Empowerment on Girl Child Essay

With sacrificing family resources to educate a girl child and a potential future leader still a big societal challenge, any effort to see the education of a girl is a huge boon. So when millions of dollars are poured into the effort, the impact cannot be overemphasised. The Campaign for Female Education (Camfed), introduced some few years back, has seen remarkable change of fortunes to many a rural folk. Now, a US$19 million bursary programme has been launched to benefit 24 000 girls from disadvantaged families in rural Guruve, Mashonaland Central.

The launch was conducted at colourful ceremony at Chifamba Secondary School in the area recently. With testimonies of previous beneficiaries of the programme giving the clear picture of changed lives, more girls are set to change for the better. Already, lives have changed and tales are being told. More are coming, definitely. Twenty-five-year-old Bridget Moyo was born in the dusty village of Wedza in a polygamous family. Her mother sired six children and the other children under the genealogy of her father are incalculable.

She needs to sit down and count them from her father’s first wife until the last.

Being a girl on a polygamous family, she was not spared from challenges women as a whole face. From birth she was automatically rendered a future beggar. Her education was considered optional and it was the first thing to be sacrificed in a crisis. Her brothers, uncles and male cousins’ needs had to come first for the family. The family’s future was seen to be in their hands and blood, so it was to them that the family’s resources should be spent primarily. As if that was not enough, the family was so much immersed in poverty.

School fees and levies were a luxury they could only dream of and there wasn’t enough for the family to eat. “I lost count of how many other people’s fields we worked in to make ends meet with my mother. It was not unusual for people to approach my mother and offer me a job as their housemaid,” Bridget said. She said it was very tragic in that some people had the audacity to exchange her labour services with a bucket of maize a month. “I am a proud member of the Johane Marange Apostolic Sect and my growing up in the church came with benefits and challenges.

“I feel at home hen at church where I am accepted with expectations like other girls who have to get married at a tender age. ” “In my teenage years, I was only supposed to dream about the kind of husband I was going to marry. Even if it meant dropping out of school, I did not drop out until I attained my university degree,” Bridget went on to narrate her ordeal. The turning point in Bridget’s life came after she got a bursary before attending secondary education. “In primary school I vividly remember being nominated a prefect before the school authorities reversed the decision because I did not have a school uniform.

I never had a worry about the strategy to use to sneak back into classroom after being sent home on numerous occasions to collect the fees . Currently I am a holder of Bachelor of Science Honours Degree in Business Management and Entrepreneurship,” she said. This is not the only sad tale about girls who rise from invisibility to visibility after attaining education. Another is Talent Tokoda, who grew up as an orphan and single child. Talent was born and bred in Chivhu, where her mother took care of all the family needs. “It was a nightmare getting shoes or having a proper uniform.

I struggled through primary school to completion but fortunately I passed with five units which are a sharp contrast to the struggles I went through. ” “Time to enrol for secondary education came and my hope was like a dim light at the far end of a tunnel which could turn off anytime. A week before I was supposed to go to secondary school, I neither had school fees nor secured a place at any school. ” “I could spend the whole day in the garden with my mother. I got the surprise of my life when I was told that my fees were going to be paid for until I complete Advanced Level,” Talent said in front of the dumbfounded crowd.

She passed Advanced Level and was enrolled at the University of Zimbabwe where she is doing her final year studying for a Bachelor in Medicine and Surgery. “I am proud that I proved to doomsayers that I can achieve any goal men can achieve. In August next year I will be a qualified medical doctor,” Talent said in front of the cheering crowd. This mirrors how the personality can be moulded to greatness. Guruve District’s pass rate is pegged at 25 percent with the national pass rate sitting at 21 percent. Assisting the girl child with resources will help improve the pass rate at rural schools.

For example, at Chifamba Secondary School the pass rate for girls is pegged at 10 percent. Research revealed that in Sub-Saharan Africa, 24 million girls cannot afford to go to school and as a result a girl may marry as young as 13. Camfed executive director for Zimbabwe and Malawi, Ms Angeline Murimirwa said it is vital to improve educational access, progression and completion for marginalised secondary school girls. “The coverage of bursaries will span for four years in 28 rural districts including resettlement areas.

