Individual Assignments from the Readings Essay

2- Define the distinctions between primary, secondary, and tertiary sources in a secondary search Primary source as stated is original data. Primary source is based in facts from the time period involved and have not been filtered through interpretation or evaluation. Therefore, primary sources is considerate the root of original materials on which other research is based, the first formal appearance of results in physical, print or electronic format. Primary sources present original ideas and thoughts, report a discovery, or conduct new information.

Secondary sources are considerer less important than primary sources. Secondary Resources are material written after the fact that provides point of views of hindsight. The fact is that are interpretations and evaluations coming of primary sources.

Secondary sources are not original materials, but rather opinions on and discussion of evidence in such information. According with the text, secondary search is easy to interpret as a tertiary source as well. Tertiary sources conduct an analysis of material which is a distillation and compilation of primary and secondary sources.

Generally, consist in a summary of information provided with own point of view of such materials 3- What problems of secondary data quality must researchers face? How can they deal with them? The fact is that in some cases is vital to aware of the problems that can arise with secondary research so if it is that case the researcher will be able to work with these problems.

Secondary search is in many cases the only material that a researcher can find on certain information; therefore, for a researcher this issue can have further problems and consequences putting together a new project as well. The problems of secondary data quality that a researcher must face is; “verifying and determining the value of the secondary sources the researcher would like to use” (Cooper & Schindler, 2006). Researchers who use secondary sources must make their best efforts to verify the accuracy of the information.

On the other, hand, is a fact that all sources need to be cited appropriately in a paper, even if they are only secondary in nature. For example, a researcher who cites an article about a political event should dig further to verify the information. To do this they may need to get primary source data of the politic event. It may not be the primary data to verify secondary data in research, but every effort must be made in order to prove the credibility of the sources being used in any research effectively.

Chapter: 7 Discussion Questions

1- How does qualitative research differ from quantitative research? Generally, can be some researchers who feel that one is better than the other. A major difference between the two is that qualitative research is inductive and quantitative research is deductive. Quantitative research differs on numbers or quantities. Quantitative studies have results that are based on numeric analysis and statistics. In many cases, these studies have many participants. Perhaps is not abnormal that has there to be over a thousand people in a quantitative research study. It is good to have a large number of participants because this gives analysis more statistical accurately. Qualitative research studies are based on differences in quality, rather than differences in quantity.

Results are in words or pictures rather than numbers. Qualitative studies usually have fewer participants than quantitative studies because the depth of the data collection does not allow for large numbers of participants. It important to remark that both, quantitative and qualitative studies have strengths and weaknesses, a particular strength of quantitative research is that statistical analysis allows for generalization to others. The goal of quantitative research is to choose a sample that closely resembles the population. Qualitative research does not seek to choose samples that are representative of populations and this make a considerable difference in both.

2- How do data from qualitative research differ from data in quantitative research? Data from qualitative research and quantitative research differs in many ways. When conducting research there will be a time when you have to decide between the use of qualitative and quantitative research. Understanding the differences in data that is gathered from these resources will help you decide what type of research you will need to use. “Material subtracted from qualitative research can contain different uses because the researcher can use as many knowledge as searcher can during research to adjust the data extracted from the next participant” (Cooper & Schindler, 2006, Ch. 8).

Although, this event influences the details of the data obtained by the research effectively, allowing data and research to condense through obtained information properly. In quantitative research identical data is “desired from all participants, so evolution of methodology is not acceptable” (Cooper & Schindler, 2006, Ch. 8). Quantitative requires specific data to be retrieved at all time, and qualitative research allows for change. This difference also impacts the way that data from these research methods will be interpreted and analyzed. 5- Assume you are a manufacturer of small kitchen electrics, like Hamilton Beach/Proctor Silex, and you want to determine if some innovative designs with unusual shapes colors developed for the European market could be successful marketed in the U.S. market. What qualitative research would you recommend, and why?

For this event, is good idea to suggest a focus group so doing that may collect information from a wide variety of participants regarding specific question (Henderson, 2009). Is important that to be sure that it has a good cross-section of people to be in the group and that their observations are honest and not biased in any way. This task may be difficult, but necessary to give it an honest try. In addition, by affirming theories to compile trough what people say and do, qualitative research is not based accusing of imposing theories upon participants.

Is therefore, by maintaining detailed records of what its said and of what happens qualitative research does not limit the complexity of social life to anybody can manipulated equations. “Rather than skating on the surface of everyday life, its close contact and detailed recording allows the research to glimpse beneath the polished rhetoric, or the plausible deceits; it is able to take more time to focus upon the smaller yet powerful processes which other methods gloss over or ignore” (Schostak, 2009). In addition

University Libraries, University of Maryland (2010) Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sources, retrieved from: on January 20, 2013 Cooper, D. R., & Schindler, P. S. (2006). Business Research Methods (th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill retrieved on January 20, 2013 Henderson, N. (2009) Managing Moderator Stress: Take a Deep Breath. You Can Do This!. Marketing Research, Vol. 21 Issue 1, p28-29. Schostak, J.F. (2002) Understanding Designing and Conducting Qualitative Research in Education Framing the Project Open University Press Ganty, S. (2010) Problems with Secondary Data Research and How to Deal with It from: Retrieved on January 20, 2013

Mobile phone and Landline phone Essay

Phones are important because we rely on them to communicate with other people. Despite the cell phone cannot give you a clear, crystal clear connection as a landline phone. Landline phone is a device which we connect to the output of our homes and businesses. On the other hand, cell phones and mobile have the capacity and advanced technology. While they both perform the same basic function, there are significant differences between landline and mobile phones.

There are many differences between landline and mobile phones. Convinces of having a cell phone is that you can have it on hand where ever you go. As for a landline you cannot take it with you.

Cell phone have a GPS technology that can find your exact location or where you trying to go. Cell phone also can give you the chance to take live pictures or video camera whereas landline cannot. Cell phone has great features such as watch TV, MP3 players, can store all our contact information, keep track of our appointments, and important dates.

The most important advantage of landlines for cell phones that 9-1-1 operators can better determine your location in an emergency. When you call 9-1-1 from a landline phone, the operator can find the exact address where the call originated. When you call 9-1-1 from a cell phone, on the other hand, the operator only receives information about your approximate latitude and longitude, which can be from 50 to 300 yards.

If you are in an emergency and cannot speak to give 9-1-1 operator your location, have stationary can save your life. The similarity of landline and cell phone is the fact that they are both used for communication. One quality of the technology they are good for emergencies, for example, if you just need to call a friend or family, as the technology can do this. Both are good and reliable person depends on your needs. In conclusion, we know that cell phones are more comfortable and fashionable than landline. Phones have improved over the year; we have gone from the house phone to cell phones. Cell phones and home phones are similar in a couple of ways, but very different in many ways. Nowadays we see people on the streets with their cell phones, as many people know that it’s easier and cheaper.

