Roles of Women in the Iron Age Essay

Throughout time, the social role of women has been varied, especially throughout the Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze and Iron ages. Taking a snap shot of this diversity during the same time period will demonstrate the vast differences of women’s social roles. While some societies considered women as being equal to man, becoming warriors and heroes, other societies treated women as second class citizens or worse. This paper aims at explaining the roles of the Celtic and Middle Eastern women within their communities during the early Iron Age.

Through comparison, this view point will examine that snap shot of different societies during, roughly, the same time period. The Role of Celtic Women In ancient Celtic societies, women had many rights and freedoms that were not offered to women in other societies during the Iron Age (the archaeological period after the Bronze Age and characterized by the widespread use of iron). Celtic women enjoyed the ability to achieve a higher status and serve as chieftains, druids, poets, healers, warriors, diplomats, and judges.

Women were not forced to take these roles, as many took on the more traditional role as wives and mothers.

This ability to determine ones fate is a freedom that would not be extended to women on a widespread notion until the late twentieth century of Western civilizations. Due to the use of marriage as a binding tool for different clans, women were allowed unparalleled rights of divorce and property unlike women of the same time period. The Celtic women had an equal say in the creation of their marriage contract and the distribution of land to the heirs of the family. Unlike any other civilization of the early Iron Age, or beyond, the Celtic women were not only allowed to become warriors, they were expected to be so.

In the Celtic society, women were expected to fight alongside men, as the protection of their land was seen as everyone’s business. The Celtic women were fierce and usually described as, “usually very strong, has blue eyes; in rage her neck veins swell; she gnashes her teeth, and brandishes her snow white robust arms. She begins to strike blows mingled with kicks, as if they were so many missiles sent from the string of a catapult. The voices of these women are formidable, even when they are not angry but being friendly. Many Celtic women were powerful, strong and played important roles in response to the high stature, of which they were held.

These women were very distinct and rare in this time period, since they enjoyed many freedoms and rights that other societies did not offer their own women. The Role of Middle Eastern Women Views of the roles of Middle Eastern women vary amongst the historian reporting it; the Middle Eastern studies professor William Montgomery Watts defined the status of Middle Eastern women as suppressed possessions. Dr. Watts reported women were under the customary tribal law, and as a general rule had virtually no legal status.

They were sold into marriage by their guardian for a price paid to the guardian, the husband could terminate the union at will, and women had little or no property or rights. They were subordinate to their fathers, brothers, and husbands. There was also evidence of homicidal abuse of women and girls, including instances of killing female infants alive. Historian Hatoon al-Fossi suggests that, Middle Eastern women lost many of their rights through ancient Greek and Roman law prior to the arrival of Islam and that the Greco-Roman constraints were retained under Islam.

Others writers, on the contrary, have argued that there were instances where women held high positions of power and authority. They participated in public works, as counselors, held religious offices and accompanied warriors to the battlefront as encouragers, helpers and were also found to be the strategic and courageous leaders of the forces. In some tribes, women were emancipated even in comparison with many of today standards that women enjoy. Therefore, there is no single definition of the role played by the Middle Eastern women during the Iron Age, prior to the advent of Islam.

Comparison of Celtic and Middle Eastern Women In both the Celtic and Middle Eastern civilizations (although for the Middle Eastern this was only in some cases) women could participate in public offices, as mediators, and could hold religious offices. Both types of women were found to be intelligent within their respective societies. However, in many ways the Celtic and Middle Eastern societies were diverse, as the Celtic women had many freedoms and were seen equal to men, while Middle Eastern women were seen as low class citizens or worse and had virtually no legal status.

Celtic women were equal in a marriage and could choose their own husband while Middle Eastern women were sold into marriage by a parent or guardian and had little or no say in the marriage contract, property rights, or succession. In some instances, Middle Eastern girls would be killed if seen as a burden or disgrace to a family or tribe. While in the Celtic society women were held in high regard and were seen as equals to men. Conclusion In conclusion, the role of women throughout history has been very diverse.

Some women have been rulers, warriors, and merchants, while others have been treated as slaves, lower class citizens and wives. The role of women is very dependent on the specific culture and time period. Celtic women were distinct in the Iron Age for the liberty and rights they enjoyed and positions they held in their society, while most women in the Middle Eastern culture have throughout history experienced discrimination and have been subject to restrictions of their freedoms and rights. Some based on religious beliefs, but many are cultural limitations.

This snap shot of two cultures within the relatively same era has proven to be a prime example of the generally accepted notions of women within ancient civilizations. One point must be remembered about the history of women…they were reported by men. One could not now definitively sustain or deny the rights of women at the time, and bias must be taken into account. Taken as is, the rights of the Celtic women are not even matched today, mainly because of warrior status, but the role of women within the Middle Eastern civilizations has remained fairly consistent, even post Islamic diffusion.

Sexual Imagery in the Media Essay

You are watching TV and you see the latest celebrity that pops onto the television screen who is dressed in revealing clothing, which has now become the definition of ‘sexy’ in today’s society. Sex and sexuality surround us, through television, magazines, music videos and clothing which essentially give a message to the viewer that sex should be spontaneous and free in order to be fulfilling. Adolescences and young children watch television all the time. What happens when they start watching the music channels? The premiere of a new song by some hip-hop group comes on and the very first concern is the sexual activity.

