majority of them are already adults and have their own lives and responsibilities that seem to have become priority over family festivities. Another one of my grandmother’s concerns is that not all of her grandchildren are able to communicate with her effectively, because there is a slight language barrier.

Although she understands English fairly well and can interpret what her grandchildren are expressing to her, she is unable to speak the language correctly when she is responding to them. Regretfully, many of her grandchildren are not fluent in the Spanish language. She expresses that the reason for this is due to the fact that Spanish is not taught to children while they attend school which never influenced them to learn. Furthermore, since my grandmother has never been employed throughout her life and instead opted to be a housewife, she never felt the need to drive.

Since my grandmother never learned how to drive, she never obtained a driver’s license. I asked her what her primary mode of transportation is and she said that one of the perks to having so many grandchildren is that nowadays children learn how to operate a vehicle at an early age. She only has a few grandchildren that live nearby but she is able to get a ride from them to take her to any appointments she may have or to just run errands. Originally her husband would drive her wherever she needed to go but by now he would be about 88 years old.

She manages to maintain a strong relationship with one of her granddaughters in particular. Her youngest daughter, along with her granddaughter, currently lives within her household. This would typically make it much easier for her to keep a healthy relationship with her granddaughter who is approximately twelve years old, but her daughter that is 39 years old, went through a divorce about 5 years ago and is currently diagnosed with schizophrenia. Both my grandmother and my cousin must support my aunt with her mental disability. Regretfully, this is taking a toll on everyone in the household.

While I was listening to her speak about the situation, I was able to add a follow-up question regarding how the current situation has affected her relationship with her granddaughter. She expressed that the situation has impaired relationships between herself, her daughter, and her granddaughter. She continued talking about how her daughter randomly goes through behavioral outbursts and it is incredibly difficult to calm her down and at times. Sometimes situations can escalate to a point where she and her granddaughter have no choice but to call the authorities because her daughter can be a potential threat to herself or others.

My grandmother and her granddaughter work together to keep everything in the household running smoothly but there are times that the tension is too great between everyone in the household. I wanted to go a little more in depth on her thoughts about her daughters divorce and how she feels it affected her relationship with her granddaughter. She said that because of the divorce, she can now have her daughter and granddaughter closer. She was naturally sad that her daughter’s marriage ended in divorce but since her daughter and granddaughter used to live in San Antonio, she didn’t get to see them very often.

She enjoys being around her granddaughter all the time and it wouldn’t have been possible if it weren’t for the divorce. I believe my grandmother was very lucky that her daughter is the one that maintained custody over the father. “A divorce may strengthen bonds between the grandparent and grandchild; especially when grandparents become more involved with caring for their grandchildren. In cases where contact between grandparents and grandchildren decreases or ends, the result can be traumatic and painful for all concerned. (Milne). I then proceeded to ask her about what kind of activities she participates in with her granddaughter. My grandmother takes the time to sit with her granddaughter and talk about school related things, watch movies together, and share ideas & concepts on things that her granddaughter should paint. As I got to this point into the interview and I asked so much about the grandparent-grandchild relationship, I was curious what my grandmother’s perspective was on being more of a parent than a grandparent.

My grandmother feels that she has to be more of a parent to her granddaughter due the fact that her daughter has schizophrenia. She tries her hardest to help her granddaughter with homework and advice but she feels that there are still a lot of things that she cannot do on behalf of her daughter. My final question was based off of one of the chapters that I read in the class assigned textbook. “Grandchildren whose parents had poor relationships with their own parents saw their grandparents less often and rated the quality of the relationship lower than those whose parents recalled caring relationships. (Quadagno, 2011). With that in mind, I asked if she felt that her granddaughter’s relationship with her was affected by her daughter’s relationship with her. I gave an example such as, “If your daughter was close to you, then that would make your granddaughter close to you also, and vice versa. ” She told me that when her daughter first moved back home, she was still very upset with the divorce and she would lash out at everyone. My grandmother said that since her daughter would treat her badly, her granddaughter wouldn’t have as much respect for her.

It took about a year until her granddaughter began to realize that there was something wrong with her mom and began to get closer to her grandmother for comfort and support with handling her mother with schizophrenia. After talking to my grandmother about her perspective on this grandparent-grandchild relationship, I couldn’t help but feel as if she was not being completely truthful with all her answers. I read in an article in USA Today, “Grandparents may feel that they themselves have failed as parents.

They may feel a sense of shame and worry that it says something about the parenting of that (adult) child. “(Facciolo, 2012). I would have liked to go into more detail regarding her thoughts on her daughters divorce, and how she really feels about it. I believe if I were to have gone too much in depth she would have gotten slightly upset because there are a lot more factors regarding her situation at home. Overall, it was interesting getting insight on the grandparent-grandchild relationship which I never really gave too much thought on.