Chavez V. Romulo Case Digest Essay


This case is about the ban on the carrying of firearms outside of residence in order to deter the rising crime rates. Petitioner questions the ban as a violation of his right to property


Whether or not the revocation of permit to carry firearms is unconstitutional and Whether or not the right to carry firearms is a vested property right


Petitioner cannot find solace to the above-quoted Constitutional provision.In evaluating a due process claim; the first and foremost consideration must be whether life, liberty or property interest exists.

The bulk of jurisprudence is that a license authorizing a person to enjoy a certain privilege is neither a property nor property right. In Tan vs. The Director of Forestry, we ruled that “a license is merely a permit or privilege to do what otherwise would be unlawful, and is not a contract between the authority granting it and the person to whom it is granted; neither is it property or a property right, nor does it create a vested right.

” In a more emphatic pronouncement, we held in Oposa vs. Factoran, Jr. that:“Needless to say, all licenses may thus be revoked or rescinded by executive action.

It is not a contract, property or a property right protected by the due process clause of the Constitution.”xxx In our jurisdiction, the PNP Chief is granted broad discretion in the issuance of PTCFOR. This is evident from the tenor of the Implementing Rules and Regulations of P.D. No. 1866 which state that “the Chief of Constabulary may, in meritorious cases as determined by him and under such conditions as he may impose, authorize lawful holders of firearms to carry them outside of residence.”

Following the American doctrine, it is indeed logical to say that a PTCFOR does not constitute a property right protected under our Constitution. Consequently, a PTCFOR, just like ordinary licenses in other regulated fields, may be revoked any time. It does not confer an absolute right, but only a personal privilege to be exercised under existing restrictions, and such as may thereafter be reasonably imposed.

A licensee takes his license subject to such conditions as the Legislature sees fit to impose, and one of the statutory conditions of this license is that it might be revoked by the selectmen at their pleasure. Such a license is not a contract, and a revocation of it does not deprive the defendant of any property, immunity, or privilege within the meaning of these words in the Declaration of Rights. The US Supreme Court, in Doyle vs. Continental Ins. Co, held: “The correlative power to revoke or recall a permission is a necessary consequence of the main power. A mere license by the State is always revocable.”

Commercial Arable Farming Essay


Breeders keep bringing out new varieties that are more productive than their predecessors. This is achieved in several areas, better resistance to disease, better standing power (we do not want crops flat on the ground at harvest time) greater tonnage with better quality characteristics. The future is genetic modification (GM) assuming this is put in place with the appropriate level of environmental sensitivity and consequential research. The simple fact is that if it can be made to work we will be able to design plants that will no longer need spraying.

These plants will be specifically designed to withstand the diseases and predators in the environment in which they are grown.

The only sprays required will be roundup (which biodegrades naturally within ten days) to control all weeds growing in the crop and an herbicide that kills the volunteer crop after harvest. We are talking of an organic utopia. No wonder the Organic lobbies having invested in there so called conversion are so opposed to cheap organic food for all.

We are talking vested interests, no moral high ground here. The other major plus of GM is the potential to design crops for the specific purpose of industrial end use such as medicines plastics and oil. The benefit other than renew ability of these organic products would be to take significant arable acres away from growing food. The result might be to see slightly more expensive food, good for this vested interest!

Commercial agriculture contains six key factors:

1. Location

Commercial farms must move their products to market. Farms need to be located near transportation systems. Trucks, ships, planes, and trains are several ways that products can be moved from where they are grown or made to where customers can buy them.

2. Climate

A farm’s soil, as well as the climate of the region in which it is located, determine what crops will grow there or whether the land can support livestock. The temperature and rainfall can also determine the type of crop grown. For example, oranges must be grown in a hot climate. They will not grow if the temperature is too cold.

3. Raw Materials

A commercial farm depends on raw material. For example, a farmer will plant grain to get wheat. A farmer will have dairy cows to produce milk. Seeds and animals are two examples of raw materials used in commercial agriculture.

4. Market Forces

Supply and demand are important for selling agricultural products. If there is a high deman for a product and low supply, the price will be increased.

5. Labour

People who work on farms provide different types of labour. Labour is needed to plant crops, as well as to harvest them. This is important because some produce, such as grapes, need to be hand harvested.

6. Transportation

Movement of agricultural products to market depends on transportation systems. For example, produce is shipped by rail in special refrigerated cars, then shipped across the ocean. Some crops such as fruit, must get to the market quickly, or else they will rot; crops like these are often shipped shorter distances or are sold in the regions where they are grown.

Physical Factors

There are a number of physical factors that makes arable farming in this area Relief- the land is very flat and is mostly 100m above sea level this makes it easy to use machinery and roads and railways have easily been constructed. Soils – mostly fertile boulder clays that were laid down during the last ice age are good for growing cereals, sugar beet and potatoes. Loam soils are good for growing vegetables, fruit and cereals and retain the plant foods and moisture.

Waterlogged soils are good for grazing cattle for dairying and the infertile soils in this region such as Breckland can be planted with trees such as pine which can be harvested. Climate – The area tends to be in the rain shadow and rainfall is mostly in the region of 500-700mm per year. There are long warm summers with average temperatures of 17 degrees and long hours of sunshine in the summer which allow sufficient crop growth and the ability to ripen cereal crops.

Human Factors

Location – it is situated in the east of England to the North of London which means that it is close to a good market for the produce. There is a good motorway network to the most densely populated regions of the UK and also a good east coast railway line which means rappid transport of produce (this is important with perishable food stuff) Politics – Since joining the EU many of the farmers in East Anglia have benefited from the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) as they have recieved subsidies for growing certain types of cereal crops such as wheat, oilseed rape and linseed.


Commercial farming is a progression from diversified (sometimes called mixed) farming, when the farmer’s intention is to produce goods for sale primarily for widespread consumption by others. The farmer may acquire a sufficiently large amount of arable land and/or sufficiently advanced technology. In advanced countries, there is also investment in expensive capital equipment like tractors, harvesters and so forth. At this point, it may become more profitable for the farmer to specialize and focus on one or a few particular crops due to economies of scale.

This may be further augmented by higher levels of technology that might significantly reduce the risk of poor harvests. Thus, the key difference between commercial farming and less-developed forms of agriculture is the new emphasis on capital formation, scientific progress and technological development, as opposed to a reliance mainly on natural resource utilization that is common to subsistence and diversified agriculture.


There are types of commercial agriculture:

* Intensive Commercial Farming: A system of agriculture in which relatively large amounts of capitol or labour and applied to relatively smaller areas of land. It is practiced in countries where the population pressure is reducing the size of landholdings. The State of West Bengal in India provides one of the best examples of intensive commercial farming. * Extensive Commercial Farming: It is a system of agriculture in which relatively small amounts of capital or labour investment are applied to relatively large areas of land.

At times, the land is left fallow to regain its fertility. It is mostly mechanized as labour is very expensive or may not be available at all. It usually occurs at the margin of the agricultural system, at a great distance from market or on poor land of limited potential. It is practiced usually in the tarai regions of southern Nepal. Crops grown are sugarcane, rice and wheat. * Plantation Agriculture: Plantation is a large farm or estate usually in a tropical or sub-tropical country where crops are grown for sale in distant markets rather than local consumption.