The other money will provide a package of support to schools, training of school development committees and support for parents to enable children currently out of school to enrol,” she said. Ms Murimirwa said it is imperative to enhance participation of women in national activities from district level. “Most secondary school girls drop out of school opting to get married or as a result of lacking financial support. “Organisations need to cherish marginalised communities and the idea that women constitute a greater percentage to the national population,” she said.

The Reggio Emilia Approach Essay

Started by parents in 1945, Reggio Emilia was as an alternative to the strait-laced, church-monopolized institutions that dominated Italian early education at the time. Amidst the rubble of post-World War II Italy, the community raised from almost nothing, preschools that would far exceed the custodial services appropriated by the Mussolini’s government. News of the experiment spread and Reggio schools were popping up in disadvantaged wards of the city. A young teacher, Loris Malaguzzi, was to provide leadership to the movement, that would continue till his death in 1994.

“Our task, regarding creativity, is to help children climb their own mountains, as high as possible.” 
Loris Malaguzzi Malaguzzi studied psychology in Rome, where he took inspiration from such thinkers as Vygotsky, Dewey, Piaget, and Bruner. Bruner and Vygotsky’s recognition of the child’s natural problem-solving capacities, and of the role of culture in developing the mind, fit Malaguzzi’s own perceptions. John Dewey believed that true education should stimulate a child ‘to conceive of himself from the standpoint of the welfare of the group to which he belongs.

’ If any one concept embraces all other aspects of the Reggio curriculum and environment, it is this one.

The number of these parent-run centers rose steadily, and in 1967 the municipality took over their administration and financing. The Reggio preschools (and infant-toddler centres, publicly mandated since the 1970s) are available to children from birth to six regardless of economic circumstance or physical disability, and continue successfully to this day. In the early 90s Newsweek magazine recognized Reggio Emilia as one of the top approaches to preschool education in the world. This groundbreaking philosophy soon became more popular across the United States, including a growing number of public schools.

Reggio established a new educational framework based on the idea of relationships and co-constructivism. Reggio educators do not call their framework a model because it has connotations of something that’s finished or done. They see their work as an approach, something that is growing, changing, and dynamic. The focus is always on the process; the process of learning, the process of going farther and the process of going deeper. Fundamental Principles of the Reggio Emilia approach.

1. Child as protagonist, collaborator, and communicator. Reggio’s primary principle is that children are strong, powerful, and competent from birth. Children are seen as unique individuals with rights rather than simply needs. Children are protagonists with the right to collaborate and communicate with others. Their rights are manifested in curiosity, wonderment, exploration, discovery, social construction, and representations of their knowledge. Children are not passive learners to teacher-generated knowledge but are able to construct knowledge based on their experiences and interactions with others.

Children are also communicators, developing intellectually through the use of symbolic representations, including words, movement, drawing, painting, building, sculpting, shadow play, collage, dramatic play, and music, all of which lead children to surprising levels of communication. These multiple levels of communication have come to be known as the “hundred languages of children,” after a poem written by Malaguzzi, “the child has a hundred languages, and a hundred hundred hundred more.”

2. The teacher as partner, nurturer, guide, researcher. Teachers see themselves as partners in the co-construction of knowledge with the children. Teachers do not view themselves as leaders who are in front of the children but are with the children, exploring, discovering, and learning together. Each contribution is valued. This makes children more powerful contributors to their own education. Teachers are researchers who must continually readjust their image of children and learning. To be effective researchers, teachers hone their observational and listening skills. Educators decide what to teach by observing, listening, asking questions, reflecting on responses, and then introducing materials and ideas children can use to expand their understanding. As researchers into children’s skills and abilities, teachers create learning environments that encourage reflection, examination and their own personal beliefs about what children can and should be doing within educational settings.

3. Cooperation as the foundation of the educational system. Teachers are partners with their community. Collaboration exists at all levels and is a powerful tool in achieving educational goals. Each school contains an atellerista, a teacher specifically trained in the arts, who collaborates with the classroom teachers in planning documentation. The attellerista makes possible the deepening of instructions via the use of diverse media. All staff members are viewed as part of the educational experience and are often included in planning and implementing goals. All classes contain two teachers to plan experiences for the classroom and collaborate with teaching colleagues and staff members. This also allows for one teacher to observe, take notes and record conversations between children. Collaboration extends to every aspect of a Reggio Emilia school.

