Ilocos Region Essay

The Ilocos region or Region I (Ilokano: Rehion ti Ilocos, or Deppaar ti Ilocos ; Pangasinan: Rihiyon na Sagor na Baybay na Luzon (Region at the Northwest Coast of Luzon)) is a Region of the Philippines and is located in the northwest of Luzon. It borders to the east the regions of the Cordillera Administrative Region and Cagayan Valley and to the south the region of Central Luzon. To the northwest is the West Philippine Sea. The region is composed of four provinces, namely: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union and Pangasinan.

Its regional center is San Fernando City, La Union. Ilocano speakers compose 66% of the region, and Pangasinan speakers are 27%, and the Tagalogs compose 3% • Culture of Ilocos Ilocandia has a rich culture reminiscent of colonial times. Vigan, the colonial metropolis and considered as the “Intramuros of the North”, still retains the Castillan colonial architecture of the times. Lined along its narrow and cobble-stoned streets are old Spanish-type houses (commonly called Vigan house), most of which have been left abandoned.

These stately homes have huge, high-pitched roofs, large and rectangular living rooms with life-sized mirrors, old, wooden furniture and ornate Vienna sets. The churches of the Ilocos Region are the enduring symbol of the triumphant transformation of the Ilocano from being practitioners of indigenous religions to practitioners of theistic Christianity. Some of its most impressive churches are: the Vigan Cathedral in Ilocos Sur with its massive hand-carved images of the via crucis; that of Magsingal (also in Ilocos Sur) with its centuries-old wooden altar; the St.

Augustine Church in Paoay (Ilocos Norte) which takes the form of a baroque-type built with massive buttresses; and Sta. Maria Church (Ilocos Sur), nestled atop a hill with a stone stairway of 80 steps, are both listed in the UNESCO World Heritage sites. Dances were mainly a reflection of the gracious ways of the Ilocano. The dinaklisan (a dance common to fisher folks), the agabel (a weaver’s dance) and the agdamdamili (a pot dance) illustrate in simple steps the ways of the industrious Ilocano. Other popular dances among the Ilocanos are Tadek, Habanera, Comintan, Saimita, Kinotan, Kinnalogong.

Profiling of Street Crime in Philippines Essay


Street crime is – criminal activity that happens in a public place usually in a town or city, for example stealing people’s personal possessions or snatching, vandalisms, theft, physical injury and extortion. Street Crimes are usually committed in outdoors and it can be happen in strange or to an unfamiliar places. It can even take place to your own community. Street Crimes can be done in many different forms such as pick-pocketing, bag, necklaces, earrings and gadget snatching, car theft, motorcycle theft and even hit and run and many other related criminal acts that takes place within a street.

( These Street crimes are very wide spread in the area of responsibility in of DV-Soria, police community precinct 01. Criminals usually choose to commit these crimes in a specific places and specific times to attack their victims.

Does the street crime only exist in the night time? Or, does the street crime is rampant in day time? Who are the usual victims of street crimes? Male or Female ? Young or adults ? These questions will be answered by means of this study.

Actually, the researcher was a victim of this street crime. Way back then, when he was in high school his class schedule ends at night time and he could still remember the time when he was walking alone along the Velez St. heading home to Capt. Vicente Roa St., there was a group of people who blocked his way and threatened him while asking a big amount of money, but he have nothing to do but to give what he has. Being a victim of Street Crimes is not a good experience, at first it could leave a trauma to the victim such as being afraid to walk alone in the evening especially if there is a group of people gathering to a particular area. Everyone could be a victim of Street Crimes especially all of us go out to our houses.

The researcher decided to pursue the study of street crimes received in police station 01 because it was introduced by his instructor and he wanted to know how it contributes outcome in our community in terms of the percentage of crime volume. The Community Precinct 01 was placed in the heart of the city along Abejuela /T. Neri /Burgos Sts, Cagayan de Oro city. Station is one of the very high populated areas in Cagayan de Oro because of the affordable items in stores and many other business establishments which bring a large number of people to visit the place.

The Police Station No.01 (PS 01), formerly Operation Kahusay ug Kalinaw (OKK), is located at the heart of the city along Abejuela /T. Neri /Burgos Sts., this city, with the boundaries from North – Barangay 17 and 18, South – Barangay 01, West – Carmen River and East – Barangay 03. PS 01 composed of Twenty (20) Urban Barangays from 01 to 20 with a total land area of ninety three point seven hundred twenty five (93.725) hectares. Based on present statistics, it is inhabited by more or less 18,446 inhabitants. Vital installations located in the Area Of Responsibility (AOR), Twenty Nine (29) commercial establishment and Four (04) government banks, Three (03) churches, Fifteen (15) government offices, One (01) water reservoir, One (01) mall, Three (03) communication towers and Four (04) private hospitals..

In the Independent Variables of this study includes the: Classification of Street Crimes Theft / pick pocketing: Is an act where any person taking the property belonging to another person without force or violence. Any person who steals objects or items from the pocket or shoulder-bags of the other person in a public places or of any establishments along the street. Physical Injury: is an act of any person inflecting pain, damage, harm or hurt to another person.

Robbery / Extortion: The act of securing, seeking, money or favors by means of threat, blackmail or intimidation. Hit & Run: It involved in or denoting a motor-vehicle accident in which the driver leaves the scene without stopping and give assistance to the harmed or injured person, or give information to the police. Vandalism: Is an act of a certain person writing the wall or any part of the establishment by use of paint, coal, of any forms of writing instrument by destruction.