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Assess the View The Modern Family Is Child Centrded Essay

Assess the view that the modern family has become more children centred. Some sociologists argue that the modern family has become more children centred. This is mainly due to the changes in laws restricting child labour and excluding children from paid work. This is because from about the 10th to the 13th century the idea of childhood did not exist. According to Aries in the middle ages childhood as a separate age-stage was short. Children entered wider society on the same terms as adults.

Even the laws we have today to protect children were not applicable, the law often made no distinction between children and adults and they faced the same punishment as adults. However Aries theory can be deemed as unreliable as he used evidence from paintings and diaries to understand childhood and family life in the past. Another reason some sociologist argue that the family has become more child centred is due to the introduction of compulsory schooling for all children in 1880.

This benefited mostly the poorer children as some upper class children had already been receiving education.

According to Aries some elements of the modern notion of childhood gradually began to emerge from the 13th century onwards. This is because school came to specialize in the education of children. However conflict sociologists such as Marxist argue that inequalities among children of different classes still exist even if all children go to school. The opportunities and risks they face still differ as many children remain unprotected and badly cared for. The view that the modern family has become more children centred can be explained with declining family size and lower infant mortality rates.

China’s One-Child Policy: Should It Be Abolished? Essay

After the People’s Republic of China had been founded in 1949, the improved sanitation and medicine promoted rapid population growth. Before long, the population boom started to take a major toll on the country’s food supply. Officials launched a campaign to promote birth control in 1955 in order to deal with the overpopulation. Their efforts were reversed though, in 1958 by the Great Leap Forward, which was Mao Zedong’s attempt to rapidly convert China into what he thought would be a modern industrialized state.

By 1962, there was a massive famine in China that caused about 30 million deaths.

During the aftermath of the famine, officials tried multiple times, with several different campaigns, to reduce the population. One of these campaigns was successful, using the slogan “Late, Long and Few.” China’s population growth fell by half from 1970 to 1976. The population growth then proceeded to level off, causing officials to seek more drastic measures to reduce population growth. This resulted in what is now known as China’s One Child Policy, which was introduced in 1979 (“Brief History”).

The One Child Policy restricts urban couples from having more than one child. There are exceptions for rural families and ethnic minorities, officially anyway. There are many problems with the policy and it has been implicated in forced abortions and female infanticide. One of the biggest problems with the policy is that it is a violation to every person’s human rights. It violates not only a person’s right to privacy of information and their body and it also violates the basic human right to choose the size of one’s own family. The gender imbalance is another big problem with the policy and it is leaving many men without the option to get married and is affecting the crime rate in a negative way. There is also the relatively smaller issue of having an entire generation of only children and the possible social issues that that can cause.

Another big problem is that there is an age disparity between the young and the old that is beginning to and will continue to have an impact on the economy of China. A big argument against the policy is also that it was never needed in the first place. The One Child Policy in China needs to be abolished. China’s One-Child Policy violates a human right to determine the size of one’s own family. No family should be forced to only have one child by any government, and that is exactly what the Chinese government is doing to their citizens. Chinese officials have said before that the one-child policy is optional. The catch is that the violators of the policy will be fined. For example, in an article by Debra Cassens Weiss, who holds a J.D. from DePaul University College of Law and a B.A. in English from the University of Illinois, she talks about Yang Zhitzhu, a law professor at China Youth University for Political Sciences, who was charged a $37,000 “social upbringing fee” in 2009 for violating the one-child policy.

He also lost his job and, as a protest, put himself up for sale, vowing to serve his master until death, for $100,000. Also, because he did not pay the fee, his second daughter will not be granted household registration papers that would entitle her to a public education and healthcare. So, not only does the father get fined and lose his job because he decided to have a second child, his daughter now also has to suffer. Why should the daughter be punished for something the father did, when she did nothing to deserve the punishment? No person should be punished for being born. Executive director, Harry Wu, of the Laogi Research Foundation, which is an organization that collects information about forced labor camps and other human rights violations in China, wrote an article talking about Gao Xiao Duan and her testimony about the one-child policy in front of the House of Representatives Subcommittee on International Operations and Human Rights on June 10, 1998.

Gao was worked as an administrator at the Yonghe town planned-birth office. “She was to carry out the dictates of the communist regime in accordance with the ‘one child’ policy.” She explained in the hearing her daily duties. Gao issued “‘birth allowance’ certificates to women who meet the policy and regulations of the central and provincial planned-birth committees.”

She issued “birth-not-allowed notices” notices as well, which were made public for the purpose of making it known to everybody that the couple was in violation of the one-child policy, facilitating the supervision of the couple. Gao also issued “birth control measures implementation notices.” This meant that all women who were of child-bearing age were notified that they must have contraceptive device reliability and pregnancy examinations when necessary. If a woman failed to arrive for one of these, a supervision team would apprehend her and force her to have the examinations required.