It is too much, too inappropriate and too accessible to these young eye. Within a few seconds, six sexy women charge the scene like a stampede of wild horses from an old western flick. They enter into your sight wearing shirts that seem to be three sizes too small. The white tank tops grip the women s breast so firmly that the cleavage generated is overwhelming.

The faces of these women are layered in makeup to create the look of perfection. All the men gain is viewing pleasure. To younger girls, this is the type of media that can influence minds and can create irresponsible sexuality as it can give teens the wrong idea of gender roles and body image. An article that was published by the courier mail on September 21, 2012 suggested that music videos could be banned from daytime broadcast under a plan by a federal Labor MP to protect children from exposure to sexual imagery. Labor MP Amanda Rishworth said sexual music videos are unacceptable that such graphic clips were being broadcast on morning television. She also stated that children are consuming sexualised images of women and girls on a daily basis and parents are often alarmed when they see the sort of music video clips on TV every Saturday morning, screened in programs clearly aimed at children and teenagers. Sexually explicit ads and music videos are threatening children’s innocence.

Explicit ads such as Supre, a teenage clothing brand once had a commercial featuring a topless model covering her breasts. What type of a message are ads like these trying to get across? That young girls should behave in a sexually inappropriate manner in order to appear desirable? An article in the Herald Sun by Evonne Barry and Michael Harvey on October 6, 2012 stated that the Federal Government should step in to protect kids from sexual imagery. Images like these (show powerpoint) influence young teenage girls to dress inappropriately and feel like women have to look like this all the time. Magazines are also filled with images of what women are supposed to look like.

With the media constantly invading the lives of woman with these types of images, it is no wonder teens begin to believe in the standards, of what woman should really look like. However, throughout history, sex has been used as a selling tool. Yes, sex sells. When it comes to advertising and sales, we naturally turn to eye candy, pretty women and men who are the ideal faces of persuasion. Popular men’s magazines like Maxim and FHM have experimented often with their covers.

Overwhelmingly, when a sexy, semi-naked woman appears on the cover, it outperforms an image of a male star, even if that star is someone men want to read about. Whether it sells a product or not, many agree that sex will attract attention. Sex sells everywhere, even in music videos. Boy band sensations such as Backstreet Boys or even One Direction are perfect examples. Sure, they can sing, but would they really sell 50 million records if they were fat and ugly? Between the artists, and the extras in their videos, sex has a good grip on the music industry, which will only get tighter with time.

Gender Discrimination in Media Essay

Abstract

This study examines women’s participation and representation in media. This study is based on the statistics of media units in Solapur city. Women constitute nearly 50% of population in every Indian city, but the participation of women in media is very low. Discussions of women’s representation in the media tend to revolve around the focus on physical beauty to the near-exclusion of other values. It is observed that media content about women issues is biased and gender discrimination is clearly visible .

This study also suggests the ways to increase the women participation in media and the ways to rational representation of women in media.

Introduction:

Women constitute nearly 50% of population in India. Our social system boasts that it has given mother goddess status to women since the ancient period. But in reality society builds psychological barriers around women. This male dominated society imposed so many bindings against women. Therefore role of women was confined only to the kitchen and kids for many years.

Social movement started by Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Mahatma Phule, Savitribai Phule, Maharshi Karve and other social activists opened doors for women’s education. Women have benefited greatly as education provided information to them about their rights and their equal status in the society. In spite of these efforts and the 65 year long journey since India’s independence , our nation is lagging behind in many basic things.

World Economic Forum conducted a study to measure gender gap. The Global Gender Gap Index examines the gap between men and women in four fundamental categories: economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival and political empowerment. According to this Gender Gap Report-2011, India is included among the 20 countries, where the gender gap is widest. It holds 113th position among 134 countries in the world. This report explains that “India and Pakistan perform above average on the political empowerment of women, particularly India, but they lag behind in the other three categories.

In particular, the persistent health, education and economic participation gaps will be detrimental to India’s growth. India is the lowest ranked of the BRICK economies” (http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2011.pdf)

After India’s independence Women’s role in society has undergone seismic changes, which has been reflected in every walk of life. Women stepped out of four walls and succeeded in each and every field. Now women are working as pilots, soldiers, doctors, engineers, lawyers, politicians and proving their mettle in all fields. But it is ground reality that basic structure of male dominated society and roles and presumptions about women’s worlds remain the same. Still the life of majority of women in India remains unchanged. . The women who got benefited through education and succeeded to grab a job have to destine to face male supremacy. Gender discrimination is visible at every moment. Decision- making positions are not accessible for women. Many times working women have to face humiliation.

Scenario in the field of media

Scenario in the field of media also does not differ from it. Media Still remains as men’s world and this is global phenomena. According to the research conducted by International Women’s Media Foundation( IWMF ) 73% of the top management jobs are occupied by men compared to 27% occupied by women,Among the rank of reports , men hold nearl y two thirds of the jobs, compared to 36% held by women. These findings were collected by more than 150 researchers who interviewed executives at more than 500 companies in 59 nations. (http://iwmf.org/pioneering-change/global-research-on-women-in-the-news-media/global-report-online-version.aspx) According to this report statistics of women’s participation in Indian media is 13. 8 % ( e.g. Chief Executive Officer ) at top management , 23.3 % ( e.g. News Directors) in senior management ,18.3% ( Chief Correspondent ) in middle management and 25.5 % ( Reportes, Sub-editors ) at junior professional level .