Commercial agriculture contains six key factors:

1. Location

Commercial farms must move their products to market. Farms need to be located near transportation systems. Trucks, ships, planes, and trains are several ways that products can be moved from where they are grown or made to where customers can buy them.

2. Climate

A farm’s soil, as well as the climate of the region in which it is located, determine what crops will grow there or whether the land can support livestock. The temperature and rainfall can also determine the type of crop grown. For example, oranges must be grown in a hot climate. They will not grow if the temperature is too cold.

3. Raw Materials

A commercial farm depends on raw material. For example, a farmer will plant grain to get wheat. A farmer will have dairy cows to produce milk. Seeds and animals are two examples of raw materials used in commercial agriculture.

4. Market Forces

Supply and demand are important for selling agricultural products. If there is a high demand for a product and low supply, the price will be increased.

5. Labour

People who work on farms provide different types of labor. Labors are needed to plant crops, as well as to harvest them. This is important because some produce, such as grapes, need to be hand harvested.

6. Transportation

Movement of agricultural products to market depends on transportation systems. For example, produce is shipped by rail in special refrigerated cars, and then shipped across the ocean. Some crop such as fruits, must get to the market quickly, or else they will rot; crops like these are often shipped shorter distances or are sold in the regions where they are grown.

Outline Key Legislation and Regulations Which Govern Safeguarding Adults Work Essay

The Human Rights Act 1998 (also known as the Act or the HRA) came into force in the United Kingdom in October 2000. It is composed of a series of sections that have the effect of codifying the protections in the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law. All public bodies (such as courts, police, local governments, hospitals, publicly funded schools, and others) and other bodies carrying out public functions have to comply with the Convention rights.

The Human Rights Act protects individuals from torture (mental, physical or both), inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment and deportation or extradition (being sent to another country to face criminal charges) if there is a real risk that they will face torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Torture occurs when someone acting in an official capacity (for example a police officer or soldier) deliberately causes serious pain or suffering (physical or mental) to another person.

This might be to punish someone, or to intimidate or obtain information from them.

Public authorities are not allowed to inflict such treatment on individuals, and they must also protect them from this treatment where it comes from someone else. For example, if they know an individual is suffering inhumane or degrading treatment, they must intervene to stop it.

Inhuman treatment or punishment includes serious physical assaults, psychological interrogation, inhumane detention conditions or restraints, failing to give medical treatment or taking it away from a person with a serious illness and threatening to torture someone, if the threat is real and immediate. Relating this to Winterbourne house, the staff must be aware that they must maintain the highest standards of care whilst making sure that they do not breach any of the legislation within the Human Rights Act.

This means that they must be able to find out if an individual is being abused within or out of the day centre. The Sexual Offences Act 2003: The Sexual Offences Act 2003 was passed with the aim of protecting vulnerable adults and children from sexual abuse and exploitation. A number of the Act’s provisions may be relevant to older people with mental health problems, including the introduction of a number of new offences to protect ‘at risk’ groups such as people with learning disabilities and other groups ith reduced capacity such as people with advanced dementia, strengthening the Sex Offenders Register to ensure that the location of people who have committed serious sex-related crimes are known to the police, addressing the fear of sexual crime and strengthening and clarifying the meaning of ‘non-consensual’ sex and overhauling the law on consent: the Act introduces a test of ‘reasonableness’ on consent and a list of circumstances in which it can be presumed that consent was very unlikely to have been given, e. g. hen the victim was asleep.

The sections of the Act covering offences committed against those who, because of a very profound mental disorder, lack the capacity to consent to sexual activity may be relevant to older people with a ‘mental disorder’ who are service users. The Act specifically recognises that whilst the vast majority of people working in the care professions act compassionately, it is clear that some unscrupulous individuals have taken advantage of their position to commit a ‘breach of a relationship of care’ by sexual abuse.

It is now an offence for those engaged in providing care, assistance or services to someone with a learning disability or mental disorder to engage in sexual activity with that person whether or not that person has the capacity to consent. However, this does not apply if the sexual relationship pre-dates the relationship of care: for example, where a spouse (or long-term partner) is caring for their partner following the onset of a mental disorder, e. . dementia, and continues to have a consensual sexual relationship with that person. Mental Health Act: The Mental Health Act 1996 is legislation for the care and treatment of persons with mental illnesses and for safeguarding their rights. Most people with mental illness can and do seek out treatment for their condition. The Mental Health Act is concerned with the small number of persons who cannot or who do not seek out treatment.

This piece of legislation applies to Winterbourne house as it outlines the importance of maintaining the rights of those suffering from a mental health disorder. Those suffering from a mental health disorder may suffer from low self esteem due to the fact that mental health disorders are still surrounded with a stigma. Those working closely with these individuals must ensure that they do not feel they are being discriminated against and must maintain their self confidence, self esteem and self respect. Mental Capacity Act:

The main aspects of this act are that a person must be assumed to have capacity unless it is established that he lacks capacity, the person is not to be treated as unable to make a decision unless all practicable steps to help him to do so have been taken without success, a person is not to be treated as unable to make a decision simply because he makes an unwise decision, an act done or decision made, under this Act for or on behalf of a person who lacks capacity must be done, or made, in his best interests and before the act is done, or the decision is made, regard must be had to whether the purpose for which it is needed can be as effectively achieved in a way that is less restrictive of the person’s rights and freedom of action. In terms of Winterbourne house, the carers must ensure that any type of care they take which they have initiated themselves for the individual must be in the best interests of that individual.

As well as this, they must ensure that they do not doubt an individual’s own mental capability to make decisions for themselves. Disability discrimination act: The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 1995 aims to end the discrimination that faces many people with disabilities. This Act has been significantly extended, including by the Disability Discrimination Order 2006 (DDO).

It gives people with disabilities rights in the areas of employment, education, access to goods, facilities and services, including larger private clubs and transport services, buying or renting land or property, including making it easier for people with disabilities to rent property and for tenants to make disability-related adaptations, functions of public bodies, for example issuing of licences etc. Data protection act: The Data Protection Act controls how your personal information is used by organisations, businesses or the government. Everyone who is responsible for using data has to follow strict rules called ‘data protection principles’.

They must make sure the information is used fairly and lawfully, used for limited, specifically stated purposes, used in a way that is adequate, relevant and not excessive, accurate, kept for no longer than is absolutely necessary, handled according to people’s data protection rights, kept safe and secure and not transferred outside the UK without adequate protection. There is stronger legal protection for more sensitive information, such as ethnic background, political opinions, religious beliefs, health, sexual health and criminal records. Care standards act: The Care Standards Act 2000 is a piece of primary legislation, which established an independent regulatory body for England known as the National Care Standards Commission. Its remit covered social care, private and voluntary healthcare services.

In Wales, the Act provided for an arm of the National Assembly to be the regulatory body for the same services within that country. The principal purpose of the Act was to provide much needed reform of the care services sector within England and Wales. The Act itself defines the range of care services to include: residential care homes, nursing homes, children’s homes, domiciliary care agencies, fostering agencies, and voluntary adoption agencies, private and voluntary healthcare services – including private hospitals, clinics and private primary care premises. It also established equivalence between local authorities and the independent sector in meeting the same standards of care.