Issuing notices on whether or not a woman can have a child violates the basic human right to be able to choose whether or not she wants to have a child violates the privacy of information of the citizens of China. And requiring them to have examinations on the reliability of their contraceptive device and their pregnancy status is a violation of every human’s right to privacy over their own body. The idea that the women are taken and forced to have theses examinations takes away any freedom that they could have had over the issue, and that shows that the Chinese government has too much control over the citizens of China when it comes to the one-child policy.

Another problem with the One-Child Policy is the growing gender imbalance in China. In January 2010 the Chinese Academy of Social Science (CASS) said that within ten years, one in five young men would not be able to find a wife because of the shrinking amount of women in the country. According to the CASS, China will have 30 million to 40 million more men, ages 19 and under, than women by 2020. To put this into perspective, there are about 23 million boys age 20 and under in Germany, France, and Britain combined. There are about 40 million boys in the Unites States (“Worldwide War”). This means that China has enough men outnumbering women to populate Europe’s three most populated countries or to populate the entire United States male population.

The sex ratio in China has been growing significantly since the 1980’s. The sex ratio in China for the generation born between 1985 and 1989 was 108 (meaning there were 108 males born for every 100 females), which is considered to be a little out of the natural range. For the generation born between 200 and 2004, the sex ratio was an astounding 124. And according to the CASS, the ratio is at 123 today, which is said to be biologically impossible without human intervention (“Worldwide War”).

This is on the national level, once someone looks into the different regions and provinces in China they get a clearer picture of how bad the imbalance is. In an analysis of Chinese household data carried out in 2005 and then reported to the British Medical Journal, only a single region, Tibet, has a sex range that are considered to be within the bounds of nature. Fourteen more provinces have a sex ratio of above 120. And two more had an extremely unnatural rate of over 130 (“Worldwide War”).

Then gender imbalance is causing more problems than just men not being able to find a bride though. It is also affecting the amount of crimes being committed in China. “Throughout human history, young men have been responsible for the vast preponderance of crime and violence—especially single men in countries where status and social acceptance depend on being married and having children” ( “Worldwide War”). This could very easily mean a lot of trouble for China, as there crime rate keeps rising.

China’s crime rate has almost doubled in the past twenty years because of the rising sex ratio. A study into whether the sex ratio and the crime rate were connected concluded that about one-seventh of the crime rate increase was accounted to the rising sex ration. Some of the biggest crimes on the rise are said to be bride abduction, trafficking of women, prostitution, and rape (“Worldwide War”).

With one-seventh of the crime rate rise being accounted to the gender imbalance and the gender imbalance becoming more and more lopsided, China is in big trouble if they don’t do something about the gender imbalance soon. They could just throw everybody who commits a crime in prison, but they will surely run out of room at some point. China needs to address the issue of the gender imbalance by looking back at what they can do to alter the one-child policy so it does not favor having a boy if they will not get rid of the policy altogether.

Another issue with the One-Child Policy in China is that it leaves an entire generation of only children. In March of 2007 delegates of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), the top political advisory body in China, stated that China should abolish the One Child Policy because “it creates social problems and personality disorders in young people” (“Consultative Conference”). Only Children are known to be more selfish and have a harder time communicating with peers, which is a problem if you have an entire generation of what are being called “Little Emperors”

There is also the issue of the increase in percentage of citizens over the age of sixty and decrease in percentage of younger citizens. The latest census information shows that the policy has been working. The population rose to 1.34 billion as of last year from 1.27 billion in 2000. This puts the average annual growth at 0.57 percent for the decade. Compared to the previous decade, which had an average annual growth of 1.07 percent, this is a good decrease for the country. The problem, however, is that the census also shows that citizens over the age of 60 now represent 13.3 percent of China’s population, which is an increase from 10.3 percent in 2000. And also the amount of future workers, age 14 and under, has been shrinking.

Citizens age 14 and under now make up 16.6 percent of the population, which is a drop from 23 percent in 2000 (“Plan Faces New Fire”). To help paint the picture even more, by 2030, the number of citizens in their 20’s is going to drop by 35percent and the number of citizens ages 55 to 60 is going to increase by 60 percent. The number of people ages 65 and over is going to jump by an even more astounding 100 percent in the same period of time (Elizabeth Economy).

This basically means that China’s elderly population is rapidly growing as the generation before the One-Child Policy are retiring, putting an extremely heavy burden on the rest of Chinese society to cover the cost of their retirement. While the retirees are rapidly growing, the workforce is even more rapidly shrinking. This will begin “reversing the demographic phenomenon of a widening pool of low-cost labor that powered a manufacturing boom over the past three decades” (“Plan Faces New Fire”).

This leads to a subsequent problem caused by the retirees growing and workers shrinking, and that problem is that it is crippling China’s economy. For example, in an article in Bloomberg Businessweek, Kevin Hamlin, a reporter for Bloomberg News, talks about Lin Chang Jie, who is battling to save his family’s business.