This report reveals that women’s participation in Indian media is very low and gender discrimination is the only reason behind this. Media sector in India is very strong and particularly India ranks second in circulation of newspaper copies in the world. “The new figures show that the four largest markets for newspapers are: China with 107 million copies daily; India, with 99 million copies daily; Japan with 69 million copies daily; and the United States, with nearly 51 million.” 1 Marathi newspapers in Maharashtra are also enjoying better position. Two Marathi newspapers Lokmat and Sakal are placed among India’s top 10 largest circulated regional dailies in the IRS first quarterly report 2012 . Lokmat is at second position and Sakal is at tenth position in this list. (http://mruc.net/irs2012q1-topline-findings.pdf) “ Women participation in Indian media is negligible.

Though a few women were appointed by the media many were not given big responsibilities. The media should be more responsible when it comes to reporting of women’s issues.” 2 This picture is same in Mahashtra state. Solapur city is 7 th populated city in Maharastra .Population of Solapur is more than 12 lacks. There are seven dailies having circulation of more than 25000 copies per day. But participation of women in newspapers editorial staff is negligible. It is observed that young women taking admissions to the media courses is increasing during last few years. But job opportunities are not easily accessible for them. Situation in electronic media seems better than newspapers.

Table no 1: Ratio of Women’s Participation in Editorial staff of Daily Newspapers in Solapur

This statistics clearly reveals that women’s participation in these newspapers as reporters, sub-editors, editors is less than 3%. Women journalists are confined generally to the table duties to edit women’s page or to cover cultural events arranged for women. Important beats such as political beat, crime beat does not allotted to the female journalists. They work on junior levels .In decision making process women’s participation almost neglected in all newspapers.

Table no 2 : Womens participation in electronic media in Solapur

Sr no| Media Unit | Male Journalists | Female Journalists| total| 1| AIR Solapur| 05 (71..42%)| 02 (18.58%)| 06|
2| Big 92.7 FM| 03 (100.00%)| 0(00.00%)| 04|
3| IN Solapur TV channel| 08 (80.0%)| 02 (20.0%)| 10|
4| Reporters of TV channels| 09 (90.0%) | 01 (10.0%)| 10| | Total| 23 (83.34%)| 05 (16.66%)| 30|

Women participation in electronic media is 16.66% as compared to mere 1.97 % in newspapers.

Solapur Working Journalist Union is organization of all journalist belonging to print and electronic media in Solapur .( Table no.3 ) Not a single female journalist included among total 125 members of Solapur Working Journalist’s Union

Table no 3: Members of Solapur Working Journalist Union

Male Journalists | Female Journalists|
125 ( 100%)| 00 ( 00 % )|

Male dominated media managements are not allowing access to the woman journalists. According to the executives of the media, woman journalists cannot work in the night shifts and they are reluctant to cover every beat assigned to them .That’s why we prefers male journalists for the job. This gender biased assumption of the media managements is contrary to the real facts. Women are actively participating in every walk of life such as armed forces, space science, entrepreneurship, education, engineering etc.They work hard without any concessions and proved their mettle. These examples prove that women are going hand-in-hand with men in every field. Therefore women can do their best in the field of media. Barkha Dutt, Nalini Singh, Mrinal Pandey, Sucheta Dalal are some prominent examples of women journalists doing brilliant job than male journalists. It reveals that only reason for the less participation of women in media is the gender bias of the management.

Women’s Representation in Media

Media plays an important role in the dissemination of information and knowledge to the masses. It is the role of the media to educate people and to guide them for the development of society and nation. But media content about women issues is alwayes biased and gender discrimination is clearly visible in it. Most of the woman’s organizations blame on media that it is responsible for biased and stereotype portrayal of women. Any society cannot progress without upliftment and empowerment of women .But Indian media is engaged in portraying women as housewives.” Feminists objected to the stereotypical portrayal of women as happy home- makers who were less competent than men.” 3 Now women are active participants in every walk of life. Therefore it is important to to properly project the image of women as role model. For these purpose women participation in media should be increased.

But mere participation does not change the situation. .“A large proportion of women thought that there would be a change in program content with as increase in proportion of female employees program quality would improve and more balanced perspective would be emerge. .” 4 Mrs. Suhas Kumar rightly suggested that “Women must become active participants in the field of journalism and other fields of media to fulfill the all-round development of women directly and indirectly.only through their involvement in journalism women will be able to speak for themselvesand the issues relevant to them”. 8 Therefore it is necessary to appoint women as decision makers in the newspapers. Special training must be given to all editorial staff about the equality principle and the rights of women as human being.

Conclusion:

Male dominated newspaper industry is reluctant to give access to women journalists. Women journalists are not assigned to cover important issues. News related to women issues covered by male journalists cannot give justification to the issue. There are no guidelines for reservations for women in media jobs.Mere increases in number of women journalists cannot change the gender bias in media.

Suggestions:

At the end, this study concludes with some suggestions (a) There is need to recruit women journalists in proportion, giving them equal opportunity and access to work in media. (b) The important women’s issues must be rported by women journalist. (c) Special guidelines should be given to all the journalists about projecting positive and real image of woman, without any bias. (d) There should be a provision to punish guilty persons for portraying women as commodity in any advertisement, news, article etc.

