As Nature Made Him: Nature vs. Nurture Essay

The argument over nature vs. nurture has continued to torture society by presenting cases in which we simply don’t know which rules to apply. One of these cases is sex change. Sex change is a very big step to take in a person’s life and it involves the careful consideration of many factors; but it is not a simple answer to a complex problem such as hermaphroditism or even blotched circumcisions. These choices can be difficult because we don’t quite understand which factors to consider given that we haven’t determined whether it is nature or nurture that determines a child’s sexual identity.

Until we solve this riddle, people shouldn’t try to change a child’s sex before the child can decipher his or her own sexual identity. Nature will solve the problem without human interference. Over the years, sex change in infants with ambiguous or deformed genitals has become more and more popular. Often times, however, the child is unhappy with his/her sexual assignment.

Colapinto writes, “…Dr. Harry Benjamin himself, who had recently reported that in forty-seven out of eighty-seen of his patients, he ‘could find no evidence that childhood conditioning’ was involved in their conviction that they were living in the wrong sex” (Colapinto 45).

This suggests that nature rather than nurture is the underlying factor of sexual identity. Dr. John Money, a doctor at John Hopkins Hospital, was the head doctor of the world famous John/Joan “twin case. ” His theories at the time seemed to be very intelligently thought out at the time, but have now been proven otherwise, explaining why his conduction of the “twin case” was unsuccessful. John Colapinto explains that Dr.

Money realized in his research on hermaphroditical children, “the ones that were raised as girls were happy girls, and the ones raised as boys were happy boys… It seemed to suggest to him that hermaphrodites were born malleable in their sex” (Youtube). However, Money was too quick to generalize this observation to everyone, rather than only. Although the gravely unsuccessful twin case was and is brought up a lot in the debate concerning nature vs. nurture, there are still scientists who believe that it is nurture rather than nature that determines sexual identity.

These scientists still have hope that there may be an answer to the mystery of sexual identity. Jonis Portfolio says on gender, “It is an intricate balance between hormones, brain function, attitudes, behaviors, and social expectations” (Jonis Portfolio). Colapinto as well as the authors of Jonis Portfolio mention how “vehemently was “she” determined to live in the sex of her genes and chromosomes” (Colapinto 72). Children who are born normally, but have been sexually reassigned, usually present behaviors that resemble the sex written in their genetic code.

The few exceptions remain outliers. Once scientists started to poke holes in Dr. Money’s theories, they realized how unreasonable it was to try to sexually reassign a children who were already destined by nature to be a certain gender. Jonis says, “Gender identification is a complex issue” (Jonis Portfolio). Scientists try too hard to try to find a solution to this problem that they are too quick to draw conclusions and make decisions. Colapinto writes that the “New York Times book review on Man vs. Woman Boy vs.

Girl said the book’s argument was ‘If you tell a boy he is a girl, and raise him as one, he will want to do feminine things’” (Colapinto 70). Man vs. Woman Boy vs. Girl is a book written by Dr. Money. Money drew so many false conclusions in his work that his theories were unreliable. However, he was such a respected figure in the science world that even his most outlandish views were supported by many. This is how his theories came to be so widely accepted. We know now, however, that he was pretty far off the mark in his line of research.

We know now that gender assignment should be left to nature, rather than nurture, especially was no problem with the natural gender to begin with. Too often, children have been burdened with the task of finding themselves, i. e. discovering their sexual identity. If doctors and scientists continue to complicate children’s lives by attempting to change who these children were destined to be, they will definitely start to lose themselves. This is ultimately what happened in the John/Joan case where David Reimer, which was John/Joan’s real name, when he took his own life.

Nurture may be a factor in sexual identity, but research suggests that nature is an even stronger factor. Scientists and doctors shouldn’t interfere with nature because all in all, this single factor will shine through the cracks. Bibliography Colapinto, John. As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. New York: HarperCollins, 2000. Print. As Nature Made Him by John Colapinto was published in 2000 to give readers a full understanding of the John/Joan twin case in which a biologically born male was sexually reassigned a girl due to a blotched circumcision.

Colapinto describes in great detail all aspects of the case and how horribly wrong it went. He does elaborate research and uses interviews from direct sources in order to explain the case coherently for readers. This book is the main source for this essay as it describes so vehemently the case from all angles. It argues mainly how nature over nurture is the main factor in determining sexual identity. “Jonisportfolio – Sexual Reassignment and Gender Roles Nature VS Nurture. ” Jonisportfolio – Sexual Reassignment and Gender Roles Nature VS Nurture. N. p. , n.d.

Web. 01 Oct. 2013. . This portfolio was published online by Jonis Portfolio to recognize and argue the issue of nature vs. nurture and its concern with sexual identity. It describes many cases where biologically born males who were raised as females so vehemently were determined to be males. It describes nature as a leading factor over nurture for determining sexual identity. It’s helpful to this essay because it presents some major arguments concerning the matter of nature vs. nurture. It even describes the John/Joan case and what happened there. YouTube.

Prod. Allan Gregg. Perf. Allan Gregg and John Colapinto. YouTube. YouTube, 04 June 2012. Web. 01 Oct. 2013. . This video is an interview with John Colapinto done by Allan Gregg. Colapinto is the writer of As Nature Made Him and in this interview he is describing to viewers the twin case, or the John/Joan case. David Reimer, John/Joan himself, couldn’t do the interview because unfortunately he took his own life in 2002. This source is helpful because it is a short recap of the book and viewers may understand it better than they would while reading about it.