He is faced with a dwindling supply of workers, forcing him to pay higher wages. Lin must attempt to change his Dejin Textile into an online fashion retailer in order to reduce headcount and keep his business from failing like many others. Lin is having such a problem because the decrease in labor is largely the unskilled labor that is used in factories to produce low-margin goods, such as clothes, toys and furniture. The lack of unskilled labor is a huge problem considering these low-margin goods made up 68 percent of China’s exports last year according to China’s customs agency.

According to Hamlin’s article, the upward pressure on wages is forcing mainland companies to upgrade to what are considered to be higher-value products. China may have as few as five years to make the transition to avoid a economic slump because growth may decline from 2016 to 2020 as low-cost producers begin to fail and investment starts to fall away.

There is also what is called the four-two-one problem, which will have a negative effect on the economy on the individual level. The four-two-one problem is that the citizens who grew up as only children will be forced to support up to six people by themselves. They will have to support their parents when they retire and up to four grandparents. Because men outnumber women so greatly, that leaves a lot of single men to support both their parents and grandparents. This will cause individual citizens to save more money and in the process hurt the economy because they aren’t putting as much money back into it.

Chinese officials would argue that the economy improved as a result of the One-Child policy. While the economy has improved during the length of the policy, that doesn’t mean that the policy should receive credit for the improvement. China’s economy made great advances before the One-Child Policy too. What is to say that the economic advances should not be attributed to the economic reforms rather than to the population policy? If China does not do something about the One-Child Policy causing a disparity in age, they could be looking at a huge economic downfall. This downfall will be as a result of failing companies and lack of investment as well as the lack of spending on the individual level due to the four-two-one problem.

There are also some people who say, even though the policy seems to be doing its job, that the One-Child Policy was unnecessary in the first place. An advocacy group that is made up of two dozen leading demographers, economists and former Family Planning officials joined together to fight the policy in 2000. This group, who knew that China’s fertility rate was declining before the One-Child Policy began in 1980. The fertility rate hade dropped to 2.7 in 1979 from 5.5 in 1970 because of a policy that encouraged, but did not force, Chinese citizens to marry later, wait longer between children, and have fewer babies.

The group also knew that fertility rates in other developing countries showed similar results. Because of this information, group members began to conduct quiet field research to prove that China’s fertility rate had fallen well below what is known as the replacement rate of 2.1. The replacement rate is generally required to keep a population stable. Taking into account exemptions, the group calculated that the fertility rate should be 1.47 if the policy was implemented correctly. As of today, the group says the fertility rate has been about 1.8, well below 2.1, since 1991. The group assumes that many children are born secretly to avoid fines and that if you take that out the fertility rate is actually between 1.5 and 1.6 (“Plan Faces New Fire”).

While the group is only arguing for a two-child policy at minimum, their point is that the One-Child Policy never needed to be implemented in the first place. China would have had a fertility rate closer to the replacement rate if it would have continued to just encourage citizens to have fewer kids and get married later. Why should China keep a policy that is hurting the country if it was not needed in the first place? China’s One-Child Policy needs to be taken away. The policy violates the basic human rights of any person. Every person living on this planet has the basic right to choose the size of their own family; it shouldn’t be decided by the government of any country. Even though some Chinese officials have said the policy is optional, the government heavily fines those who violate it, $37,000 in the case of Yang Zhitzhu.

And, as explained by Gao Xiao Duan’s testimony, the policy also violates human privacy over one’s own body by being forced to take examinations on their state of pregnancy or whether or not their contraceptive device is functioning properly. There is also an obvious violation of Chinese citizens’ right to privacy of their information. The gender imbalance, which is far above the natural range, is leaving men unable to find a bride and is directly linked to China’s increasing crime rates. When a policy is connected to an increase crimes such as rape, kidnapping, and prostitution it is a policy that should not exist. Also, the growing age disparity is crippling the economy in China. It will be more evident in a few years, but shrinking work force along with the growing amount of retirees are beginning to destroy the unskilled labor jobs, which were the cause of China’s economic boom to begin with.

And the four-two-one problem is hampering economic growth because citizens are forced to save more money instead of putting it back into the economy. There is also the fact that the policy may not have been needed in the first place and that the fertility rate in China is dangerously lower than the replacement rate of 2.1, making it impossible to have a stable population. If the policy was not needed to begin with and it isn’t really helping the country, China must get rid of it. So yes, the one child policy has reduced the growth of the population significantly, but at what cost is it being done?

My Childhood Memories Essay

It’s considered that childhood memory is special for everybody because it’s very personal. I can’t imagine my childhood without reminding the time that I’ve spent at our summer cottage. I can even say that it’s the most precious time in my life. It’s situated in half an hour from city by the most beautiful sea that I’ve ever seen in my life. Unfortunately we sold it 6 years ago, and maybe that is why I appreciate it so much, people always desires what they’ve lost and aren’t able to get back for going through it again.

I still clearly remember us, me, my aunt and my granny, going there every summer for a holiday. And with every new word that I write into this essay I remind new shots from that what we’ve got through there together. We used to spend there 3 months of summer. We went there to spend my birthday and stayed till the study year begins.