References

1. The Hindu online edition ,New Delhi, Jan,10, 2011.8

2. The Hindu online edition ,New Delhi, June,4 ,2008
3.Thakurta Paranjoy,Media Ethics : Truth, Fairness and Objectivity,Oxford

Gender Schema Theory Essay

What is gender schema theory? Gender schema theory was formally introduced by Sandra Bem in 1981 as a cognitive theory to explain how individuals become gendered in society, and how sex-linked characteristics are maintained and transmitted to other members of a culture. Gender-associated information is predominantly transmuted through society by way of schemata, or networks of information that allow for some information to be more easily assimilated than others. Bem argues that there are individual differences in the degree to which people hold these gender schemata.

These differences are manifested via the degree to which individuals are sex-typed. It concerns the development of an internal schema, or mental framework, which organizes and directs the behavior of an individual as a male or female. For example, the gender schema of being female might include the proposition “I am a girl, so I play with dolls, not trucks.”

As every person should know male and female children become “masculine” and “feminine”, and mainly at a very young age.

By the time they are four years of age, for example, girls and boys are typically come to prefer activities defined by the culture as appropriate for their sex and also to prefer same-sex peers. The acquisition of sex-appropriate preferences, skills, personality attributes, behaviors, and self-concept is typically referred to within psychology as sex-typing.

When children are younger, including me, parents tell the girls don’t play with cars, those are for boys. Girls play with dolls, and because you are a girl you must play with dolls, and vice versa for the males. The children gain and follow this information as they go on they are being punished or rewarded for their actions. For example, the girl will stop playing with the toy car, and won’t be yelled at by her parents for playing with a boy’s toy. As the years go by they believe all of this is true because people tell them it is and their culture also tells them this so they continue with this information.

Gender roles in Sitcoms Essay

“Gender is the crucial factor in characterization in the majority of sitcoms. Up until the impact of feminism in the 1970s, in the UK at least, it is clear that most of the successful sitcoms featured leading male characters (Hancock, Steptoe, Dad’s Army, Till Death Do Us Part, Porridge etc.). Women were more likely to feature in ‘ensemble casts’ – The Rag Trade, Are You Being Served? This was also a function of the employment opportunities for women. Since the 1970s, women in leading roles have been more common (but the most successful comedies have tended to be based on couples rather than single women).

” (Roy Stafford, TV Sitcoms and Gender, ONLINE)

Based on television analysis it is very simple to notice what it means to be a mother, from the television’s perspective: to be a mother means to cook when your husband is hungry, to clean the house when necessary, to take care of the children etc. To be a father means to work and to come home expecting a cooked meal for whenever you are hungry, to make the tough decisions and to be the dominate figure in the household.

Television is saying a lot about the roles of male and female couples. In what concerns the female types in sitcoms, Roy Stafford suggested a specific classification, across comedy and drama since the 1950s:

• Matron/Working Battleaxes • Sexy assistant • Business matriarch • Woman in a Man’s World • The Vamp (1980s) • Woman in Power • Women who fight other women • Woman who watches her ‘biological clock’

For my paper I chose to talk about three different sitcoms, namely: Bewitched (1964 –1972), The Nanny (1993–1999) and Cougar Town (2009).

Bewitched (1964–1972)

“A young-looking witch named Samantha meets and marries a mortal named Darrin Stephens. While Samantha pledges to forsake her powers and become a typical suburban housewife, her magical family disapproves of the mixed marriage and frequently interferes in the couple’s lives. Episodes often begin with Darrin becoming the victim of a spell, the effects of which wreak havoc with mortals such as his boss, clients, parents, and neighbors. By the epilogue, however, Darrin and Samantha most often embrace, having overcome the devious elements that failed to separate them.

The witches, most having names ending with the soft “-a” sound, and their male counterparts, known as “warlocks”, are very long-lived; while Samantha appears to be in her twenties, many episodes suggest she is actually hundreds of years old. To keep their society secret, witches avoid showing their powers in front of mortals other than Darrin. Nevertheless, the perplexing inexplicable effects of their spells and Samantha’s attempts to hide their supernatural origin from mortals drive the plot of most episodes. Witches and warlocks usually use physical gestures along with their magical spells, and sometimes spoken incantations.

Most notably, Samantha often twitches her nose to perform a spell. Modest but effective special visual effects are accompanied by music to highlight the magic.” (Wikipedia, Bewitched, ONLINE) “Bewitched” is one of the many examples were the father goes out to work and the mother stays at home, cleaning, cooking, taking care of the children. Samantha attempts to denounce or leave her witch world behind because she is now married to Darrin, a mere mortal, for whom she would do anything. She is a home-loving wife who does everything to support her husband by promising to leave her magical powers at the door in order to try to live a normal life as a housewife.

The Nanny (1993–1999)

”Jewish-American Fran Fine, fresh out of her job as a bridal consultant in her fiance’s shop, first appears on the door step of Broadway producer Maxwell Sheffield (Charles Shaughnessy) peddling cosmetics, and quickly stumbles upon the opportunity to become the nanny for his three children. Soon Fran, with her off-beat nurturing and no-nonsense honesty, touches the whole family as she gives the prim-and-proper Maxwell and his children a dose of ‘Queens logic,’ helping them to become a healthy, happy family, a family that she later fully joins when she becomes engaged and then married to Maxwell.