In the dependent variables of this study includes the: profiles of street crime victims Profile of Victims: refers to the profile of any person or individual being injured, extorted, snatched, pick-pocketed, and more being stated in the independent variables. Age of the Victim: Refers to the age of the victim during the incident, if the common victims are children, teenagers, adult or even old. Gender of the Victim: corresponds to the sex of any person and which is integrated in this study to see the usual victims of street crimes. MALE: refers to a boy [Masculine]

FEMALE: refers to a girl [Feminine]

Time of Incident: refers to the time when crime was committed if it is dawn, morning, noon, afternoon, evening and midnight, it is being included to this study to discover what time usually a certain street crime will occur. Date of Incident: Refers to the month of the incident when crime was being committed, and it is included in this study to determine what month, a certain street crime will be having a large number of existence. Location of Incident: Refers to the Address or place were the crime was committed, and it is included in this study to identify which place of the community precinct 02 area of responsibility crime was much uncontrolled.

Statement of the problem

This research studied the classification of street crimes from January to December in the year 2011. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions.
1.What is the most extensive street crime in the area of responsibility in Police Station 02 in the year of 2011 and 2012.
a.Theft / Pick Pocketing
b.Physical Injury
c.Robbery / Extortion
d.Hit & Run
2.What is the profile of victims in each street crimes in terms of a.Age of the Victim
b.Gender of the Victim
c.Time of Incident
d.Date of Incident
e.Location of Incident
Significance of this study

The objective of this study is to collect information or data on the classification of street crimes received in police station 02 in the year 2012 and to be a reference of the for future researcher for related studies and compare the volume of street crimes before and nowadays in the record of police stations specifically in station 02, next is to present to the community precinct 02 the exact place and time were a certain crime is over exceeding. PNP Personnel, this study will serve as the basic guidelines of the police personnel to perform their job well and to be more alert to a certain area in a certain time; it will also help them to make plans for their future action in preventing the occurrence of the street crimes.

To Community, On the other hand the police community relation could disseminate the information to its community and make the civilians aware to the existence of such street crime existing to a specific area and time, and to avoid being a victim of it. Barangay Officials, the local government unit will also be alert and Should deploy barangay police to a specific place where a high incidence of street crime is existing in order to maintain the peace and order and prevent those criminal minds in committing such street.

Reaction Paper Last Princess by Kara David Essay

Stories of princess were part of our childhood memories. We dream of becoming one during those times. But in Tumandok tribe in Tapaz, Capiz, Philippines, there were women, who were treated like a princess. They are known to be the binukot. Before seeing the documentary of Huling Prinsesa (Last Princess), I was really excited because who knew that a 3rd world country like the Philippines would afford to have a princess. Then I realized, Philippines was not a 3rd world country then.

And I remember that during the pre-Hispanic period we used to have datus, babaylans, pandays so having a princess would not be far from reality. Philippines though colonized by foreigners, retained its rich culture and I think this is one of the proofs.

The binukot was usually the prettiest daughter of the chief tribe. The term was derived from bukot which means “to keep”. Binukot was not allowed to go outside the house. That’s why her food was usually delivered in her room.

She will be taught to memories and sing different epics. Going outside the house is not a simple task. The binukot needs to be carried on a cradle so that her feet will be kept clean.

The tribe believed that the binukot has a supernatural power. During planting and harvesting time, she will be brought to the farm to perform, for them to have a bountiful harvest.

At present there are still few binukot on some part of Panay Island. But the danger of losing this tradition is very high, for most women of Panay preferred to be an ordinary citizen instead of becoming a princess. Stories of princess were part of our childhood memories. We dream of becoming one during those times. But in Tumandok tribe in Tapaz, Capiz, Philippines, there were women, who were treated like a princess. They are known to be the binukot.

The trip to the remote mountains of Capiz is tough — an hours-long motorcycle ride and several hours more of trekking across rivers and up and down rocky, slippery slopes. It is a challenging feat for anyone who wants to see and explore a mysterious tradition preserved for decades among some of the mountains isolated communities.The trip took some time and I thought it’s worth the wait just to see the ‘Last Princess’, from the trip alone, it made me really curious of what will princess look like. I-Witness travels to the Tapaz Mountain, considered the farthest in Capiz, located in the central Philippines island of Panay. The mountain people called the tumandoks live in Tapaz, and I-Witness searched for the tribe’s last remaining princesses called the binukots.

Reporter Kara David reaches the community of Rizal Sur, a village that looks just like any other isolated community, where the tumandoks living in traditional huts and survive on whatever nature provides them. In the midst of this community, she meets one of the last remaining binukots, 73-year-old Lola (grandmother) Isiang.

Lola Isiang lives in an old hut, just like everybody else in the community. However, she has stayed inside a room in the house ever since she was five years old, living in isolation as the family’s chosen binukot.

Transformation of the Philippine National Police Essay

Manila – The government is alloting P9 billion for the Philippine National Police’s “transformational plan” from 2013 to 2016, President Aquino said during the ceremonial distribution of newly acquired pistols to PNP personnel. The President said the plan will involve upgrading the capabilities and equipment of the national police force, as well as address its lack of manpower. He said the PNP will be hiring 15,000 non-uniformed personnel to allow uniformed police doing administrative work to go to the front lines.

Sa halip na maghapong nakaposte sa mga presinto’t opisina ang ating mga pulis, magsisilbi silang karagdagang puwersa sa pagbabantay sa mga komunidad,” Aquino said.