Race relations act: The Race Relations Act 1965 was the first legislation in the United Kingdom to address racial discrimination. The Act outlawed discrimination on the grounds of colour, race, or ethnic or national origins in public places. It also prompted the creation of The Race Relations Board (in 1966), to consider complaints under the Act. Safeguarding vulnerable groups act: The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups legislation came about as a result of the recommendations of the Bichard enquiry following the Soham murders. The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups (NI) Order 2007 aims to prevent unsuitable people from working (either paid or unpaid) with children or vulnerable adult.

It does this by vetting all those who wish to do such work vulnerable groups and barring those where the information shows they pose a risk of harm. The police act: This act ensures that employers have access to certain information about the individuals which they employ, ensuring they do not have a criminal record. In the past, it did not have to be disclosed whether or not an individual has a criminal record, however, when working with vulnerable adults it is important that it is disclosed and a check is made of the individual. The rehabilitation of offenders act: This is aimed at helping people who have been convicted of a criminal offence and who have not re-offended since.

Anyone who has been convicted of a criminal offence where the sentence was less than 2. 5 years in prison, benefits from the Act, so long as they are not convicted again during the ‘rehabilitation period’. Their conviction then becomes ‘spent’. It is the sentence imposed by the courts that counts, even if it is a suspended sentence, not the time actually spent in prison. Once a conviction is ‘spent’, the convicted person does not have to reveal it or admit its existence in most circumstances. However, there are two main exceptions which relate to people working with children or vulnerable adults. In these cases someone applying for a role is required to reveal all convictions, both spent and unspent.

Community Service Is a Personal Commitment Essay

Community Service is a personal commitment, not a corporate responsibility. Community Service, in another word, means doing something that is meaningful for the welfare of the people who are in needs. To involve or not to involve in a social work depends on our own decision, not a corporate’s decree. Social Services is defined as the professional activity of helping individuals, groups, or communities in enhancing and restoring their capacity for social functioning and creating societal conditions favorable to the goal (The National Association of Social Workers’ Board of Directors, 2011).

Personal commitment is an act or quality of voluntarily taking on or fulfilling obligations (Wikipedia, 2012). What makes the personal commitment ‘personal’ is the voluntary aspect. Anyone can become a part of the community services regardless of their race, language or citizenship status. People participate in community and social work because of their desire in serving the society who are in need and their interest in involving themselves in community project.

It is our own choice of whether or not to get involved in community service. Once we have decided, a personal commitment in servicing the community is made.

Getting the intention right signifies how deep one’s commitment is towards servicing the society. Ask ourselves these questions: Why am I doing the community work? What is the motive of participating in social work? Do I really have the desire to help them, or am I ‘performing’ just to gain compliments from my supervisors? Being in a community work and a real community work is different. A real community work occurs when a group of true and honest people come together and work with the common goal of assisting people who are in need by providing them resources they need.

Volunteering is the ultimate exercise in democracy. You vote in elections once a year, but when you volunteer, you vote every day about the kind of community you want to live in (Moore, 2004). Every single person has their own lawful human rights to ‘vote’ in this society. Whether or not one wants to spend their time and money to the community is a matter of choice. We can expect every single one of us to participate in social work, but we cannot force someone to perform social work because that violates human rights. Since the year of 1986, the Atlanta’s 100 Black Men Inc. ith their community service program, ‘Project Success’, has become one of the city’s most effective community organization.

They are successful because of the love and care they have towards the children who are in need. One of the members in the company, Ed Frances said, ‘Personal commitment often produces some touching moments. ’ (Atlanta’s 100 Black Men Inc. , 1990) Each and every member in the community organization has had the desire and strong will of shining for the others. Without the commitment from each member, the organization would not be successful. We may not be shining as brightly as we need to shine, but we are definitely shining, and we are doing something,’ said the President of the organization, Dr. Joseph I. Hoffman Jr. The persistence they show, together with the commitment they have has made a difference to the world.

Community Service is an individual personal commitment because it is often performed outside of our working hours. It is the time where you can be yourself, the time where you enjoy the moment of assisting people who needs love. It is the time where we enjoy being in our ‘sacred place’ – a place where we recognize ourselves and our commitments. Turkle, 2011) There is a person whom I respect commits her time in doing voluntary work after her retirement as a teacher. She was my primary school Chinese Language teacher. I remember when I first asked her, why do you travel around the world as a voluntary worker after your retirement? Why don’t you just stay at home and be a lady of leisure? ’ She smiled to me and said, ‘There are many people in this world who are less fortunate than we are. I have been blessed for 60 years, it is more than enough. It’s my time now to be a blessing to the others.

It gives me a break in everything that I do while helping others. Being a voluntary worker is the most awesome moment I have ever had in my life. I have no regrets now. ’ Community service is a personal commitment because it only works well when we have desire and interest in it. Community service should not be a corporate responsibility, but a personal commitment because of the passion in each of us. Every one of us has different passion in things, don’t we? Only people who have the passion and joy in serving the community can make a personal commitment to the community.

Personal commitment tends to produce a more effective and fruitful result compared to an organizational commitment. (Curtis & Eby, 2010) Not everybody has the similar pursuit and hobby. Some people love swimming, diving, and some even have assisting people as their hobby. We only decide in doing something when we feel that we can do it, and we want to do it. Once decision is made, we will put in our extra attention and effort into it. The result will be promising because not only we put in our strength, but we place our heart in serving the community too.

Conversely, if we are forced to perform something that we are not fond of, the result will never be impressive. For instance, XYZ Company organize a Chinese Festival and make it compulsory for all regular officers to work as voluntary workers outside their working hours. Some will love it, some will grumble, some will nag and some will protest. Complaints from the workers will not produce a satisfying result. This is because company forces them to do so, but in their heart, they are not committed in performing community service. They ‘appear’ to be committed, but actually they are not. In conclusion, who is a real volunteer?

A real volunteer is a person who gives their personal commitment into serving others, who remembers to do things to make other people happy, who takes the loneliness out of the alone by talking to them, who is concerned when others are unconcerned, who has the courage to be a prophet and to say the things that have to be said for the good of all. (Moore, 2004) Being able to participate in serving the community is a great privilege we have. Mother Teresa once said: “Let us not be satisfied with just giving money. Money is not enough, money can be got, but they need your hearts to love them. So, spread your love everywhere you go. (Teresa, 1990) Money is not everything in the social service network.

Patience, love and strength are the important criteria we need to have in serving the community as well. Volunteering in a service to the community is a personal choice and responsibility. Only those who have the desire to love, to care and are willing to devote fully into helping others unconditionally are able to make a commitment to the community. A real, hidden and personal commitment we make to ourselves and to the society. Therefore, I strongly believe that servicing in the community is a personal commitment and not a corporate responsibility.

