Black Death Essay

Around 1330, a horrible plague was reported to break out in China. Trade between Asia and Europe currently was frequent, and in 1347 rat-infested ships from China arrived in Sicily, bringing the disease with them. Since Italy was the center of European commerce, business, and politics, this provided the perfect opportunity for the disease to spread. To the Europeans, it seemed to come out of nowhere and kill everyone in its path. The bubonic plague, as it is called today, continued at 10-year intervals throughout the Middle Ages.

It spread rapidly for a variety of reasons. Poor living conditions were probably the number one factor in the passing of this disease. People believed that washing themselves would open their pores and let the disease in, so bathing was rare. This of course, as we know today, only excelled the spread of the bubonic plague.

The bubonic plague had extreme effects on the demographics of Europe. The worst epidemic claimed the lives of nearly 25 million people, all in under five years.

It took at least two centuries for Western Europe to regain its population. Urban populations recovered quickly, in some cases within a couple years, through immigration from the countryside because of increased opportunities in the cities. Rural population recovered itself slowly, because peasants left their farms for the cities. This time period in which the plague spread and killed so many people was known as the Black Death.

The Black Death had major effects on Europe. Wars stopped and trade slowed considerably. People were forbidden to gather in groups and religious services were suspended. Homes of infected people were sealed off to protect others from the plague. Businesses shut down their doors, having a huge impact of the economic aspects of Europe. Many people fled to the country to get away from where they thought was the hot spot for the plague. The bubonic plague changed the political, social, economical, and religious aspects of Europe forever and had an affect on the way things are today.

There were many consequences to the increases and declines of population and European society. People fled to the city because everyone around them way dying. So many died, in fact, that it had major effects on the population in Europe, which, in turn had effects on many aspects of society. Farmers who had provided food for people were fleeing and food was scarce. Government, trade, and commerce virtually came to a halt. No aspect of European society was not affected by the coming of the plague and by its duration.

The demography of Europe in the late middle ages can be easily related to overpopulation in the modern world. Poor living conditions due to overcrowding led to the rapid spread of the bubonic plague. If a plague was ever to break out in such places like China, Africa, or any other 3rd world country, it would be devastating. In Africa there is a major epidemic or the Ebola virus. It is still running ramped throughout the country, and it is not treatable by antibiotics. Poor living conditions contribute to the deadly position of this virus, and science has no known cure. If it was to ever spread to America the impact would be great and might be similar to the consequences of the bubonic plague in the middle ages. Overpopulation and overcrowding lead to poor living conditions which then lead to the rapid spread of any disease that may happen to come.

The Angel of Death and the Sculptor by Daniel Chester French Essay

The work of art I chose was “The Angel of Death and The Sculptor” by Daniel Chester French. According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s website, he recreated this piece based on the authentic sculpture by Martin Milmore. Martin Milmore created the piece as a memorial in honor of his brother’s death. The original artwork was made of bronze, but French recreated the piece out of marble. The original work of art is located in Forest Hills Cemetery, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts.

In the Metropolitan Museum, the recreation is located in the American Wing. This section of the museum has a glass roof to let sunlight shine through. The work of art is standing up against a flat concrete wall. Several feet in front of the sculpture is a water fountain. I could hear the water flowing as I observed The Angel of Death. It gave me a feeling of serenity.

The piece is a relief sculpture. It seems as though it was meant to be seen from the front, but it has multiple viewing angles.

I suspect that French was a fan of the Classical Era. The Angel of Death is standing contrapposto. Her dress drapes around her body; losing sight of her feet. His attention to detail is evident. The dress looks very realistic and free flowing, and you can see the feathers in her wings. She has a cloak or hat that envelopes her face. The way her hand holds the poppies is naturalistic. Her features appear muted about what she is about to do; take the sculptor’s life.

French indicates that the sculptor is very young and talented through his work. Not only does this piece have classical characteristics, but it also has the Old Kingdom attributes. The sculptor is in the middle of creating a profile piece of the Sphinx which is located in Giza, Egypt. He has a long bladed tool in one hand holding above his head, and in the other is a hammer about to strike. He has one leg up and is barefoot while is wearing an apron-like smock over his clothes which drapes down his body. His arms and back look remarkably lifelike. Another example of French’s attention to detail. There is a huge amount of negative space between him and his art work. It looks as though he is in mid-action but still with classical characteristics. Looking at Hellenistic or Baroque art, I can tell the difference in the works between emotions and movement.

There is plenty of light shining down on this piece. The dark areas are mostly around The Angel of Death’s face. In my opinion the darkness is there to show the sadness or gloom around her. I get the impression the man that is honored in this piece was a real sculptor like his brother, Martin Milmore, and was taken from the world at a young age. His face is smooth and very innocent. I am unsure of how he passed, but French implies that it was too early. I get the feeling of shock that the sculptor is about to be taken away right in the middle of working on his piece. From looking at this I feel sad for the family that lost this sculptor, but it also gives a sense of peace that possibly he was taken by an angel. An angel showing calm and peace.

I am unsure of what the original work looks like, but French’s take is naturalistic and photographic. When I stood on either side of the sculpture I saw something different. I was able to see full frontal of their faces. Standing in the front or viewing a photo of the piece only their profiles are visible. You can see the negative space between the arms, legs and head of the sculptor’s body. The Angel of Death is so grand and big compared to the young man. She must be over six feet tall. Standing there, I felt so small compared to her.

Viewing this piece in person gives it more depth. I have more perception of what the artist is trying to convey. In my opinion, observing a work of art in person gives oneself a better appreciation of the piece. You can enjoy it and view it in its entirety. Looking at a photo does not do it justice. The paintings, sculptures, and buildings that I have learned in this class has intrigued me. I hope to travel around the world to view and receive a true comprehension of the great works of art throughout history.

Works Cited
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2000 – 2011

The Last Judgment of Hunefer Essay

In the Egyptian time period, art was used as a method of telling stories about previous rulers and providing religious information and guidelines to the citizens. The Last Judgment of Hunefer is a painting that had quite a large impact on the Egyptian people and their thoughts and actions in society, as well as a piece of art that when looked at, creates a lot of interest in discovering the meaning behind it. The large amount of curiosity in the eyes of the observer is due to the fact that this painting is telling a story about an unfamiliar or mysterious time period.

People nowadays may not always know the meanings behind the symbols used and as a result, may be inspired to do some research on the painting in order to discover what the artist was initially attempting to get across to the viewer. Although the fact that this painting was used specifically for religious reasons and as a result doesn’t leave much to the imagination, it is still quite intriguing to discover more about the Egyptians and their way of life.

The ability of Egyptian art to ensue curiosity in the eyes of the onlookers is based on the fact that it tells a story about what may have happened thousands of years ago, which without prior knowledge may be a bit challenging to depict.