She then adds to this family of five when she and Maxwell have fraternal twins. Other characters include sardonic butler Niles (Daniel Davis), and Maxwell’s socialite business partner C.C. Babcock (Lauren Lane), who views Fran with jealousy and skepticism.” (Wikipedia, The Nanny, ONLINE) ”The Nanny” ” is no longer the type of sitcom where the wife stays at home and just her husband goes to work. Compared with ”Bewitched”, this sitcom is more modern and more different in what concerns the gender roles. Fran Fine is no longer just a home-loving wife who does everything to support her husband, but she exposes her point of view and most often she dose so as everyone to do as she wants to. She has a stronger character and is more independent comparing with Samantha.

Cougar Town (2009)

”Jules Cobb – a recently divorced single mother exploring the truths about dating and aging. Jules spent most of her 20s and 30s married to Bobby and raising a son, Travis. She tried to relive her 20s and make up for lost time by dating younger men, but has since come to terms with the limitations of her age and has had relationships with men her age. She resides in a small town in Florida and is a real estate agent who is successful in business. Because she has been out of the dating world for a while, Jules discovers it is difficult to find love again.[10]

A close-up of her driver’s license in a season 2 episode reveals her full first name to be Julia and her birth date to be November 15, 1968 (age 43).” (Wikipedia, Cougar Town, ONLINE) ”Cougar Town” is a modern sitcom with modern elements, modern characters and modern women. The home-loving wife, the devoted mother to the family, the wife that does everything for her husband and for supporting him, the wife that just stays home and takes care of the children, cleans the house, cooks, is no longer the type of the female character used in this sitcom. Here, Jules is a modern woman that decides to find some excitement in her dating life. She is divorced and is more concerned with her ​​looks than her family. Jules is working, is going out with her friend, dates younger boys, wants to have a perfect body so she can hide her real age…so, she is a modern woman with modern desires.

Television is a powerful influence in determining the roles of men and women in society. Young people are especially influencd by its portrayal of gender roles. ”Throughout the history of television, the role of the housewife and mother has changed from a subservient woman to the more controlling, powerful, and dominant female portrayed in today’s culture. In early television, the 1950’s and 1960’s, the housewife or mother was always seen as submissive towards the more assertive father or husband. In Common Culture, Harry Waters explains in his article, “Life According to TV,” that males often got a deviation of roles, and females were usually playing the part of a mother, wife, or girlfriend. (Waters 167) As time progressed, that role was changed to a more authoritative and domineering woman who controlled a somewhat of a bumbling idiot of a husband.” (Example Essays, Roles Of Women In Television, ONLINE)

There are no limits to what the genders can do. Now days you find most women out in all of the workplaces which were once deemed male oriented. And you find men staying home and raising families, doing the job that once only women did. ”The idea of feminity has evolved over time just as women’s roles in the media have. Women on television in the past had very few roles but the main one was to be the wonderful mother of the wholesome family program. […] In today’s society women are not expected to stay home and live off their husbands, women are not even expected to get married or to have children if they so choose. Women’s roles on television have changed from the housewife to the working woman. Yet the woman’s role is still usually a support of the leading character who happens to be a male.”

Video Analysis: Nicki Minaj “Beez in the Trap” Essay

Rapper Nicki Minaj’s video for her song “Beez In The Trap” shows the artist in the club filled mostly with women, half-naked dancers, and cameos of the handful of males in her entourage. The atmosphere in the club is more festival than a normal night. Meanwhile, Nicki Minaj displays her arrogant, cocky, diva-like attitude on camera while being surrounded by female “groupies.” Normally a video like this would have a male artist exploiting the women in the video. However, this is not the case; at the hands of a female artist, the women are exploited through disrespectful lyrics and inappropriate physical interactions with the female artists, while at the same time the producers exploit the women by showing extreme close-ups of their barely-clothed body parts.

Viewers listening closely to the words of “Beez In The Trap” find that the chorus and the majority of the first verse performed by Nicki Minaj exploit women in a manner like that of most male rappers.

The song starts with the chorus and the first line is, “B****es ain’t sh*t and they ain’t sayin’ nothin’,” of course the B-word referring the other women in the video. Going into the first verse, the next few lines imply that she may be bisexual by saying, “…and if she ain’t trying to give it up she get dropped off. Let me bust that U-ie, b***h bust that open, might spend a couple thou just to bust that open…”

In translation, Nicki Minaj says that if the female doesn’t have sex with her, then she is dismissed from her (Nicki’s) group. A “U-ie” is when someone makes a hard U-turn to follow the very extremely attractive women in the car that just passed by in the opposite direction. The last few words indicate that the artist is willing to spend a few thousand dollars on the woman to have sex with her. If an individual were to read these lyrics without hearing the song or watching the video, he or she would think that this artist was a male rapper exploiting women as usual, when in reality it is a female rapper doing the exploiting.

Many of the interactions between Nicki Minaj and the other women in the video are somewhat homosexual. The women who are in the most scenes with Nicki Minaj are desperate for attention and are by the artist’s side at all times when the camera turns on; in other words, these women play the role of “groupies.” Some scenes of the video show her sitting in the VIIP section of the club wearing a green wig, a bikini, fanning herself with hundred-dollar bills. She is sitting in between two similarly exotic-looking women and the artist is putting her face and lips very close to theirs. Nicki Minaj flirts with each one by making seductive faces at them.