You may also be interested in the following: man vs nature essay, science vs nature

Speed Dating Essay

Men and women are rotated to meet each other over a series of short “dates”, usually lasting from 3 to 8 minutes depending on the organization running the event. At the end of each interval, the organizer rings a bell, clinks a glass, or blows a whistle to signal the participants to move on to the next date. At the end of the event participants submit to the organizers a list of who they would like to provide their contact information to. If there is a match, contact information is forwarded to both parties.

Contact information cannot be traded during the initial meeting, in order to reduce pressure to accept or reject a suitor to his or her face. These events typically require advance registration, often an online prepayment by credit card. However, they may accept a few walk-ins when needed to balance the gender ratio. Some services make use of wait lists when signing up to strive for exactly the same number of men and women, while others have a more “party” atmosphere and only aim for an approximately matching number.

There are many speed dating events now in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. Many of these simply specify an age range for ladies and gentlemen; sometimes a slightly older range is specified for men. On the other hand, many organizers offer niche events such as nights for graduates only, gays and lesbians, older men with younger women and vice versa, book lovers, ethnic events, and religious affiliation such as Christian speed dating.

Cusick and Her Lesbian Relationship with Music Essay

In the essay “On a Lesbian Relationship with Music: A Serious Effort Not to Think Straight” by Suzanne G. Cusick, she brings up an interesting topic about the connection between her being a lesbian and her being a musician, a musicologist, if there exists any.

I’m especially interested in the “power system” and the link between musicality and lesbianism she mentions in this article. Here, I’ll try to analysis them in detail and relate them with other issues in music and sexuality, exploring them in a more general picture.

Cusick redefines the concept of sexuality in her essay, as the way of “expressing and/or enacting relationships of intimacy through physical pleasure shared, accepted, or given.” According to her, this process of expressing and enacting can also be found in our musical activities, where the circulation of physical pleasure can be experienced as well. Thus, she says that our musicalities and our sexualities are “psychically next-door neighbors.” (70) I need to claim that this idea of her amazes me.

From my previous musical experience, I’m pretty sure that music is a subject highly intimate for me.

For instance, I usually have reluctance when I’m asked to sing or perform a song written by myself, even if I think it is a brilliant one. And this won’t happen if the song is someone else’s. In my opinion, music, especially my own music which I’m personally attached to, is an expression of my true self, and that identity and personal characteristics contained in it makes it so special that I won’t be willing to share it with others, unless it’s someone really close to me. Another fact that I think will support Cusick’s idea is that different people always have different opinions towards the same piece of music. No matter how the composer perceives it, the listener usually has the tendency to relate it to his/her own personal experiences, which differ from person to person. It is reasonable to think that music is a symbol of someone’s personalities and characteristics, because of the intimacy the music creates.

Therefore, I believe that there exists a connection between the musicality and the sexuality of a certain person, since both of them are revelations of his/her true identity, and we can examine our own behaviors on both of them. In other words, these two factors are connected because of the person who they belong to, and they are contained in the system of his/her perspectives. Cusick also explains in her article what does it mean to be a “lesbian” and how to define sexuality, which are essential questions if we want to relate it to music. From her point of view, the essence of one’s sexuality and the element of all relationships is the power system. An example that can explain this is what musicologists say about the masculinity in Beethoven. In Susan McClary’s opinion, there exist musical constructions of gender and sexuality.

She regards the field of music and musicology as male-dominated, since the masculine norm and the distinction between genders are deeply rooted in music, such as masculine and feminine cadences, rhythms, gendered major and minor triads, etc. (7) She also analyzes Beethoven’s music, which to her contains “pounding”, “thrusting” gestures that represent masculinity. (75) On the contrary, in Sanna Pederson’s article “Beethoven and Masculinity,” she redefines the concept of masculinity and the link between it with Beethoven. She states that we can find an alternative approach, arguing that we regard Beethoven as symbol of masculinity because of the overwhelming idea that viewing woman as “as unchanging, eternal essence, as the opposite of the dynamically striving and achieving man.” (326) Matthew Head also approaches this from another perspective by examining the heroic in Beethoven’s works, finding many cross-dressed heroines. (132) It’s notable that although there is importance put on female characters, women usually need to conceal their sexuality and transgress the gendered norms in order to serve as the epitomes in the aesthetic sphere.

This shows that, no matter what kind of connection there exists between Beethoven and masculinity, there does exist a power system that emphasis on the inequality between men and women, where women as less – worth less, power less – man, in both our society and in music. Whichever argument we believe, we should admit the extensive presence of the power system in our society, and in practice, it can be found both in music and in many relationships between people, especially heterosexual ones. The most significant point of view of her in this essay, I think, is that she believes being a lesbian is an escape from this power system: As a woman, as a non-dominating and non-power woman who loves another woman in her relationship, the flow of power can exist in both directions, as opposed to a heterosexual relationship where a man typically plays the dominating and powerful part.

And Cusick believes that this is the beauty of a lesbian relationship: it’s about “organizing the force field of power, pleasure, and intimacy that refuses the simple binary opposition male and female”. The lack of opposition creates a world that scrambles the usual components of “man” and “woman”, and a world “free of fixed categories.” (73) This reminds me of the documentary “Paris is Burning”, which stunned me with its idea of celebrations of a powerful expression of personalities, without any restriction of boundaries. There, what matters is the personal prides, which are fully showed in the “drag nights” in New York. Cusick further explains the elements in a lesbian relationship as the “power/pleasure/intimacy” triad. (71) From my understanding, this is indeed an appropriate way to observe a relationship.

As I mentioned before, power is an important factor that circulates within the relationship. What’s more, pleasure and intimacy are objectives that we usually want to achieve when we are involved someone we love, and thus they are essential bolsters of a relationship. As Cusick says, this triad can be experienced more freely in lesbian relationships, because without the power flowing only in one direction, the equality and balance between the two lovers can give them more intimacy and pleasure, both physically and psychically, from their relationship. Hence, in Cusick’s article, being a lesbian is not merely a sexual orientation; it is also the way one prefers to behave, to organize the relationship to the world in a “power/pleasure/intimacy” triad. It’s a way of refusing, breaking, and creating, and to cope with the world in a way that she prefers. And these behaviors can also be detected in a person’s musicality, which is also built in his/her identity.