The Captaincy System: Differences Between Portuguese Rule and Local Authority in Colonial Brazil Essay

The discovery of Brazil came about in the first half of 1500, when a Portuguese commander named Pedro Alvares Cabral landed on a beach in what is now the state of Bahia. King Manuel of Portugal had commissioned an ocean fleet larger than any of its predecessors, able to carry over a thousand people, and had then offered Cabral the caravels so he could set off with an experienced crew and head to the East Indies. The king expected great riches, since just a year before Vasco da Gama, another Portuguese explorer, had travelled to India and back and brought with him many exotic goods that had marvelled the court.

Almost as soon as Cabral’s fleet set out to sea, however, the lead ship, commanded by Cabral himself, swung off course and into the Atlantic, sailing westwards. Cabral and his crew eventually reached the Brazilian coast. The fleet’s scribe, Pero Vaz de Caminha, wrote to King Manuel depicting a realm in which endless resources were available for the taking, and described the native people they encountered.

The Portuguese crew preferred to solidify trade rather than impose formal political authority over the Indians they came across, and soon were trading simple objects such as hair combs and mirrors for precious metals such as gold.

For the first thirty years after its discovery, Brazil was treated as merely another set of trading posts. Portugal had the background of experiences needed for the colonization of Brazil. The century of exploration and settlement in the Atlantic islands and Africa evolved the two systems that were instituted in Brazil, the feitoria (trading post) and the capitania (proprietary grant or captaincy). The feitoria was both a trading post and a fortification for the protection of the colonists, and required a going trade system with political control remaining in the hands of the nationals.

In Brazil, however, where the Indians lacked a political system, the feitoria was both an armed post and a creator of production and trade. By the 1530s, however, with French and Spanish assaults along the coast of Brazil, the Portuguese crown realized it needed to strengthen its foothold in Latin America but lacked the resources to do so alone. So, in 1534 it resorted to a semifeudal system of hereditary land grants that had been put to use in other Portuguese settlements before, the captaincies.

These were given to rich nobles in the hopes that they would exploit brazilwood, a great source of revenue as it was used for the making of textile dye in Europe, and gain personal profit while also serving the crown. There were originally twelve grantees and fifteen separate grants to be distributed amongst them. The grants were Maranhao, another Maranhao, Ceara, Rio Grande, Itamaraca, Pernambuco, Bahia, Ilheus, Porto Seguro, Sao Tome, Sao Vicente, Santo Amaro, another Sao Vicente, and Santana.

These territories were located along the ocean front, bounded north and south by parallel lines running westward to the extent of the king’s conquest. The personal land grant to each donatario (grantee, or those who governed the captaincies) was free and exempt from quitrents, fees, or taxes, and the grantee had twenty years to choose a personal estate in any one area, which he then would have to divide into four or five different blocks. He could rent out his land or distribute it in segments for whatever quitrents and fees he chose, and if such lands were not distributed by the time of his death the income would belong to his heirs.

The Order of Christ, the heritage of the Knights Templar in Portugal, demanded that the grantee pay it its tithe. It was the only payment the grantee had to make: one half of the tithe of fish belonged to the Order of Christ, for example, and the other half belonged to the grantee. The king received no tithe on the ten leagues of land personally granted by him, while the grantee received one twentieth of the proceeds of brazilwood shipped to Portugal and could use however many brazilwood he wanted in Brazil as well.

The grantees, all members of the court, were allowed to found villages along the coast and by the riverside, could nominate their own judges to form a judicial system in their captaincies, and were provided with one tenth of the royal income as well as a certain number of slaves that could then be shipped to Portugal and sold back to the king. This was all written on a charter, which they were presented with when they assumed governance of the captaincies. The king himself handed these charters to the grantees.

Sesmarias also played an important part in the growth of the colonial economy. They were specific plots of land distributed for production, given to the people under the grantee’s rule with the objective of cultivating said land and helping the captaincy prosper, and while neither the grantee’s wife nor his heir could hold sesmarias, his other children and family were eligible to. Still, he could only offer them what the charter dictated and permitted, so his power was in many ways restricted by royal decree.

Convinced of the necessity of this semifeudal organization, however, King Joao III, son of King Manuel, was less concerned with protecting his own authority than arming the grantees with sufficient power to take over future territories. The only royal representatives in the captaincies were scribes and foremen, and even then they were not as important in the colonial life as the grantee-appointed ombudsmen, who occupied a role similar to that of the overseas judges and held high positions in the Brazilian hierarchy.

At the same time, it is incorrect to say the king did not hold any power in his new colony. The slave trade, gold, and other commerce of the captaincies belonged to the monarch. Foreign commerce was limited to merchants, native or foreign, accountable to the king, and he regarded Brazil as his property to give to whomever he wished and in the form he wished. He was simultaneously a great lord of lands and a great merchant – in Portugal and in Brazil. To avoid disputes between the crown and its vassals, restrictions were also put in place.

The grantees could not, for example, divide the captaincy or share their ruling power. They could not ally themselves with another grantee, be it either through marrying a son or daughter off or receiving lands as a gift. The king’s wish was for the grantee and his captaincy to be together at all times, and so did the law – or the relationship between the king and the grantees – mandate. Geographically, the captaincies were very big in size even when compared to the largest domains in Portugal itself.

The development of a captaincy was therefore a very difficult task, and in several cases it proved impossible in the first try. Brazil had no trade of consequence waiting to be shaped, unlike the other places Portugal colonized before. Raw nature had to be developed, and danger lurked in the jungle, which grew extremely thick in some places. Many Portuguese criminals had been sent to Brazil in exile and thus a meaningful percentage of the population was made of lawbreakers, and the Indians, who were willing to cooperate with the Portuguese in the beginning, soon turned hostile.

The grantees were fully responsible for their captaincies – they provided for their territory with their own monetary resources and, if the captaincies prospered and they made a profit, all was well. If they failed, however, their work would have been fruitless and the captaincies would decline and their economy would collapse: with the exception of Pernambuco and Sao Vicente, all of the other captaincies failed. Each captaincy was also independent from the others, and they saw each other as “foreign states. ” There was no sense of unity and crime prospered along with piracy, causing colonial Brazil to become a pitiful anarchy.

King Joao III’s remedy for Brazil consisted of establishing a more rigorous organization, and creating a general government strong enough to guarantee internal order and maintain harmony within the different centres of population. This new regime was founded in 1549, fifteen years after the establishment of the captaincies. It did not abolish the semifeudal system, but instead concentrated and centralized authority and power on the hands of officers appointed by the crown. This new form of government was called General Government.

Despite having thrived for a short period of time, the captaincy system left a deep marks in the division of land in Brazil. The unequal distribution of land posteriorly caused landlordism and created social and economic inequality, the latter of which exists today. The struggle to establish a permanent government in Brazil and the inability of the king to do so caused conflict and many governmental changes throughout the centuries. Until it finally achieved independence from Portugal in the early nineteenth century, the colony of Brazil – now country – felt the effects of the failed captaincy system.

