The Chipko movement Essay

The Chipko movement or Chipko Andolan is a movement that practised the Gandhian methods of satyagraha and non-violent resistance, through the act of surrounding trees to protect them from being felled. The modern Chipko movement started in the early 1970s in the Garhwal Himalayas ofUttarakhand,Then in Uttar Pradesh with growing awareness towards rapid deforestation. The landmark event in this struggle took place on March 26, 1974, when a group of peasant women in Reni village, Hemwalghati, in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand, India, acted to prevent the cutting of trees and reclaim their traditional forest rights that were threatened by the contractor system of the state Forest Department.

Their actions inspired hundreds of such actions at the grassroots level throughout the region. By the 1980s the movement had spread throughout India and led to formulation of people-sensitive forest policies, which put a stop to the open felling of trees in regions as far reaching as Vindhyas and the Western Ghats.[1]

Today, it is seen as an inspiration and a precursor for Chipko movement of Garhwal.

[2][3] The Chipko movement, though primarily a livelihood movement rather than a forest conservation movement, went on to become a rallying point for many future environmentalists, environmental protests and movements the world over and created a precedent for non-violent protest.[4][5] It occurred at a time when there was hardly any environmental movement in the developing world, and its success meant that the world immediately took notice of this non-violent movement, which was to inspire in time many such eco-groups by helping to slow down the rapid deforestation, expose vested interests, increase ecological awareness, and demonstrate the viability of people power.

Above all, it stirred up the existing civil society in India, which began to address the issues of tribal and marginalized people. So much so that, a quarter of a century later, India Today mentioned the people behind the “forest satyagraha” of the Chipko movement as amongst “100 people who shaped India”.[6] Today, beyond the eco-socialism hue, it is being seen increasingly as anecofeminism movement. Although many of its leaders were men, women were not only its backbone, but also its mainstay, because they were the ones most affected by the rampant deforestation,[citation needed], which led to a lack of firewood and fodder as well as water for drinking and irrigation. Over the years they also became primary stakeholders in a majority of the afforestation work that happened under the Chipko movement.[7][8][9][10] In 1987 the Chipko Movement was awarded the Right Livelihood Award [11]

History

The Himalayan region had always been exploited for its natural wealth, be it minerals or timber, including under British rule. The end of the nineteenth century saw the implementation of new approaches in forestry, coupled with reservation of forests for commercial forestry, causing disruption in the age-old symbiotic relationship between the natural environment and the od were crushed severely. Notable protests in 20th century, were that of 1906, followed by the 1921 protest which was linked with the independence movement imbued with Gandhian ideologies,.[12] The 1940s was again marked by a series of protests in Tehri Garhwal region.[13] In the post-independence period, when waves of a resurgent India were hitting even the far reaches of India, the landscape of the upper Himalayan region was only slowly changing, and remained largely inaccessible. But all this was to change soon, when an important event in the environmental history of the Garhwal region occurred in the India-China War of 1962, in which India faced heavy losses.

Though the region was not involved in the war directly, the government, cautioned by its losses and war casualties, took rapid steps to secure its borders, set up army bases, and build road networks deep into the upper reaches of Garhwal on India’s border with Chinese-ruled Tibet, an area which was until now all but cut off from the rest of the nation. However, with the construction of roads and subsequent developments came mining projects for limestone, magnesium, and potassium. Timber merchants and commercial foresters now had access to land hitherto.[12] Soon, the forest cover started deteriorating at an alarming rate, resulting in hardships for those involved in labour-intensive fodder and firewood collection. This also led to a deterioration in the soil conditions, and soil erosion in the area as the water sources dried up in the hills. Water shortages became widespread. Subsequently, communities gave up raising livestock, which added to the problems of malnutrition in the region.

This crisis was heightened by the fact that forest conservation policies, like the Indian Forest Act, 1927, traditionally restricted the access of local communities to the forests, resulting in scarce farmlands in an over- populated and extremely poor area, despite all of its natural wealth. Thus the sharp decline in the local agrarian economy lead to a migration of people into the plains in search of jobs, leaving behind several de-populated villages in the 1960s.[4][14][15] Gradually a rising awareness of the ecological crisis, which came from an immediate loss of livelihood caused by it, resulted in the growth of political activism in the region. The year 1964 saw the establishment of Dasholi Gram Swarajya Sangh (DGSS) (“Dasholi Society for Village Self-Rule” ), set up by Gandhian social worker, Chandi Prasad Bhatt in Gopeshwar, and inspired byJayaprakash Narayan and the Sarvodaya movement, with an aim to set up small industries using the resources of the forest.

Their first project was a small workshop making farm tools for local use. Its name was later changed to Dasholi Gram Swarajya Sangh (DGSS) from the original Dasholi Gram Swarajya Mandal (DGSM) in the 1980s. Here they had to face restrictive forest policies, a hangover of colonial era still prevalent, as well as the “contractor system”, in which these pieces of forest land were commodified and auctioned to big contractors, usually from the plains, who brought along their own skilled and semi-skilled laborers, leaving only the menial jobs like hauling rocks for the hill people, and paying them next to nothing. On the other hand, the hill regions saw an influx of more people from the outside, which only added to the already strained ecological balance.[15]

Hastened by increasing hardships, the Garhwal Himalayas soon became the centre for a rising ecological awareness of how reckless deforestation had denuded much of the forest cover, resulting in the devastating Alaknanda River floods of July 1970, when a major landslide blocked the river and affected an area starting from Hanumanchatti, near Badrinath to 350 km downstream till Haridwar, further numerous villages, bridges and roads were washed away. Thereafter, incidences of landslides and land subsidence became common in an area which was experiencing a rapid increase in civil engineering projects.[16][17] “| “Maatu hamru, paani hamru, hamra hi chhan yi baun bhi… Pitron na lagai baun, hamunahi ta bachon bhi” Soil ours, water ours, ours are these forests. Our forefathers raised them, it’s we who must protect them. — Old Chipko Song (Garhwali language)[18]| ”|

Soon villagers, especially women, started organizing themselves under several smaller groups, taking up local causes with the authorities, and standing up against commercial logging operations that threatened their livelihoods. In October 1971, the Sangh workers held a demonstration in Gopeshwar to protest against the policies of the Forest Department. More rallies and marches were held in late 1972, but to little effect, until a decision to take direct action was taken.

The first such occasion occurred when the Forest Department turned down the Sangh’s annual request for ten ash trees for its farm tools workshop, and instead awarded a contract for 300 trees to Simon Company, a sporting goods manufacturer in distant Allahabad, to make tennis rackets. In March, 1973, the lumbermen arrived at Gopeshwar, and after a couple of weeks, they were confronted at village Mandal on April 24, 1973, where about hundred villagers and DGSS workers were beating drums and shouting slogans, thus forcing the contractors and their lumbermen to retreat.

This was the first confrontation of the movement, The contract was eventually cancelled and awarded to the Sangh instead. By now, the issue had grown beyond the mere procurement of an annual quota of three ash trees, and encompassed a growing concern over commercial logging and the government’s forest policy, which the villagers saw as unfavourable towards them. The Sangh also decided to resort to tree-hugging, or Chipko, as a means of non-violent protest. But the struggle was far from over, as the same company was awarded more ash trees, in the Phata forest, 80 km away from Gopeshwar. Here again, due to local opposition, starting on June 20, 1973, the contractors retreated after a stand-off that lasted a few days.