In another scene, Nicki Minaj is standing between two different women who are bouncing and shaking their buttocks on her. One of the women has on a short spandex dress accenting her large rear end and the other one is wearing thigh-high fishnet stockings and a G-string. While they are jiggling their butt cheeks the artist, with no hesitation, touches and rubs on their buttocks…and appears to be enjoying it! In this video Nicki Minaj interacts with these women the way that most male rappers interact with the women in their videos.

Not only does the artist exploit the women in the video, but the producers and videographers also take some of the credit. For the entire duration of the video, there are short clips showing all of the women in barely-there bikinis, six-inch high heels, and their bodies are covered in tattoos. More than half of these short clips consist of extreme-close-ups of the women’s buttocks and breasts. One clip during the bridge of the song shows a slow-motion, inappropriately close shot directly into a dancer’s anus (of course she was wearing a thong so her bare anus wasn’t exposed)! Nicki Minaj’s huge rear end and extra-large breasts are a very major part of her appearance, so video producers make that the focus of many of her female extras in her videos.

In the business of hip hop music video production, it is no surprise to see a male rapper exploiting women. However, if it is a woman exploiting other women, in the case of Nicki Minaj’s “Beez In The Trap,”

Analyzing Gender Roles in Billy Elliot Essay

During his first visit to The Bahamas and representing the Queen abroad for the Diamond Jubilee, Prince Harry addressed crowds of dignitaries and admirers in the capital, Nassau. The Island-hopping Prince Harry continues his 10-day Diamond Jubilee tour through the Caribbean in Jamaica this week after stops in Belize and the Bahamas over the weekend in honor of the Queen’s 60thyear on the throne. Proving to be a skilled diplomat with the common touch that characterized his late mother Princess Diana, Harry favored solo interviews with the local press and spent a great deal of time with the everyday people of the former British Honduras.

The prince laid a wreath for British soldiers at Price Barracks in Belize City before departing the English-speaking Central American nation for the Bahamas. The young royal caused quite a stir in Nassau Sunday when he appeared in public for the first time ever in his crisp white ceremonial uniform, also known as the No.

1 Tropical Dress of the Blues and Royals. His uniform was punctuated with the first public reveal of the Diamond Jubilee medal. Throngs of fans lined the streets as Harry made his way to the Christ Church Cathedral to meet and greet.

Though he mingled with several dignitaries in his special outfit, his encounter with Miss Bahamas, Anastagia Pierre, got tabloids buzzing. “I’m here to fall in love with Harry,” Pierre told reporters on Sunday. “He’s hot! He is single now so I would marry him, yes. ” Harry brushed the comments aside and he seemed to truly enjoy himself in the Bahamas. In a speech he delivered a message from the Queen to the people of the Bahamas. Video1 Harry called at Government House in Nassau to pay his respects to the Governor General of the Bahamas and other members of the cabinet.

The iconic pink-painted house is where his late great-great uncle the Duke of Windsor lived during the Second World War in his role as Governor General of the region. 3 Earlier in the day, Harry was meant to join the crew of a Royal Bahamian Defense Force patrol boat on a naval exercise but had to move to a media boat after the military vessel broke down. He eventually landed on tiny Harbor Island where he was greeted by crowds of tourists and locals. Harry will continue his Diamond Jubilee tour with a stop in Jamaica beginning Monday and end in Brazil where he will help launch a government trade mission in Rio.

The 51-per-cent minority Essay

Doris Anderson argues that women are routinely discriminated against by comparing women to other minorities such as African-Americans and Quebeckers. She points out that women waitresses and sales clerks often earn less than males doing the same job. Ironically, women are not even a minority, but we see them that way because the government doesn’t attempt to rectify the issue. The irony of the title has a very strong effect on the reader since it provides the statistics that 51% of people in America are women; however they are nonetheless perceived as minorities.

Canada as a country can’t tolerate discrimination with different religion and race, but it can tolerate “all of these discriminatory practices which are being inflicted on women today in Canada Anderson’s essay “The 51-per-cent minority” is a deductive essay.

The general principle is explained through the title “The 51-per-cent minority” which is saying even though women account for 51% of Canada’s population they still get discriminated upon.

A test case that supports the general principle is when women workers earn, on average only 70 cents for every $1 man gets- even though on average, women are better educated than men. Therefore, all the discriminatory practices would be set aside if women were anything else but a woman.

The essay “The 51-per-cent minority” by Doris Anderson is a deductive comparison between the treatment of different races, religion and women Anderson seems to be well aware of what’s going on around her in terms of minorities and different sexes. The process of the essay is very clear in terms of argumentation. She seems to capture reader’s attention during the introduction when she uses irony. This could be considered hidden assumption because the reader is supposed to realize a bigger meaning than what’s actually in the essay. But the writing process does consist of some flaws, because Anderson doesn’t start with the main idea of the essay the readers might have to go back and re-read the essay to get their thoughts straight.

Venus Boyz Essay

In the Euro-American paradigm, the concept of sex, gender and sexuality is highly debated. The society simplifies the gender roles, and branches it out into two categories of: masculine and feminine. Humans learn from the societal norms to behave in ways appropriate to their sex, as it sees gender congruent to the sex of a person. The gender system in the society, seeks to put them in a hierarchical set up, where a man is on the top by default. In such a system, people are prescribed to take up the role of the gender they are assigned by the social system.