Interior and Local Government Secretary Mar Roxas said it will address the shortage of PNP personnel. “Inaprubahan ng Pangulo ‘yung pagtugon sa pangangailangan ‘nung PNP. Unang-una, ‘yung kakulangan sa personnel, ano. Iniutos ng Pangulo na isang mabilis na paraan ay mag-hire ng civilian na personnel at sila ang gagawa ng trabaho ng mga (nasa) desk na sa kasalukuyan ay pulis ang gumagawa,” Roxas told reporters.

The plan also involves the purchase of 13,000 units of M-4 rifles, communication and laboratory equipment. Roxas said the PNP will also conduct a bidding for the purchase of 2,500 patrol cars. New pistols President Aquino handed new pistols to selected PNP personnel in a ceremonial distribution of 22,603 newly acquired Glock 17 pistols in Camp Crame. It is the first tranche of the 74,879 pistols purchased by the PNP in its target to reach a 1:1 police-to-pistol ratio.

The PNP took pride of the savings that it was able to generate in what it described as its most transparent and rigid bidding, allowing it to purchase more pistols at a low price. The market price of the pistol is estimated to be at P40,000 each while the PNP was able to purchase it at P16,569. 94. P1. 2 billion was alloted for the purchase. The complete delivery of the pistols is expected by the first quarter of 2014. In his speech, President Aquino paid tribute to the late DILG Secretary Jesse Robredo, saying it was the latter’s wish to fully equip the national police force. Kung mayroon pong isang tao na tiyak matutuwa sa katuparan ng adhikaing ito para sa kapulisan, ito po ay ang dating Kalihim ng DILG na si Jesse Robredo.

Malinaw sa kaniyang matagal nang pinapasan ng mga pulis ang kalbaryo sa kakulangan ng armas, kaya pinangunahan niya ang paghahanap ng akmang solusyon. Hindi man natin siya kasama ngayong umaga, siguradong ipinagmamalaki niya ang tagumpay nating ito,” Aquino said. Aquino exhorted the PNP to perform well, warning the corrupt of consequences. At the same time, Aquino commended the police force for the lower crime volume recorded in 2012 compared to 2010. Sa mga reporma at tagumpay na ito, inaasahan kong patuloy na pangungunahan ng ating mga alagad ng batas ang pagsupil sa krimen at transaksyunalismo.

Wala nang puwang sa ating kapulisan ang mga nagsisiga-sigaan sa lansangan o padrino pa ng masasamang elemento. Patuloy nating ibabantayog ang dangal at integridad ng inyong hanay; at sa mga hindi pa rin tumitino, sisiguruhin kong preso, na ating pong pinalalawak, ang susunod ninyong destino,” Aquino said. Instant promotions During the program, Aquino lauded two police officers who were able to thwart criminals even without using a handgun.

He told Roxas and PNP chief Director General Alan Purisima to grant promotions to PO2 Edlyn Arbo and PO2 Felipe Moncatar. “Mar at Alan, parang hindi ko napansin doon sa report ng ating dalawang nabanggit na sila ay na-promote. ‘Yong mga ganyang gandang gilas palagay ko naman ay talagang naman yan ang definition ng meritorious promotion, see to it that these two are promoted,” Aquino said, ribbing Arbo to invite Roxas as godfather in case she gets married. “Edlyn, kung hindi ka pa kinakasal, si Mar Roxas puwede mag-ninong. [Laughter],” Aquino said. Aquino challenged PNP personnel to perform even more given their new pistols.

Freedom of Speech in the Philippines Essay

Freedom of speech is the concept of the inherent human right to voice one’s opinion publicly without fear of censorship or punishment. “Speech” is not limited to public speaking and is generally taken to include other forms of expression. The right is preserved in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and is granted formal recognition by the laws of most nations. Nonetheless the degree to which the right is upheld in practice varies greatly from one nation to another.

In many nations, particularly those with relatively authoritarian forms of government, overt government censorship is enforced. Censorship has also been claimed to occur in other forms (see propaganda model) and there are different approaches to issues such as hate speech, obscenity, and defamation laws even in countries seen as liberal democracies.

Article III Section 4 of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines specifies that no law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech or of expression. Some laws inconsistent with a broad application of this mandate are in force, however.


For example

Certain sections of the Flag and Heraldic Code require particular expressions and prohibit other expressions

Title thirteen of the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines criminalizes libel and slander by act or deed (slander by deed is defined as “any act … which shall cast dishonor, discredit or contempt upon another person.”), providing penalties of fine or imprisonment. In 2012, acting on a complaint by an imprisoned broadcaster who dramatised a newspaper account reporting that a particular politician was seen running naked in a hotel when caught in bed by the husband of the woman with whom he was said to have spent the night, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights ruled that the criminalization of libel violates freedom of expression and is inconsistent with Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, commenting that “Defamations laws should not … stifle freedom of expression” and that “Penal defamation laws should include defense of truth.”


“If we don’t believe in freedom of expression for people we despise, we don’t believe in it at all.” – Noam Chomsky

The freedom to express our thoughts is an important part of our individual identity. When we talk and write about our opinions we are contributing ideas and participating in society. Freedom of expression is covered in article 19 of the United Nation’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights: “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers”. Freedom of expression is widely acknowledged as a basic human right that should be available to all, playing a crucial role in a fair and open society.

Many countries and organizations place limits on freedom of expression. These limitations can be a way of controlling people. Restricting voting rights, censoring speech and art and outlawing specific religious and political groups are some of the tools governments have used to control public opposition. Even societies that consider themselves free and democratic suppress opposing views. Consider your local newspaper; although you might expect objectivity, if you were to analyze the content, you might not find a variety of informed opinions and critiques. Editorial and news writers may be influenced by their own political views. In some places, reporters are trained to manipulate or omit information that could harm those in power.