Case Study : Asthma Essay

Mr. Vargas, a 45-year-old male patient is rushed in to the emergency room by his wife. The patient is short of breath and gasping for air has dyspnea and audible wheezing on expiration. Mr. Vargas stated to the nurse that he noted his difficulty in breathing while going up a flight of stairs in his building. The patient complained of an “annoying and nagging cough” with persistent chest tightness. The patient also stated that everytime he coughed, a thick, white mucous came out.

He described it as “white, gooey, stinky gunk”. Past Medical History: Patient was admitted through the ER of another hospital several years ago due to an episode of bronchitis. Patient states his symptoms back then were very similar to the ones he has presently, such as the wheezing, chest pain and diaphoresis.

Allergies: Penicillin

Medications: Bayer aspirin 81mg once a day Glucosamine and Chondroitin 1500 mg once a day Family History: Father passed away from a community acquired pneumonia three years ago at the age of 70.

Mother died at 68 of natural causes. Social History: The patient is married and lives with his three sons and wife in the suburbs. Patient has been an asbestos handler for almost twenty years. On his free time he enjoys bike riding with his sons. Patient has been a one pack a day smoker for the past twenty years, with limited alcohol use. Review of Systems: Intermittent chest pain, shortness of breath, wheezing and diaphoresis. Physical Examination: Patient was alert and oriented to time, date and place.

His vitals were taken and recorded. His blood pressure 144/88mm Hg, pulse 102 beats per minute, had an oral temperature of 100.2 degrees Fahrenheit, respiratory rate of 26 and an oxygen saturation level of 90% on room air. Patient was noted sitting in upright position, with excessive use of his accessory muscles of respiration. It was noted that he had diminished breath sounds on inspiration and expiration. He was tachypneic and tachycardic with a continuous and productive cough with white sputum.

Laboratory Evaluation: RBC 5.2 (normal ranges 4.7-6.1), WBC 7,000 (4,000-10,000 cells/mcl), platelets 250,000 (150,000-450,000), peak flow 540 (640).The ABG’s were Ph 7.55 (7.35-7.45), Pco2 28 (35-45), Po2 65 (70-100), HCO3 22 (22-26).Pulmonary Function tests were performed on Mr. Vargas, the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV) and total lung capacity (TLC).The results showed that the air exhaled after maximum inspiration and the air exhaled after maximum inspiration were less than the expected total value as well as his total lung capacity.

Pathophysiology, Etiology and Risk Factors

Worldwide asthma is one of the most common childhood diseases, and its exact cause is idiopathic (Kaufman, 2012). Asthma is considered a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that is reversible. The number one trigger being household allergens (Casey, 2012). The lower respiratory tract consists of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles that are affected by asthma. Asthma is commonly known for causing airway inflammation and narrowing of the airway leading to bronchoconstriction, edema, cough, wheezing and tightness of the chest (Kaufman, 2012). Airway inflammation in asthma is characterized by the release of chemical mediators.

These mediators include histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. These mediators initiate the inflammatory response causing dilation of the blood vessels increasing blood flow, vasoconstriction and leaky capillaries (Boulet, 2011). This is usually seen when the airway becomes irritated, the irritation is initiated by the release of immunoglobulin E (IgE) (Kaufman, 2012). IgE sits on the mast cells which are located all over the body, they cause them to degranulate which incites the inflammatory response (Casey, 2012).

The major risk factors in the development of asthma are being genetically predisposed to the disease, occupation, smoking, drastic weather changes, pollution and both indoor and outdoor allergens such as animals and pollen (Boulet, 2010). Asthma not only has risk factors, but has triggers associated with inducing an asthma attack. These triggers include strenuous exercise, stress, cold, heat, weather changes, medications and odors related to smoke and perfumes. Populations living in urban areas with low socioeconomic incomes are more susceptible to the development of asthma (McCarty & Rogers (2012).Clinical Manifestations

The most common symptoms associated with asthma are dyspnea, cough and wheezing (Kaufman, 2012). It’s important to understand that not every patient will present with the same signs and symptoms. Other signs and symptoms associated with asthma are dyspnea, diaphoresis, a productive or non-productive cough, tachycardia, fatigue, anxiety, adventitious sounds (expiratory/inspiratory wheezing, crackles and rhonchi), irritability, chest pain and later signs include hypoxemia and hypoxemia (Kaufman, 2012). Exacerbations as in exercise-induced attacks include a chocking sensation, which is relatively uncommon (Casey, 2012).

Diagnostic Tests

Many factors can help diagnose asthma in a patient, family history and occupational exposures are very important in determining their risk of developing the disease (O’laughlen & Rance, 2012). A physical examination can help the doctor come up with a diagnosis which can be confirmed by several tests. The use of accessory muscles, a present cough and wheezing on expiration are pinpoints to the doctor (Kaufman 2012). Pulmonary Function tests are ordered for the patient to perform, these test estimate to what extent is the airway obstructed (McCarty & Rogers, 2012). The peak expiratory flow (PEF) test is designed to estimate the maximum lung inflation, these measurements should be consistently taken for two weeks. The patient is encouraged to keep a diary and measure (PEF) in the morning and at night.

The higher the number the better airflow the patient has achieved (Kaufman, 2012). Also the forced vital capacity (FVC) test, is testing for the volume of air expired after maximal inhalation. The forced expiratory volume (FEV) test is testing for the maximum air exhaled from the lungs (Casey, 2012). A CBC test can be obtained to monitor an elevated WBC (eosinophils and neutrophils) count. An elevated WBC count accounts for an inflammatory response that has taken place (Boulet, 2011). A sputum is culture is taken early in morning prior to the patient taking any medications or eating (Greener, 2010). The sputum culture will reveal if there is any bacteria indicating an infection (Kaufman, 2012). ABG’s are taken to test for acidity and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. This test evaluates how well the lungs are able to gas exchange with the blood (O’lauglen & Rance, 2012). Finally chest X-ray can be taken to rule out other possible complications related to respiratory problems (Casey, 2012).

Treatment and Medications

It is crucial for the patient to initiate treatment at the step most appropriate to the initial severity of their asthma so an appropriate treatment can be prescribed (Kaufman, 2012). The first treatment recommended for mild-intermittent asthma is a short-acting beta2 agonist such as albuterol, salbutamol or terbutaline all three may be taken by inhalation. All three medications produce bronchodilitation by relaxing the muscles in the airway increasing air flow to the lungs. Proventil (Albuterol Sulfate) should be shaken prior to administering and two puffs (180-216 mcg) should be taken 4-6 hours as needed. This medication may be administered thirty minutes before working out to prevent exercise induced asthma.

This drug is a CNS stimulant therefore patients should be aware of some side effects: tachycardia, insomnia, tremors and diarrhea. If the albuterol a lone doesn’t help an inhaled steroid (200-800mcg/day) such as budesonide can be added to the therapy and be used three or more times a week. Some of the side effects related with taking this medication are back pain, stuffy nose, muscle pain, nausea and changes in the voice. Symbicort (Budesonide and Formoterol inhalation) is an inhaled corticosteroid that reduces both inflammation and edema of the airway. If this therapy is not successful a long acting beta2 agonist can be added for example Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol), this inhaler relaxes the muscles of the airway improving breathing should be taken twice daily, one oral inhalation of 50 mcg. If the patient continues to experience poor control of their asthma a leukotriene receptor antagonist such as Singulair (Montelukast) can be taken 10 mg by mouth preferably in the evening, will help reduce inflammation, mucous production and bronchoconstriction.