4. The environment as the “third teacher.” “environment indicates the way time is structured and the roles we are expected to play. It conditions how we feel, think and behave; and it dramatically affects the quality of our lives. Greenman Reggio Emilia schools place high value on physical environment and refer to it as the “third teacher”. The environment is seen as a living changing system. A vital part of every Reggio Emilia school is the atelier. The atelier is a studio that contains a wide range of media and materials fostering creativity and learning through projects. The atelier encourages children to use a variety of techniques and assists the adults in understanding processes of how children learn. It provides a workshop for documentation. Mini ateliers are present in each classroom.

5. The parent as partner. Children, teachers, and parents are seen as three equally important components in the philosophy’s educational process. Parents are encouraged to be active contributors to children’s activities in the classroom and in the school. Parent participation is manifested in daily interaction during school hours, in discussions regarding all aspects of educational and administrative issues. Parents often serve as advocates for the school in community politics.

6. Documentation as communication. “Teachers’ commentaries on the purposes of a project, along with transcriptions of children’s verbal language, photographs, and representations of their thinking are provided in accompanying panels or books designed to present the children’s learning processes. The documentation shows children that their work is valued, makes parents aware of class learning experiences, and allows teachers to assess both their teaching and the children’s learning. In addition, dialogue is fostered with other educators. Eventually, an historical archive is created that traces pleasure in the process of children’s and teachers’ learning experiences (Gandini, 1993).

The spiraling of experiences and symbolic representation characterizes not only children’s work but also the work of teachers in Reggio Emilia. Teachers utilize and depend upon sketches of children’s work as part of their field notes, photographs and videos of classroom experiences, audio transcriptions of conversations with children to represent and communicate their knowledge about the children’s meaning making. The teacher’s observations, videos and transcribed tapes are shared with colleagues for group reflection as teachers engage in collaborative reflection. Outcomes are often in the form of collective understanding (teachers construct new knowledge as they investigate, reflect, and represent children’s construction of knowledge).

The Humanistic Philosophy of Adult Education Essay

The humanistic philosophy of education grows out of the work of Carl Ransom Rogers. Rogers’ book Freedom to Learn draws on his experience and research in psychotherapy in order to communicate effective teaching strategies (Patterson, 1977). In this book, Rogers argues that “the only man who is educated is the man who has learned how to learn” (cited in Patterson, p. 17). The goal of education, then, must be not only intellectual education but also the growth and development of the entire person, with focus on fostering creativity and self-directed learning (Patterson, 1977).

In order to focus on the goal, Rogers advocated experiential learning, where the student learns from everyday life (Patterson, 1977). While others before him had noted the value of this type of education, Rogers was the first to seek its implementation (Patterson, 1977). This type of learning, with its focus on the entire person, is humanistic, as humanists believe that “it is necessary to study the person as a whole” (Huitt, 2001).

Gage and Berliner (1991) defined the five essential goals of humanistic education: to promote self-direction and independence, to develop the ability to take responsibility for what is learned, to develop creativity, to encourage curiosity, and to promote an interest in the arts.

Insofar as adult education is concerned, several components that Gage and Berliner (1991) identify as being essential to these five basic goals of humanistic education are particularly relevant. First, the authors contend that students learn best in a non-threatening environment (Gage and Berliner, 1991).

For adults seeking either to complete their high school degrees or to return to school in an environment surrounded by students much younger than themselves, it seems logical that a non-threatening environment would help them achieve more success. Second, the authors assert that students will learn best what they want and need to learn (Gage and Berliner, 1991). This concept also seems to particularly fit the needs of adult students, many of whom have already been in the work-force and are aware of what skills and knowledge are necessary for their own career advancement.

References Gage, N. , & Berliner, D. (1991). Educational psychology (5th ed. ). Boston: Houghton, Mifflin. Huitt, W. (2001). Humanism and Open Education. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved June 1, 2009 from http://chiron. valdosta. edu/whuitt/col/affsys/humed. html. Patterson, C. H. (1977). Foundations for a Theory of Instructional and Educational Psychology. New York: Harper & Row. Retrieved on June 1, 2009 from http://www. sageofasheville. com/pub_downloads/CARL_ROGERS_AND_HUMANISTIC_EDUCATION. pdf.