More interestingly, Cusick talks about the “lesbian relationship” she has with music. She treats music as a woman, and a woman that can be a lover, and also the beloved – as in a lesbian relationship where the power circulates both ways and cross without boundaries. (78) In the article “Musicality, Essentialism, and the Closet” written by Philip Brett, he also discusses music be perceived as feminine. Brett says that in history, music has often been considered a dangerous substance, “an agent of moral ambiguity always in dander of bestowing deviant status upon its practitioners.” (11) By describing music as a woman that “ravish” our sense or our soul, people from the medieval and early modern times let us see how close music and sexuality can be. This also makes Cusick’s treating music as a female lover more sensible.

Another idea of her that interests me is that she thinks her choice of music can reflects her sexuality. She says that her love for hidden relationships and the tension between the ostensible structure, which represents the tension between a social norm and “a very high degree of eccentricity,” suggests her escape from the power system. Also, she dis-prefers music hat upset this power equilibrium. (77) She explains this by saying that her “lesbian self” let her prefer certain kinds of music and reject some other kinds. This makes me think about in general, how people’s choices of music reflect their sexuality and identity, and to what degree. I agree that the choices of music can reflect that person’s personality to some extent, but I also believe that the music he/she listens can shape that person into the qualities and personalities that the music wants him/her to have. The same as Cusick’s relationship with her music, there is a counter-influence here as well.

Rentfrow and Gosling found in their research that people’s music preferences are related to a wide array of personality dimensions and self-views. If the links between music preferences and personality do exist, we can easily infer that our choices of music reflect our identity, which also links to our sexuality. Besides, we can always see the influences of music on people. It has been shown by Frederick H. Martens that music exerts its collective influence in the course of history. He also says that as an individual influence, music is one of the factors in the life of kings and rulers, which also “has exerted a more or less direct influence on the destinies of countries and peoples.” We can see clearly from his article that music can significantly affect one’s views and thoughts on this world, therefore it is an important element in directing people’s personality and characteristics.

Hence, the relationship between a person and the music he/she listens is a mutual one. People’s preference of music decides the music they choose, and what they choose can reversely change them as well, directing them into the qualities that can be defined through that music. This can also illustrate Cusick’s point that her relationship with music is about the power dynamic that circulates both ways between music and her, and this relationship highly resembles the one between lesbian lovers. Thus, the link between music and sexuality is obvious. Furthermore, I’m wondering about how the connection between identity and sexuality works in other subjects and fields of study. Cusick says in her article that she does not address the texts of music because she thinks that they tend to trick us into staying in a “power-over paradigm that is mighty close to the regime of compulsory heterosexuality.”

Personally, I don’t entirely agree with her on this. In my opinion, other subjects such as literature and art can also illustrate one’s identity, thus they can represent people’s qualities through the ““power/pleasure/intimacy” triad as well, and so does texts in music . The reason why Cusick thinks that focusing on texts can deviates us is that her love and professional interests in music leave her only looking at music as an intimate lover. But for people from other fields and domains, their subjects can be treated as lovers and beloved as well. For example, it is reasonable to imagine a poet feels extreme intimacy in his relationship with poems. Cusick mentioned by herself in the notes that she can also find tremendous joy from cooking, and she loves to peel fruits and vegetables without a knife, because she believes it will create wholly pleasurable experiences. (83)

I would not say Cusick is also in love with vegetables, but what she says can suggest that pleasure and intimacy do not solely exist between people and music. As Pygmalion can fall in love with the statue he carved, why can’t a songwriter build a romantic tie with the texts of music he wrote? In other words, as long as we have passion, the relationship between people and his/her subject of study can be developed in any area, within which we can find its connection with sexuality.

This essay of Cusick is not very long, but the notions it contains, I believe, are really valuable sources of thoughts if we want to explore the relationship between music and sexuality, especially when we want to discover it from a perspective about our own identity and personal characteristics. Cusick has nicely shown that the boundary between music and sex can be a blurred one, where both are means of negotiating power and intimacy through the circulation of pleasure. Here, the most important is the people that involves both with music and with sex, intimately experiencing them and wholly mingling with them. As Cusick says, what really matters is neither music nor sex, but “the transcendent joy of being alive, not dead, and aware of the existence.” (69)

Works Cited:

Brett, Philip, Elizabeth Wood, and Gary Thomas. Queering the Pitch : the New Gay and Lesbian Musicology. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2006.

McClary, Susan. Reading Music : Selected Essays. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2007.

McClary, Susan. Feminine Endings : Music, Gender, and Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.

Rentfrow, Peter J, and Samuel D Gosling. “The do re miʼs of everyday life: the structure and personality correlates of music preferences.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84.6 (2003) : 1236-1256.

Frederick H. Martens. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Apr., 1925), pp. 196-218

Burnham, Scott G, and Michael P Steinberg. Beethoven and His World. Princeton [N.J.]: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Head, Matthew. “Beethoven Heroine: A Female Allegory of Music and Authorship in Egmont.” 19th-Century Music 30 (2006-07), 97-132.

If Women Ruled the World Essay

I was intrigued after ready your essay ‘What if women ruled the world’ and after reading it, I myself being a women, I discovered I have some opinions of my own; I would like to share them with you. For hundreds of years women have been classed as ‘weaker’ then men and ‘second class’ compared to men.