Methylxanthine is a long acting class of drug that dilates the bronchi. An example is Theo-24 (Theophylline) this medication is taken in capsule form 300mg/day in divided doses over 6-8 hours, it’s a sustained release capsule that relaxes the muscles around the lungs allowing them to widen making it easier to breathe. Unlike the other drugs, methylxanthine has a narrow therapeutic index causing toxic levels to build up fairly quickly if not monitored. Patients with severe asthma, are prescribed oral corticosteroids Deltasone (Prednisone) this medication is taken orally 40-80 mg/day for 3-10 days, this medication helps block an allergic reaction by blocking the body’s reaction to the allergen.

A mast cell inhibitor can also be added such as Intal (Cromlyn Sodium) it should be taken as an oral inhalation 20 mg 4 times a day, it’s an anti-inflammatory that prevents the release of certain substances (histamine) in the body that cause inflammation. Antibiotics are used if the patient has a bacterial infection (Greener, 2012). Expectorants (Mucinex D) come as an extended release bi-layer release tablet to be taken twice a day. It’s commonly used to promote the discharge of mucus from the respiratory tract. This prevents the buildup of mucous which can lead to a mucous plug (Kaufman, 2012).

Possible Complications

Asthma is a disease that if not treated in its earlier stages can lead to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). COPD is an irreversible condition causing permanent damage to the lungs elasticity and hyperinflation of the lungs (emphysema) (Casey, 2012). The patient can also develop a chronic inflammation of the bronchioles causing a chronic productive cough (bronchitis). Another complication can be atelectasis which is the collapse of the alveoli due to obstructions in the bronchioles (Boulet, 2011). Hypoxemia is low blood oxygen in the body, the patient should be aware of some of the signs and symptoms which are anxiety and restlessness (O’laughlen & Rance, 2012). More severe symptoms are cyanosis (of the skin, lips and nail beds), elevated blood pressure, apnea and tachycardia (McCarty & Rogers, 2012). Status asthmaticus is a severe and persistent asthma attack that can lead to asphyxiation and ultimately death (Holmes, 2012).

Nursing Diagnosis

1.) Ineffective breathing pattern related to hyperventilation as evidenced by hypercapnia and use of accessory muscles to breathe (Craven, 2009). a. Nursing Intervention: Encourage patient use of pursed- lip breathing. b. Scientific Rationale: Allows for slower and deeper respirations to occur. a. Nursing Intervention: Position patient to a comfortable position and encourage “huff” coughing. b. Scientific Rationale: Prevents airway collapse and/or atelectasis. a. Nursing Intervention: Administer supplemental oxygen by cannula/mask depending on ABG/pulse O2 readings. b. Scientific Rationale: To promote appropriate alveolar exchange of CO2 and O2 in order to maintain ABG concentrations. a. Nursing Intervention: Educate patient on importance of smoking cessation. b. Scientific Rationale: Smoking damages the cilia and irritates the airways impeding proper gas exchange. 2.) Risk for infection related to pulmonary congestion as evidenced by change in pH 7.55 (7.35-7.45) (Craven, 2009).

a. Nursing Intervention: Administer prophylactic antibiotics (non-penicillin). b. Scientific Rationale: Reduce the chances of an Upper Respiratory Infection (URI) such as pneumonia. a. Nursing Intervention: Encourage and educate patient on the proper use of the incentive spirometer. b. Scientific Rationale: Allows patient to take slow, deep breaths and helps prevent pneumonia and atelectasis. a. Nursing Intervention: Maintain adequate hydration and electrolyte balance. b. Scientific Rationale: Prevents imbalances that predispose patient to an infection. a. Nursing Intervention: Encourage patient to get influenza and pneumonia vaccinations. b. Scientific Rationale: Helps reduce individual risk of contracting the flu or pneumonia.

3.) Ineffective airway clearance related to excessive secretions from the respiratory tract as evidenced by adventitious breath sounds (expiratory wheezing) (Craven, 2009). a. Nursing Intervention: Teach the patient the importance of staying hydrated (2000-3000 mLs per day). b. Scientific Rationale: Hydration helps thin out tenacious secretions, preventing the development of mucous plugs. a. Nursing Intervention: Teach patient the importance of avoiding dairy products. b. Scientific Rationale: Dairy products such as milk thicken secretions.

a. Nursing Intervention: Provide patient with room humidifier to deliver humidification. b. Scientific Rationale: Supplemental humidification helps reduce viscosity of secretions. a. Nursing Intervention: Instruct patient the importance of mobilization (walking) followed by rest periods if needed. b. Scientific Rationale: Mobility reduces the risk of atelectasis and helps mobilize secretions. 4.) Activity intolerance related to dyspnea as evidenced by having difficulty to breathe while going up a flight of stairs (Craven, 2009). a. Nursing Intervention: Explain to patient the importance of having rest periods between activities. b. Scientific Rationale: To prevent exertional fatigue.

a. Nursing Intervention: Encourage patient to incorporate exercise in their everyday life. b. Scientific Rationale: An increase in ambulation increases exercise tolerance and promotes drainage/movement of excess secretions. a. Nursing Intervention: Explain to patient how smoking cessation will improve exercise tolerance. b. Scientific Rationale: Smoking cessation will stop alveolar damage and atelectasis with impaired gas exchange and PFT which will allow more oxygen to be available during exercise. a. Nursing Intervention: Teaching the patient the importance of having the rescue inhaler (Albuterol) on hand and when the need to use it is indicated. b. Scientific Rationale: The rescue inhaler is used in situations when bronchoconstriction has occurred or in situations to prevent it from occurring.

Boulet, L. (2011). Asthma control, education, and the role of the respiratory therapist. Canadian Journal of Respiratory Therapy, 47(4), 15-21. Casey, G. (2012). Asthma- obstructing the airflow. Kai Tiaki Nursing New Zealand, 18(9), 20-24. Craven, R.F., & Hirnle, C.J. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing: Human health and function. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Greener, M. (2010). Improving outcomes among adults with asthma. Nurse Prescribing, 8 (6), 270-273. Holmes, L. (2012). Definitions, diagnosis and phenotypical treatment of severe asthma. Primary Health Care, 22(8), 32-38. Kaufman, G. (2012). Asthma update: recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and management. Primary Health Care, 22(5), 32-39. McCarty, K., & Rogers, J. (2012). Inpatient asthma education program. Pediatric Nursing, 38(5), 257-263. O’laughlen, M. C., & Rance, K. (2012).Update on asthma management in primary care. Nurse Practitioner, 37(11), 32-40.