More testing, More Learning Essay

All students wish to finish their college year with a good grade. There is a lot to learn in every chapter of textbooks. Even if a student spends most of his time studying, he will get very stressed when a midterm or final comes. These exams will judge how well that student is doing for the whole entire semester. Patrick O’ Malley in “More Testing, More Learning” mentions that more testing provides students better learning opportunities because more testing forces students to have good study habits.

It also helps students to focus on every unit in the textbooks and encourages them to learn from their mistakes.

Providing exams more often makes students have good study habits. Students need good time management in order to balance between their college lives with their study lives. According to O’Malley’s essay “Greater frequency in test taking means greater frequency in studying for tests”. Giving students more exams is a way to keep them in track and force them to focus more on class.

Although students are adults and should be able to manage their own lives, they still need a teacher to coach them. If professor gives students more frequency in-class exams, it will force them to do more practice and students will learn better.

Having an exam at the end of the unit helps students deeply focus on what is in the classroom. There is a lot of information in a textbook and if students have a chance to have quizzes after the major chapters, it will help them to deeply understand the materials. From Patrick O’ Malley’s proposal “ This solution would have the advantage of reducing students’ anxiety about learning every fact in the textbook, and it would clarify the course goals, but it would not motivate students to study carefully each new unit, concept, or text chapter in the course”.

Students who understand the concept in their textbooks will do well in class and satisfy with their college lives. Having an opportunity to review the in-class exams benefits students to focus what they have missed. From O’ Malley suggestion “It makes sense that in a challenging course containing a great deal of material, students will learn more of it and put it to better use if they have to apply or “practice” it frequently on exams”. Student should be able to see how well they are doing in class before their major exams. Practicing with more exams releases students’ anxiety.

Their lives are not depending on only one or two exams. More in-class exam gives students the opportunity to study and learn from the mistakes that they did in the past tests. Being a student is not easy. A good student is the one who can maintain the student activities, work and grades. There are many ways that professors can encourage students to study. Providing students more of the exams before midterm and final is a way to help student learn. More testing helps them to focus on the contents, decrease their anxiety, keep them focused in school and also helps students learn from their own in-class exam.

Reconstructionalism – Curriculum Essay

Reconstuctionism in not a fully developed philosophy of life or of education. Many writers view it as only an extension of progressivism, the educational philosophy. Like progressivism, it is based on the “pure” philosophy of pragmatism. Therefore, its answers to basic questions are the same. In answer to the ontological question of what is real, reconstructionists agree that everyday, personal experience constitutes reality. The epistemological question asks: “What is truth and how do we know truth”? The reconstructionist claims that truth is what works, and we arrive at truth through a process of trial and error.

The axiological question asks: “What is good and beautiful”? The reconstructionist’s answer to this is whatever the public consensus says it is!

Educational Theory

As far as his educational views are concerned, the reconstructionist sees things the same way as the progressive—up to a point. For example, reconstructionists believe that students learn more, remember it longer, and apply it to new situations better if they learn through experience, rather than through being told something.

As they see it, the teacher’s main role is that of a resource person or a research project director who guides the students’ learning rather than being a dispenser of knowledge. In this role, the teacher carries on a dialogue with students, helping them identify problems, frame hypotheses, find data, draw appropriate conclusions, and select efficacious courses of action (praxis).

Reconstructionists don’t believe in a predetermined curriculum. They would use the subject matter from any or all disciplines when needed to solve a problem. They would probably deal more, however, with the subject matter of social experience (the social sciences) in solving problems.

The teaching methods favored by reconstructionists are (1) the pupil-teacher dialogue and (2) praxis. Praxis is “effective action.” In other words, reconstructionists favor applying the problem-solving method (scientific method) of the progressives to real-life problems. After one has reached an “intellectual solution” to a problem, reconstructionists favor carefully thought-out social action to remedy or ameliorate the problem.

Reconstructionists, like progressives, do not favor any type of ability grouping. They feel students should be grouped only upon the basis of common interests.

Reconstructionists also like flexible student seating arrangements, but since there is so much involvement outside the classroom, seating is not even an issue.