Unless one knows the connotations of the symbols, they will be unable to fully understand the meaning of the story being told. The Last Judgment of Henefer is a great example of Egyptian art work from the XIX Dynasty. This 1’6” painting on papyrus can be found in The British Museum in London, England. Starting at the bottom left of the painting, there are two figures: a human who is being judged, and the jackal headed Anubis facing a scale. The scale is used to weigh the heart of the person being judged. Seen overhead, there’s a pattern of smaller figures known as the deities that the judged had to swear virtuousness to. On the bottom and middle of the painting, a man with the head of an Ibis, Thoth is recording the results of the weighing of the heart. Last but not least, as you continue left, Horus, the man with the head of a hawk is presenting the human being judged to Osiris, the god of the afterlife. These are the elements of art that can be found in the painting The Last Judgment of Hunefer.

There are many aspects of the painting The Last Judgment of Hunefer that draw the eyes of the spectators. Looking at the painting, the viewer will see that there are very warm colours such as orange and brown involved. Although it has a good range of value, it is not chiaroscuro because the distribution of dark and light does not make the images appear three-dimensional. This rectilinear painting has quite a few diagonal lines that assist with forming triangles in the legs, arms, and the deities sitting at the top of the painting. The curves along the bodies of the human and the gods make this painting very organic. This is because there is an irregular shape that resembles the biological curves of living organisms. The color of the robes that the deities are wearing creates a pattern that draws the eye and adds a simulated texture to the painting.

As is common in most art from this time period, the pharaoh is painted with importance. Whether he be surrounded by something, sitting on a throne, wearing a crown, or just larger than everyone else, his importance is made very apparent. In this painting, Osiris, the god of the afterlife is sitting in a throne wearing a crown and is slightly larger than the other symbols and gods in the painting. In this period, realism was not high on the artists’ list of priorities as they were more focused on getting the story told. The artist of this piece made no attempt to create an illusion of depth, which also affected the realism of the people and gods in the painting. In some ways it seems understandable that things wouldn’t be completely realistic, especially considering the fact that there are people with animal heads in the painting as well as humans.

Because this piece of artwork is telling a story, it is very occult. Generally in stories the beginning is different from the end and as a result, the image of the story will not be symmetrical. Just like reading words on a page, reading this story in the painting means that both sides with not be mirror images. The movement of the piece has a lot to do with the story. You have to read it from left to right, and so that’s the trail that your eyes will take across the painting. The way that your eyes move along the paper also has a lot to do with the composition of the piece. “At the left, Hunefer is led into the Hall of the Two Truths by Anubis, the jackal-faced guardian of the underworld. Anubis, then weighs the heart of the dead against the ostrich feather of Maat, whose head appears on the top of the scales. Maat, the goddess of truth and justice symbolized the divine order and governed ethical behavior; hence her feather was an emblem of law.

The ibis-headed scribe Thoth, who was sometimes shown in the guise of a baboon, records the results. Looking on with keen interest is Ammut, the devourer of those whose evil deeds made them unworthy of an afterlife. She has the head of a crocodile, the body and legs of a lion, and the hindquarters of a hippopotamus – all ferocious beasts. The deceased had to swear to each of the deities seen overhead that he had not sinned. Having been declared “true of voice,” he is presented by Horus to his father, Osiris,” (Horst W. Janson, Anthony F. Janson) The principles of design have a great impact on the understanding of the piece. Religion was extremely important in the life and afterlife of an Egyptian citizen. The general idea at the time was that the human existence was cyclical; their existence would be repeated eternally.

Everything that happened in life was merely a series of changes. Death, being one of these changes was just leading to another existence, “death was a transitional state that led to a better world” (Johnston, 471). After death, the weighing of the heart would take place. This painting was important because it shows the process in which the Egyptians determine whether or not a person is worthy of moving on to the afterlife. Before this procedure, the person being adjudicated must swear to each of the deities seen overhead that they had not sinned in their lifetime. As seen in The Last Judgment of Hunefer, Anubis weighs the heart against the feather of Maat while Thoth records the verdict. If the heart and the feather are of equal weight, the person under judgment is deemed justified of voice, or in other words that they told the truth when they promised they hadn’t sinned.

Depending on the result of the weighing of the heart, people were separated into two groups in the netherworld; the blessed who would go on to the afterlife, and the sinners who would not. The sinners would be condemned to punishments such as decapitation or burning. This was called a second death, or in other words total extinction. A being that had to go through this would not move on to the next existence. For those that did move on, “the afterlife contained an agricultural paradise known as the Field of Reeds” (Johnston, 472). The desire to get to the afterlife is completely understandable. The Field of Reeds would be especially appealing when compared to the other possible result: the second death. The beliefs of the occurrences after death in Ancient Egypt are very similar to how people view them today; if you’re good, you go to a paradise: the field of reeds, or heaven. If you have sinned, you suffer: the second death, or hell.

The beliefs of the occurrences after death in Ancient Egypt are very similar to how people view them today; if you’re good, you go to a paradise: the field of reeds, or heaven. If you have sinned, you suffer: the second death, or hell. Nobody would want to have to suffer the punishment that would be inflicted had they committed a sin such as such as adultery, lies or thefts and would be willing to change their lifestyles so that these penalties did not happen to them. Religion was so important to society during this time period because it meant the difference between eternal happiness in the afterlife, or a horrible punishment leading to the end of his or her existence.

The mummification of a body was a very important part in sending somebody to the afterlife. A book of the dead is a collection of over 200 spells and incantations to form a guide to the afterlife. “A book of the dead is written on papyrus or leather and placed in a casket with a statuette of Osiris or slipped into the sarcophagus or into the mummy-wrappings” (Hugh Honour). The Last Judgment of Hunefer, a spell for the weighing of the heart found in the book of the dead was placed in the tomb with the deceased. The purpose of this is was to help guide the souls of the dead through the challenges presented to them by the deities. When the book of the dead with The Last Judgment of Hunefer was placed in the casket, the mummies would have been wrapped in a very classic way. The body and limbs were completely wrapped in linen. The head was the only body part that was unwrapped, but a mask that was usually painted blue and gold covered it.

The purpose of the funerary mask was to protect the head of the deceased, and present a long-lasting substitute for the dead in an idealized manner. The mummification process usually took around seventy days. In this time there were cleansings, extractions of the internal organs apart from the heart, as well as drying out the body. The mummification process was to purify the corpse and preserve its physical integrity, “mummification concluded with anointing with resin, oils, and spices to inhibit decay, provide a pleasant smell and to confer divine status” (Johnston, 473). These mummification rituals sent the departing soul on it’s way to the afterlife. The creation and the placement of the book of the dead, and the care taken of the deceased was very important in the process of helping their souls on their journey to the afterlife.

The book of the dead was placed in the tomb of the deceased. It was made as a guide for the souls of the deceased to help them through the challenges appointed to them by the deities, one of which being the weighing of the heart, as seen in The Last Judgment of Hunefer. The placement of the book of the dead and the hard work put into the mummy wrapping was because their religion was greatly emphasized on the afterlife. Great care in the preservation of the body was ensured. Over the course of about seventy days there were bodily cleansings, withdrawals of the innards apart from the heart, as well as dehydration of the body. The torso and limbs were completely wrapped in linen leaving only the head unwrapped with a funerary mask placed overtop.