Thereafter, the villagers of Phata and Tarsali formed a vigil group and watched over the trees till December, when they had another successful stand-off, when the activists reached the site in time. The lumberermen retreated leaving behind the five ash trees felled. The final flash point began a few months later, when the government announced an auction scheduled in January, 1974, for 2,500 trees near Reni village, overlooking the Alaknanda River. Bhatt set out for the villages in the Reni area, and incited the villagers, who decided to protest against the actions of the government by hugging the trees. Over the next few weeks, rallies and meetings continued in the Reni area.[19]

On March 26, 1974, the day the lumbermen were to cut the trees, the men of the Reni village and DGSS workers were in Chamoli, diverted by state government and contractors to a fictional compensation payment site, while back home labourers arrived by the truckload to start logging operations.[4] A local girl, on seeing them, rushed to inform Gaura Devi, the head of the villageMahila Mangal Dal, at Reni village (Laata was her ancestral home and Reni adopted home). Gaura Devi led 27 of the village women to the site and confronted the loggers.

When all talking failed, and instead the loggers started to shout and abuse the women, threatening them with guns, the women resorted to hugging the trees to stop them from being felled. This went on into late hours. The women kept an all-night vigil guarding their trees from the cutters till a few of them relented and left the village. The next day, when the men and leaders returned, the news of the movement spread to the neighbouring Laata and others villages including Henwalghati, and more people joined in. Eventually only after a four-day stand-off, the contractors left.[18][19][20]

The Himalayan region had always been exploited for its natural wealth, be it minerals or timber, including under British rule. The end of the nineteenth century saw the implementation of new approaches in forestry, coupled with reservation of forests for commercial forestry, causing disruption in the age-old symbiotic relationship between the natural environment and the od were crushed severely. Notable protests in 20th century, were that of 1906, followed by the 1921 protest which was linked with the independence movement imbued with Gandhian ideologies,.[12] The 1940s was again marked by a series of protests in Tehri Garhwal region.[13] In the post-independence period, when waves of a resurgent India were hitting even the far reaches of India, the landscape of the upper Himalayan region was only slowly changing, and remained largely inaccessible.

But all this was to change soon, when an important event in the environmental history of the Garhwal region occurred in the India-China War of 1962, in which India faced heavy losses. Though the region was not involved in the war directly, the government, cautioned by its losses and war casualties, took rapid steps to secure its borders, set up army bases, and build road networks deep into the upper reaches of Garhwal on India’s border with Chinese-ruled Tibet, an area which was until now all but cut off from the rest of the nation. However, with the construction of roads and subsequent developments came mining projects for limestone, magnesium, and potassium. Timber merchants and commercial foresters now had access to land hitherto.[12] Soon, the forest cover started deteriorating at an alarming rate, resulting in hardships for those involved in labour-intensive fodder and firewood collection.

This also led to a deterioration in the soil conditions, and soil erosion in the area as the water sources dried up in the hills. Water shortages became widespread. Subsequently, communities gave up raising livestock, which added to the problems of malnutrition in the region. This crisis was heightened by the fact that forest conservation policies, like the Indian Forest Act, 1927, traditionally restricted the access of local communities to the forests, resulting in scarce farmlands in an over- populated and extremely poor area, despite all of its natural wealth. Thus the sharp decline in the local agrarian economy lead to a migration of people into the plains in search of jobs, leaving behind several de-populated villages in the 1960s.[4][14][15] Gradually a rising awareness of the ecological crisis, which came from an immediate loss of livelihood caused by it, resulted in the growth of political activism in the region.

The year 1964 saw the establishment of Dasholi Gram Swarajya Sangh (DGSS) (“Dasholi Society for Village Self-Rule” ), set up by Gandhian social worker, Chandi Prasad Bhatt in Gopeshwar, and inspired byJayaprakash Narayan and the Sarvodaya movement, with an aim to set up small industries using the resources of the forest. Their first project was a small workshop making farm tools for local use. Its name was later changed to Dasholi Gram Swarajya Sangh (DGSS) from the original Dasholi Gram Swarajya Mandal (DGSM) in the 1980s. Here they had to face restrictive forest policies, a hangover of colonial era still prevalent, as well as the “contractor system”, in which these pieces of forest land were commodified and auctioned to big contractors, usually from the plains, who brought along their own skilled and semi-skilled laborers, leaving only the menial jobs like hauling rocks for the hill people, and paying them next to nothing.

On the other hand, the hill regions saw an influx of more people from the outside, which only added to the already strained ecological balance.[15] Hastened by increasing hardships, the Garhwal Himalayas soon became the centre for a rising ecological awareness of how reckless deforestation had denuded much of the forest cover, resulting in the devastating Alaknanda River floods of July 1970, when a major landslide blocked the river and affected an area starting from Hanumanchatti, near Badrinath to 350 km downstream till Haridwar, further numerous villages, bridges and roads were washed away.

Thereafter, incidences of landslides and land subsidence became common in an area which was experiencing a rapid increase in civil engineering projects.[16][17] “| “Maatu hamru, paani hamru, hamra hi chhan yi baun bhi… Pitron na lagai baun, hamunahi ta bachon bhi” Soil ours, water ours, ours are these forests. Our forefathers raised them, it’s we who must protect them. — Old Chipko Song (Garhwali language)[18]| ”

Soon villagers, especially women, started organizing themselves under several smaller groups, taking up local causes with the authorities, and standing up against commercial logging operations that threatened their livelihoods. In October 1971, the Sangh workers held a demonstration in Gopeshwar to protest against the policies of the Forest Department. More rallies and marches were held in late 1972, but to little effect, until a decision to take direct action was taken. The first such occasion occurred when the Forest Department turned down the Sangh’s annual request for ten ash trees for its farm tools workshop, and instead awarded a contract for 300 trees to Simon Company, a sporting goods manufacturer in distant Allahabad, to make tennis rackets. In March, 1973, the lumbermen arrived at Gopeshwar, and after a couple of weeks, they were confronted at village Mandal on April 24, 1973, where about hundred villagers and DGSS workers were beating drums and shouting slogans, thus forcing the contractors and their lumbermen to retreat.

This was the first confrontation of the movement, The contract was eventually cancelled and awarded to the Sangh instead. By now, the issue had grown beyond the mere procurement of an annual quota of three ash trees, and encompassed a growing concern over commercial logging and the government’s forest policy, which the villagers saw as unfavourable towards them. The Sangh also decided to resort to tree-hugging, or Chipko, as a means of non-violent protest. But the struggle was far from over, as the same company was awarded more ash trees, in the Phata forest, 80 km away from Gopeshwar. Here again, due to local opposition, starting on June 20, 1973, the contractors retreated after a stand-off that lasted a few days. Thereafter, the villagers of Phata and Tarsali formed a vigil group and watched over the trees till December, when they had another successful stand-off, when the activists reached the site in time.