Should there be no limits on freedom of expression? If we are entitled to express ourselves freely we must accept that others will express ideas very different from our own. This might include ideas that offend and possibly even hurt us. Hate speech attacks people based upon such distinctions as race, religion and gender. Should we censor ideas that damage and promote cruelty? The content of a book, a song or a film may cross societal lines of
morality and decency. Should we censor art works that are violent, insulting or degrading? These are some of the complex questions you must think about. Feeling intimidated and forced to subscribe to traditional or mainstream beliefs is a violation of your personal freedom. But sometimes authorities set rules and boundaries for good reason. Understanding why the rules exist is more important than automatically obeying them.


Cybercrimes and Freedom of Expression

Despite the view of the United Nations Committee on Human Rights that Philippine criminal libel is contrary to Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) on freedom of expression, Congress and President Benigno Aquino III still enacted the Cybercrime Prevention Law which, among other things, added electronic libel as a new criminal offense.

Worse, this new law increased the penalty for cyber libel to prison mayor from the current prison correctional provided under the Revised Penal Code.

This means that electronic libel is now punished with imprisonment from six years and one day to up to 12 years, while those convicted for ordinary libel under the RPC are subject to imprisonment only from six months and one day to four years and two months. And because parole, a means by which a convict may be spared from actual imprisonment may be granted only to those sentenced to serve a prison term for no more than six months and one day, anyone convicted for cyber libel will inevitably serve a prison term.

Since the Philippines leads the rest of the world in terms of Facebook and Twitter usage, this means that unlike ordinary libel complaints which are oftentimes brought against printed newspapers -given the element of publication, any user of these leading social media tools is now liable for prosecution. The fact that an allegedly libelous writing appeared on the Internet is already sufficient to prove the element of publication.

The new Cybercrime law is an outright defiance of the UN Human Rights Committee View in the case of Alexander Adonis vs. Republic of the Philippines.

In that View, the UNHRC declared that Philippine libel law under the RPC contravenes freedom of expression on two counts: one, it is a disproportionate means by which to achieve its avowed goal of protecting the privacy of private persons; and two, because there is an alternative in the form of civil libel, or the payment of damages.

The UN HCR also took the view that our libel in the Philippines, because it does not recognize truth as a defense, is additionally defective on this ground.

While the View of the UNHRC is this instance is non-binding, the Philippines nonetheless is under an obligation to heed it because of the maxim “pacta sundt servanda”, or that treaty obligations must be complied with in good faith. The UN Human Rights Committee Views, since the membership of the body consist of leading experts in human rights, are accepted as authoritative on the issue of states compliance with their obligations under the ICCPR.

Simply put, the view against our libel law is very strong evidence of breach of a state obligation under the ICCPR And instead of heeding the UN’s call to review its existing libel law, Congress and President Aquino appeared to have slammed the body by enacting an even more draconian legislation against cyber libel.

Our constitutional commitment to freedom of expression has long been recognized. Justice Holmes, for instance, wrote: “When men have realized that time has upset many fighting faiths, they may come to believe even more than they believe the very foundations of their own conduct that the ultimate good desired is better reached by free trade in ideas — that the best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market . . . .”

The commitment exists because it is only through freedom of expression that we are able to discern the truth and able to fiscalize despotic regimes: “The freedom to speak one’s mind is not only an aspect of individual liberty—and thus a good unto itself—but also is essential to the common quest for truth and the vitality of society as a whole. We have therefore been particularly vigilant to ensure that individual expressions of ideas remain free from governmentally imposed sanctions.

By criminalizing internet libel, government expanded the infringement of freedom of expression even to the realm that has enabled us to give life to the principle of a free market place of ideas- the internet. Prior to this law, it is ironic that the Philippines was even cited by the United Nations for not interfering with the internet. The law is a testament to the reality that despite the overwhelming mandate given to this administration, coupled with its unprecedented public approval ratings, it continues to be insecure and unable to compete in the market place of ideas.

We will see the Aquino administration in court on this one. And we will prevail. For unlike other laws that enjoy the presumption of regularity, this cybercrime law, insofar as it infringes on freedom of expression, will come to court with a very heavy presumption of unconstitutionality.

There can be nothing sadder than suing the son of icons of democracy for infringement into a cherished right.



Article 19 of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UDHR) guarantees the right to freedom of expression in the following terms: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes the right to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

The UDHR, as a UN General Assembly resolution, is not directly binding on States. However, parts of it, including Article 19, are widely regarded as having acquired legal force as customary international law since its adoption in 1948.

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), a treaty ratified by over 150 States, including the Philippines, imposes formal legal obligations on State Parties to respect its provisions and elaborates on many of the rights included in the UDHR.

Article 19 of the ICCPR guarantees the right to freedom of expression in terms very similar to those found at Article 19 of the UDHR:

1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of opinion. 2. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art or through any other media of his choice.

Freedom of expression is also protected in all three regional human rights instruments, by Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, Article 13 of the American Convention on Human Rights and Article 9 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights.

The right to freedom of expression enjoys a prominent status in each of these regional conventions and, although the Philippines cannot be a party to them, the judgments and decisions issued by courts under these regional mechanisms, offer an authoritative interpretation of freedom of expression principles in various different contexts.

Freedom of expression is a key human right, in particular because of its fundamental role in underpinning democracy. At its very first session, in 1946, the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 59(I) which states: “Freedom of information is a fundamental human right and … the touchstone of all the freedoms to which the United Nations is consecrated.”

As the UN Human Rights Committee has said: “The right to freedom of expression is of paramount importance in any democratic society.”