My mother came to visit me every weekends and I used to show her everything new I’ve found around there. But there is a thing which about I will regret all the rest of my life. It is the time that I’ve spent with my aunt.

If I only could I’d give everything to return these days even though for couple hours. Everything we did we did together, everything I had to share I shared with her and she treated the same way with me. One of the best things I remember is how we went to the seaside everyday. It took us 15 minutes to walk there and we spend nearly whole day there. I liked to go there with her very much; we’ve had so much fun together. Well, also one of the reasons was my friend Tima, 6 years older than me, very cute and kind guy.

He was at sixth class when he left the school to find a job at the building construction to help his mother financially. We met every summer during 5 years. I miss his friendship very much now. The whole woods of the world won’t be enough for me to describe all the good things we had because of they all were such a people and it was such a place that I even can’t remember anything bad. I was 12 when my parents sold the cottage. I believe my childhood ended that day.

The Children’s Hour Essay

The 1934 stage play written by Lillian Hellman entitled, “The Children’s Hour” is a drama set in an all female boarding school ran by two women characters named Karen Wright and Martha Dobie. Once an angry student named Mary Tilford runs away and refuses to be sent back, she starts a rumor about the two women having a lesbian affair. This false rumor then begins to ruin the two women’s lives, careers, and relationships.

A few reoccurring themes can be seen throughout the entire play.

One example of these themes that are displayed in the playwright is power. The concept of power gives a person the ability to control things other than themselves that is beyond them. In the play “The Children’s Hour”, the power exhibited was about the destructive power a lie told by a young girl. The young girl named Mary Tilford is unaware of the great damage her small lie will cost these two women who have no idea how drastic their lives are about to change.

Towards the end of the play, Karen agrees to let Mrs. Tilford give her money in order to help the older woman “feel better” about somewhat being the cause of Martha’s death.

Mrs. Tilford exercises this power she has unchecked; sympathy for the victimized because the perpetrator detroyed the lives of Karen and Martha over a lie. This perertrator happened to be her young granddaughter who she is blinded by her credibility because she loves her so much. The sympathy shown in the play reveals that the power is constructed, not inherent in a righteous position. In the 1961 film version of the story, however, Karen is first cold and angry with Mrs.Tilford when she goes to share her condolences over the tragic death of her former friend and colleague Martha.

She addresses her by saying, “Go away Mrs.Tilford, there’s nothing that we want from you” (67). In the play Karen, in a way, takes her power back that was taken from her by her refusal to show any compassion or mercy when Mrs. Tilford confesses to her Mary’s horrible lie. She does not extract any money from her nor any apologies that Mary’s grandmother tries to give her nor Mrs. Tilford’s public humiliation. Instead, Karen sees how difficult Mrs. Tilford’s remaining years will be for her, and that whatever she does for Karen “won’t bring her peace”(68).

Another theme that can be found within the story and play, “The Children’s Hour” is good and evil. It is obvious to identify the decent, good characters as Karen and Martha while the other bad characters are Mary Tilford and in some ways Mrs. Tilford. Mary is the more complex character because her problem seems to stem from some inner ugliness that cannot be explained. In the first act of the play, Karen remarks that she and Martha always talk of Mary as if she were an adult and as if she had never been “blessed with childhood innocence” (15). She is a pathological liar and manipulator capable of any strategy to satisfy her evil hidden agenda by controlling others.

Once her influence over her classmates is threatened by Martha and Karen, she sets out to devise a plan to destroy them both. The character of Mary is the font of evil in the play. Her invented tale cost two innocent women their careers due to the shutdown of the school, their relationships with the town and people around them who shunned the two women because of the rumor, and ultimately took the life of Martha because of the constant ridicule. The character of Mary is characterized as a treacherous liar whose tactics were effective with her grandmother because she feigns reluctance to divulge what she “knows” and thereby makes her accusations credible.

Although Mrs.Tilford is a kind and good woman, she is also self righteous and very stubborn. Once she is convinced that she has uncovered the disturbing truth about Karen and Martha’s relationship, she closes her mind to the possibility of Mary might having lied about the whole thing. This major theme shows that there is often no defense against deceit and slander and that the damage that deception can do may be tragically irreversible. Martha suggests to Karen about having a talk with Mary’s grandmother but Karen finds that it will be useless to try to speak with her. She states that “she’s too crazy about Mary to see her clearly” (16).

Ultimately, the central theme of power displayed in the play has many different uses and therefore it yields many different consequences to the characters of the story. Those who decide to use power in a negative way, as did Mary, the small abuse of power can cause things to end fatally.

Challenges Faced when Grandparents Raise Grandchildren Essay

There has been a drastic increase in recent years of grandparents raising their grandchildren. Statistics have shown that between 1970 and 2000, the number of grandchildren being raised in a grandparent-headed household has actually doubled from 2.2 million to 4.4 million (Hayslip & Glover, 2009). Research has also shown that more than half of of these children are under the age of six (Brintnall-Peterson, et. al., 2009). New Mexico ranks sixth in the nation for the number of grandchildren living in grandparent-headed households (Goodman & Rao, 2007). A substantial amount of research has been done in the last decade to explore the effects, both negative and positive, that this increasing trend has had on grandparents and their grandchildren.