A mask was used to protect the head and to provide a long-lasting substitute for the deceased in an idealized fashion. It was believed that the body would be of use to a person in the afterlife and so their bodies would have to be preserved. The aforementioned rituals were imperative to the religious views on the departure of the deceased. The Last Judgment of Hunefer, an extremely interesting and thought provoking painting was very important to the Egyptian people and had a very large impact on their lives.

Presently, people may feel motivated to discover more about this piece of art, and as a result will uncover information about the Egyptians religious views. This painting really caught my eye whilst learning about it. I wanted to be able to understand the meaning of the story, but to do that I had to do a fair amount of research on things such as religion and the principles and elements of the design of the painting. All things considered, I have discovered that The Last Judgment of Hunefer had a really large impact on the Egyptian people and their way of life.

Works Citation
Davies, Penelope J. E., Walter B. Denny, Frima Fox Hofrichter, Joseph Jacobs, Ann M. Roberts, and David L. Simon. Janson’s History Of Art. 8th ed. 1. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Laurence King Publishing Ltd, 2011, 2007, 2004. 77-78. Print.

Honour, Hugh, and John Fleming. A World History of Art. 7. London, United Kingdom: Laurence King Publishing Ltd, 2005. Print. .

Kleiner, Fred S. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective. 13th. 1. Belmont, California, United States: Wadsworth Pub Co, 2009. 62-63.

Janson, Horst Woldemar, and Anthony F. Janson. History of Art: The Western Tradition. 6. Prentice Hall Abrams, 2003. Print. .

Johnston, Sara Iles. Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide. Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States: Harvard University Press, 2004. 471-473. Print.

“The Death and the Maiden” D. 810 by Franz Schubert Essay

Franz Peter Schubert was born on the 31st of January 1797 in Lichtental, Austria which is near Vienna. He has fifteen brothers and sisters, but only five of them live to see their first birthday. The father, Franz Teodor is the Principal in a local school. The mother, Elizabeth Viets was a cook in a Viennese family. When Franz Schubert was just five-year-old he started playing the violin and his teacher was his own father. Three years later, Michael Holzer, who was the parish priest in the town, started to teach the eight-year-old composer how to play the organ.

Franz Schubert composed his first piece at the age of just ten. In 1808, he started singing in the courtier choir. Not only he was a soloist in the choir but did he play in the section of second violins in the orchestra. This way, he came to know the music of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. At this time, Shubert was taught by Antonio Salieri.

After graduating from a teaching seminary in 1814, Schubert worked as a teacher alongside his father until 1818. The three year period between 1818 and 1821 is probably the toughest test in the composer’s life. Shubert was trying to earn enough giving private lessons but the money was really insufficient. He was not able to find a full-time job either, so he had to live with some of his friends – other composers and poets. In 1818 and 1820 as a musical teacher of count Esterhazy’s daughters, the young composer had the chance to visit Hungary. Schubert learnt a lot about the Hungarian national music and the Gypsy music during these visits.

Suddenly and unexpectedly, his songs become very popular in Hungary and Austria after 1821 when he managed to publish some of his works with his friends’ help. Franz Schubert is the composer of some of the greatest classical master pieces ever written such as “The Unfinished Symphony” No. 8 D 759, the piano quintet “The Trout” D. 667, the string quartet “The Death and the Maiden” D 810 and of course his more than 600 songs. Schubert is also the pioneer of the song cycle genre, composing pieces such as Die Winterreise D.911, and Die Schone Mullerin D. 795. The composer died on November the 19th 1928 in Vienna.

This essay has been prepared to examine several different aspects of Franz Schubert’s chamber music by mainly giving examples from the string quartet “Death and the Maiden” D. 810 and the song “Der Tod und Das Madchen” D. 531. Analyses and connection between the poem “Der Tod und Das Madchen” by Matthias Claudius, the song and the string quartet “The Death and the Maiden” by Franz Schubert will also be included. Also, the extent to which Schubert has taken the vocal melody and made it idiomatic for the string instruments will be explored.

Most of the Schubert’s songs are really connected with poetry. He used to work with poets such as Goethe and Schiller, who had a huge impact onto the composer’s works. Christoph Wolff suggests that the things which Shubert mostly liked in the Matthias Claudius’ poems were the purity and simplicity of the poetic language. (Bandura-Skoda, Branscombe, 1982, 144). The song “The Death and The Maiden” D. 531, which was composed by Franz Schubert in 1815 is based on the poem “Der Tod und Das Madchen” by Matthias Claudius which was written in 1775. The poem consists of two stanzas as example one shows.

Das MadchenDer Tod:

Voruber! Ach, voruber!Gib deine Hand, du schon und zart Gebild! Geh, wilder Knochenmann!Bin Freund, und komme nicht, zu strafen. Ich bin noch jung! Geh lieber,Sei gutes Muts! Ich bin nicht wild, Und ruhre mich nicht an.Sollst sanft in meinen Armen schalfen!

The Maiden: Death:

Pass me by! Oh, pass me by! Give me your hand, you beautiful and tender form! Go, fierce man of bones! I am a friend, and come no to punish. I am still young! Go, rather, Be of good cheer! I am not fierce, And do not touch me. Softly shall you sleep in my arms!

Example 1 – The poem “Der Tod und Das Madchen”.

It is clear to see that the poem is in a form of a dialog between “The Maiden” and “The Death”. A key feature in the first stanza is the short sentences, ending with an exclamation mark. This shows that the girl is frightened and afraid of “The Death”. On the other hand, “The Death” in the second stanza is meant to be scary and dangerous, but instead of that it sounds harmless and even makes a compliment in the opening words: “Give me your hand, you beautiful and tender form”. Anyhow, there is an interesting fact about the title of the poem “Der Tod und Das Madchen”, therefore the names of the song and the string quartet by Schubert “The Death and The Maiden”, which is the reverse order of the two stanzas compare with the title which shows the serious presence of Death even before the opening words.

The song “The Death and The Maiden” D. 531 by Schubert is logically as contrasting as the poem which it is based on. The opening eight bars of the song are just an introduction to the following piece. From bar nine onwards, Schubert uses very smart resources to establish the scary and anxiety atmosphere such as chromatism and quicker metric rhythm, as it can be seen on example two.

Example 2 – the song “The Death and The Maiden” D. 531 It can be said that the Maiden is giving up resisting the Death between bars sixteen and twenty-one and there are few evidence supporting this idea. Firstly, the vocal line is going downwards which is a sign of humility. Secondly, the metric rhythm in these six bars is calm and uninterested, exactly as it was in the very opening of the song. Lastly, the fermata in bar twenty-one could be the final clue that the Maiden is already given up fighting. After this really dramatic moment for the listener, Schubert introduces the second character in the piece – “The Death”. (Bandura-Skoda, Branscombe, 1982, 152) The composer sets the tempo of the introduction as a tempo for the second part of the song. There is a little dynamic detail, however really important.