Reconstructionists share the progressive’s view of student discipline. Moreover, they feel that if students are actively involved in bringing about change in areas that concern them, they will not become frustrated, and therefore, will not be likely to become discipline problems.

Reconstructionists prefer to evaluate students subjectively on the basis of their ability as a social activist rather than give written examinations. Like progressives, they feel that student self-evaluation has a proper place.

Reconstructionists’ Platform

Reconstructionists differ significantly from progressives in the matter of social policy. Progressives acknowledge the rapidly changing conditions around us. But they are content to just teach students how to cope with change. It has been said that progressives seek to teach students how to reach “intellectual solution” to problems. This often culminates in writing a paper, doing a report or a project of some kind. This kind of education would tend to “mirror the contemporary society.” On the other hand, reconstructionists believe that students must learn through practical experience how to direct change and control it. They believe strongly that our culture is in crisis. They believe that things will get uncontrollably bad unless we intervene to direct change and thereby reconstruct the social order.

Reconstructionsists believe that a “ Utopian Future” is a genuine possibility for mankind if we learn how to intervene and to direct change. They believe that the school should train students to be social activists in the tradition of Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., Ralph Nader and Jesse Jackson.

Reconstructionists believe that we should apply the reflective inquiry method to life’s problems. They feel, however, that we should be prepared to act upon our conclusions. This requires a sense of commitment and responsibility on the part of students. This goal of initiating change is of course very controversial. For this reason, reconstructionism has never caught on fully in our schools. Questions have been raised concerning whether or not schools should become a tool for re-making society. Questions have also been raised as to whether students at any age have the intellectual and social maturity to participate in social action.

Advocates of social action contend that the more involvement we have, the better off we will be as a society. They claim that as things stand now, only a small percentage of people get involved in social issues because they do not know how to do so. Advocates of social action emphasize that it can be safely practiced if certain common-sense “safeguards” are applied. For example:

1) Young students should be encouraged to act in a more limited setting than older students, such as the classroom or school, rather than the larger community.

2) Teachers should help students weigh the probable outcomes of various lines of social action before anything is done. They should consider whether or not a given action will solve or ameliorate a problem. Moreover, they should consider the probable “side effects” of a given line of action, including how it will impact on significant others.

3) Teachers should work with students to get them to accept the consequences (good or bad) of their actions, once they have taken place, without complaining or expecting to be let off the hook. This is important if a sense of commitment and responsibility is to be nurtured.

Concept of Education in Islam and Its Objectives Essay

The Arabic language has three terms for education, representing the various dimensions of the educational process as perceived by Islam. The most widely used word for education in a formal sense is ta’līm, from the root ‘alima (to know, to be aware, to perceive, to learn), which is used to denote knowledge being sought or imparted through instruction and teaching. Tarbiyah, from the root raba (to increase, to grow, to rear), implies a state of spiritual and ethical nurturing in accordance with the will of God.

Ta’dīb, from the root aduba (to be cultured, refined, well-mannered), suggests a person’s development of sound social behavior. What is meant by sound requires a deeper understanding of the Islamic conception of the human being.

1) Importance of Education Education in the context of Islam is regarded as a process that involves the complete person, including the rational, spiritual, and social dimensions. As noted by Syed Muhammad al-Naquib al-Attas in 1979, the comprehensive and integrated approach to education in Islam is directed toward the “balanced growth of the total personality…through training Man’s spirit, intellect, rational self, feelings and bodily senses…such that faith is infused into the whole of his personality” (p.

158).

Educational theory in Islam: In Islam educational theory knowledge is gained in order to actualize and perfect all dimensions of the human being. From an Islamic perspective the highest and most useful model of perfection is the prophet Muhammad, and the goal of Islamic education is that people be able to live as he lived. Syed Hussein Nasr wrote in 1984 that while education does prepare humankind for happiness in this life, “its ultimate goal is the abode of permanence and all education points to the permanent world of eternity” (p. 7). To ascertain truth by reason alone is restrictive, according to Islam, because spiritual and temporal reality are two sides of the same sphere. Many Muslim educationists argue that favoring reason at the expense of spirituality interferes with balanced growth. Exclusive training of the intellect, for example, is inadequate in developing and refining elements of love, kindness, compassion, and selflessness, which have an altogether spiritual ambiance and can be engaged only by processes of spiritual training.