Men are seen as aggressive, rational, dominant and objective beings who possess power, competency, efficiency and achievement. While women on the other hand are seen as passive, intuitive, submissive and subjective and value love, communication, beauty, and relationship.

The idea of dualism that one who appeals and the one with power makes it is easy to describe male- female as a set of opposite traits.

In contemporary America, hegemonic masculinity is defined by the physical strength and bravado, exclusive heterosexuality, suppression of “vulnerable” emotions such as remorse and uncertainty, economic independence, authority over women and other men, and intense interest in sexual “conquest”. Masculinity is always seen as a form above femininity. Femininity is thus structured around that of masculinity. Its prime feature is its attractiveness to males, the suppression of “power” and emotions of anger, nurturing children, looking after the household. Masculinity and femininity are the social metaphors of male dominance and female suppression.

Woman’s unpaid works of being a home-maker is still devalued, and are prone to get sexually harassed and discriminated on the basis of the work done by women. Society expects men to dominate, and women to suppress, thus gender, significantly, is seen as socially and culturally constructed. There exists different ways in which men can be differentiated from women based on the dress code. However, a woman dressing like a man does not raise questions, as opposed to the male wearing skirts. Society disproves of elements which blur the line between a man and a woman, thus it creates as many distinctions as it can. Language also is seen as a differentiating factor between masculinity and femininity. The pronouns he/she, his/hers, him/her, only present the two extremes. Thus, by defining the two extremes, it implicitly states that they are opposites.

Gender is also seen a performance. People are raised to perform a “certain way”- a girl is raised to be more feminine, and be shy, while a boy is raised to be tough and more masculine. Thus, gender is seen as a social construct, depending on how the person is expected to behave. However, the performance cumulates and takes over the life of the individual, as they are expected to lead themselves in a way that conforms to the society. But, what is ignored is how it could have implications in a certain way that would lead the person into gender inequality- a girl raised up in a feminine way, is highly prone to getting discriminated based on the salary or looked down upon by the man.

Sex, defined as the biological characteristics that define a male and a female- hormones, gonads, genitalia, chromosomes, etc., is seen as a very congruent concept to the gender of a person. A person born with a penis is seen evidently as male, and a person born with a vagina, is classified as a female. People have tried to introduce theories and ideas so as to break the two-sex system.

The Euro- American paradigm for the intersex child elaborates on its genitals. If the phallus is between 0-1 centimeters, it is accepted as clitoris, and if it is between 3-5centimeters, it is accepted as the penis. However, a phallus ranging anywhere between 2-3 centimeters would account for the surgery. Anna Fausto- Sterling, mentions in her book, Sexing the Body, that if an infant is born with ambiguous genitalia, then the doctors work towards restoring them to “normal”. And also since it is fairly easy to construct a “hole” rather than a “pole”, a biologically born male’s penis is chopped off if it is too small. Thus, sex is also socially constructed, so as to be able to fit into the two binaries available to us.

Sexuality in the Euro-American society, does not always mean a male body sexually attracted to a female body. It is seen under three categories: heterosexuality, homosexuality and bisexuality. In the western culture, individual expression is given more importance and this exemplified in the movie Venus Boyz.

Venus boyz is the first documentary feature film that fosters visibility and new light on the issue of female masculinity in general, and of drag kings in particular. A legendary Drag King Night in New York is the point of departure for a journey to transgendered worlds, where women become men – some for a night, others for their whole lives. Women performance of masculinity has rarely been projected on TV, sitcoms, talk shows, or entertainment. Venus Boyz is highly influenced by the American society at large. The film’s main concerns are related to the problem of stable identity categories and its subversive effects on the so-called natural gender system.

Gender:

* A gender construction. is how it spins the mystery of gender. * Social concept. * Gender identity. ‘Woman’, ‘man’, ‘masculinity’, ‘femininity’ and so on, are not fixed entities which necessarily comply with the correlative ‘sex/gender system’; rather, these notions form part of an ongoing process by which traditional identity categories can be contested and revisited. Western paradigm- woman are below men. Transgender see them as * Gender is a performance- stated in the film.

* Transgender.  * Movie explores female masculinity raises questions about cultural constructions and perceptions of gender. * “I feel that everyone has a male, female, masculine, and feminine side, but not everyone chooses to explore the other side.” * Gender training. How to act like a man.- male stereotypes * Some of the ladies act out male identities as a way of channeling their male spirit, or creating a third gender other than “male” or “female”. They don’t necessarily identify with, or need to make themselves into men.

Sex:

* biological characteristics that define a man and a woman. Hormones, genetelia, gonads.
* Girl talks about Feeling like a man.
* The woman with the wig- comes across very androgynous.
* Some women strap on dildos as part of their transformation; male-transgender workshop participants pass around a “faux penis” more supple than customary sex toys.

Sexuality:

* Female sexuality linked to a woman’s hair, if shaved off, men no longer see that person as sexual. * Relationship between the sexes is on the way to very basic change. No longer concept of reproduction a fundamental aspect of sexuality. * Despie of dressing like a man, desires men, but does not identifies herself as androgynous.

Do you think they constitute a third sex and/or gender?
No, falls under the continuum of the two binaries.