We get most of these believes because of what is often stated in the bible: 1 Timothy 2:12 “I do not permit a women to teach or to have authority over a man; she must remain silent” this has, in my opinion, helped shaped the fact that we see women as not as strong, or be unable to rule.

I personally disagree with what the bible says and I am a bit of a feminist, although it is up for interpretation, God also states that we are created in image of him, so we are all equality important.

In my opinion, I do think that there would be some change to the world if it was ruled by women, but not a humungous difference, I think we make such a big deal out of the fact that women are second class to men, that we have this is strange idea that if that women ruled world, it would be completely different, when realistically speaking, It wouldn’t be so different… would it? Many people say that if women ruled the world, there would be less war and more peace.

It is true that women dislike conflict more than men, but that is stereotype, a lot of women enjoy conflict and victory and being better than others so they can feel smug. They say this even if they don’t know what its like to be a leader, which they don’t, I for one am not a leader of any large government or country so I can only hardly imagine the pressure someone is put under when they have to decide whether to go to war or not, I do not think it matters what gender you are, you want to do what is best for your country and your people, it is the instinct for survival and the survival of our children.

They are under your care and you must make sure they are safe, if they are in danger of being attacked, you want them to be safe and protect your country-sometimes war is the only option, do you honestly think Winston Churchill was keen to go to war with Germany in 1939 and risk the lives of people? Sometimes you cannot do what you want, but what you must.

In your letter you state that women often experience life ‘differently’ to men, this I do agree on, although men and women are very similar, it is a fact that we think using different parts of our brains. I do think that the economically would be different, and perhaps we would be in such a bad economic state. Women do think differently to men in the way that we analyse things more thoroughly and think of different ways to find a solution.

Then again, back onto my topic of war some women do not like the thought of war, as they mostly care about their own families and the families of people they care about, and we do suffer the most in wars-as you said. if we worked with men, we could help them build bridges between countries and keep peace and ensure, as you said “broader range of issues, from food security to sexual violence, are addressed” Maybe we wouldn’t be so drastic in going to war, as I stated before, we would probably think it through and decide whether it was worth it.

Furthermore, as you said in your essay, women are more team oriented, so women could try and work together and make alliances with other countries and keep peace. In your essay you also say that, when women have more money they spend it on essential things like education and health. I think, if women ruled the world there would be less poverty as we would try and spend money on things that truly matter in LEDC’s like Africa.

If women ruled the world, if they there were less wars because of what I stated earlier, we wouldn’t have to spend much money of weapons for war, we could use that saved money to spend it on better schools and health care, so, as you said “the entire community prospers’’. In conclusion, I honestly do not know what the world would be like if it were ruled by women, for it never has been and probably will not be for a while, all we can do is purely speculate because of our believes and our own opinions. I do, however, think there would be a difference, but not a massive one.

Gender Differences in Advertisements Essay

It has been evident for the past decades that advertisers still use stereotyped images of men and women in their advertisements. This can say that the pursuit for equality is still not grasped by the society. The images we see in magazines, in televisions, in billboards portray a very old perception of gender, especially the inferiority and submissive nature of women, with their bodies used as mere sexual objects, if not, still used as household caretakers. Women are also deemed to be beautiful if they have slim bodies, fair complexion and long shiny hair.

Men, on the other hand, are portrayed to be strong, dominant and successful in their careers. For this essay, I will be showing two examples of images, which reveals the still existing gender inequality. I will be referring to some themes and issues to support my arguments. Also, for my basic analysis of advertisements, I will be using Katherine Frith’s [1998] approach in “Undressing the Ad: Reading Culture in Advertising” [Lukas, 2002].

It includes a surface meaning, the advertiser’s intended meaning, and the cultural or ideological meaning.

For the semiotic level, which connotes the social themes in advertisements, I will be applying Erving Goffman’s [1979] approach in “Gender Advertisements. ” For the first example, I will use the Gucci Magazine advertisement as shown in Figure 1 in the appendix. Just by looking at the picture, you can already see that there is gender inequality. Before dwelling into that, I will first apply a basic analysis of the ad. 1. The Surface Meaning It can be seen that there are two subjects in the picture. It is very evident that one is female, while the other one can be assumed to be male.

It is because of its masculine features, as seen in the upper body though the face was not explicitly shown. The female is down on the floor, touching the shoes of the male. She is wearing a sexy gold dress. The male is standing, wearing only khaki pants. Both clothing are assumed to be under the brand, Gucci. The setting is in the desert and the overall appeal of the image is very earthy. There are no words or taglines in the ad, just “Gucci”. 2. Advertiser’s Intended Meaning The advertiser might be showcasing the earthy tones and summer styles of Gucci, as seen in the very comfortable and breezy clothes the subjects are wearing.

There is still a certain class in the style, whether you put them in the dessert or just wherever. 3. Cultural or Ideological Meaning The picture obviously depicts the dominance of males over females. To be more detailed, we use Goffman’s approach by taking into consideration the social themes being depicted here. The positioning of the subject explicitly exposes gender bias. The man is standing while woman is down on floor. It just shows that men are in control and have power over women. The woman is way below under his legs, at his feet to be exact. She is even touching his shoes.

It reminds me of a servant, wiping the dirt of his master in the desert. The woman here really looked inferior and if we extend the picture upward, exposing the face of the man, it can be that he is looking down on her, seeing the contraction of his abdomen in the picture. Moreover, such display of abs connotes a very masculine and strong appeal. We know that men who have well developed abs are the ones who are the most physically fit. The woman on one hand is thin and sexy, with her body parts, especially the legs and the cleavage, generally exposed.