Education in Islam is twofold: 1. Acquiring intellectual knowledge (through the application of reason and logic) 2. Developing spiritual knowledge (derived from divine revelation and spiritual experience) According to the worldview of Islam, provision in education must be made equally for both. Acquiring knowledge in Islam is not intended as an end but as a means to stimulate a more elevated moral and spiritual consciousness, leading to faith and righteous action.

1. Emphasis on Acquiring Education in Qura’an: In a society where religion and knowledge in general and science in particular do not go hand in hand, it seems necessary to briefly describe the position of Islam vis-à-vis knowledge, Islam, in theory as well as in practice, has always promoted knowledge. Distinctive mark of human beings over the angels is knowledge: “And Allah taught Adam all the names…” (2:31)

The first verses of the Quran began with the word: “Read. Read in the name of thy Lord who created; [He] created the human being from blood clot. Read in the name of thy Lord who taught by the pen: [He] taught the human being what he did not know.” (96: 1-5). The Qur’an says.

“Are those who have knowledge equal to those who do not have knowledge?!”(39:9).

2. Emphasis on Acquiring Education in Hadith: The Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him and his progeny) has also emphasized the importance of seeking knowledge in different ways:

(a) Time: “Seek knowledge from the cradle to the grave.” (b) Place: “Seek knowledge even if it is far as China.” (c) Gender: “Seeking of knowledge is a duty of every Muslim” (d) Source: “Wisdom is the lost property of the believer, he should take it even if finds it in the mouth of a mushrik.”

The Prophet did not only preach about importance of knowledge, he also gave examples of promoting knowledge. In the very first battle between the Muslims and unbelievers or Mecca, known as the war of Badr, the Muslims gain victory and caught seventy kuffars as prisoners of war. One of the criteria of releasing the prisoners devised by the Prophet was that those who were literate among the prisoners could go free if they teach ten Muslim children how to read and write.

2) Aims and Objectives of Education in Islam The aim of education in Islam is to produce a good man. What is meant by good in our concept of “good man”? The fundamental element inherent in the concept of education in Islam is the inculcation of adab (ta‘dib), for it is adab in the all-inclusive sense I mean, as encompassing the spiritual and material life of a man that instills the quality of goodness that is sought after. Education is what the Prophet, Peace be upon him, meant by adab when he said: “My Lord, educate (addaba) me and make my education (ta`dib) most excellent.”

There is a general tendency among Muslims who are aware of the dilemma that is now pressing upon the Community to see its causes as external, as coming from the outside, originating from influences exerted by Western culture and civilization. That its causes are attributed to external elements is of course based upon correct observation, but it is also only partly true.

It is true that the Muslim mind is now undergoing profound infiltration of cultural and intellectual elements alien to Islam; but to say that the causes are derived from external sources is only partly true. How has it been possible in the first place for Muslims to succumb to such infiltration to the extent that their predicament has now assumed the proportions of a dilemma? We will at once realize that the external causes referred to are not the only ones responsible for throwing us into a state of general crisis, and we must see that the full truth of our answer to the question lies undeniably in the prevalence of a certain anomaly within our Community; an anomaly that has with increasing persistence plagued our world and our intellectual history, and that has been left uncorrected and unchecked, now to spread like a raging contagion in our midst.

Only by our consciousness and recognition and acknowledgement that serious internal causes have infact contributed considerably to our general disarray will we be able to discern the full truth that lies at the core of the dilemma we suffer today. The secular scholars and intellectuals among the Muslims derive their inspiration mainly from the West. Ideologically they belong to the same line of descent as the modernist ‘reformers’ and their followers; and some of them cleave to the views of the traditionalist ‘reformers’ and their followers.

The majority of them do not possess the intellectual, spiritual, and linguistic prerequisites of Islamic knowledge and epistemology so that they are severed from the cognitive and methodological approaches to the original sources of Islam and Islamic learning. In this way their knowledge of Islam is at the barest minimal level. Because they occupy a strategic position in the midst of the community and unless they drastically change their ways of thinking and believing, they pose a grave danger to the Islamic welfare of the Community.