The dynamic in the first part of the song (the part of “The Maiden”) is p while in the second part (the part of “The Death”) is pp. By using this technique, Shubert makes the lyrics of “the Death” sound even more shocking. The opening words in the second stanza are so important that the composer keeps the vocal line on the tonic of D minor for nearly six whole bars. The words: “Gieb deine Hand, du schon und zart Gebuild!”, which translates as follows: “Give me your hand, you beautiful and tender form!” are accompanied by quite a simple harmony pattern. Schubert uses the tonic of the D minor in the first bar of the second part of the song and then the sub-dominant is used in the second bar which develops into its first inversion in the following bar. The composer goes back to the tonic in the fourth bar, but just to set a much more interesting harmonic pattern for the second verse of the stanza: “Bin Freud, und komme nicht, zu strafen”, which means: “I am a friend, and come not to punish”.

In the fifth bar of the second part of the song the chord being used is the first inversion of the supertonic seventh which changes to the second inversion of the same chord in the first part of the following bar. However, the chord used in the second part of the bar in question, which is bar six of the second part of the song, is the seventh of the sub-dominant. The composer uses bar seven for a transition to the new key of F major, which is established in the eighth bar. The harmony is being changed from sub-dominant to the tonic of F major and back to the first inversion of the sub-dominant in the frames of the next bar. During the next two bars – ten and eleven, the tonic – sub-dominant movement in F major continues.

“The Death” ends with the words: “Sollst Sanft in Meinen Armen Schafen” which translates as: “Softly shall you sleep in my arms”. Schubert goes back to D minor in this last passage; also, the composer uses the “French” augmented 6th for the word “Schlafen”. This chord seems to be the perfect one to finish the idea of “the Death” with, as it sounds unsure, uncomfortable and probably harmless. Immediately after that, in the last seven bars, Schubert unexpectedly uses D major, as if to show the public that “the Death” has no bad intentions. These harmonic patterns and the lack of melody movement in the second stanza can only characterize “the Death” voice as supernatural and really contrasting to the active voice part in the first stanza. (Bandura-Skoda, Branscombe, 1982, 153)

As already said above, the song is based on the poem, which is the reason for some absolutely striking similarities between the two of them. For example, Schubert clearly differentiates the two stanzas and the two dialogue partners by various terms such as the dynamics and declamatory gestures. The piano dynamic, crescendo and diminuendo in the first part of the song correspond to the short and disjunct phrases in “the Maiden” part of the poem. Likewise, the pianissimo dynamic in the second part of the song is in harmony with the long and conjunct phrases in “the Death” part of the poem (Bandura-Skoda, Branscombe, 1982, 150).

However, an interesting fact is that Schubert does not use two different voices for the two stanzas. This perhaps was his way of making the dramatic dialogue between “the Maiden” and “the Death” even more effective. In fact, Schubert uses a material which was previously written by him quite often. For example, the famous piano quintet in A major D. 667 is based on the song “the Trout” D. 550. Similarly, “the Wanderer” D. 493 supplies with material the C major fantasy D. 760. As it was already mentioned above, the String Quartet D. 810 “The Death and the Maiden” is based on the song D. 531. More precisely, the second movement of the string quartet, which consists of one main theme and five variations, is completely based on that song. The main theme can be divided into three parts: A, B and C.

Example 3 – Comparison of the first eight bars of the second movement of the string quartet (above) and the song (below) The A section, which is shown on example three above, is almost directly taken from the song. Afterwards, between bars nine and sixteen, which is section B, the music is getting livelier and vivid, just to correspond perfectly to “the Maiden’s” feelings. The C section of the main theme, between bars seventeen and twenty-four, is again calm exactly as “the Death” in the Claudius’s poem is. The first twenty-four bars are probably the most beautiful and angelic, yet incredibly simple, in the Romantic era. However, the simplicity of the whole passage is what makes it so genuine. For example, the note G is repeated thirteen times between bars seventeen and twenty-four in the part of the first violin, while the note B is repeated fourteen times in the viola part. Anyhow, the feature which makes these bars sound so perfect is the harmony pattern which is shown on example four.

Example 4 – Harmonic analysis of bars seventeen to twenty four of the second movement of the string quartet The first variation starts in bar twenty-five. Basically, the harmony pattern is the same to the one in the original theme. This time, however, the second violin and the viola provide the harmony which was previously played by the whole quartet. The inner-voices sustain the key feature in this variation in triplets throughout. The cello is providing the foundation of the whole passage by playing strong quaver pizzicato notes.

The first violin part is really interesting in this variation, because it has very much a supporting role, something unusual, especially at the beginning of a piece. The notes played are part of the chord played by the rest of the group. This first of five variations is somehow more tensed and emotional compare to the original theme in the movement. This is probably to underline “the Maiden” fright when she tries to escape “the Death” at the beginning of the poem. In the second variation, there is a lead singing part – the cello. It is interesting to see how this melody corresponds to the original theme, which can be seen on example five.

Example 5 – Comparison between the cello part in the 2nd variation (above) and the original theme (underneath) The second violin provides a second voice, which supports the main tune. It is a unique accompaniment because of its multitasking. The dotted quavers form the supporting voice which was mentioned above, while the semi-quavers complete the first violin and the viola accompaniment roles, as it can be seen on example six.

Example 6 – The unique, multitasking second violin part in the second variation. The role of the viola throughout this variation is to provide a strong base part. Schubert achieved that with very simple but incredibly effective rhythm – quaver, quaver rest and two quavers. This pattern repeats for twenty-four bars. The first violin part has an ornamental function again, likewise in the first variation.

It can be said, that the harmonic patterns remains similar to these at the beginning of the piece, however, there are simply more notes played in this variation which is the reason for the more tensed and excited feelings. The third variation is an absolute shock for the listener. It is a kind of culmination of the feelings which have been building up so far in the movement. This variation is unlike any of the rest in terms of role playing of the four instruments. The key feature in the third variation is the rhythm which is presented mainly by the second violin and the viola, while still reminiscing about the main theme with all the quavers, as example seven shows.

Example 7 – Strong rhythmic second violin and viola parts, which still reminisce about the main theme. The first violin and the cello have a similar job of playing big three-part chords later on, which create additional tension in the music. There is an interesting fact that the original theme and the previous two variations finished in the key of G major. In the third one, however, all four instruments resolve to a single G note. The composer surprises the listener again with the fourth variation. Having listened to the previous really tensed and exciting variation, Schubert introduces very light and beautiful music in G major. A similarity to the main theme has been found in this variation, as shown on example eight.

Example 8 – Similar material in the fourth variation and the main theme. The first violin is playing an accompanying role again in this variation, but this time, so lyrical and smooth, that it can be described as a counter-melody. The last part of this variation is in C major, which is the first significant change of tonality so far in the movement. By going back to the more relaxed music in this variation, the composer hides the return to the home key of G minor perfectly, as he prepares the listener for the end of the movement. In this final fifth variation, the second violin and the viola play a version of the main theme which has been played in the first variation, but this time much more lyrically. Schubert uses some voice exchange between the two of them as well. This time the cello part has the job of providing the base. It is a very simple ostinato movement, but again, incredibly effective for the listener as example nine shows below.