Reexamining the “Nature/Culture” Paradigm, we are reminded of the “vertical” perspective, which organizes the relationships of male and female [Tilleuil, 2002]. The woman is labeled as the dominated and the man is labeled as the dominant. According to the sociologist, Claude Herne, “”In the advertising image, in order to make the woman feel inferior, signs multiply and underline the weakness, the lack of self-confidence, fragility, hesitation, dissimulation, submission, childishness and infantilization, too. ” [Tilleuil, 2002]. This signs are very well depicted in this ad.

The woman looks fragile, and she displays a look of submission in her eyes, like a slave. This leads us to another example of an advertisement, which now depicts heavy violence to women. The ad to be examined here is figure 2 of the appendix. It is an ad from Dolce and Gabbana. 1. The Surface Meaning In the ad, there are six subjects. There are five males and one female. It looks like they are in a rooftop of some resort/hotel. Some men are wearing fitted Polos, while others are half naked. Their skins are very shiny. It looks like there’s oil or sweat in them.

One man is on top of the woman, while others are watching intently to the scene in the middle. The woman is lying down on the floor, wearing a sexy black dress and high heels. 2. Advertiser’s Intended Meaning The advertiser here is showcasing the sexy formal styles of Dolce and Gabbana, with their breezy polos, classy dresses. It looks like the clothing is part of their summer collection. 3. Cultural or Ideological Meaning/Goffman’s approach It is very evident in the picture that the scene is depicting a “gang rape”. This is extreme sexual violence right at your eyes.

Such violence is even portrayed in classy way, with the clothing of Dolce and Gabbana at display. We look back to the inferiority and submissiveness of the woman here. The woman is again down on the floor, but this time, she is lying down, about to be raped by the first guy on top of her. But we also see here that they are being watched by other men. One of them is already topless, while, one is semi-buttoned, with his chest exposed. There is also one who is only wearing a sleeveless undershirt, while the last guy is still fully dressed up. They all have this sultry look to the woman.

The woman here is about to give herself to the man, with her hips going upward. Yet, you can see that the man is locking her arms in the floor, and it looks like she cannot get away with his grasp. The woman has been the subject of sexual pleasure. Violence here is part of the pleasure package. As we have been exposed in the media, we can recall about the whipping, the slapping of women, their being tied up to different places, exposing a lot of skin, with their bodies being molded to different erotic positions. In most cases women are victims of such violence, since men being tied up would not be a delightful sight for them.

Overall, as seen in most advertisements, women are always the weaker player, being taken advantaged of men, who are more superior. Women are still being depicted as mere objects of sexual desire [Sharabi, n. d. ]. Women are seen only as domestic providers, who do not have their own decision making powers. According to the blog of “Daughter of Liberty” [2007], she said that the following are some important points to take note in advertisements: 1. Canting It can be seen through the body language that women are submissive and they have low self-confidence. For our examples, it is explicitly shown with the woman on the floor, with no control. 2.

Clowning It can be seen that women are usually posed like an innocent child in the ads, which connotes ignorance (stupidity perhaps) and practically it tells us that women are easily dominated. 3. Dependence Women are seen to be very dependent to men, which can be particularly found in the first advertisement, where the woman is touching the shoes of the man. 4. Dismemberment Dismemberment is described as focusing on a particular body part. However, for our first example, it was the man who was dismembered. 5. Dominance/violence This is evidently seen in both of our examples, especially in the Dolce and Gabbana ad, which depicts a gang rape.

I think ads these days have become more violent and more associated to sex than ever before, due to change of perception of our society. Sex and violence is not a taboo anymore, and we can just openly discuss those issues in a coffee table. However, being a more open society must teach us to be less discriminating and degrading. Women and men were created equally. More ads should focus on empowering women, like what is happening in Dove. We must not let ourselves, especially our children to be exposed to such violence because images convey very powerful images and it can impact one’s behavior.

Gender Criticism Essay

The study of human behavioral pathways can intensify the scope of how each individual is grouped according to preferences. In this aspect, it would be important to study the role of gender ideals in molding the society. Gender criticism is the overall approach in understanding the ideas about the complete make up of men and women (Bedford 1). This includes the notion acceptance of what is masculine and what is feminine.

It regards sexuality as a very complex method of classification which basically becomes a reflection of a particular culture based on what is feminine and what is masculine relative to that society’s norms.

The study does not regard sexuality as mere classification of heterosexuality and homosexuality. On the other hand, feminist criticism is a study on how the current status of the female segment came to be.

The main approach of the study is to utilize literary or language based mediums of social structure to look for certain causalities which lead to the portrayal of females to be that of an inferior species.

Moreover, the study intends to look for proofs of segments which can be derived from the literary complexities of cultures as to why male domination came into being. The offset of gender criticism may be coursed upon how feminist criticism came into being. Basically, these two concepts are not really opposites of each other but intertwined in terms of relative scopes of matters (Bedford 1).

Many experts argue that the two notions are too complicated to be separated because one factor influences the other in a continuum of understanding towards gender, tradition, sex and culture (Bedford 1). In summary, feminist criticism is actually a variation of gender criticism only that the former specifies what could have provided the avenues to let feminism achieve a kind of status delegated in most societies today.

Works Cited Bedford, “Critical Approaches. ” Virtual Lit. 1998. 3 Feb 2008 <http://bcs. bedfordstmartins. com/Virtualit/poetry/critical_define/crit_femin. html>.

Gender-role transcendence & Androgyny Essay

Gender role transcendence is the principle that involves the conceptualization of a person based on his individual competency and traits and not on the basis of his or her androgynous traits, feminine traits, and masculine traits (Santrock, 2007, p. 187). It is generally viewed as an alternative to androgyny, which is the characterized by the manifestation of both masculine and feminine traits and behaviors in a single individual (Santrock, 2007, p. 184).