The right to freedom of expression is not absolute; both international law and most national constitutions recognise that it may be restricted. However, any limitations must remain within strictly defined parameters. Article 19(3) of the ICCPR lays down the conditions which any restriction on freedom of expression must meet: The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:

(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others;
(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.
A similar formulation can be found in the European, American and African regional human rights treaties. These have been interpreted as requiring restrictions to meet a strict three-part test.

International jurisprudence makes it clear that this test presents a high standard which any interference must overcome. The European Court of Human Rights has stated: “Freedom of expression … is subject to a number of exceptions which, however, must be narrowly interpreted and the necessity for any restrictions must be convincingly established.”

First, the interference must be provided for by law. This requirement will be fulfilled only where the law is accessible and ‘formulated with sufficient precision to enable the citizen to regulate his conduct’.

Second, the interference must pursue a legitimate aim. The list of aims in Article 19(3) of the ICCPR is exclusive in the sense that no other aims are considered to be legitimate as grounds for restricting freedom of expression. Third, the restriction must be necessary to secure one of those aims. The word “necessary” means that there must be a “pressing social need” for the restriction. The reasons given by the State to justify the restriction must be “relevant and sufficient” and the restriction must be proportionate to the aim pursued.

The Constitution of the Philippines, however, does not explicitly provide for restrictions to the right to freedom of expression. The only restriction to the rights to expression and information and press freedom is encapsulated in the provision on the right to privacy.

Article III, Sections 3 of the Constitution states:

(1) The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires otherwise as prescribed by law.

(2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding.


The guarantee of freedom of expression applies with particular force to the media, including the broadcast media and public service broadcasters. The European Court of Human Rights, for example, has consistently emphasised the “pre-eminent role of the press in a State governed by the rule of law”.

The Inter-American Court of Human Rights has stated: “It is the mass media that make the exercise of freedom of expression a reality.” Media as a whole merit special protection, in part because of their role in making public ‘information and ideas on matters of public interest. Not only does [the press] have the task of imparting such information and ideas: the public also has a right to receive them. Were it otherwise, the press would be unable to play its vital role of “public watchdog”’.

It may be noted that the obligation to respect freedom of expression lies with States, not with the media per se. However, this obligation does apply to publicly-funded broadcasters. Because of their link to the State, these broadcasters are directly bound by international guarantees of human rights. In addition, publicly-funded broadcasters are in a special position to satisfy the public’s right to know and to guarantee pluralism and access, and it is therefore particularly important that they promote these rights.

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Cebu City Essay

The City of Cebu (Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Sugbo, Tagalog: Lungsod ng Cebu, Spanish: Ciudad de Cebú) is the capital city of the province of Cebu and is the “second city” of the Philippines, being the center of Metro Cebu, the second most populous Metropolitan area in the Philippines after Metro Manila. With a population of 866,171 as per the 2010 census, it is the fifth most populated city in the country.[2] Cebu City is a significant center of commerce, trade and education in the Visayas area.

The city is located on the eastern shore of Cebu island. It is the first Spanish settlement and the oldest city in the Philippines.[3] Cebu is the Philippines’ main domestic shipping port and is home to about 80% of the country’s domestic shipping companies.[citation needed]

It is the center of a metropolitan area called Metro Cebu, which includes the cities of Carcar, Danao, Lapu-lapu, Mandaue, Naga, Talisay and the municipalities of Compostela, Consolacion, Cordova, Liloan, Minglanilla and San Fernando .

Metro Cebu has a total population of about 2.55 million people (2010 Census). Cebu City is bordered to the northeast by Mandaue City and the town of Consolacion, to the west are Toledo City, and the towns of Balamban and Asturias, to the south are Talisay City and the town of Minglanilla. Across Mactan Strait to the east is Mactan Island.

Geography Cebu City has a land area of 315 square kilometres (122 sq mi). To the northeast of the city is Mandaue City and the town of Consolacion; to the west is Toledo City and the towns of Balamban and Asturias; to the south is Talisay City and the town of Minglanilla. Across Mactan Strait to the east is Mactan Island where Lapu-Lapu City is located. Further east across the Cebu Strait is the Island of Bohol.

Demographics Around the 1960s, the population of the city was about 91,000. The population reached 799,762 people in 2007, and as of the 2010 Census, the city’s population has grown to 866,171 in over 161,151 households.[2]

Education Cebu City currently has ten large universities each with a number of college branches throughout the city and more than a dozen other schools specializing in various courses. Among these schools is the University of San Carlos. It has four campuses around the metropolitan area. It is currently headed by the Society of the Divine Word. University of the Philippines Cebu,

University of San Jose–Recoletos Cebu Normal University Cebu Doctors’ University University of Cebu University of the Visayas.. Cebu Institute of Technology – University, Southwestern University, St. Theresa’s College, University of Southern Philippines Foundation Cebu Technological University Cebu Institute of Medicine Cebu International School,Sacred Heart School – Ateneo de Cebu Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepcion.

The upcoming Centro Escolar University – Cebu will be the fourth campus of the university after its Manila (Main), Malolos, and Makati campuses.[17] Cebu City has 68 public elementary schools, 23 national high schools and 28 night high schools. These night high schools are operated by the city government. The Cebu City Public Library and Information Center is the only public library in Cebu.

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Barangay Assenbly Minutes Essay


Opening prayer was led by Purok President Charito Sombito. Thus, singing of Pambansang Awit was preceded. Punong Barangay Emelda J. Banguanga acknowledged the presence of P/Inps. Robert Dejucos of PS2, Lina Magbanua and party represented the City Mayor’s Office, Barangay 2m Scholars, ALS Learners, Purok Officials of 5 Puroks, concern citizens and Honorable Mona Dia Jardin.