The lumberermen retreated leaving behind the five ash trees felled. The final flash point began a few months later, when the government announced an auction scheduled in January, 1974, for 2,500 trees near Reni village, overlooking the Alaknanda River. Bhatt set out for the villages in the Reni area, and incited the villagers, who decided to protest against the actions of the government by hugging the trees. Over the next few weeks, rallies and meetings continued in the Reni area.[19] On March 26, 1974, the day the lumbermen were to cut the trees, the men of the Reni village and DGSS workers were in Chamoli, diverted by state government and contractors to a fictional compensation payment site, while back home labourers arrived by the truckload to start logging operations.[4]

A local girl, on seeing them, rushed to inform Gaura Devi, the head of the villageMahila Mangal Dal, at Reni village (Laata was her ancestral home and Reni adopted home). Gaura Devi led 27 of the village women to the site and confronted the loggers. When all talking failed, and instead the loggers started to shout and abuse the women, threatening them with guns, the women resorted to hugging the trees to stop them from being felled. This went on into late hours. The women kept an all-night vigil guarding their trees from the cutters till a few of them relented and left the village.

Description of a Friend Essay

I know my best friend Fiona for nearly eleven years and she’s an awesome person.She was actually the first friend I made when I moved to Spain, and we started talkingto each other because we were in the same situation. We could say that it was“friendship at first sight”.Fiona is not very tall, and this is probably the thing which she hates the most. She’s gotvery dark, brown hair and she uses to wear it short.

She has got an incredible eye colour; we could describe it as a mixture between green, brown and grey, but it changes depending on the light.Her nose is quite small and she wears a piercing there for aproximately two weeks;she’s very proud of it. Since then, she wants to have another one and also maybe atattoo.She usually wears dark clothes; normally jeans with a wide sweatshirt or T-shirt.Fiona is a very kind girl, although she doesn’t like to show that much.

If you don’tknow her well, you could think that she’s quite serious, not very friendly, but once youtalk with her you notice that she’s very cheerful and you just have to like her.She’s also very intelligent, and she knows about many different things. Her only problem is that she’s quite lazy at school.Her hobbies are, first of all, music. She loves listening to music and to sing, speciallyrock and heavy-metal songs. She also loves playing the guitar, although she’s stilllearning; playing tennis and playing computer games. Specially this last thing is one of her greatest passions and I think she’s been a “gamer” since she was three years old.

After Batxillerat she wants to study Criminology at university and I’m sure that it’ll be the perfect job for her .One of her biggest aims is to form her own heavy-metal band and to be famous with it. The things I like the best of Fiona is that she’s always there when you need her, that she’s always ready to listen to you and to help you. The only thing that I don’t like about her is that she’s not very self-confident sometimes and that she thinks things about herself that she shouldn’t .To sum up, Fiona is one of the most incredible people I know, and I’m happy to have her as one of my friends .So, if you still don’t know her, what are you waiting for?

You may also be interested in the following: description of my friend, description my friend

Conceptual /Theoretical Framework Essay

A. Introduction

Whatever a person judges worth having, worth doing and worth being reflect his/her values. Values may be non-moral or moral. Non-moral values are those that people want or desire such as activities like reading or exercising. Moral values are standards or principles by which we judge our actions as either good or bad. These values correspond to universal truths that man hold to be good and important. What is good for man as man is perfection that corresponds to the human nature.

Moral values are objective. They are not changed by the perception of an individual. Some people think that values must be entirely subjective, relative to the perception of the individual who holds them. But can honesty lose its value because of the many people who practice it? The frequent practice of an immoral act, such as dishonesty, does not change the meaning of honesty nor does it make dishonesty good (Ramirez, 2007).

Moral values, as defined by Esteban (1989), refer to: universal truths which man holds to be good and important; they are the ethical principles which he struggles to attain and implement in his daily life.

They are the ideals which transcend all time and space; those which are valid for all men regardless of race or religion; the ones which unite strangers, families, nations—all of humanity—with God (p.7).

Moral values and universal truths must become the point of reference for individual and societal conduct. During these times of moral confusion and doubt, however, truth is often blurred and ethical principles are unclear. That is WHY the child needs education in values. He has a natural right to truth. He needs guidance and direction as he undergoes the process of internalizing values. He needs to conform his mind continually to truth and reality (p.37).

When we develop the moral values of students, we teach them moral intelligence. Moral intelligence is the capacity to understand right from wrong; it means to have strong ethical convictions and to act on them so that one behaves in the right and honourable way (Borba, 2001:4).

Human beings have always believed that there exists a power higher than the self. Man has a natural tendency towards perfection. For man to achieve perfection, he/she needs supernatural grace to enhance and improve human formation. To gain this supernatural grace, man has to take into account the human virtues, all the human powers he/she has to develop in order to cooperate with supernatural divine grace in this life (De Torre,1980). Human virtues directly benefit the person himself because it is only by practicing virtues that he can live a happy and free life. Why teach virtues and form values?

Unlike with teenagers and adults, one cannot sit down and talk about values with children. They have little capability of learning values unless these are translated into virtues and until the good habits are thoughtfully formed in them through the guidance of adults.

Although some virtues may be acquired through the example of elders at home and in school, they can also be learned through the development of cognitive processes and the conscious formation of behaviour among children. In such case, the teaching profession demands that teachers not only be the role model for the practice of virtues like hope, patience, honesty and industry, but should also know how to systematically transmit these and other virtues that the society holds dear to the next generation.

Warnock (In Halstead, 1996) sees the importance of teaching virtues in schools and the integral role of the teacher that can benefit not only the children themselves but in a broader sense, the society.

School is not the only place where such lessons must be learned; but it is a very important place, in that the classroom and the playground are [spaces] where so many virtues and vices may find their expression, and the teacher is always at hand, to draw the moral. School should be the breeding ground of the individual conscience, simply because it is, more than the home, a society, and it is within society that the shared values which inform the conscience are predominantly exercised (p. 49).

Professor Thomas Lickona (1991), a developmental psychologist and professor of education at the State University of New York at Cortland, who has written extensively about Character Education, lists ten good reasons why schools should be making a ―clearheaded and wholehearted commitment to teaching moral values and developing good character.‖ This includes the person who has a clear and urgent need because young people are decreasingly concerned about contributing to the welfare of their fellow human beings; the society in which the school as an institution, enjoys a time-honored role of taking up values education. He adds:

When millions of children get little moral teaching from their parents and where value-centered influences such as church or temple are also absent from their lives . . . The people must care about the rights of others and the common good and be willing to assume the responsibilities of democratic citizenship . . . Everything a school does teaches values—including the way teachers and other adults treat students, the way the principal treats teachers, the way the school treats parents, and the way students are allowed to treat school staff and each other . . . To develop the character of our children in a complex and changing world is no small task. But it is time to take up the challenges (pp. 20-21).

Therefore, when the teacher takes an active role in developing virtues among children, he/she is not only helping in the formation of the persons but also significantly contributing to the development of society (Ramirez, 2009).

B. Rationale

Admittedly, teaching today cannot separate the education of the mind from the education of character. Some problems we encounter in teaching are poor academic performance, the lack of academic motivation and poor study habits, to name some. These problems pertain to academic performance. There are more problems, such as dishonesty, cheating, the use of foul language, disrespect and peer cruelty. These are behavioural problems. Both have to be addressed because as teachers. We are duty-bound to teach our students the unity of life, that is, living one’s virtues habitually, consistently and constantly in every human endeavour.