They have no adab, for they do not recognize and acknowledge the legitimate authorities in the true hierarchical order, and they demonstrate by example and teach and advocate confusion and error. This is in fact the main reason why, as demonstrated in the course of Western intellectual history throughout the ages and the rise of secular philosophy and science in Western civilization, the Western conception of knowledge based upon its experience and consciousness must invariably lead to secularization.

There can be no doubt, therefore, that if the secular Muslim scholars and intellectuals allow themselves, or are allowed to confuse the Muslim youth in knowledge, the delslamization of the Muslim mind will continue to take effect with greater persistence and intensity, and will follow the same kind of secularizing course in future generations.

Large numbers among them do not fully understand the nature of Western culture and civilization whence they draw their inspiration and before which they stand agape in reverential awe and servile humility portraying the attitude of the inferior. They do not even completely grasp the contents and implications of the teachings of their alien masters, being content only to repeat them in vulgarized versions and so cheat the Muslim audience of their true worth.

Studying Abroad Essay

Nowadays, the number of students aiming to study abroad is increasing continually. From my point of view, more and more students want to study abroad because they want to have a better education, to acquire knowledge of new cultures and for certain to widen their perspective.

Firstly, studying abroad, students will have a better education. Nowadays, many students from developing countries like India, China… set studying in the First World countries as their short-cut way to have an international education. It is because in their countries, the education systems are still in poor condition due to financial situation and faculties.

On the contrary, in United States, for example, students can live and study in a distinguished educational environment. It is not because the facilities here are up-to-date but also because the its educational mission. That is to provide student dynamic skills and knowledge that need for their future rather than to feed facts, a method that is still in use in many developing countries.

Secondly, students who study abroad can have a favorable chance to attain knowledge of new culture. Obviously, when a student for the first time studies abroad, he will be exposed to a totally new culture. Here, from people, customs, to views are different from his country. However, due to the proximity of him to the new culture, he can easily learn a lot about it by observing, living with native people or taking part in festivals, what are not existed in books, here. This will help him to have better understanding of the new country and also offer him an overall view of multicultural world he is living in.

Last but not least, studying abroad, the perspective of students is certainly broadened due to experiences they accumulated in the new countries. For example, many American students grow up with the confidence that America is the greatest and does everything best. But indeed, there are still number of astute people in other countries who are working and contributing to the development of the world. That nowadays, many colleges in the US are encouraging their students to study abroad to take a glimpse and to have a different view of other countries.

In short, I believe that better education, cultural experiences and perspective are the most important factors that all students take into consideration when they decide to study abroad as one who examines them carefully will be able to choose his best country to study in.

Why Some Students Cheat in Exam Essay

The problem of cheating in exams is not a new problem. This problem may origin from the students’ ability to cheat during exams. There are many reasons for cheating. I am going to discuss three main reasons for cheating. First of all, the main reason which leads students to cheat on the tests is that they want to get good grades. Most of students are under pressure from their family, their friends and their teachers. They are afraid that, if they get bad marks, their parents will ground them; their friends will laugh at them.

They imagine a dark future, with no good jobs, no good life. On the other hand, if they see their classmates get high mark, and they want that fame, too. So they do cheating as well. As a result they can get good marks but they cannot achieve a proper knowledge. Having no ability for doing the exams is the second reasons that cause some students do cheating.

From one side, students don’t have their own self-confidences, some cannot do the exams because they are too difficult for them, and some students believe that they are not well enough to pass the exams.

Instead of studying hard, paying attention to classes, reviewing lessons, and doing exercises, they try to cheat in exams. On the other side, many students don’t have enough time for reviewing, perhaps they get ill, and they have several different reasons. The final reasons why some students cheat on their exams is because they get lack of self- respect. Students with high self-respect will never cheat. They feel really embarrassed by cheating. Instead of this, they try to review the lessons as best as they can. So they get high grades. In contrast, students with low self-respect don’t feel ashamed of cheating on the tests.

To get good marks, they cheat as much as possible they can. They do not feel anything wrong, and only think about the result that they can get if the teacher find out his cheating. In conclusion, being under pressure for expressive scores, having no ability for doing exams and the lack of self-respect are the contributing factors to cheating in exams. In the future, I hope the awareness of students about no cheating during the test will be raised, our society which is based on workers, who are educated and having their own knowledge would develop fully.