Example 9 – The ostinato movement of the cello in the last variation The first violin has a very limited part. Starts off with a very long G note, just to continue with a passage, which strongly emphasizes the G minor chord as shown on example ten.

Example 10 – The first violin line at the beginning of the fifth variation

Of particular interest is the note of the cello in bar one-hundred and thirty which is shown on example eleven. There, the cello reaches the lowest note of the whole piece. This note is greatly emotional for the listener, because this is the point where all the tension and excitement, which has been building up throughout the movement, finally resolves.

Example 11 – Bar 130, where the cello reaches the lowest note in the piece The coda of this movement starts in bar one-hundred and forty-four. Schubert uses the material from sections B and C of the original theme. This can be seen in the parts of the second violin, viola and cello while the first violin part is more variative and ornamental then any of the other instruments. It is an interesting fact, that Schubert finishes this movement the same way he finishes the song, with a restatement of the introduction but this time in a major key.

Having written more than six-hundred songs, Franz Schubert has a huge contribution to the developing of this genre. His creativeness as a song composer, of course pervade some of his instrumental music as well. It is very difficult to reproduce in great detail what the composer had in mind about his vocal and instrumental works, in order to the fact that the singing techniques and the instruments some two-hundred years ago were so different to what they are nowadays. An interesting fact is the use of slurs in Schubert’s instrumental music. He is the composer who has rarely written a slur which is longer than a string player could manage.

The slurs in a string player part correspond to the breaths a singer would take. This proves that even when composing pieces for a string quartet or even a symphony, Schubert uses his vocal techniques all the time. (Montgomery, 2003, 11) Unlike the classical string quartets, the Schubert’s works can be described as “genuine” according to the violinist Louis Spohr. This means that there is no one leading part, as it used to be during the Classical era, but all four parts are equally important. Therefore, the first violin should not aim to distinguish himself above the other three players by style of delivery or strength of tone. (Montgomery, 2003, pp.12-13)

In conclusion, the String Quartet in D minor, D. 810 is one of the greatest chamber music pieces in the classical repertoire nowadays. After listening to such music, the genius of Franz Schubert cannot be questioned in any way. There is a striking fact that, this piece was not published while the composer was still alive. Anyhow, this essay analysed the poem “Der Tod und das Madchen” by Mathias Claudius, the song “The Death and The Maiden” D. 531 and the second movement of the string quartet D. 810 by Franz Schubert, by exploring mainly harmony patterns and instrumental voice leading.

The strong link between the song and each of the variations from the second movement of the string quartet with the poem by Mathias Claudius has been explained. Schubert himself, in an often-cited letter, refers to the String Quartet in A minor, D. 804 and the D. 810 in D minor as well as the Octet D. 803, in a specific context: “… I intend to pave my way towards grand symphony in that manner …” (Bandura-Skoda, 1982, 171). There can be no doubt that the D minor Quartet is really experimental and adventurous, which can easily be in the dimensions of the symphonic format in terms of cyclical form and expressive content.


1. Bandura-Skoda, E. & Branscombe P. (eds.) (1982) ‘Schubert Studies: Problems of style and chronology’. Cambridge: University Press. pp. 1-25, 143-173, 327-347. 2. Brown, C. (2010) ‘Performing 19th- century chamber music: the yawning chasm between contemporary practice and historical evidence’. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 3. Montgomery, D. (2003) ‘Franz Schubert’s Music in Performance. Compositional Ideals, Notational Intent, Historical Realities, Pedagogical Foundations’. New York: Pedagogical Press. pp. 65-173. 4. Somervell, A. (1927) ‘Schubert: Quartet in D minor and Octet’. London: Humphrey Milford: Oxford University Press. pp. 5-30. 5. Rink, J. (ed.) (2002) ‘Musical Performance’, A Guide to Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


1. Schubert, F. String Quartets Nos. 13 and 14, “Death and the Maiden” (Alban Berg Quartet) EMI Classics, Compact disc, 0077774733359. 2. Schubert, F. String Quartet Nos. 10 and 14, “Death and the Maiden” (Britten Quartet) EMI Classics, Compact disc, 0724357327350.

Music Scores:

1. Schubert, F., 1981, String Quartet in d minor: ‘Death and the Maiden’ D. 810, Eulenberg Edition, Leipzig. Music Score. 2. Schubert, F., 1989, String Quartet: ‘Death and the Maiden’ D. 810, Barrenreiter Edition, Kessel. Music Score.

1. Claudius, Matthias. “Der Tod und das Mädchen / Death and the Maiden.” Trans. Emily Ezust. The Lied and Art Song Texts Pages: Texts and Translations to Lieder (2007): <>.

The Death of Ivan Ilyich Compared to the Road Essay

People from different generations, walks of life and backgrounds have all contemplated death in comparable ways. Some people choose to look to the afterlife as a means of explanations of the mystery that is death. Others look at the science behind death and gather as much information as possible on what happens. In The Death of Ivan Ilyich by Leo Tolstoy and Death Be Not Proud by John Donne we can identify two ways in which both of these writers deal with and view death, through metaphors and personification.

Metaphors have been used throughout history to compare things we don’t quite understand to things we can recognize and accept. Both John Donne and Leo Tolstoy used metaphors in their works to explain their thoughts about death. In Death Be Not Proud John Donne first compares death to rest or sleep in line 5 when he says “from rest and sleepe, which but thy pictures bee.”

Donne is saying that death is a more powerful version of sleep, one that rest and sleep can only faintly imitate, that death is the real deal.

In The Death of Ivan Ilyich the biggest metaphor Tolstoy uses in his explanation of death is the comparison between death and “a sack” in chapter 9, page 50, when he says “it seemed to him that he and his pain were being painfully pushed into a long, narrow, black sack, pushed in deeper and deeper and yet could not be pushed right through.” In both of these quotes we do also see elements of religion in their explanations. In the first we can look at Christian teachings and compare the time between “death” and Judgement Day as a period of “sleep” from which the Christians will be woken up from and let into Heaven. In the second we can look at Ivan’s relationship with God.

Once Ivan falls through the sack then he has regained consciousness and woken up from his sleep, and begun talking to God with the realization that he did not live his life in the way he would have wanted to. Human relationships with others and the object around us are the easiest way for people to relate and begin to understand the things we have not registered. Personification has been used to create relationships between us and the things we cannot communicate with in order to get a better understanding of them. Both authors use personification to relate to Death. In Death Be Not Proud, Donne refers to death as proud, mighty, dreadful, and speaks to death, “nor yet canst thou kill mee (line 4).” In The Death of Ivan Ilyich Death is one of the main characters. Constantly looming over Ivan, ever since his pain first arrived and the eminence of his death became real, Death was a constant reminder to Ivan that he was a fragile human like everyone else, and that ultimately material goods left you nothing as you passed.