First presenter was Kagawad Noe M. Romero Sr., Chairman Committee on Peace and Order; he reported that from May to October 2012 the number of cases filed in the Barangay is 37 included the VAW-C cases.

In drug related cases, about 15 persons apprehended from April to October 2012 based on the drug inventory receipt of property seized issued by the PDEA Operatives and CAIDSOTG.

Barangay Kagawad Ramon E. Jamelo, Chairman Committee on Education and Infrastructure, reported that the Barangay has already had 27 Barangay Scholars enrolled at Bacolod City College which is a continuous program of the Barangay. 55 Preschoolers enrolled at the Barangay Day Care Center, about 50 out-of-school youth catered by the ALS program of the Barangay, and 10 scholars facilitated by the Barangay through the TESDA skill training program.

He said that this program was designed to counter and eliminate one of the problems of the Barangay which is drugs. On the other hand, on the infrastructure and developmental projects, he enumerated some of the projects implemented such as the construction of footwalk at Purok Balinday and Purok Lampirong, declogging of drainage system at Purok Sigay, construction of artesian well at Purok Tahong, distribution of jetmatic pump (replacement) at 5 Puroks, and procurement of various electrical supplies distributed to 5 Puroks.

Barangay Kagawad Ben Jake C. Barilla, Chairman Committee on Finance and Livelihood program reported the financial status of the Barangay from May to October 2012. See attached document for the financial report. And as for the livelihood program, he informed that about 35 indigent benefited the trisikad rent-to-own program of the Barangay.

SK Chairman Lovely May O. Rile, Chairman Committee on Youth and Sports Development, reported the various activities implemented by the SK Council from April to October 2012. Some of them are the SK Socio-Cultural Presentation “Search for Miss SK 2012” which held last March 2012, SK Summer League 2012 last May 2012, Supported the Barangay Scholars for the payment of their tuition fees and ALS Program of the Barangay. SK Council also sponsors the procurement of t-shirt for the Senior Citizens of the Barangay during the celebration of the Barangay Day last March 2012. She also added that for the December activity, the SK Council planned to have an Inter-Purok Belen Making Contest and a Socio-Cultural Presentation “Search for Mr. SK 2012.

Barangay Kagawad Victor D. Aliguin, Chairman Committee on Health, Sanitation and Social Services, reported his accomplishment report such as the conduct of bloodletting activity, nutrition month celebration, anti-rabies vaccination, procurement of medicines intended for indigent families, balik-MMR (9 mos. – 8 yrs.) (6 yrs – 14 yrs), garantisadong pambata (GP- 6 to 11 mos.) Vit.A (12 to 59 mos), distribution of micro-nutrients powder, weekly feeding program, brigada eskwela together with the Police Station 2 Personnel, anti-dengue campaign, pabasa sa nutrisyon program and attendance to various training seminars.

Lastly Punong Barangay Emelda J. Banguanga reported some of the programs, projects and activities that had been delivered by the Barangay such as the effective implementation of Barangay Budget for 2012 which already reported by Kgd. Barilla, passage of Barangay Resolution approving the Annual Investment Plan of Barangay 2 for the year 2013, full support extended to the education program, livelihood program, health and social services program, infrastructure program and diversion program through socio-cultural activities, facilitated the 125 additional household targeted beneficiaries, procurement of various supplies and materials for Barangay.

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A movie of social relevance – Sigwa Essay

Sigwa began with Dolly (Dawn Zulueta, Megan Young) returning to the Philippines to look for her long lost daughter. She was a Filipino-American journalist sent to the Philippines in the 1970’s to write about the rising social unrest at that time. But later, she found herself being recruited to the revolutionary and underground youth group Kabataang Makabayan. While looking for her daughter, Dolly is also reunited with her fellow comrades, almost 40 years since they last saw each other.

They were Rading (Jaime Pebanco, Jay Aquitania) an urban poor out-of-school-youth activist, Oliver (Tirso Cruz III, Marvin Agustin) an arrested student activist who later became a presidential spokesman, Azon (Gina Alajar, Lovi Poe) who grew frail and weak caused by the trauma of the rape when she was arrested, and Cita (Zsa Zsa Padilla, Pauleen Luna), once a student activist now a leader of the New People’s Army.

Sigwa was simply amazing.

The cast was great as well as their portrayal of their roles.

It seemed so real. After watching Sigwa, I have realized that the movie provided more than just a retrospect of Philippine history. It also brought me back to the First Quarter Storm of the year 1970, where I have witnessed Martial Law through the lives led by six young activists. It is more than just a commemorative film: it had relived the tempest of our country’s history and allowed us to reflect about its significance in the present.

Sigwa gave us only a glimpse of how the Filipinos in the past have struggled to attain democracy, to relive the history of the Filipinos struggle against Martial Law, and to show our continuing aspiration for democracy, peace and justice. And yet through the movie, I had reflected from the country’s history how we continuously try to reach total democracy today; that the recurring problems about democracy that we are facing today are also the same in the past; watching the movie enlightened me more about the Martial Law and the events that took place during the First Quarter Storm.

The World During Rizal’s Time Essay

During the 19th century Spain invested heavily in education and infrastructure. Through the Education Decree of December 20, 1863, Queen Isabella II of Spain decreed the establishment of a free public school system that used Spanish as the language of instruction, leading to increasing numbers of educated Filipinos. [82] Additionally, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 cut travel time to Spain, which facilitated the rise of the ilustrados, an enlightened class of Filipinos that had been able to expand their studies in Spain and Europe.