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The Concept of First Aid And Safety Education Essay

First Aid – is the immediate, temporary care given to a patient or victim of an accident before the services of a physician could be obtained. It is applied to prevent further injury, reduce pain experienced by the patient, and shock from the injury. Safety Education – is the recognition and avoidance of hazards causing disability or death in modern living. Accident – is defined as unplanned or unexpected event of events in a sequence of events that results in property damage, injury, or death.

The Hierarchy of the Seven Bases of Inspection in Case of Accident

1. Profuse bleeding
2. Stoppage of breathing
3. Internal poisoning
4. Shock after an injury
5. Burns
6. Fractures
7. Dislocation, sprains, and strains

Characteristics of a Good First Aider
1. Observant – should notice all signs
2. Resourceful – makes use of things at hand
3. Gentle – should not cause pain
4. Tactful – should not alarm the victim
5. Sympathetic – should be comforting
6. Cheerful – inspires and develops confidence

The General Directions in Giving First Aid (Standard Procedure) 1. Don’t move the victim from the position you find him/her in, unless the situation is too dangerous that may cause further serious injury.

2. Check breathing. In case of stoppage or difficulty in breathing – a) Clear the mouth and throat from lodged food or anything causing obstruction. b) Apply artificial respiration if necessary.3. Check the pulse. If there is no heartbeat, apply CPR. 4. Check bleeding. 5. If the patient is unconscious but breathing normally – a) Turn the patient to his/her side with the head lower than the body if there is back or neck wound. b) Clear the mouth and throat from obstruction.

c) Don’t give anything to drink.
6. Cover wounds with clean cloth, bandage, or dressing.
7. Put a splint on the fractured or dislocated bone.
8. Call for a doctor or take to the nearest hospital, if the patient’s life is in danger.

The Importance of Art Education for Children Essay

Art education is an important part of healthy development for children, and through art children can find their experiences that enhance their personal development. Nowadays, childhood development connects too much to a technology world and not enough to art. Art education and art activities should be provided to children at an early stage because it helps them to find their natural talents and discover themselves. Research has shown that participation in the arts has a great impact on student achievement. Having children get involved in art by exposing them to several different processes and activities helps them learn, grow, and develop their artistic ability.

Arts are an important tool for learning and it needs to be introduced to children by providing the opportunity to develop the ideas, feelings and develop their creativity.

Arts enable children to use different ways to express themselves, to communicate with others, and to understand their own feelings. The arts in infancy or toddlers increase language development because it offers them a new way to express thought and feeling without words.

When children participate in art projects or crafts, in group activities, they can enhance their social communication by interacting with others, and respecting others’ ways of working and thinking.

It has been proven by many researches that early exposure to arts promotes activity in the brain. Also, children discover themselves through art and can build their artistic behavior through the process in which the child learns. Art academics need to be active to change the environment in which children learn (Bresler, 1998). In the environment in a classroom or at home, children can express their ideas and share their art with friends, teachers, siblings, and parents, and by sharing of their art, they also learn how to connect and communicate with others. This is also another way to express their ideas and feeling.

Children can develop their creativity in art by being involving them in problem solving. Teachers or parents should let children learn how to solve problems in the learning process instead of telling them what to do in order to stimulate their minds to learn from inside out rather than outside in. The arts invite children to be active participants in their own ideas and feelings when figuring out their world by analyzing, thinking, and judging (Bresler, 1998). The basis of creativity is to think independently without copying or using other ideas. One of the most efficient ways to connect children with art is drawing because drawing can provide the basis creative to children. For example, give children a scrapbook that belongs to them and ask them to draw whatever in their minds or draw something that they like or do not like, and then ask them to share with others. By sharing their artworks, children have chances to express themselves and their thoughts.

Arts are important in the development of children, and everyone should have a chance to experience the art in their lives. The power of art can help children to discover themselves and to develop their interpretive skills. Art education does not only give children the opportunity to realize their potentials but it is also provides children with the skills of knowledge to understand art.

References
Bresler, Liora. “`Child art,’ `fine art,’ and `art for children’: The shaping of school practice and implications..” Arts Education Policy Review 100.1 (1998): 3. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 4 Apr. 2011.