There are many reasons why grandchildren live with their grandparents. Reasons include parent’s incarceration, drug abuse, death or divorce, unemployment, mental illness, abuse or neglect, child abandonment, or even deployment (Goodman & Rao, 2007; Bunch et al., 2007). Goodman and Rao (2007) list three different types of caregiving roles for grandparents: transitional, custodial, and co-parenting.

In the transitional role, parents are away temporarily and are expected to return after a brief period of time (after incarceration or deployment, for example). Custodial grandparents assume responsibility when a parent dies or is deemed unable to care for the child. Co-parenting grandparents are residing with the child and a parent due to financial hardship or other reasons. These grandparents share the responsibilities of raising the children with the parents. For the purpose of this paper, information focuses on transitional and custodial grandparents and the effects that this role has on their financial, physical, social, and emotional well being.

Financial Challenges When a child comes into any home, even in the best of circumstances, there are financial ramifications. This is especially true for grandparents who assume custody of their grandchildren. Even when grandparents feel positively about taking on the custodial role, they report substantial financial hardship and loss of financial freedom (Hayslip & Glover, 2009). In many cases, the dreams and plans for retirement are postponed to meet these financial challenges (Bunch et al., 2007). Additionally, grandparents often draw on savings and retirement funds to make ends meet. One grandmother in Dunne and Kettler’s (2008) study explained that she had spent thousands and thousands of dollars out of her retirement fund to support her granddaughter. Her son made no effort to help financially.

There are also legal ramifications that come with assuming custody of a grandchild. Sometimes the grandparent does not have legal custody of the child, making it difficult to get educational, medical, and financial help without first hiring an attorney. Without documented legal custody, frustration increases when enrolling children in school, daycare, or when seeking medical and dental care (Bunch et al., 2007).

Physical Challenges Current research has shown that grandparents that raise grandchildren experience lower physical health than their non-custodial peers (Kelch-Oliver, 2011; Brintnall-Peterson et al., 2009) due to higher levels of emotional stress (Lumpkin, 2008). In Bunch, Eastman, and Moore’s (2007) study, the research showed that grandparents can feel overwhelmed with addressing their own physical and emotional needs. This is due, in part, to parenting with pre-existing health challenges. However, the research also found that many grandparents report deteriorating health because it becomes difficult to interrupt their new responsibilities to seek healthcare for themselves. Furthermore, this same study conducted a questionnaire for grandparents that addressed health concerns. Out of 23 custodial grandparents, none of them listed their health as “very good.” In another study, the researchers found that grandmothers tend to downplay health issues, but that the physical stresses of their new responsibilities often resulted in an increase in insomnia, hypertension, alcohol consumption, and smoking (Erbert & Aleman, 2008).

Physical health seems to be a recurring theme in the studies involving grandparents that are raising their grandchildren. Most of the research found a negative impact on health when assuming responsibility and custody of grandchildren. This presents other difficulties as well. In Goodman and Rao’s (2007) study, they interviewed many grandparents and grandchildren that expressed fear surrounding the grandparent’s mortality. The grandmothers were worried about what would happen to the grandchildren if their health continued to deteriorate. In another study, the grandchildren expressed extreme concern about losing their grandparent (Erbert & Aleman, 2008).

Social Challenges Social ramifications of grandparents raising grandchildren can be very difficult for both the grandparent and the grandchild. While non-custodial peers are in the best position to provide needed support to custodial grandparents, grandparents often feel socially isolated as they raise their grandchildren. Hayslip and Glover (2009) conducted a study specifically examining the social challenges of custodial grandparents. The grandparents in this study described a lack of validation by society that resulted when others around them did not acknowledge their sense of loss or provide empathy and support for their situation. The custodial grandparents often made comparisons of themselves to non-custodial grandparents and expressed a sadness in the loss of a more traditional grandparent role. This feeling seemed to cause some grandparents to further isolate themselves from their peers and to be less likely to seek support for themselves.

Interestingly, the study did not stop with the custodial grandparents and their feelings. The researchers also interviewed non-custodial grandparents and their perceptions of their custodial peers. The peers were given sample scenarios and discussed their impressions in a packet, which they then mailed back to the researchers. The findings indicated that the custodial grandparent’s concerns regarding a lack of support and empathy from others may not be completely accurate. Their peers seemed to be more sensitive to their loss than the custodial grandparent had perceived. There was a high level of empathy for most of the circumstances outlined in the study (Hayslip & Glover, 2009).

One major factor of social isolation for both grandparents and grandchildren appears to be social stigmas attached to the reasons of the custody circumstances (Goodman & Rao, 2007; Dunne & Kettler, 2008). There is often a high level of shame associated with situations involving substance abuse, incarceration, or child abuse.