They cannot be performing well in class and be the person everybody hates outside class because of bad behaviour! If this does not stop in the person’s schooling years, he/she will definitely carry this on through life as an adult parent, a community member and a worker. What we desire to have are students who have perseverance, diligence and self-discipline (virtues essential to academic performance) and at the same time are caring, respectful and honest (virtues essential to good character). (See Thomas Lickona’s Moral character and Performance character).

Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao (EP) is the basic education curriculum that teaches grade school pupils and high school students character education, moral values and ethics. It supports the national education goal ―to provide a well-rounded education that will assist each individual in society to attain his or her potential as a human being and enhance the range and quality of the individuals within the group.‖ The EP curriculum is guided by the following beliefs:

a. Man must develop virtue not for its own sake but as a means to an end; that end being the Ultimate good, God. b. Ethics and moral values are a set of guiding principles that enable man to discern right from wrong in thoughts, words, decisions and actions. They are manifested through good habits of behaviour that are practiced habitually, consistently and constantly. Ethical behaviour is seen in a person’s treatment of oneself, in relating to other people, country / world and God.

C. The Goal of Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao

Edukasyon Sa Pagpapakatao (EP) in the K-12 curriculum teaches students character education, moral values and ethical behaviour. The goal of EP is to help the student demonstrate understanding of the concepts that guide the moral and ethical behaviour towards oneself, family, other people, country / the world and God; decide and act responsibly for the common good by living a life of harmony and peace, contribute to development and achieve human happiness. This is seen in the EP Curriculum Framework below:

Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao Conceptual/Theoretical Framework

At the heart of the EP Curriculum is man who has ’self’ that can relate to other people and the world. Man has the capability to understand, decide and act as he/she lives in a world of shaped by socio-cultural, moral, political, and economic realities. The EP curriculum will form in the student the ethical and moral behavior that is seen in a person’s treatment of oneself, in relating to other people, the country / world and God. This can teach him/her decide and act responsibly for the common good, living a life of harmony and peace, contribute to development and achieve human happiness.

Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel Essay

Abstract

In this paper I will explore the use of ethanol as an alternative fuel source. Ethanol is considered a renewable energy resource; as it is derived from crops such as: corn, sugarcane, beets, as well as, other organic materials. The use of ethanol could decrease our dependence on ever depleting supplies of fossil fuels; such as oil. In this paper, I will briefly review how ethanol is produced in different parts of the world. I will also review several of the advantages of using ethanol as a renewable source of energy for the transportation sector.

Many environmental organizations support the use of ethanol as it burns cleaner than fossil fuels. Ethanol is considered a renewable resource because it is plant based. Additionally, this paper will review several of the common disadvantages of using ethanol as an alternative fuel source for the transportation sector. One of the main issues is the amount of farm land required to produce enough ethanol to significantly offset the amount of fossil fuel currently consumed.

This paper will also review current United States policies that support the use of ethanol by American consumers.

Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel

One of the major problems the world is faced with today is what to do about our dependency on fossil fuels. Petroleum dependence is a big problem for the United States because the supply will eventually be depleted if consumers continue to use it at the current rate of consumption. In an effort to find a viable alternative to foreign oil, many politicians and environmental groups have been heavily promoting the use of alternatives fuels such as ethanol. The continued increases in oil prices, strong farmer support, government subsidies, and environmental concerns have led to major expansion of global ethanol use over the last few years. Even though its use has increased over the past decade, ethanol has been around for several centuries. “In 1908, Ford Motor Company’s first car, the Model T, used corn alcohol for fuel energy (gasoline)” (Ethanol Fuel History, March 2009).

Ethanol is produced by the fermentation of starches or sugars. The usual starting material is corn, sugarcane, sugar beet, or certain types of grasses. Fermentation is the same process used in the production of alcoholic beverages. It can be either mass-produced by fermentation of sugars or from cellulose. “Brazil, the Saudi Arabia of sugarcane, is the world’s second largest ethanol producer after the United States. About 45% of Brazil’s motor vehicles run on ethanol-gasoline mixtures produced from bagass, a residue of sugarcane” (Miller, T., Spoolman, S., 2009, pg. 218). Corn is the most common crop used for ethanol production in the United States. Reports and experts are showings trends that the use of commodities such as corn and sugarcane are impacting both the economy and the environment in a negative way. Food prices and fuel prices are on a record increase due to the excess demand for fuels. There are advantages and disadvantages to using biofuels.

The following are some of the advantages of the use of ethanol. Ethanol-blended fuels can reduce the net emissions of greenhouse gases. The emissions produced by burning ethanol are less than those produced by burning gasoline. “In 2007 an EPA study estimated that using corn ethanol would reduce greenhouse gas emissions by about 22% compared to burning gasoline” (Miller, T., Spoolman, S., 2009, pg. 218). In the United States, ethanol is primarily derived from corn which is a renewable resource that is grown by American farmers. Ethanol also benefits energy security as it shifts the need for some foreign-produced oil to domestically produced energy sources. Some forms of crops used for ethanol production produce a high energy yield. “Using switchgrass to produce ethanol yields about 5.4 times more energy than it takes to grow it” (Miller, T., Spoolman, S., 2009, pg. 218).

The following are some of the disadvantages of the use of ethanol: The production of ethanol requires the use of food based commodities such as corn. As the world population continues to grow this could lead to increases in food prices and food shortages. Certain precautions have to be taken, “because E85 is a corrosive solvent, fuel storage tanks and dispensing equipment must be corrosion and damage resistant” (Ethanol – A Renewable Energy Source, n.d.). Additionally, large amounts of land are required to grow crops such as corn, sugarcane and/or switchgrass. This could result in the clearing of more forest land, which could have a negative impact on the environment and local ecosystems.

The United States government has implemented a number of policies in support of biofuels. These policies are intended to support American farmers, reduce our dependence on foreign oil and reduce greenhouse gases. Some current policies include: “The Energy Policy Act of 2005, written by the EPA contains regulations to ensure that gasoline sold in the United States contains a minimum volume of renewable fuel.

The Renewable Fuel Standard Program was signed in 2006. This national renewable fuel program is designed to encourage the blending of renewable fuels (ethanol) into our nation’s motor vehicle fuel. The nationwide Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) will double the use of ethanol and biodiesel by 2012. In December 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act signed by Congress and the President, which requires the use of 15 billion gallons of renewable (ethanol) fuel by 2015” (Ethanol Fuel History, March 2009).

I do not believe the current United States strategy for ethanol use and production is feasible. The current yield of corn based ethanol is low compared to other forms of ethanol. The yield of corn based ethanol is only 1.1 to 1.5 times the amount of energy it takes to produce it. This simply means that it requires 1 gallon of fuel to produce 1.1 – 1.5 gallons of ethanol. A huge amount of land would have to be cleared, for crop production, to make a significant impact on the amount of fossil fuels that we currently use. This could have a negative impact on our environment; as we clear forest land and convert it to farmland. We must continue to explore higher yielding forms of ethanol, as well other forms of renewable energy.