In Death Be Not Proud the speaker didn’t seem fearful of Death, only aware of it, as Ivan came to be. In line 14, the speaker says “and Death shall be no more; Death, thou shalt die.” Only as Ivan was dying did he no longer fear death, although the reminder of death still plagued him, “‘And Death? Where is it?’ He sought his old, habitual fear of Death but could not find it. Where was Death? What Death? There was no fear, because there was no Death.” Both John Donne and Leo Tolstoy had close encounters with Death, provoking both to search for a meaning, an understanding, and an acceptance of death, which they explored through writing. As the Doors lead singer Jim Morrison once said, “People fear death even more than pain. It’s strange that they fear death. Life hurts a lot more than death,” something Ivan discovered, something the speaker in Donne’s poem knew, and something we all will figure out for ourselves.

Compare and Contrast “To Room Nineteen” and “Death by Landscape” Essay

In the short stories “To Room Nineteen” by Doris Lessing and “Death By Landscape” by Margaret Atwood, two women find themselves isolated from the world and the people around them. This paper will compare and contrast each story to show that although both female protagonists are isolated by their circumstances, their individual responses to their circumstances are very different.

In “To Room Nineteen” Susan’s isolation is caused by a number of factors: society and the time she lives in, an unfaithful husband in a broken marriage, and her own inability to deal with her unhappy life.

“…She knew he had been unfaithful because of his sullen air, and his glances at her, similar to hers at him: What is that I share with this person that shields all delight from me?” (p. 871) Susan feels trapped by her life and her family, and plagued by her husband’s infidelity and the knowledge that this social norm which she must learn to accept.

In “Death by Landscape” Lois’ isolation is from the fact she is left with no family. Her sons have grown up and left home and she is a widow. This leaves her with no one to support or care for her. “While Rob was alive, while the boys were growing up, she could pretend she didn’t hear it, this empty space in sound. But now there is nothing much left to distract her.” (p. 35) Lois is tormented by her past rather than her present, the traumatic experience of a childhood friend disappearing has remained with her for a years.

In both stories the protagonists share the conflict of the circumstances they live in -oppression from external power. For Lois, she is never able to quite move on from her friend’s disappearance. “She would never go up North, to Rob’s family cottage or to any place with wild lakes and wild trees and the calls of loons.” (p.35) One of the major factors of her conflict is the result of her childhood camp leader Cappie, trying to unfairly blame her for the death or disappearance of her friend Lucy: “Didn’t what? Says Cappie softly. Didn’t what, Lois? Lois does the worst thing she begins to cry. Cappie gives her a look like a pounce. She’s got what she wanted.” (p.34)

Susan is isolated by her own unhappiness and growing mental instability. She struggles to maintain appearances and live up to societal expectations. “She said to Matthew in their bedroom: I think there must be something wrong with me.” (p.875) Her husband is no support to her and as he continues to carry on an affair, the distance between them increases, as well as her feelings of isolation. Susan hires a nanny to avoid the responsibilities of her family in order to try and escape them. She finds a room at an anonymous inn, which she uses as reprieve but this only amplifies her feelings of isolation and loneliness.

The key difference between the two protagonists is that over time, Lois is able to come to terms with her conflict and learn to accept it. She realizes that her friend’s disappearance is not her fault; the camp leader simply needed someone to blame. For Cappie, the idea of having no explanation for Lucy’s disappearance is simply too much to comprehend. Though the experience still haunts her, Lois tries to move on with her life.

Susan, however, falls victim to her conflict. She is unable to cope, when her husband confronts her asking if she is having an affair, she cannot face the prospect of coming to terms with the truth and reality of her life. Seeing no end to her struggles, Susan decides to commit suicide in room 19.

Both women are isolated from the world and the people around them due in part to the circumstances of their lives. Although both sets of circumstances are very different, they are the root cause of the conflict of the worlds in which both women seek to remove themselves from. Each character takes a different path that leads ultimately to the difference between life and death.

You may also be interested in the following: death by landscape analysis, to room nineteen analysis

Death Penalty in South Africa Essay

Witbank was established in 1890 and early attempts to exploit the coal deposits failed until the railway from Pretoria reached the area in 1894. It was proclaimed a town in 1903 and became a municipality in 1914. Despite attempts by governing bodies to establish the use of the name, eMalahleni, for the city as well as for the district, locals still tend to call the city by its original name. Similarly to the anglicised pronunciation of Johannesburg, English-speaking residents pronounce the name as “wit•bank” and not as “vit•bunk” as in the original Afrikaans pronunciation, nor as “vit•bank” as English-speaking visitors are prone to say.

There are many stories about the city and its origination but the top story would be the arrival of Winston Churchill at the nearby Transvaal and Delagoa Bay Colliery during his escape from Boer imprisonment in Pretoria, on his way to Delagoa Bay (later Lourenco Marques, and then Maputo, in Mozambique). Some local residents, loyal to the Crown, assisted him in hiding and making the final leg of his escape, thus gaining Witbank the consequent credit once the details of these events could be made known.

The town has grown since then from a farming community into a business destination where companies such as Anglo American, BHP Billiton, Evraz, Eskom, Exxaro, Joy, Komatsu, the Renova Group, SAB Miller, SAMANCOR, Shanduka Beverages, Xstrata and Zenith Inc amongst many others have found substantial returns on their investments. Witbank is located along the railway line linking Pretoria to Maputo and for many years served as the transport gateway to the Mozambiquean port. In recent years, this line has been under frequent threat of collapse due to underground coal fires in disused mines in the area.

Two national highways, the N4 from Pretoria and the N12 from Johannesburg, converge at Witbank and then continue to Komatipoort, on the border of Mozambique. Together, these routes form the Maputo Corridor, a strategically important alternative to the South African ports of Richards Bay and Durban on the Indian Ocean shores of the country. Witbank is in a coal mining area with more than 22 collieries in the municipal radius. There are a number of power stations (such as the Duvha Power Station), as well as a steel mill (Evraz Highveld Steel and Vanadium Limited) nearby which all require coal.

The farm land surrounding Witbank is fast being bought by investors, coal mining companies and real estate developers to accommodate the rapid growth of the city which is good for local businesses and residents. Likewise, the sustained growth of the commercial areas and suburbs has presented significant challenges to the municipal government. Potable water supplies, sewage treatment, electricity distribution, refuse collection and road maintenance are particularly affected, arousing sustained ire amongst the local residents.

Relatively high summer rainfall since 2008 has caused significant damage to municipal roads, creating large numbers of potholes and leaving large amounts of debris on the road surfaces. As Witbank is en route to travellers from the Gauteng province to the Kruger National Park, attempts have been made to capture some of the potential tourist spend. Apart from a few hotels, there are many guest houses. These vary from the utilitarian to the luxurious, and also cater for many of the business travellers visiting Witbank as well as those travelling to Nelspruit, Swaziland and Mozambique.