The idea of androgyny initially sought to clarify the various issues regarding gender and the differences in gender roles.

However, there several reports and critics claimed that the principles behind androgyny posed more problems than solutions to the issues regarding gender. Generally, the main difference between gender-role transcendence and androgyny is the basis on which their ideas are founded on. Gender-role transcendence mainly uses an approach that is person-based.

Meaning to say, when discerning or assessing a person’s proficiency and skill, it should not be based on his or her male and female traits but rather on that person as a whole.

In other words, it involves thinking of individuals as people and not as feminine, masculine, and androgynous. Androgyny, on the other hand, focuses more on a person’s traits since it is the presence of both feminine and masculine traits in a single person. General examples of feminine characteristics include being affectionate, gentle, and refusing to use foul and profane language, among others (Santrock, 2007, p.

184). On the other hand, general examples of male characteristics include being dominant, aggressive, and willing to take risks, among others (Santrock, 2007, p. 184). Since androgyny deals with both feminine and masculine characteristics, when a male, for example, is dominant and aggressive yet is also gentle and affectionate, he is considered to be androgynous.

References Santrock, J. W. (2007). Adolescence 12th edition. McGraw-Hill/Social Sciences/Languages.

Roles of Women in the Iron Age Essay

Throughout time, the social role of women has been varied, especially throughout the Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze and Iron ages. Taking a snap shot of this diversity during the same time period will demonstrate the vast differences of women’s social roles. While some societies considered women as being equal to man, becoming warriors and heroes, other societies treated women as second class citizens or worse. This paper aims at explaining the roles of the Celtic and Middle Eastern women within their communities during the early Iron Age.

Through comparison, this view point will examine that snap shot of different societies during, roughly, the same time period. The Role of Celtic Women In ancient Celtic societies, women had many rights and freedoms that were not offered to women in other societies during the Iron Age (the archaeological period after the Bronze Age and characterized by the widespread use of iron). Celtic women enjoyed the ability to achieve a higher status and serve as chieftains, druids, poets, healers, warriors, diplomats, and judges.

Women were not forced to take these roles, as many took on the more traditional role as wives and mothers.

This ability to determine ones fate is a freedom that would not be extended to women on a widespread notion until the late twentieth century of Western civilizations. Due to the use of marriage as a binding tool for different clans, women were allowed unparalleled rights of divorce and property unlike women of the same time period. The Celtic women had an equal say in the creation of their marriage contract and the distribution of land to the heirs of the family. Unlike any other civilization of the early Iron Age, or beyond, the Celtic women were not only allowed to become warriors, they were expected to be so.

In the Celtic society, women were expected to fight alongside men, as the protection of their land was seen as everyone’s business. The Celtic women were fierce and usually described as, “usually very strong, has blue eyes; in rage her neck veins swell; she gnashes her teeth, and brandishes her snow white robust arms. She begins to strike blows mingled with kicks, as if they were so many missiles sent from the string of a catapult. The voices of these women are formidable, even when they are not angry but being friendly. Many Celtic women were powerful, strong and played important roles in response to the high stature, of which they were held.

These women were very distinct and rare in this time period, since they enjoyed many freedoms and rights that other societies did not offer their own women. The Role of Middle Eastern Women Views of the roles of Middle Eastern women vary amongst the historian reporting it; the Middle Eastern studies professor William Montgomery Watts defined the status of Middle Eastern women as suppressed possessions. Dr. Watts reported women were under the customary tribal law, and as a general rule had virtually no legal status.

They were sold into marriage by their guardian for a price paid to the guardian, the husband could terminate the union at will, and women had little or no property or rights. They were subordinate to their fathers, brothers, and husbands. There was also evidence of homicidal abuse of women and girls, including instances of killing female infants alive. Historian Hatoon al-Fossi suggests that, Middle Eastern women lost many of their rights through ancient Greek and Roman law prior to the arrival of Islam and that the Greco-Roman constraints were retained under Islam.

Others writers, on the contrary, have argued that there were instances where women held high positions of power and authority. They participated in public works, as counselors, held religious offices and accompanied warriors to the battlefront as encouragers, helpers and were also found to be the strategic and courageous leaders of the forces. In some tribes, women were emancipated even in comparison with many of today standards that women enjoy. Therefore, there is no single definition of the role played by the Middle Eastern women during the Iron Age, prior to the advent of Islam.

Comparison of Celtic and Middle Eastern Women In both the Celtic and Middle Eastern civilizations (although for the Middle Eastern this was only in some cases) women could participate in public offices, as mediators, and could hold religious offices. Both types of women were found to be intelligent within their respective societies. However, in many ways the Celtic and Middle Eastern societies were diverse, as the Celtic women had many freedoms and were seen equal to men, while Middle Eastern women were seen as low class citizens or worse and had virtually no legal status.

Celtic women were equal in a marriage and could choose their own husband while Middle Eastern women were sold into marriage by a parent or guardian and had little or no say in the marriage contract, property rights, or succession. In some instances, Middle Eastern girls would be killed if seen as a burden or disgrace to a family or tribe. While in the Celtic society women were held in high regard and were seen as equals to men. Conclusion In conclusion, the role of women throughout history has been very diverse.

Some women have been rulers, warriors, and merchants, while others have been treated as slaves, lower class citizens and wives. The role of women is very dependent on the specific culture and time period. Celtic women were distinct in the Iron Age for the liberty and rights they enjoyed and positions they held in their society, while most women in the Middle Eastern culture have throughout history experienced discrimination and have been subject to restrictions of their freedoms and rights. Some based on religious beliefs, but many are cultural limitations.