Discussion

An increasingly important issue, the whole world faces today, is the reliance on fossil fuels as an energy source. These fossil fuels include: coal, natural gas, and most importantly, petroleum. While petroleum and coal are in fact biologically based; it took millions of years for it to form. This energy is not considered renewable because of the time it takes for the energy to build up. In order for us to maintain our transportation needs; there must be a drastic change in the sources of energy used to power our vehicles. Over the past few years, the use of ethanol has received lots of support and its use continues to grow. Many supporters of ethanol state that ethanol not only reduces our dependence on foreign oil, but provides jobs for Americans. One possible solution to this problem is for the United States to reduce its dependence on petroleum by becoming more dependent on renewable energy sources such as biofuels.

The most common biofuel used today is ethanol, which is produced by the fermentation of certain plants. In the United States most ethanol is currently produced from corn. Other countries, such as Brazil, use sugarcane. There are a number of advantages to using ethanol as a source of renewable energy. Ethanol burns cleaner than petroleum based products, such as gasoline. This lowers the C02 emissions, which reduces the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. Ethanol is consider a renewable energy source because it is plant based and can easily be grown by farmers. Ethanol can also be produced locally; reducing our dependence on foreign oil. There are also some drawbacks to using ethanol. One of the major drawbacks is that it is derived from food crops such as corn.

As the world population continues to grow, the demand for food will also continue to increase. There are also environmental concerns to using ethanol. To substantially offset the amount of fossil fuels we currently use would require a huge amount on farmland. This may require additional forest land to be cleared, which could have a negative impact on the environment. Another disadvantage to ethanol is that it cannot be used in older vehicles; as it will damage internal components. To stimulate the industry in the United States, federal tax credits have been extended to biofuel producers, which make them even more competitive with fossil fuels.

Environmental groups support the use of ethanol; as it reduces the amount of harmful greenhouse gases that are released into the atmosphere. The enthusiastic support of ethanol is not motivated purely by the desire to save fossil fuels. Much of the support it receives is from the influence of the ethanol industry and farmers that profit from corn production. For ethanol to become a viable alternative fuel for America; we need to look at different crops such as sugarcane that produce a higher yield. Additionally, we need to continue to look for other alternative energy sources that will not compete for food crops.

References
Ethanol – A Renewable Energy Source (n.d.). Retrieved 22 July 2011, from http://www. extraordinaryroadtrip.org/research-library/technology/ethanol/advantages.asp Ethanol Fuel History (March 2009). Retrieved 22 July 2011, from http://www.fuel-testers.com

/ethanol_fuel_history.html
Miller, T., Spoolman, S. (2009). Sustaining the Earth, 10e. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole

Analysis of the Movie “Far From Heaven” Essay

“Far From Heaven,” the new movie of the renowned director Todd Haynes, is set in Hartford in the Eisenhower era. It is set on a simpler time when a wife could have the maid put the children to bed while she rushed to her husband’s office to bring him the dinner which he missed by working late.

The film tells the story of a well-off housewife, Cathy Whitaker (Julianne Moore), in late 1950’s Connecticut. She finds her world turned upside down by two challenges which force her to reassess its merits.

First sign of trouble in paradise comes when Cathy is called to the police station to retrieve Frank (Dennis Quaid), her husband, after a supposed misunderstanding involving intoxication and loitering.

As Frank starts hitting the bottle, his impulses become harder to resist. While lacking the courage to engage in more than secretive eye contact, he starts frequenting movie theaters and bars in dark alleys where meets men, inventing excuses about working late.

Crisis erupts, however, when Cathy surprises him with a supper delivery at the office and finds him kissing another man.

In time, she finds herself rejected by apparent captivation with Raymond (Dennis Haysbert), her attentive and handsome black gardener. An educated, sensitive man, Raymond finds Cathy weeping in the garden and takes her for a drive to clear her head. But the pair is seen entering a diner by town gossip Mona (Celia Weston). As Frank is out of Cathy’s reach, scandal and hatred spread through the community. She needs then heartbreaking choices.

Cathy and Frank handle the wrinkle in their marriage by trying to iron it away. The kids may not know, but the Whitakers’ maid, Sybil (Viola Davis), possibly gets the flow, based on the remarkable sting and compassion she conveys. Cathy encourages Frank to start psychotherapy since she is desperate to keep the marriage together.

The couple visits Dr. Bowman (James Rebhorn) who puts Frank on an uncertain de-homosexualization regimen. But their world is a breakdown, despite Cathy’s best efforts to serve as the shock absorber for Frank’s verbal abuse and alcoholism. She even wears her pliable, golden bouffant hairstyle to hide the bruises from her snippy best friend, Eleonor Fine (a vinegary Patricia Clarkson).

Where the widower Raymond is typically at work, Cathy usually loses her composure outside the house. She grows infatuated. Later, at an all-white art exhibit, he wows her with an analysis of a Miro canvas. He explains that modern art can be broken down into colors and shapes that are meant to be transcended.

The film raises a quiet but forceful question about the difference in how race and sexuality are perceived. Frank can hide who he is, but there are no closets for Raymond. He’s proud and almost kind. But as we witness when he takes Cathy to a local juke joint, he’s not without a point of view. Raymond is the more honest man in Cathy’s life, and she’s fascinated enough to risk the social quarantine that accompanies the attraction

Moore was absolutely captivating on the film. She displays luscious, human warmth which never seen from her. Her shortcoming as a performer sometimes is that she seems as pretentious. The lady is a world-class emoter.

The film does allow the development of character and narrative on a level which may permit some pleasure, but there is an aloofness to it which refuses genuine emotional empathy with the characters. The performances are quite strong. Julianne Moore holds the centre very easily in a delicate characterization which develops as it goes.

She is superbly matched by Dennis Haysbert, who is equally quietly effective. Dennis Quaid plays a character with more expressive dimensions, and plays it very well. Yet the very fact that we are made aware that the film is out to deconstruct social norms instead of this being something we find out as we go means that it is difficult to approach the film as straight narrative or to involve ourselves with these characters on an unreconstructed, non-ironic plane.

The film yields less entertainment on this level than the average soap opera. Its foregrounded concerns with race, sexuality, and the collapse of the family seem too pointed for a workaday sentimental movie. All of this merely signals that there is more going on than would seem obvious on the surface.

“Far From Heaven” is well worth seeing if you do approach it with the appropriate attitude. It is this very symbiosis between form and content which makes this movie such a worthwhile experience. The film really needs to be seen and thought of in a larger context. It even gives you all of the information you need if you just look for it. Nothing passes without notice, with each element of plot or visual design feeding into the behavior of the characters in ways which signal the interrelationships between them.

The audience simply has to pay attention to the delicacy with which it has all been constructed and assembled. Deconstruction is easy, but Haynes has not contented himself with simply breaking down these elements and leaving them disconnected and robbed of context. He does not shy away from meaningful storytelling, or meaningful filmmaking; and, indeed, the two depend on one another for effect. In reconstructing the melodrama, the film exposes its conventions and subjects them to analysis by both the filmmaker and audience. “Far From Heaven” is a subtle and intricate work of cinematic art.

Should Cell Phones Be Allowed In College Classrooms? Essay

I think cell phones shouldn’t be allowed in college classrooms. Nowadays, parents buy a cell phone for their teenager, in order to contact them more conveniently. But a lot of students bring their cell phone to the college, during class. If cell phone shouldn’t be banned in classrooms, we will often see this scene: During the class, a student’s cell phone rang, so the student answered.