Puente de Claveria (Quezon Bridge) A great deal of infrastructure projects were undertaken during the 19th century that put the Philippine economy and standard of living ahead of most of its Asian neighbors and even many European countries at that time. Among them were a railway system for Luzon, a tramcar network for Manila, and the Puente Colgante (now known as the Quezon Bridge), Asia’s first steel suspension bridge. 83] On August 1, 1851 the Banco Espanol-Filipino de Isabel II was established to attend the needs of the rapid economic boom, that had greatly increased its pace since 1840 as a result of a new economy based on a rational exploitation of the agricultural resources of the islands.

The increase in textile fiber crops such as abaca, oil products derived from the coconut, indigo, that was growing in demand, etc. generated an increase in money supply that led to the creation of the bank. Banco Espanol-Filipino was also granted the power to print a Philippine-specific currency (the Philippine peso) for the first time (before 1851, many currencies were used, mostly the pieces of eight). Spanish Manila was seen in the 19th century as a model of colonial governance that effectively put the interests of the original inhabitants of the islands before those of the colonial power.

As John Crawfurd put it in its History of the Indian Archipelago, in all of Asia the “Philippines alone did improve in civilization, wealth, and populousness under the colonial rule” of a foreign power. [84] John Bowring, Governor General of British Hong Kong from 1856 to 1860, wrote after his trip to Manila: Credit is certainly due to Spain for having bettered the condition of a people who, though comparatively highly civilized, yet being continually distracted by petty wars, had sunk into a disordered and uncultivated state.

The inhabitants of these beautiful Islands upon the whole, may well be considered to have lived as comfortably during the last hundred years, protected form all external enemies and governed by mild laws vis-a-vis those from any other tropical country under native or European sway, owing in some measure, to the frequently discussed peculiar (Spanish) circumstances which protect the interests of the natives.

In The inhabitants of the Philippines, Frederick Henry Sawyer wrote: Until an inept bureaucracy was substituted for the old paternal rule, and the revenue quadrupled by increased taxation, the Filipinos were as happy a community as could be found in any colony. The population greatly multiplied; they lived in competence, if not in affluence; cultivation was extended, and the exports steadily increased.

Let us be just; what British, French, or Dutch colony, populated by natives can compare with the Philippines as they were until 1895?. [86] The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1878. The colony’s population as of December 31, 1877, was recorded at 5,567,685 persons. [87] This was followed by the 1887 census that yielded a count of 6,984,727,[88] while that of 1898 yielded 7,832,719 inhabitants . [89] The estimated GDP per capita for the Philippines in 1900, the year Spain left, was of $1,033. 00. That made it the second richest place in all of Asia, just a little behind Japan ($1,135. 00), and far ahead of China ($652. 00) or India ($625. 00). [90] Philippine Revolution[edit] Main article: Philippine Revolution

Revolutionary sentiments arose in 1872 after three Filipino priests, Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora, known as Gomburza, were accused of sedition by colonial authorities and executed. This would inspire the Propaganda Movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, Jose Rizal, Graciano Lopez Jaena, and Mariano Ponce, that clamored for adequate representation to the Spanish Cortes and later for independence. Jose Rizal, the most celebrated intellectual and radical ilustrado of the era, wrote the novels “Noli Me Tangere”, and “El filibusterismo”, which greatly inspired the movement for independence.

The Katipunan, a secret society whose primary purpose was that of overthrowing Spanish rule in the Philippines, was founded by Andres Bonifacio who became its Supremo (leader). An early flag of the Filipino revolutionaries The Philippine Revolution began in 1896. Rizal was wrongly implicated in the outbreak of the revolution and executed for treason in 1896. The Katipunan in Cavite split into two groups, Magdiwang, led by Mariano Alvarez (a relative of Bonifacio’s by marriage), and Magdalo, led by Emilio Aguinaldo.

Leadership conflicts between Bonifacio and Aguinaldo culminated in the execution or assassination of the former by the latter’s soldiers. Aguinaldo agreed to a truce with the Pact of Biak-na-Bato and Aguinaldo and his fellow revolutionaries were exiled to Hong Kong. Not all the revolutionary generals complied with the agreement. One, General Francisco Makabulos, established a Central Executive Committee to serve as the interim government until a more suitable one was created. Armed conflicts resumed, this time coming from almost every province in Spanish-governed Philippines.

Revolutionaries gather during the Malolos congress of the First Philippine Republic. In 1898, as conflicts continued in the Philippines, the USS Maine, having been sent to Cuba because of U. S. concerns for the safety of its citizens during an ongoing Cuban revolution, exploded and sank in Havana harbor. This event precipitated the Spanish–American War. [92] After Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish squadron at Manila, a German squadron arrived in Manila and engaged in maneuvers which Dewey, seeing this as obstruction of his blockade, offered war—after which the Germans backed down.

The German Emperor expected an American defeat, with Spain left in a sufficiently weak position for the revolutionaries to capture Manila—leaving the Philippines ripe for German picking. [94] The U. S. invited Aguinaldo to return to the Philippines in the hope he would rally Filipinos against the Spanish colonial government. Aguinaldo arrived on May 19, 1898, via transport provided by Dewey. By the time U. S. land forces had arrived, the Filipinos had taken control of the entire island of Luzon, except for the walled city of Intramuros.