This snap shot of two cultures within the relatively same era has proven to be a prime example of the generally accepted notions of women within ancient civilizations. One point must be remembered about the history of women…they were reported by men. One could not now definitively sustain or deny the rights of women at the time, and bias must be taken into account. Taken as is, the rights of the Celtic women are not even matched today, mainly because of warrior status, but the role of women within the Middle Eastern civilizations has remained fairly consistent, even post Islamic diffusion.

Sexual Imagery in the Media Essay

You are watching TV and you see the latest celebrity that pops onto the television screen who is dressed in revealing clothing, which has now become the definition of ‘sexy’ in today’s society. Sex and sexuality surround us, through television, magazines, music videos and clothing which essentially give a message to the viewer that sex should be spontaneous and free in order to be fulfilling. Adolescences and young children watch television all the time. What happens when they start watching the music channels? The premiere of a new song by some hip-hop group comes on and the very first concern is the sexual activity.

It is too much, too inappropriate and too accessible to these young eye. Within a few seconds, six sexy women charge the scene like a stampede of wild horses from an old western flick. They enter into your sight wearing shirts that seem to be three sizes too small. The white tank tops grip the women s breast so firmly that the cleavage generated is overwhelming.

The faces of these women are layered in makeup to create the look of perfection. All the men gain is viewing pleasure. To younger girls, this is the type of media that can influence minds and can create irresponsible sexuality as it can give teens the wrong idea of gender roles and body image. An article that was published by the courier mail on September 21, 2012 suggested that music videos could be banned from daytime broadcast under a plan by a federal Labor MP to protect children from exposure to sexual imagery. Labor MP Amanda Rishworth said sexual music videos are unacceptable that such graphic clips were being broadcast on morning television. She also stated that children are consuming sexualised images of women and girls on a daily basis and parents are often alarmed when they see the sort of music video clips on TV every Saturday morning, screened in programs clearly aimed at children and teenagers. Sexually explicit ads and music videos are threatening children’s innocence.

Explicit ads such as Supre, a teenage clothing brand once had a commercial featuring a topless model covering her breasts. What type of a message are ads like these trying to get across? That young girls should behave in a sexually inappropriate manner in order to appear desirable? An article in the Herald Sun by Evonne Barry and Michael Harvey on October 6, 2012 stated that the Federal Government should step in to protect kids from sexual imagery. Images like these (show powerpoint) influence young teenage girls to dress inappropriately and feel like women have to look like this all the time. Magazines are also filled with images of what women are supposed to look like.

With the media constantly invading the lives of woman with these types of images, it is no wonder teens begin to believe in the standards, of what woman should really look like. However, throughout history, sex has been used as a selling tool. Yes, sex sells. When it comes to advertising and sales, we naturally turn to eye candy, pretty women and men who are the ideal faces of persuasion. Popular men’s magazines like Maxim and FHM have experimented often with their covers.

Overwhelmingly, when a sexy, semi-naked woman appears on the cover, it outperforms an image of a male star, even if that star is someone men want to read about. Whether it sells a product or not, many agree that sex will attract attention. Sex sells everywhere, even in music videos. Boy band sensations such as Backstreet Boys or even One Direction are perfect examples. Sure, they can sing, but would they really sell 50 million records if they were fat and ugly? Between the artists, and the extras in their videos, sex has a good grip on the music industry, which will only get tighter with time.

Gender Discrimination in Media Essay


This study examines women’s participation and representation in media. This study is based on the statistics of media units in Solapur city. Women constitute nearly 50% of population in every Indian city, but the participation of women in media is very low. Discussions of women’s representation in the media tend to revolve around the focus on physical beauty to the near-exclusion of other values. It is observed that media content about women issues is biased and gender discrimination is clearly visible .

This study also suggests the ways to increase the women participation in media and the ways to rational representation of women in media.


Women constitute nearly 50% of population in India. Our social system boasts that it has given mother goddess status to women since the ancient period. But in reality society builds psychological barriers around women. This male dominated society imposed so many bindings against women. Therefore role of women was confined only to the kitchen and kids for many years.

Social movement started by Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Mahatma Phule, Savitribai Phule, Maharshi Karve and other social activists opened doors for women’s education. Women have benefited greatly as education provided information to them about their rights and their equal status in the society. In spite of these efforts and the 65 year long journey since India’s independence , our nation is lagging behind in many basic things.

World Economic Forum conducted a study to measure gender gap. The Global Gender Gap Index examines the gap between men and women in four fundamental categories: economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival and political empowerment. According to this Gender Gap Report-2011, India is included among the 20 countries, where the gender gap is widest. It holds 113th position among 134 countries in the world. This report explains that “India and Pakistan perform above average on the political empowerment of women, particularly India, but they lag behind in the other three categories.

In particular, the persistent health, education and economic participation gaps will be detrimental to India’s growth. India is the lowest ranked of the BRICK economies” (

After India’s independence Women’s role in society has undergone seismic changes, which has been reflected in every walk of life. Women stepped out of four walls and succeeded in each and every field. Now women are working as pilots, soldiers, doctors, engineers, lawyers, politicians and proving their mettle in all fields. But it is ground reality that basic structure of male dominated society and roles and presumptions about women’s worlds remain the same. Still the life of majority of women in India remains unchanged. . The women who got benefited through education and succeeded to grab a job have to destine to face male supremacy. Gender discrimination is visible at every moment. Decision- making positions are not accessible for women. Many times working women have to face humiliation.

Scenario in the field of media

Scenario in the field of media also does not differ from it. Media Still remains as men’s world and this is global phenomena. According to the research conducted by International Women’s Media Foundation( IWMF ) 73% of the top management jobs are occupied by men compared to 27% occupied by women,Among the rank of reports , men hold nearl y two thirds of the jobs, compared to 36% held by women. These findings were collected by more than 150 researchers who interviewed executives at more than 500 companies in 59 nations. ( According to this report statistics of women’s participation in Indian media is 13. 8 % ( e.g. Chief Executive Officer ) at top management , 23.3 % ( e.g. News Directors) in senior management ,18.3% ( Chief Correspondent ) in middle management and 25.5 % ( Reportes, Sub-editors ) at junior professional level .