Meanwhile, the teacher stopped teaching and waiting while the student was answering his cell phone, but other students were distracted from classes.

After a few minute when the teacher started talking, another student cell phone rang again, so the teacher and other students were distracted again. Like that scene, how do you think? Of course, classroom isn’t a coffee shop.

Therefore, I think that cell phone should not be allowed in the college classroom. There are several reasons why cell phones should not be allowed in the college classroom. First at all, if cell phone could use in the classroom, it would disturb the teacher and students during class.

In the class, when the teacher is talking, student should listen attentively.

If cell phones should be allowed in the classroom, what would happen? For example, last semester, an English class, while the teacher was talking something in the class and a student’s cell phones rang. At that time, we had stopped to attend to the teacher, and instead, we attended to the student who cell phone rang. Our teacher stopped talking and waited. Following, another student’s cell phone rang, and the student started answer cell phone too. Meanwhile, a student said he want to call phone to his family. Unfortunately, the class is interrupted constantly.

As a result, the teacher can’t complete the teaching plan, and students wouldn’t get complete learning. In order not to be disturbed during class, cell phones shouldn’t be allowed in college classroom. Second, cell phones can help students cheat on test. If cell phones should be allowed in the classroom, of course, it would be allowed use on the test too. Students would use cell phones to send message to each other or other person. For example, before I saw a few times on test in other class, my classmate used cell phone send message to each other and search test information.

So if cell phone can use during test, cheat would happen ordinarily. As a result, college wouldn’t correctly evaluate students learning. Allowing cell phones in college classrooms would condone cheating on tests, allowing for students to get unfair test grades, and would only prove detrimental in preparation for life in the real world. Third, cell phones have full attractive play game, students would distract in the classroom. While the teacher was talking about the course content, students should be attentive to hear teacher talking about something in class.

If cell phones should be allowed in the classroom, so there are a lot of play game in the cell phone will be allowed to play in class. For example, I like play game in my cell phone, because now people have developed a lot of interesting cell phone games, very attractive. I usually play on the night before sleeping. If teacher said we could use cell phone during class, I would play game in the class time, I thought if teacher can’t ban me use cell phone during class, I wouldn’t limit me to play game using cell phone. I think the situation is the same as the other students.

So if cell phone should be allowed in the college classroom, students wouldn’t be focused on the teacher’s lectures. But instead, students would play cell phone game all the class time, nobody will be care about what teacher said. Fourth, expensive cell phone can bring students to compare with each other. Now cell phones are more expensive, because cell phones were developed for a variety of function. The function of each in cell phone has its fee that student must to pay. For students, we usually need go to college and do a lot of homework, so we don’t have more time to get money.

If a student brings expensive cell phones to college, in class when other students saw it, somebody maybe wants to get one too, so it would increase in the monthly economic burden on our parents. On the other hand, when students bring their expensive cell phone to college, where can they put it in? Maybe we would be worry about if cell phone lost during college, sometime we would be attracted by others expensive cell phone, then we wouldn’t be focused in the class. So if cell phone shouldn’t be allowed in the college classroom, we would put cell phone staying home or use it out of the college classroom.

College classroom is a place where provide education for students, but cell phones don’t relate to education. If students need to make an emergency call home, there is a phone in the college’s office. In addition, they can turn on the cell phone out of the classroom after the class. If cell phones should be allowed in the college classrooms, students wouldn’t attend in studies, and it would allow for the cheating test and for other the social problems. Therefore, cell phone allowed in the college classroom will bring more bad influence on students’ learning. So cell phone should not be allowed in the classrooms.

Guru : Sishya – the Relationship Beyond Classrooms Essay

Introduction This article is an outcome of the survey conducted by the I MBA students of our institute (RLIMS, Madurai) on the student-teacher relationship. The group name of these budding managers is “Aspire”. The moment we talk about the guru-sishya relationship the flash that comes first is the historical guru Dronacharya and his disciples; Swami Vivekananda and his guru Ramakrishnar; and the list continues… The guru-sishya relationship is a social binding on both the students and the teacher.

Either one or the other fails to perform their duty with due diligence the loss is not only for them but also to the society.

If a student fails to perform his duties the ultimate loser is himself and his family… but a teacher fails to perform his duty the loss for the big mass of the society. Objective of the Study * To study the present status of guru-sishya relationship. * To suggest ways and means to improve the relationship better. Limitations of the Study * The study was restricted only to Management Teachers and Management Students.

Summary of Findings – Students’ Viewpoint * Majority of the students suggested that the faculty should share his views on the current affairs and general knowledge aspects to the students. * Students also suggested that their faculties should motivate and encourage them, which would help them to improve their mettle. * Few students are much concerned about the syllabus coverage. And few others felt that it should be partly on a self-study basis. * Doubt clarification – yet another key driver inside the classroom. A part of the students are not clarifying their doubts immediately – reason is “Shyness”.

The other part of student feels the doubts to be clarified then and there itself. * Students feel that a feedback should be got at the every session to find out their understanding level. But still few students feel that feedback is not required instead we could spend the same time for some other productive thing by learning more from the faculty. Summary of Findings – Teachers’ Viewpoint * Students’ classroom behaviour should be more matured than of what they have now. * Student should be interactive during the class to make the sessions livelier.

* Student should be prepared for every session – they should do their home work for healthy thought provoking discussions. * Student should be updated with the current affairs and general knowledge – as the availability of library and internet is good they should use it productively. * Student should avoid procrastinations and should learn punctuality, commitment with conscious focussed efforts. Relationship beyond classrooms… * As someone rightly stated “Parents are first teachers and teachers are second parents”. * Every faculty should be a mentor to their wards.

* Basically faculty should trust the student and the student should trust the faculty – if this is done there becomes a good mentor-mentee relationship. * The student faculty relationship could also help in career building. * The student faculty relationship could also help in building better nations. Conclusion The student-teacher relationship is not just like… any other accidental or incidental relationship rather it should be like a blossom of a flower. If these two have a better relation then we have a better citizens and better country tomorrow.

About the Co-Authors Ms. Deepika, Ms. Susma, Ms. Shalini, Mr. Jeyaraj and Mr. Premkumar. [I MBA (Batch 2007-09), RLIMS, Madurai] – The co-authors of this article are the real backbone of this brief write-up. These students have a great future as they “aspire” to be a better citizen rather than a better manager. Definitely those who want to be a better citizen or better human being will have focus to serve the mankind with all their sincerity and commitment. The companies which recruit these students should be lucky enough to have them in their team.

A Case Study of Disruptive Behavior in the Classroom Essay

Both parents worked long hours, Tammy’s father is a pie and cookie chef at the locate bread factory, he leaves for work at 5:00 a. m. and gets home by 3:00 in the evening. Her mother works at the mall as a sales manager at one of the clothing stores. Tammy’s mom sees all the children off to school before she has to be at work, she works 10:00 a. m. until 9:00 p. m. at night. She is usually home to say good-night to the children.

There are five children in the family: Richard is 6 years old and in the first grade, Barbara is 9 years old and in the fourth grade, Allen is16 years old and a 10th grader, Diana is a 14 year old 8th grader who has a learning-disability.