Changes in custodial arrangements can present social challenges for children as well. When moving in with grandparents, children face the loss of friends, schools, and other family support (Dunne & Kettler, 2008). Social losses can create stress in other areas, leading to behavioral problems and emotional challenges.

Emotional Challenges Stigmas and shame related to the reason of assumption of the custodial role can cause substantial emotional and psychological challenges for the grandparent. Hayslip and Glover (2009) state, “grandparents may also experience loss that comes from a sense of failure resulting from social stigma associated with behaviors of their adult child which resulted in the need to care for a grandchild.” This study also recognizes that custodial grandparents often, but not always, experience a decrease in general life satisfaction. Another study found that depression, stress, and anxiety are significantly higher in grandparents who are raising their grandchildren (Dunne & Kettler, 2008). These findings were particularly notable when dealing with the behavioral challenges of granddaughters and the emotional concerns for grandsons.

The emotional well-being of the custodial grandparents is directly related to their ability to cope with the stress of their situation. Since coping refers to an individual’s capability to manage the demands of an environment, coping skills are crucial for the emotional well being in a home with high-stress circumstances (Lumpkin, 2008). Coping with stress can often be more challenging when the grandparent is caregiving in the shadow of losing their own child. This can cause an overwhelming sense of loss and stress as they deal with their own emotional needs in addition to the needs of their grandchild (Bunch et al., 2007).

Further stress can occur in the grandparents’ marriage after assuming the role of caregiver to their grandchildren. In a study with 23 grandmothers, every one of them reported a negative impact on the relationship with their partner (Bunch et al., 2007). Reasons included having less privacy, less time, disagreements about child rearing decisions, and drastic changes in leisure time. These grandmothers also reported lower levels of satisfaction with themselves as parents when compared to parents in the general population, further adding to emotional challenges.

Behavioral Challenges Many children living with their grandparents exhibit behavioral problems, often due to disrupted family relationships (Brintnall-Peterson et al., 2009). Before coming to live with their grandparents, the grandchildren may have experienced high levels of trauma and family dysfunction, leading to abandonment issues (Kelch-Oliver, 2011).

Brintnall-Peterson and colleagues (2009) put together a web-based fact sheet series to help grandparents that are raising grandchildren with these issues. These researchers argue that there are many resources focused on helping grandparents with legal, school, health, and economic issues but there is a drastic shortage of resources for developmental and relationship challenges. They created a fact sheet series entitled “Through the Eyes of a Child: Grandparents Raising Grandchildren.” This fact sheet offers easy to read, academically useful, and low cost education about behavioral and relational issues for children who are living with a grandparent. The fact sheet focuses on attachment theory to address “interactions among behavioral, cognitive, emotional, interpersonal, and social-contextual dynamics in relationships rather than focusing on any one of these domains.” These researchers believe that attachment theory is particularly helpful when addressing these children because of the parental deprivation, trauma, and loss of development that has already had an effect on the child’s life. This approach also emphasizes the importance of sensitive and responsive caregiving to improve the child’s relationships, especially with the custodial grandparent.

Since children that are living with their grandparents are often struggling in school or experiencing anger and depression, it is critical that custodial grandparents seek help in constructive discipline. Clear rules and boundaries can also provide a sense of security for children that are confused and overwhelmed (Erbert & Aleman, 2008).

Benefits of Grandparent-Headed Households Although raising grandchildren provides many challenges and concerns for custodial grandparents, many grandparents express joy and optimism while raising their grandchildren. Some reported greater feelings of self-esteem and grandmothers expressed a feeling of relief that they no longer had to worry about their grandchildren’s safety once they were no longer in the care of neglectful or abusive parents (Goodman & Rao, 2007). Grandparents also expressed contentment and purpose in their lives, especially when it came to the protection of their grandchildren (Erbert & Aleman, 2008). One grandmother said that she could not imagine her life without her granddaughter in her home and that if her biological mother showed up, she would fight to protect her and not let her go. Another grandmother voiced her commitment to determine herself whether her daughter was well enough to resume custody or visitation.

Grandchildren also experience positive effects when living with their grandparents. One study showed that children living with their grandparent experience less trauma than if they were with a non-relative because of the increased sense of family support (Goodman & Rao, 2007).

Perhaps the most compelling argument for the benefits of grandparent-headed households is the findings that grandchildren often begin to achieve their potential in school, sports, music, or art once they feel safe and stable (Dunne & Kettler, 2008). Grandparents expressed a deep sense of pride in their grandchildren, and themselves, during interviews with Dunne and Kettler (2008).

Conclusion Present research indicates that are there are many challenges when it comes to grandparents raising their grandchildren. Although there can be financial, physical, social, and emotional repercussions for grandparents and their grandchildren, sometimes it is the best option in an otherwise impossible situation. Research shows that children appear relatively well adjusted and happy living with their grandparents (Kelch-Oliver, 2011).