The Ideal Works of Edmonia Lewis: Invoking and Inverting Autobiography Essay

Kirsten Buick’s article “The Ideal Works of Edmonia Lewis: Invoking and Inverting Autobiography” focuses on several different works by the African-Indian sculptor. The article is beneficial in analyzing the cultural significance of Lewis’s works. Buick concentrates specifically on six of Lewis’s sculptures: Forever Free, Hagar in the Wilderness, Minnehaha, The Old Indian Arrowmaker and His Daughter, Hiawatha, and The Marriage of Hiawatha. Buick states, “while the subjects of her sculptures are African American and Native American women, invoking her autobiography, their features follow idealized, western European models” (190).

In this article review, I will discuss Kirsten Buick’s use of data, structure, tone, and voice to formulate the article, the strengths and weaknesses her argument, and finally, broader implications of the article. Kirsten Buick’s article is organized into four main sections: Lewis’s Freedwomen, Lewis’s Bondwomen, Lewis’s Indian Women, and Art and Self. Throughout the article, Buick’s tone remains scholarly and formal. Her voice remains neutral and without opinion.

The first section of the article, Lewis’s Freedwomen, focuses on the sculptures Forever Free and Freedwoman on First Hearing of Her Liberty.

Specifically she writes about the relationship between man and woman in the sculptures. Buick states that “criticism of Lewis’s Forever Free, for example, has often regarded the relative positions of the male and female as reinforcing gendered stereotypes of male ‘aggression’ and female ‘passivity’” (190). The second section, Lewis’s Bondwomen, focuses on single female figures in Lewis’s work. Buick states that Hagar in the Wilderness “represents the frustration of normalized gender roles within the body of one female figure” (196). The third section, Lewis’s Indian Women, discusses the contrast in Lewis’s portrayal of Indian men and women.

Buick points out that “Lewis’s women bear only the trappings of a specific ethnicity” while oppositely, “men signify ethnicity” (198-199). The final section of the article, Art and Self, poses the question: “What would Lewis have risked if she had sculpted obviously black or obviously Indian women” (201)? The article goes on to explain that Lewis wanted her art to be separate from her ethnicity and gender. Here Buick explains that Lewis “refused to be victimized by her own hand” (201). Buick provides several quotes from art historians and passages from interviews with Lewis, making her argument and article stronger.

Very few weaknesses exist within Kirsten Buick’s article. Because of the divisions in the article, there is no clear thesis. Each section in the article seems to have its own thesis statement. Additionally, Buick’s conclusion paragraph, only two sentences long, does not adequately wrap up the article. Despite these minor flaws, the article is very well written and organized. Buick provides more than sufficient data to back up her argument. She provides quotes from other writers and columnists, art historians, and Edmonia Lewis herself.

When discussing Lewis’s sculpture Hagar in the Wilderness, Buick provides text from the Bible on Hagar. After providing a visual analysis of each sculpture mentioned, Buick explains their cultural significance. For example, Buick mentions the relationship between mother and child in Lewis’s The Freedwoman on First Hearing of Her Liberty and explains, “with the end of slavery, mother and child were no longer property that could be separated and sold” (195). The article leaves little to be desired. By providing cultural context, Buick’s article is successful in its social and cultural significance. The Ideal Works of Edmonia Lewis: Invoking and Inverting Autobiography” is a significant article in broader discussions about the roles of race and gender in the art world. Buick states that Lewis’s work “has a far-reaching cultural significance because it is inflected by each modifier, both singly and in combination, that can be used to describe her: ‘American,’ ‘sculptor,’ ‘African American,’ and ‘Native American’” (190). Edmonia Lewis is a noteworthy artist because she is “the first documented American woman sculptor of African Indian descent” (190).

Although Lewis acted in opposition to Victorian standards, her art supported the gender ideals of the era. As Buick points out in her article, Lewis’s art supported the gender ideals of the nineteenth century despite her personal opposition to Victorian conventions. In spite of the fact that several other female sculptors made these same decisions, Lewis stands out. Her work is significant because she “not only selected subjects who conformed to Victorian gender ideals; she also depicted these women in an idealized way” (195).

In addition to gender, Lewis’s race plays an important role in her art career. Buick explains “like other black women who entered the public arena in the nineteenth century, Lewis found that credibility, in the form of objectivity, was very difficult to achieve” (202). Lewis’s race not only asserted who she was as an artist, but also manifests itself into her work. The figures in Lewis’s sculptures are “whitewashed. ” Buick argues that Lewis’s decision to eliminate color “was influenced by the Cult of True Womanhood, which crossed all racial boundaries.

In addition, it was common artistic practice in the nineteenth century to depict Native American women according to Greek ideals, while African American women were rarely depicted at all” (199). The “whitewashing” of the figures reiterates Lewis’s desire to depict them as Europeans. Here Buick states that the sculptures “represent Lewis’s desire to broaden the category of ‘woman’ to include women who were not European American” (198). Kirsten Buick’s article is an influential contribution to the ongoing discussion of race and gender in art. Buick successfully articulates the role that Lewis’s female, African-Indian identity plays in her work.

The article does not discuss Lewis’s work based on current race and gender studies, but instead examines them based on their time period in the nineteenth century. This is important because it provides contemporary art historians with something to judge against. For example, Buick argues that Forever Free “presents a reconstructed image of the African American family after slavery and becomes a subtle commentary on the hopes for the newly liberated population” (192). Buick’s article is significant in providing a foundation for race and gender studies in the nineteenth century and can be used by future generations to reference the time period.

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