A disorder in the basic psychological processes involving understanding or the use of language, which the disorder may reveal itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do Mathematics, (Heward, 2009, p 173) caused by a brain injury when she was 3 years old.

Diana has always been in the special needs classroom. This is the first year of school in which Diana will be mainstream within a general classroom of 8th graders in the middle school. Researchers have consistently found a higher-than-usual incidence of behavioral problems among students with learning disabilities, (Cullinan, 2007).

Tammy is Diana’s 12 year old, younger sister and will be in the 7th grade at the middle school, too. Tammy has begin to realize and notice that her older sister is different from her and most of the other students at there school. Tammy fights with any student who tease Diana. Three weeks ago the girls’ mom was called in for a meeting with teachers and school counselors concerning Tammy’s behavior. Tammy has always been a good student, easy to get along with and respectful toward the teachers and school property.

School started two months ago and Tammy has been misbehaving for the pass six weeks. In her classes, especially in A Case Study of Disruptive Behavior in The Classroom 3 homeroom, she verbally fights with the other students, she throws paper clips and other items in the room, sometimes at students and other times at the wall. Tammy has become withdrawn at school, she eats lunch with her sister and see her back to her next classroom. Tammy has been getting to most of her classes after the bell rings and want give a reason for it, instead she has become sullen and angry with her teachers.

Tammy’s homeroom and P. E. teachers have called her a side and talked with her, this has not made a change in her attitude or behavior. Frustrated with Tammy’s disruptive behaviors, her teachers met after school to decide what to do about Tammy and other students’ behaviors in their classrooms, it has been decided that these students will have a one-on-one meeting with one of their teachers to review and add, if needed to their homeroom rules and procedures. One of Tammy’s teacher has no homeroom, she is free for the hour to discuss the classroom procedures and rules with Tammy during homeroom.

These are the disruptive behaviors that Tammy’s teachers wish to correct: deliberate acting -out in classes; verbally fighting with peers and throwing items in the classroom; coming to class late, without a reason and she is not participating or working in class; she is withdrawn, sullen, and defiant; disrespectful when talking to her teachers and peers. The teacher realize that she and her coworkers have not been effectively teaching the students. She sets out to learn how to effectively teach and provide an interesting, stimulating, smoothly functioning, well-managed, and safe and secure learning environment for all students at the middle school.

The curriculum and lesson plans can be too challenging for some student, the student(s) can become disinterested, which can lead to disruptive behavior. There are a variety of learning styles, also family and environments problems, mental and physical challenges can be cause of disruptive behaviors in students, (Heward, 2009). Disruptive behaviors interferes with students’ personal, social, and educational development. A Case Study of Disruptive Behavior in The Classroom 4 These disruptive classroom behaviors leads to disciplinary consequences, which leads to thedevelopment of acceptable  classroom rules and procedures.

The number one factor governing the students ability to learn is how well the teacher manages the classroom. A well managed classroom is task oriented and predictable, which includes effective teaching, which starts with teaching students to follow classroom rules and procedures the first weeks of school, (Gibbs, 2011).

Each homeroom class at the middle school has developed classroom rules and procedures, which Tammy helped her homeroom class to developed. Because her behavior is disruptive in most of classes, the teachers in each of Tammy classes have decided Canter’s three step behavior management cycle is needed and will be used to help Tammy correct and develop responsibility for her behaviors. Canter, (1992) three step “Behavior Management Cycle,” is a theory that outline how to deal with children discipline.

I. Verbally behavior: effectively communicate the explicit directions you expect students to follow. II. Physical movement: use behavior narrative to support students following your direction, (students following classroom rules and procedures are to be praise). III.

Participation: take corrective action with students who are still not following the classroom’s rules and procedures. All consequences need not be negative or harsh, such as the case with Tammy. When dealing with young adults its’ good to establish a rapport, its’ the most important ingredient, which causes a teenage student’s reluctance to be controlled into a willingness to be guided. Tammy is called outside her homeroom class by her teacher, once in the hall and out of hearing distance or the path-way of her peers, her teacher orally points out the rules.

The rules Tammy and her peers developed to eliminate classroom disruptive behaviors, along with corrective action or the A Case Study of Disruptive Behavior in The Classroom 5 consequences for students who do not comply with the rules and procedures. Tammy is re-mined of her verbal abuse toward her teachers and peers; she is asked, why do you throw paper clips and other items in the classroom; why do you no longer participate in class discussion or turn in completed homework assignment. Also, why are you late to class lately and why are you sullen and often withdrawn? Your attitude, your negative and harmful behavior toward others must change.

You are old enough to no throwing things in the classroom can be harmful to others and you should not do it. You are talking out in the class and fighting with your peers. All these behaviors go against the rules of the classrooms. You use to make it to your class in five minutes like all the others. Your assignments were always completed in class and were correctly and neatly done. You was a smiling cheerful student and pleasant to everyone. All your teachers have notice changes in your behaviors.

You are expected to change your attitude and behaviors; there should be no more disrespectful talk to your teachers or peers, there will be no fighting in the halls or bathrooms, you will get to classes on time and follow the direction to complete your class assignments. Your parents have been mailed a letter, if necessary a meeting with a counselor and your parents will follow. Tammy is a preteen in middle school with an older sister, who should be in high school, but she has a learning disability. Diana is a special needs student who is being mainstream into general classes.

This has caused Tammy to notice her sister’s learning disability behavior and the way other students tease her for the fist time. Tammy feels she should protect her sister and fights with those students that tease Diana. Tammy refuse to listen to Diana, when she tells her the teasing is o k and she do not listen to it. After Tammy’s talk with her teacher, Tammy’s disruptive behaviors stopped. Her teacher also, set up a meeting with Tammy, Diana, their parents and the a school counselor for families.

The A Case Study of Disruptive Behavior in The Classroom 6 motivation behind Tammy’s disruptive behaviors was discover and handle. Rational and irrational behaviors can be explained after what motivate a person to act is understood. , (Aveyard-Barry, 2013). Tammy has become a pleasant student. She no longer walk Diana to her classroom, but get to her own on time. Tammy do not feels she has to take care of her sister and is no longer resentful and angry.

She is a happy 12 year old, middle school student. Tammy enjoy school and being with her peers. The school counselor place Diana in a homeroom with several girls on the after school sports teams of basketball, volleyball, and tennis. They encouraged Diana to join a team and has taken it upon themselves to practice extra with her. They invited Diana to sit with them and some other students at lunch. *(I substitute for most classes, but wish to teach secondary school Mathematics and hope I could apply this behavior management to high school students. )

A Case Study of Disruptive Behavior in The Classroom 7 References Aveyard-Barry, M. , (2013), What Are the Causes of Behavior in a Classroom? www. ehow. com/print/info_7929261_causes-behavior-classroom . . . Canter, L. , Canter, M. ,(1976), Assertive Discipline: A Take-Charge Approach for Today’s Educator, p 72, 73. Gibbs, N. , (2011), Workable Classroom and Procedures, Building Classroom Discipline, tenth edition, Ch. 6, p 106-111, http//gcumedia.

com/digetal-resources/pearson/2011/building-classroom-discipline_ebook_10e. php. Heward, W. , (2009), Ohio State University, Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, ninth edition, p 173, 185. What Are The Steps of Canter’s Behavior Management Cycle? ,wiki. answers. com/Q/What . . . Canter’s_Behavior_Management_Cycle. Sarvesh, Motivation And Behavior, www. motivation. com. in/motivation-and-behavior. html.