Catholic Social Teaching Essay

* is a body of doctrine developed by the Catholic Church on matters of poverty and wealth, economics, social organization and the role of the state. Its foundations are widely considered to have been laid by Pope Leo XIII’s 1891 encyclical letter Rerum Novarum, which advocated economic Distributism and condemned both Capitalism and Socialism, although its roots can be traced to the writings of Catholic thinkers such as St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Augustine of Hippo, and is also derived from concepts present in the Bible.

* The Catholic Social Teaching has two basic characteristics, namely, being permanent and developing.

* Permanent

-Since the teachings are based on the Gospel, they offer a permanent complex idea to be pursued in the ever changing historical conditions and ways. These teachings can never go out of date in their fundamentals. Examples of these permanent teachings are exemplified in the following principles:

1. Human dignity and Solidarity
2. Social justice and Christian love
3. Active non-violence and peace
4. Preferential option for the poor
5. Value of human work
6. Universal destinations of all goods of the earth
7. Stewardship and the integrity of creation
8. People empowerment
9. Authentic and holistic (integral) human development

* Developing

-The fundamentals of Church Social Teaching make up the steadily growing collection of the Church’s social principles that must be creatively applied to and renewed in ever changing concrete situations of various events, cultures, and human needs in the historical process. Deeper insights into permanent values develop as the Church reads the signs of the times.

* Methods and Sources

1. Scripture. The authoritative books which record the Jewish and Christian  experiences of God’s self-disclosure.
Scripture reveals who God is and who we are called to be in response to God. Interpretation of Scripture requires attention to historical context and is best done in community.

2. Tradition: the ways of thinking and living that are “handed over” (traditio) from one generation to the next; an ongoing conversation across the ages about our most important questions. Also the body of theological reflection and the ways of putting this reflection into practice that are “handed over” (traditio) from one generation to the next. Magisterium: official teaching office of church and authoritative voice of tradition. While theologians, activists, and ordinary Catholics make contribute to this body of theological reflection in important ways, a privileged source of Catholic tradition is the magisterium or the official, authoritative teaching office of the church. This official teaching office is exercised by Catholic Bishops, and in particular the Bishop of Rome (the Pope), as well as groups appointed by the Pope. This teaching is expressed in the form of a) papal encyclicals;

b) encyclicals of Church Councils (such as Vatican II) or Synods of Bishops, c) statements by Vatican offices, congregations, and commissions; & d) Episcopal conferences (regional meetings of Bishops, such as the National Conference of Catholic Bishops in the United States).

3. Reason. The natural human capacity to know truth. The way we interpret and understand Scripture, Tradition, and experience.

* Reason as Natural Law

The preeminent form of reasoning for much of Catholic tradition has been natural law reasoning. To understand Catholic natural law reasoning, one must get inside a whole worldview, culture, and language within Catholic tradition. Natural law holds that God’s intentions are expressed in the order that God “built into creation.” This order takes the form of “natures” or intelligible patterns of being. Humans are capable of knowing this order by reflecting upon creation. As humans we must first recognize our nature and act according to it so as to fulfill our created nature. For example, humans by nature (or by creation) have a “built in” instinct for self-preservation. Aquinas argues that to use appropriately limited violence in self-defense is good because it is to act according to our God-given nature. (God’s creation is good).

* Four Levels of Law

St. Thomas Aquinas defines law is “an ordering of reason” (ordinatio rationis) or the most important way that reason rules or measures actions. He describes four levels of law: a. Eternal Law: the mind (ratio) of God which orders and governs creation b. Divine Law: the explicit revelation of the mind of God in Scripture c. Natural Law: the expression of the mind of God in the order that God has built into creation. This order takes the form of natures or patterns of being that humans can know by using their reason to reflect on creation. For example, because humans by nature (or creation) have a built in instinct for self-preservation, limited self-defense is in accord with our God-given nature. See Romans 2:14-15 d. Human Law: human attempts to formulate laws that reflect the natural law.

* Two Interpretations of Human Nature

There have been two major strains of interpretation of human nature: a) “nature as physical”—humans must respect their biological “givenness” or the physical order (ex. artificial contraception interferes with the natural order of sexual intercourse whereas the rhythm method respects this order.) b) “nature as rational”—humans must act in accord with reason; they must seek to discover and fulfill their fullest purpose. Biology does not trump other cues in discovering “nature.” Instead, we must look to all sources of human wisdom in order to discover how things are meant to be. The pope reasons that the purpose of property is for the good of all creation but a limited right to private property is consistent with human dignity and human wisdom about how well people take care of common property.

4. Experience. Our encounter with the world both past and present. Christian tradition privileges the experience of those at the margins of society—the poor and the oppressed. In Catholic social thought experience is enriched and expanded by a four step process of interpretation and reflection which I will call “the interpretive circle”. a. experience: insert yourself into a situation, see what is going on, and gather necessary information

b. social analysis: “What are the structural or “root” causes of injustices?” “What are the patterns of action that reinforce these injustices?” c. theological reflection: “What light does faith, especially as expressed in Scripture and Catholic social teaching, shed upon our experience and social analysis?” “Where is God in this situation and how might we respond to God’s call to us?” d. practical planning: “What are the most faithful, creative, and effective ways of acting upon the first three steps?”

* How does Catholic tradition use these four sources?

1. They serve as checks and balances to each other. Each should inform and complement the other in critical dialogue. 2. “Reason informed by faith.” Reason and faith penetrate each other and form a unified way of approaching problems. Scripture and Christian Tradition provide the overall story, worldview, and values that serve as the framework for moral reasoning.

Analysis of ‘The Door’ for Change – Miroslav Holub Essay

Mirsoslav Holub’s poem ‘The Door’ deals with the theme of change. The poem suggests that individuals should shift beyond their comfort zones and open themselves to the possibility of change. The door symbolises new opportunities and emphasises that individuals need to take action to expand their horizons. The repetition of the imperative command, ‘Go and open the door’ establishes the urgency for the need of change. This makes the reader consider what the opened door would reveal to us. The door is a dual metaphor, as it represents what restricts us as well as a doorway for new prospects.

It also implores readers to take a chance and change as a result of exposing themselves to the outside world. The italicised word ‘maybe’ however, cautions individuals that change may be challenging.

It also suggests that what lies beyond the door will be different to everyone. Holub uses negative, animal imagery to show that what individuals may uncover is common (‘Maybe it’s a dog rummaging’) and concrete imagery to give a possibility that what they encounter will be abstract (‘a magic city’).

These opportunities may enable the individual to surpass reality and shift into a magical world. ‘Eye’ is symbolic of the windows to the soul. Holub uses this symbolism to imply that individuals can go through a process of self-discovery.

These quotes demonstrate that there are varied opportunities. ‘Fog’ represents confusion or ambiguity upon opening the door; although the poet assures readers that ‘it will clear’. Even if what the individual encounters is minor, the change is still beneficial. The purpose of the poem is to encourage the audience to accept change. The use of the personal pronoun ‘you’ proves that the message of the poem is directly for the reader. The poem emphasises that it is the attempt of widening our opportunities which matters, and that even whatever we encounter is minor, the change is still beneficial.