A casino complex is accessible within a few hundred meters from the N4 highway, providing two hotels, cinemas, ten-pin bowling and restaurants as well as the traditional gambling facilities. The Highveld Mall is built immediately next to the casino and is a retail hub for locals as well as for many residents of towns in the vicinity. Mpumalanga i/? m? pu? m?? l????? / (name changed from Eastern Transvaal on 24 August 1995), is a province of South Africa. The name means east or literally “the place where the sun rises” in Swazi, Xhosa, Ndebele and Zulu.

Mpumalanga lies in eastern South Africa, north of KwaZulu-Natal and bordering Swaziland and Mozambique. It constitutes 6. 5% of South Africa’s land area. In the north it borders on Limpopo, to the west Gauteng, to the southwest the Free State and to the south KwaZulu-Natal. The capital is Nelspruit (recently renamed to Mbombela). Prior to 1994, Mpumalanga was part of Transvaal Province. Mpumalanga Travel Guide / Formerly known as the Eastern Transvaal, Mpumalanga is one of South Africa’s top tourist destinations.

People are drawn to Mpumalanga by the magnificent scenery, by the fauna and flora and by the saga of the 1870s gold rush era and a wealth of fascinating tribal legends. Aptly know as “Paradise Country”, few regions in the world can match the extraordinary beauty of the Mpumalanga Lowveld and escarpment. Mountains, panoramic passes, valleys, rivers, waterfalls and forests characterise the landscape. This is also Big Game Country, the setting for dozens of sanctuaries teeming with wildlife and birds. Among them, the Kruger National Park is world renowned, as are several of the luxurious private reserves on its western boundary.

The entire Mpumalanga area offers exceptional opportunities for bird-watching, hiking, horse-riding and fishing. Streams once panned for gold have become the haunts of eager anglers and lazy trout. Steeped in the history of pioneers, hunters and fortune seekers, fascinating gold rush towns abound. Barberton and Pilgrim’s Rest are among the most famous. A special, additional dimension occurs in the Middleveld region which is inhabited by Ndebele people, notable for their traditional costumes and attractively decorated houses.

The 1986 Death Penalty: When SMU Was Really Guilty Essay

It’s game night: the two opposing teams fight for a spot to play every college football or team player’s dream: a bowl game and the chance to be champions. To create a victorious team, college athletic boosters travel all around the state recruiting the best players to attend their school and play on their team. What goes on behind the closed doors of recruiting world though, can change the way students and spectators look at the game of college football.

Athletic boosters who bribe incoming college freshman to play for their university are subject to a punishment called the “Death Penalty”, a punishment for a one season team probation from engaging in any game play. In the early 1980’s, a university from Texas rose from the shadows and soon became the best team in the Southwest Conference, with a 45-4-1 record. What contributed to their victory included complimentary residences and automobiles, with some monetary reward for every win in the season.

The Southern Methodist University 1986 “Death Penalty” was a fair punishment because during the season, SMU Athletic Boosters cheated the system by bribing the best players and having government figures getting involved, yet the effects of the death penalty raises speculation about whether SMU was guilty of receiving the death penalty. The Southern Methodist football team deserved the death penalty because of their athletic booster’s use of bribery to recruit the best players in the nation. Southern Methodist University, a private university located in Dallas, Texas, is not one that many people hear of.

Despite being located in a big town with a boom in economy, SMU was a long shot from being the conference champion. They needed someone to bring them back from a shadow of tough losses during the 1960s and 1970s, not to mention the competition they had to face while being in the Southwest Conference. Big name schools like The University of Texas, Texas A&M, Baylor, TCU, and Texas Tech were some of the best college football teams in the country. The SMU recruiting department wanted their football team to change from being nobody to somebody.

In the early 1980’s, SMU stepped onto the Texas map to become the greatest team in ollege football at the time. One of the first recruits for the 1979 season was high school senior Eric Dickerson. One of the best runningbacks in Texas, Dickerson had been recruited by universities like University of Texas, Texas A&M, and SMU. Setting his eyes to play for Texas A&M, Dickerson abruptly decided to play for SMU the fall of 1979, after being convinced from coach Ron Meyer that Dickerson would walk out of SMU and become a millionaire. Rumors floated that Dickerson also received a Pontiac Trans Am in the deal to play for SMU, but Dickerson has not stated whether that is true.

After signing Dickerson, at the last second, SMU also signed runningback Craig James. This new class of freshman soon became one of the most talented football teams in all of Texas. When the Mustangs played number two ranked University of Texas, the team brought their first victory after 13 straight losses, putting SMU on the face of the Texas map. These victories soon brought speculation to the NCAA of 29 violations, and furthermore probation for the 1981 season, including not being able to play in a bowl game for the 1981 season.

After the season, Coach Ron Meyer took a job as head coach of the New England Patriots, arising speculation that Meyer might be leaving just in time before the Mustangs would get caught for something else by the NCAA. After Meyer’s departure, new stories began to circulate in the 1983 season after SMU began to recruit players from outside of the state, including Sean Stopperich, a student from Pittsburg. SMU reportedly offered Stopperich $5,000 for signing with SMU along with an apartment complex for his family outside Dallas.

Things began to falter for Stopperich when he began to feel homesick and family issues began to accumulate. That did not stop the SMU athletic boosters from giving Stopperich everything he needed. Unfortunately for the university, Stopperich was still upset at his lack of playing time due to his constant injuries and decided to move back to Pittsburg. That’s when the NCAA began to investigate. SMU’s misdemeanor actions of bribing players to make them stay so that they could get championship titles and bowl games proved to be hazardous to themselves and their reputation with the NCAA.

It was clear that SMU was putting themselves in some deep water with their use of money to get what they wanted, when they wanted it. Many times, alumni like to keep in touch with their alma maters by sticking close to what happens at the university and keeping secrets about their actions. That is what SMU chairman Bill Clements did for years. Clements had a long history behind him, being the governor for the State of Texas, the first Texas Republican in years. In 1985, Clements issued a board meeting with SMU athletic boosters about the situation arising from looming NCAA officials.

They decided that SMU athletes were to receive a payment for playing on the team, which would stop bribing players firsthand in the signing process. Clements made an attempt to hide the scandal by firing nine SMU athletic boosters, including big name booster Sherwood Blount. Clements said that now with this out of the way, the NCAA can now get off the case about their misdemeanors. It was too late to hide the damage, though. Sean Stopperich had admitted to NCAA officials that SMU boosters had paid him more than $11,000 to play football at SMU.

SMU had been penalized with “no issuing scholarships the first year to incoming players, and only 15 the second year of probation along with no bowl games. ” Clements stated that with every possible effort this will not happen again under his watch. Governor Clements stated that the payments had to end, yet only to incoming players. Current players could still receive monetary rewards for playing. Getting the governor involved was an accumulating blow to the team, because it was powerful people who were dedicated to making sure they would make things right and progressive despite what the consequence may be.