Since it is apparent that the numbers of custodial grandparent households will continue to rise (Goodman & Rao, 2007), ongoing support is critical for grandparents. Social and emotional support is invaluable and grandparents should seek out support groups to help them feel less alone in raising their grandchildren. Education about various parenting approaches is also beneficial. Better access to educational resources would help provide clearer direction when it comes to behavioral and emotional challenges that grandchildren face. If the grandparent feels better equipped, it would drastically improve overall feelings of contentment in both the grandparent and their grandchildren.

Feral Children Essay

Genie was a modern wild-child, discovered on 1970. She had been isolated from society for something about ten years. When she was discovered, she had suffered from severe social deprivation. Among the problems that were caused by lifestyle she was imposed to, were significant physical problems. According to Ward (2007): “She had a strange bunny-like walk— she held her hands up in front of her like paws and moved in a halting way. She could not chew solid food and could hardly swallow.

She spat constantly. She sniffed. She was not toilet-trained and could not focus her eyes beyond 12 feet.

She weighed 59 pounds and was 54 inches tall. ” Some of these problems are undoubtedly caused by girl’s extremely limited social interactions. Her habit to spit and sniff, her strange style of walking are caused by lack of social interaction. Normally an average child is surrounded by the adults who give to it plenty of examples as to how to walk, how to do things and how to behave.

Toilet-training also is an acquired skill that is learned only in constant interaction with parents or fosterers, i. e. in constant social interaction.

Genie’s inability to focus her eyes at objects that were at relatively long distance from her is a result of life in an environment that had almost no visual stimuli, and hence this physical problem is also result of social deprivation. Genie’s inability to chew solid food and swallow, along with her height and weight are rather the result of her food ration than the aftermath of long-term social isolation. Genie’s amazing initial ability to learn human behaviors from those around her is not surprising, because her ability to perceive and learn from the local environment was not satisfied by the poor environment she lived in for many years.

And when her environment was significantly enriched with irritants and stimuli, the mind of Genie had awakened from artificial slumber by the potent stream of new information from her sensory organs. Her ability to copy and took part into the physical actions like dressing are explained well by the initial imprinting that was even more efficient than usually due to the contrast between the emotionally and sensory poor environment she used to live in and new enriched with information and interactions environment she went into.

As Genie was found and rescued she immediately became the subject of diversified scientific studies that took significant part of her everyday life. This raises the question – was such intensive study of Genie ethical towards her? Considering the conditions that Genie lived in before she was found, considering the fact that scientists tried to spent with her more time than it was necessary to carry out current tests in order to build a sense of family to the girl that never knew what a family is before, it is possible to say that interactions with scientists were beneficial to Genie.

She immediately started to advance in a lot of things she never had a single chance to learn before. She had found people that took care of her and emulated the family to her. And whereas the studies she was subjected to had accompanied her interactions with people and were intended to find out if Genie had retained her ability to learn and socialize and how did her long isolation from society affected her, it is possible to say that such an social symbiosis between socially deprived child and scientists is perfectly acceptable.

Scientists quickly found out that, despite the long time spent in environment harsh and deprived both of information and emotions, Genie had retained ability and desire for learning and manifested this ability and eager for learning very quickly after being transferred into more favorable environment. This is quite natural. The young organism with inviolate ability to study and learn her local neighborhood, being transferred from the conditions that disfavored any investigative activity to the conditions that encourage observation and learning, started to overtake the lack of information about the local environment.

This is perfectly normal because it is natural to any mammal to explore his local environment to find out where the safe places are and where the places to feed and places to be avoided located. This is an instinctive set of actions that guarantees the organism better adaptation to this local environment and, therefore, better chances to survive. To explore one’s local neighborhood is instinctive, and human child is not immune to these instincts. But in humans the ability to learn and the need to explore his neighborhood is expressed much more than in any other mammal, even in other Primates, thus creating more eminent appetite for learning.

But the single need for learning for a human is not enough. Need for learning and appropriate conditions to satisfy this need are important of course, but these factors are enough to learn only physical and emotional aspects of human life. As to more abstract components, for example, ability to speak certain language correctly, putting the words into the logical order in accordance with rules of the language, there are more conditions needed, some of them quite specific.

Coming back to Genie example: “One of the last tests … measured what parts of her brain were active as she conducted different kinds of tasks. … There was almost no left brain activity. Her tests looked similar to tests of children who had to have their left brains removed. ” (Ward, 2007) This shows how important is socialization in development of activities that are build on logic and that are physiologically bound to activity of the left hemisphere of the brain.

On the example of Genie it becomes clear that early socialization is the key to normal development of intellectual skills based on left brain activity, and the deficit of social interactions in these early years can lead to irreversible underdevelopment of skills vitally important to contemporary human. References: 1. Ward, Andrew. (2007). Genie, a modern-day Wild Child. Retrieved September 15, 2008 from http://www. feralchildren. com/en/showchild. php? ch=genie