On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo declared the independence of the Philippines in Kawit, Cavite, establishing the First Philippine Republic under Asia’s first democratic constitution. [91] In the Battle of Manila, the United States captured the city from the Spanish. This battle marked an end of Filipino-American collaboration, as Filipino forces were prevented from entering the captured city of Manila, an action deeply resented by the Filipinos. [95] Spain and the United States sent commissioners to Paris to draw up the terms of the Treaty of Paris which ended the Spanish–American War.

The Filipino representative, Felipe Agoncillo, was excluded from sessions as the revolutionary government was not recognized by the family of nations. [95] Although there was substantial domestic opposition, the United States decided to annex the Philippines. In addition to Guam and Puerto Rico, Spain was forced in the negotiations to hand over the Philippines to the U. S. in exchange for US$20,000,000. 00. [96] U. S. President McKinley justified the annexation of the Philippines by saying that it was “a gift from the gods” and that since “they were unfit for self-government, … here was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them”,[97][98] in spite of the Philippines having been already Christianized by the Spanish over the course of several centuries. It is also in spite of the Spanish having created the first public education system in Asia (public education decree of 1863) and the first universities in the continent: University of Santo Tomas in 1611, and University of San Carlos (Cebu) in 1595. It was also clearly a misrepresentation to state that the Philippines needed to be “civilized”.

The archipelago saw rapid growth and development during Spanish rule thanks to the introduction of many elements of Western civilization, including irrigation, the plow and the wheel, new construction and engineering methods, factories, modern hospitals, the telephone and the telegraph, railroads and public lighting. By 1898 the Philippines was one of the most advanced countries in Asia, producing great statesmen, writers and scientists such as national hero Jose Rizal. The first Philippine Republic resisted the U. S. occupation, resulting in the Philippine–American War (1899–1913).

Philippines: The jejemon fever Essay

What’s the texting capital of the world? It’s the Philippines. Wherever you set your eyes in the streets, in schools, in malls, you can see various people giving much attention in pressing the keypads of their phones. It’s been a habit for most of us Filipinos that on our leisure time, we spend it through texting. Admit it that even during class discussion some teachers and students usually look at their phones to see if someone had texted them.

Texting here in the Philippines before was so single. We just shortened the words by sometimes omitting the vowels until a new style of texting was introduced and used – the jejemon way. Jejemon is a collective term for those persons who use a different kind of spelling and pronunciation on our English and Filipino words especially when texting. They are peculiar with their clothes.

The term jejemon actually came from two words: jeje and mon. Compared to us ordinary Filipinos, jejemons have a different language.

They also have a unique alphabet called the jejebeth. It is quite different in our English alphabet because it contains both letters and numbers on their alphabet. They don’t mind the grammatical incorrectness of their sentences. It is very hard to read a text message of a jejemon. You would need minutes or even hours to understand what they are trying to say. It’s like it still need to decode these sentences to fully understand them. Like a jejebuster, Filipinos should stop too much exposure of this language to the youth especially now, even Grade 5 or Grade 6 students in elementary are already exposed in mobile phones and are so much fund of texting. Even before the dominion of jejemos, spelling of words is so much affected already by our simple way of texting. Filipino texters already have a different language.

Could you imagine what would happen to the proficiency of the youth on the English language if this rising number of jejemons continuously increased? Well, it’s simply a massive decreased on our adaptness in the English language especially when speaking and writing poems say for example. As time goes by some Filipinos who continuously use this language, the probability is for us to be fund of it that they might forget the real spelling of any jejemon word using our own alphabet on the English one. It may also result to less job opportunities because upon using this language even only texting, the way we speak ca be greatly affected. There is a less chance for them to be hired because their interviewer might not understand what they talking about. Our English education is also at sake.

Perhaps, because of these jejemons, our education might be destabilized. But in fairness to the government, the Department of Education already implemented some training to English teachers, disseminate quality English books and provide remedial classes to students. Department of Education officials and workers also coordinate with the parents of our students to encourage the youth in using proper English. Thousands of years ago, English was introduced to Filipino ancestors by several teachers brought by the United States by the end of the Spanish era in 1989. It was widely used until such time that it became the medium of instruction in all schools. This trend was passed on from generation to generation which made Filipinos at present proficient in the said language. In the long run, the Filipino’s adeptness in speaking and writing using English as the medium had helped the country attract foreign investors to support its industry thus helping most of the population overcome hunger and poverty.

This is one of the reasons why English is retained as the medium for communication next to the national language, Filipino. Perhaps, jejemon might also cause a decrease on the Philippines economy to have a greater economy, we need many investors and perhaps because of jejemons, the investors we are expecting to go in the Philippines would lessen. They might be distracted on the way jejemons dress up, speak and write. They may be offended especially our American investors because it’s like that their language had been disrespected due to the alternations on their alphabet and would be discouraged because of our poor proficiency in English – the universal language.

According to the Roman Catholic Church, the birth of jejemons is fine. It will just be gone as time goes by. We can’t do anything about it because it is one way of showing our freedom of expression. However, the birth of jejemons is just like the birth of bacteria. If we won’t kill it at once, it will multiply as fast as it could until it is already countless same when a person has a cancer at stage 1, could you like this to reach stage 5 or would you cure it at once. Since, there are still so many Filipinos especially Filipino texters who are not yet so much influenced by this new style of texting, we could still stop the domination of jejemons.

Filipinos should not allow it to reach its final stage wherein almost all, including the old and young speak and write words in a different way from what we are grown up with. Our national language – Filipino – is our identities. Jejemons worsens further our English proficiency today. Because of being popular, it is readily accepted by the youth which is very alarming. It influences a big part of our society where language means a lot. The distraction it creates on the technicalities of proper writing and forms of communication. This should be stopped before the worst thing happens; this is the passing of this form of informal language to the future generation.