Captivity Narrative Essay

Captivity narratives were commonly popular in the 1700’s by both European and American populations. Captivity narratives in America portrayed either whites enslaved by savages or the African enslaved by the white slave owner. Captivity narratives were written to show the reader of one’s experiences while being in captivity. Two authors who wrote a couple of these narratives are Mary Rowlandson and Olaudah Equiano. Mary Rowlandson’s narrative is entitled, “A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson.

The title of Olaudah Equiano’s narrative is “The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavas Vassa, the African, Written by Himself. ” Captivity narratives test a person’s faith and his or her ability to survive in a specific given situation. Both authors must learn to survive in a different culture. Both desire their freedom, but fear the dangers of escape. Rowlandson relies on her religious strength to help her through her suffering, while Equiano relies on his moral and eventually religious strength to help him through his suffering.

Examining these two narratives will show similarities and differences in their purpose but will ultimately show the reason for the narrative which was to sway a person’s way of thinking. Both Equiano and Rowlandson were living an ordinary life until they were torn away. Equiano was living a carefree life, enjoying his time growing up in his village along with his family. That day came to an end when he and his sister were captured and sold into slavery.

Equiano states, “One day, when all our people were gone out to their works as usual, and only I and my dear sister were left to mind the house, two men and a women got over our walls, and in a moment seized us both, and without giving us time to cry out, or make resistance, they stopped our mouths, and ran off with us in the nearest wood” (690). Rowlandson’s narrative begins with Native Americans attacking her village as they come upon her house and set fire to it. As Rowlandson attempts to leave her home, she is captured.

Rowlandson states, “The Indians laid hold of us, pulling me one way, and the children another, and said, ‘Come go along with us’: I told them they would kill me: they answered, if I were willing to go along with them, they would not hurt me” (258). The similarity of both narratives is that both were enjoying their lives until they abruptly changed. The difference is that Equiano was a child, not knowing much about the world while Rowlandson was an adult and knew the dangers of being a colonist. Both authors once captive had to adapt to their surroundings.

Equiano experienced many different cultures before being bought in Virginia as a slave. Equiano taught himself how to expand his knowledge after being taught by Miss Guerin and under the tutelage of a schoolmaster the basics of reading and writing. Equiano states, “Nor did I leave my kind patronesses, the Miss Guerins, without uneasiness and regret. They often used to teach me to read, and took great pains to instruct me in the principles of religion and the knowledge of God” (703). Equiano’s thirst for knowledge growing up would help lead him to his freedom.

Similarly, Rowlandson learned the culture of the natives to help her survive hunger and starvation. “There came an Indian to them at that time with a basket of horse liver. I asked him to give me a piece. ‘What,’ says he, ‘can you eat horse liver? ’ I told him, I would try…so that I was fain to take the rest and eat it as it was, with the blood about my mouth, and yet a savory bit it was to me” (266). While both learned their new cultures, Equiano’s purpose was to gain knowledge to eventually free him, and Rowlandson’s purpose was for survival.

Both Equiano and Rowlandson desired their freedom, but also feared the dangers of escape. Equiano was in a civilized area, but the realization of being alone in an attempt to get back home was diminishing. Equiano expresses, “I had before entertained hopes of getting home, and had determined when it should be dark to make the attempt; but I was now convinced it was fruitless, and began to consider that, if possible I could escape all other animals, I could not those of human kind” (692).

Rowlandson was in the wilderness and she had no idea how close she was to the nearest colony. As Rowlandson is speaking with another English captive about escaping, she states, “I wished her not to run away by any means, for we were near thirty miles from any English town” (263). Rowlandson not only feared being caught after escape, but she also feared of being lost in the wilderness with the wild animals. Rowlandson wrote, “Heart-aching thoughts here I had about my poor children, who were scattered up and down among the wild beasts of the forest” (264).

Both authors adapted to surroundings to help them survive their captivity. Both authors have to rely on religious and moral strength to help them endure their captivity. Rowlandson believes in Christianity, and that helped her to survive her captivity. She believes everything happens for a reason and that God was testing her faith. Rowlandson in her reflection of Psalms quotes, “Oh that my people had hearkened to me, and Israel had walked in my ways, I should soon have subdued their enemies, and turned my hand against their adversaries” (265).

On the other hand, Equiano has no knowledge of Christianity in his early childhood and yet it wasn’t till his adulthood that he understood white Christianity. Equiano knew being part of the white Christianity would help him earn his freedom. Equiano had to rely on his moral strength, in the beginning, to be free and his religious strength to withstand his captivity. Equiano wrote, “I regard myself as a particular favorite of Heaven, and acknowledge the mercies of Providence in every occurrence of my life” (688). Both authors justify their captivity with the grace of God and that it was a testament of their faith.

Captivity narratives were popular during the 1700s with many readers. Although Equiano and Rowlandson write their narrative with captivity as the main subject, both endured entirely different situations. Rowlandson thought she was captured by the savages, but she realizes she was never treated unjustly. Equiano, on the other hand, was supposedly captured and sold into slavery by the civilized population, but he was treated inhumanely. Both authors hoped to open the eyes of others to see the injustices of being a captive.

Nothing Gets Between Me and My Calvins Essay

A then fifteen year old Brooke Shields forever changed the boundaries of fashion advertising when, in a 1981 Calvin Klein Jeans commercial, she stopped her lonesome whistling to look up at the camera and announce that nothing came between “her and her Calvins.” The advertising campaign would become the mold from which all future Calvin Klein advertisements were made: bold, erotic and taboo. Along with his then-recently introduced signature jeans pockets the campaign would make Calvin Klein a household name and would make Brooke Shields the face of the 1980’s.

While “sex sells” is an oft remarked upon phenomenon in the advertising industry, the Brooke Shields advertisement was not the normal fare at the time. Ms. Shields is obviously an attractive woman in the advertisement, though she is dressed like an average young girl and not a super model. Instead of giving the viewer the expected overly sexualized adult woman Calvin Klein infuses controversy with suggestive language and themes into every frame.

Brooke Shields represents a very young girl, a girl in every day clothing who could be any girl, whistling a forlorn song in a rather brazen pose. When she utters those scandalous lines, she raises her eyes and meets the viewer’s gaze as if challenging them. It is a very startling and unforgettable imagine, so controversial in it’s portrayal of a suggestively bold minor that it was banned from most major networks. Yet when we examine the clip there is nothing overtly sexual about it. In our modern day and age the advertisement would come off almost as innocent.

The Brooke Shields advertising campaign, with it’s commercial and subsequent magazine and billboard spots propelled the Calvin Klein brand to sell over two million pairs of jeans monthly and allowed it to expand into shirts, skirts, jackets and later underwear. His success with the campaign would set the tone for the rest of his advertisements and raise

Nothing Gets Between Me and My Calvins

Page Two much more controversy with his hedonistic and often blatantly sexual use of minors within the campaigns. However, he set the challenge for the fashion industry: if you want sales, merely sex alone is no longer enough, but controversy, desire, and passion is necessary to win the masses and make a memorable campaign.