For Bill Clements, it was his destiny to make sure SMU could be the top team and continue a legacy of victory, but it was also a turn for the worse and a bigger exposure to SMU’s cheating to the NCAA because now there is not just an alumni involved, there is a gubernatorial candidate involved. In the continual recruiting process, SMU attempted to keep their secrets behind closed doors by lying to NCAA officials when presented a case against former SMU player David Stanley, who told NCAA that he was getting paid $25,000 to sign with SMU as well as $750 per month in salary.

When Stanley was caught using drugs and alcohol while playing football, SMU gave Stanley the boot. That created tension that caused Stanley to spill the secret about his hidden job of playing football that SMU had offered him. Along with illegally paying Stanley to play for them, SMU also violated their probation of issuing scholarships. After multiple violations of NCAA laws, a new law was created simply known to many as the “Death Penalty. ” The death penalty meant the end.

The termination of a football season, even the terminating of football practices. It was the most severe punishment ever created, ever bestowed. Some say SMU did not deserve the death penalty because of the effects that lasted after it was issued. When the death penalty was issued, it came as a shock to all of the student body and caused an uproar in the university itself. It meant reconstruction and the suffering for players who could not play anymore. The aftermath of the university’s football program shutting down was one that no one ever expected.

Coaches from other schools came to the university for the talent found at SMU and took them on recruiting trips so they could play at a school that can guarantee them a chance to play professional football, despite finishing a college education at SMU. In the years that followed, there was an absence in the university due to the death penalty being enforced. In 1989, college football at SMU was brought back onto the scene under the coaching of Forest Greg. When SMU was allowed to recruit again, they looked as if they were a completely new team.

They were smaller in size and shape, and their determination to succeed was in high. Their season was filled with much suffering and SMU was never able to have a winning season until 2008, almost twenty years after the death penalty. It was a loss of hope for the Mustangs after the sufferings they went through, it seemed almost unfair to have to play with a team that was not highly ranked or highly talented. The death penalty was the largest burden to a football team in the history of college football and was never given again.

It was a difficult sight to see the team getting beaten with a score of 21-95, and it all was a result of the death penalty. But, one has to think, was it really deserved? It was a misdemeanor act of unfair victory for the Mustangs, using the money that was stored up in the city of Dallas to become the best team in Texas and in the nation. If SMU had never gotten the death penalty, then the corruption would have been controlled, or stopped. It was horrific, it was severe, but they were guilty.

It brought lots of frustrations to hopeful players and hopeful coaches, but it taught a lesson to everyone playing college football to understand what happens when rules are broken and how severe the consequences can be. But, even though SMU might have deserved the death penalty by bribing players with money or using powerful political figures to give them money to take players in, it was not a cry for giving up. It only made them stronger, and it only made them show all college football teams how they could rise up from the ground to become a team they dream to be instead of a team they currently are.

Death Penalty Should Not Be Abolished Essay

In the past, their lives who commit crimes were taken easily. The Code of Hammurabi has many stern laws to punish guilty people. It was said “If anyone ensnares another, putting a ban upon him, but he cannot prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death.” by the code of Hammurabi. This law shows that people were punished when doing something of illegal. Apparently the death penalty is one kind of warning punishment, and reminding people not to endanger the rights of other people.

However, in the recently years, people pay more attention in the human rights. Some of people start thinking that the death penalty should be abolished. Moreover, there are contrary opinions to judge the issue of the death penalty. In my opinion, the existence of the death penalty is necessary. Especially we can save society resource, prevent the crime rate increase, console the population’s psychology.

First, the society doesn’t have duty to costs much money for a murder all life in jail.

It is very expensive to hold someone in prison for life. Life prisoners stay in prison on average for 30 to 40 years at a cost of$40,000 to$50,000 per year. In the beginning the murder commit crimes which has encroach on other’s right. Every year the government has to pay much money on the prisoner of life imprisonment. On the other hand, if a murder is provided by all common people, it is unfair for all common people to raise the murder who is a killer. We work hard in the world, why do we have to pay our salary to a murder? Nothing the murder done, but the crime does. It seems too ridiculous to raise a murder who makes a big mistake for a life. Second, the death penalty can frighten and hinder committing crime. To prevent people not to take other people easily, they should know they would die if they kill somebody. For the investigation, enforcing the death penalty can save eighteen people’s life. Another reporter shows that the Korea has abolished the death penalty for seven years, but the crime rate has been increase.

The important of death penalty can’t be ignored, and the death penalty has the position can’t be waved. The existence of death penalty warns people not to commit serious crimes easily, and prevent the crime rate increase. Third, the death penalty consoles the people’s psychology. Some people think that anyone has no right to take away other’s life, even to punish the prisoner. I agree that life is a valuable present which God gives us. So the life is very important for us. Otherwise, a murder who offended other’s the valuable right, he is not be excused. A murder may take more over one life. The same, he takes so many valuable present that he can’t be excused.

Then we don’t punish him, and give him s chance to live. Who can give the chance for the victim to live? Finally, we don’t need to pay so much society resource to imprison a murder, and the government can use the money in education and improving the society. The power of executing the death penalty is a warning to tell people not to murder others. The human right is very valuable, so we can’t take other’s life easily. Enforcing death penalty is a way to confess the relatives of dead people. It stands for the justice of the society. So the death penalty cannot be abolished in this society.

How Far Do You Agree with Death Penalty Essay

Do you agree or disagree. There is never a reason for death penalty to be used.

In some countries, serious criminals such as serial murderers and terrorist bomber hardly escape death sentence. While many complement on such tough justice, others condemn it mainly for religious reasons. It appears to me that those who are against the death penalty have failed to notice the more humane aspects behind this seemingly inhumane charge. My essay will look at those humane aspects as against those to the opposite.

First of all, death penalty proves to be an effective ‘kill one to warn all’ approach I law enforcement. Crime rates in China have reportedly been fallen to a certain level since the implementation of death penalty. By nature, whether it has to do with the fear caused by uncertainty of afterlife or not, human beings would be afraid of death. Death sentence, in as sense, is kind of psychological approach to put off the evil flame in mankind.

Secondly, some people do deserve this harsh punishment for their wicked act against humanity. A serial murderer who slaughtered dozens of innocent children, a terrorist who launched an attack that killed hundreds—can you figure out a better penalty to resort to for paying the blood these beasts have spilled? Even relatively lighter crime like corruption might result in life long imprisonment, what then, the crime a degree higher like mass murder should be punished with other than ‘an early road to hell’? I just wonder how many people in the world would be willing to spare a terrorist who blasted off 3200 lives in 9.11 attack…

Thirdly, death sentence can serve as a means of psychological therapy and mental compensation for the victims and their loved ones. For instance, the Tokyo Trial, which ended up sentencing to death a group of Japanese chief war criminals, is said to provide an efficient psychological relief for those victimized Asian nations during the war.

Death sentence, apparently, is not aimed against morals and ethics, it is, on the contrary, put up to preserve humanitarian codes by assuring the security of the society and the safety of each individual as it can intimidate potential criminals. Considering the matter this way, it becomes evident that death penalty is more of help than harm. Be it psychologically or politically beneficial, it contributes to the maintenance of social order. I, therefore, suggest we be for it.