This report reveals that women’s participation in Indian media is very low and gender discrimination is the only reason behind this. Media sector in India is very strong and particularly India ranks second in circulation of newspaper copies in the world. “The new figures show that the four largest markets for newspapers are: China with 107 million copies daily; India, with 99 million copies daily; Japan with 69 million copies daily; and the United States, with nearly 51 million.” 1 Marathi newspapers in Maharashtra are also enjoying better position. Two Marathi newspapers Lokmat and Sakal are placed among India’s top 10 largest circulated regional dailies in the IRS first quarterly report 2012 . Lokmat is at second position and Sakal is at tenth position in this list. ( “ Women participation in Indian media is negligible.

Though a few women were appointed by the media many were not given big responsibilities. The media should be more responsible when it comes to reporting of women’s issues.” 2 This picture is same in Mahashtra state. Solapur city is 7 th populated city in Maharastra .Population of Solapur is more than 12 lacks. There are seven dailies having circulation of more than 25000 copies per day. But participation of women in newspapers editorial staff is negligible. It is observed that young women taking admissions to the media courses is increasing during last few years. But job opportunities are not easily accessible for them. Situation in electronic media seems better than newspapers.

Table no 1: Ratio of Women’s Participation in Editorial staff of Daily Newspapers in Solapur

This statistics clearly reveals that women’s participation in these newspapers as reporters, sub-editors, editors is less than 3%. Women journalists are confined generally to the table duties to edit women’s page or to cover cultural events arranged for women. Important beats such as political beat, crime beat does not allotted to the female journalists. They work on junior levels .In decision making process women’s participation almost neglected in all newspapers.

Table no 2 : Womens participation in electronic media in Solapur

Sr no| Media Unit | Male Journalists | Female Journalists| total| 1| AIR Solapur| 05 (71..42%)| 02 (18.58%)| 06|
2| Big 92.7 FM| 03 (100.00%)| 0(00.00%)| 04|
3| IN Solapur TV channel| 08 (80.0%)| 02 (20.0%)| 10|
4| Reporters of TV channels| 09 (90.0%) | 01 (10.0%)| 10| | Total| 23 (83.34%)| 05 (16.66%)| 30|

Women participation in electronic media is 16.66% as compared to mere 1.97 % in newspapers.

Solapur Working Journalist Union is organization of all journalist belonging to print and electronic media in Solapur .( Table no.3 ) Not a single female journalist included among total 125 members of Solapur Working Journalist’s Union

Table no 3: Members of Solapur Working Journalist Union

Male Journalists | Female Journalists|
125 ( 100%)| 00 ( 00 % )|

Male dominated media managements are not allowing access to the woman journalists. According to the executives of the media, woman journalists cannot work in the night shifts and they are reluctant to cover every beat assigned to them .That’s why we prefers male journalists for the job. This gender biased assumption of the media managements is contrary to the real facts. Women are actively participating in every walk of life such as armed forces, space science, entrepreneurship, education, engineering etc.They work hard without any concessions and proved their mettle. These examples prove that women are going hand-in-hand with men in every field. Therefore women can do their best in the field of media. Barkha Dutt, Nalini Singh, Mrinal Pandey, Sucheta Dalal are some prominent examples of women journalists doing brilliant job than male journalists. It reveals that only reason for the less participation of women in media is the gender bias of the management.

Women’s Representation in Media

Media plays an important role in the dissemination of information and knowledge to the masses. It is the role of the media to educate people and to guide them for the development of society and nation. But media content about women issues is alwayes biased and gender discrimination is clearly visible in it. Most of the woman’s organizations blame on media that it is responsible for biased and stereotype portrayal of women. Any society cannot progress without upliftment and empowerment of women .But Indian media is engaged in portraying women as housewives.” Feminists objected to the stereotypical portrayal of women as happy home- makers who were less competent than men.” 3 Now women are active participants in every walk of life. Therefore it is important to to properly project the image of women as role model. For these purpose women participation in media should be increased.

But mere participation does not change the situation. .“A large proportion of women thought that there would be a change in program content with as increase in proportion of female employees program quality would improve and more balanced perspective would be emerge. .” 4 Mrs. Suhas Kumar rightly suggested that “Women must become active participants in the field of journalism and other fields of media to fulfill the all-round development of women directly and indirectly.only through their involvement in journalism women will be able to speak for themselvesand the issues relevant to them”. 8 Therefore it is necessary to appoint women as decision makers in the newspapers. Special training must be given to all editorial staff about the equality principle and the rights of women as human being.


Male dominated newspaper industry is reluctant to give access to women journalists. Women journalists are not assigned to cover important issues. News related to women issues covered by male journalists cannot give justification to the issue. There are no guidelines for reservations for women in media jobs.Mere increases in number of women journalists cannot change the gender bias in media.


At the end, this study concludes with some suggestions (a) There is need to recruit women journalists in proportion, giving them equal opportunity and access to work in media. (b) The important women’s issues must be rported by women journalist. (c) Special guidelines should be given to all the journalists about projecting positive and real image of woman, without any bias. (d) There should be a provision to punish guilty persons for portraying women as commodity in any advertisement, news, article etc.


1. The Hindu online edition ,New Delhi, Jan,10, 2011.8

2. The Hindu online edition ,New Delhi, June,4 ,2008
3.Thakurta Paranjoy,Media Ethics : Truth, Fairness and Objectivity,Oxford