Applying Family Systems Theory to Early Childhood Practice Essay

Applying Family Systems Theory to Early Childhood Practice Essay.

In this article, Christian (2006) discusses the six characteristics of family systems relevant to early childhood practice. The author believes that teachers have a role in discovering and improving family systems to maximize children’s abilities. Therefore, early childhood teachers should consider these characteristics to help decide the best approach for students.

The first characteristic is boundaries. There are two kinds of boundaries, namely disengaged and enmeshed. The first allows children to decide on their own and accept new friends, ideas, etc.

but tend to be unattached while the other s from outside of the family. The second is more strict and attached; it supports and guides an individual in making decisions, but usually expects avid conformity with family rules. Considering the strengths and weaknesses of both kinds, the teacher should respect and support family boundaries in order to respond accordingly to needs.

The second characteristic is roles. Family roles have a significant effect on students’ behavior. For instance, the eldest child tends to be more mature than others and play as the peacemaker, helper, etc.

Teachers should recognize these roles and provide role playing situations where students can get to play other roles. Also, teachers should make families recognize their students’ strengths through writing simple notes.

The third is rules. Teachers should know family rules of students in order to avoid confusing them with school rules. For instance, explain why a certain rule works in school but not at home, and vice versa. Teachers should have a positive outlook in striking a balance between both. Also, rules should be stated clearly because unspoken rules could lead to failure to obey them.

The fourth characteristic is hierarchy. Families observe a certain hierarchy in the house. This points to the power to decide within a family. Teachers should be sensitive regarding this and observe the effect of family systems of each individual. For example, there are times when a child exercises power over others due to hierarchy experienced at home. Importantly, teachers should vary activities to make students experience a different hierarchy concept.

Another characteristic is climate. This is the emotional and physical environment the child has. The role of the teacher is to ensure that the child has a positive climate at home. To do this, they could organize a talk with parents to find out and suggest a better climate parents can offer. Also, the climate in school should allow venue for “positive feedback and healthy sensory experiences.”

The last one is equilibrium. This refers to the sense of balance within the family. Equilibrium should manifest in all aspects, such as health, emotions, activities, finance, etc. It can only be achieved by undergoing changes from time to time. For example, if a family experiences difficulty because of a daughter’s illness, parents cannot be focused only on the ill member. They should devote equal time for their other children who equally need care and attention. As professionals, teachers can guide parents to assess equilibrium in their family.

The suggestions the author makes in this article are very significant. Considering the characteristics mentioned might help each family become more well-knit, thus maximizing intellectual and emotional development of the students. To effect this, teachers should have willingness, sincerity, and respect for each student and the family system where they belong.


Christian, Linda Garris. (2006). Applying family systems theory to early childhood practice. Retrieved 5 November 2008, from

Applying Family Systems Theory to Early Childhood Practice Essay

What Makes Your Child Difficult? Essay

What Makes Your Child Difficult? Essay.

The difficult child is the child who is unhappy. He is at war with himself, & in consequence he is at war with the whole world. A difficult child is nearly always made difficult by wrong treatment. The conditioned, disciplined, repressed child lives in every corner of the world. He is docile, prone to obey authority, fearful of criticism and almost fanatical in his desire to be conventional & correct. He accepts almost he has been taught without question. Adults take it for granted that a child should be taught to behave in such a way that the adults will have as quiet life as possible.

Hence the importance attached to obedience, to manner, to docility. Very often it seems impossible to understand the child & his behavior & the main & the most difficult thing to understand is the reason why the child behaves in such a way. There are some factors that govern the child’s behavior. Analyzing these factors we can answer what makes the children difficult.

First of all every parent should pay attention on his child’s temperament. Certain children are hard wired to be difficult. Some children are naturally hot tempered.

Some children are placid. Some are very flexible and others are resistant to change. These are basic personality characteristics that are part of the child’s internal world. These traits don’t come about as a result of what goes on in the child’s life. Every child is born with them. Included in this category are natural abilities and disabilities that the child may possess. Your child may be very smart or he may have eye-hand coordination difficulties that are causing him problems. All the natural abilities and weaknesses of the child combine to create his temperament. Everything he sees and all his reactions will be shaped by his temperament. Still, the child’s temperament is not static. It can be changed. The child can change many aspects of his basic temperament. But it will take an active effort. He will need to choose to do so. The next important factor is the relationship between children & their parents.

Parents are the most influential people in the child’s life. They are the examples for their children. & of cause children’s wellbeing depends on their parents’ love & attention. Parents must be on their child’s side. Being on the side of the child is giving love to the child-not possessive love-not sentimental-just behaving to the child in such a way the child feels you love him & approve him. All children need affection. Of all the function of the family that of providing an affectionate background for childhood and adolescence has never been more important than it is today. One more important thing that influences on the child’s behavior is the temperament of his parents. As have been discussed, parents are the most important persons in the child’s life. So how parents react to their child is of paramount importance.

And just as the child’s temperament affects how he behaves, parents’ temperament affects how they behave. And now we have come maybe to the most influential factor that can turn a child into a difficult one. That is family environment. Home plays many parts in the life of the growing child, it is the natural source of affection, the place where he can live with the sense of security, it educates him in all sorts of ways, provides him with his opportunities of recreation, it affects his status in society. Moreover the behavior of the child depends on the people that surround him. The life of an only child is very different from the life of a child with older and younger siblings. Family relationships, whether you are a single parent or married, whether your child has natural or step siblings etc. will effect dramatically your child’s environment.

If the child has a sibling who is disabled or one who is outstandingly successful, if parents are happily married or if there is marital stress or divorce- all these things will determine how much stress the child has and how much he can endure on a daily basis. When parents step back and look carefully at the major factors that determine how their child reacts, they will have a much better understanding of why their child does what he does. Parents will not be able to change a lot of these factors, but if they understand exactly what is going on, they should be able to predict and sidestep many of the negative reactions and behaviors that their child has.

Ideal parents Raising a child can be very difficult. Children learn how to be adults from none other than adults themselves. Parents need to be willing to teach their children. In my opinion, there are key things that a parent needs to do to be a “good” or even an ideal parent. Parents need to be good listeners. They are sometimes too quick to judge their children’s actions and words that they do not hear them cry for love, attention or help. Parents need to listen to their child’s feelings and reactions to things. Also, they need to let them have their own opinions and voice them too. They should look at their child and show them that they are listening to them. Understanding their point of view and where they are coming from also will help one to be a good parent. If parents want their child to do what is right, I think that they need to set an example by also doing what is right. Children should be taught how to be responsible, caring, hardworking and patient from watching and learning these traits from their parents.

Making time and traditions for your family is another part of being a good parent. True, many parents do have to work a lot to provide their family with the things they need. Spoiling children does not mean parents don’t need to show love and spend quality time with their kids. Parents should invest time, not money into their children. Children shouldn’t have to ask if they are important to their parents to know. They should just know. The time a parent puts into their family and the traditions they have will always be there. Parents should respect their child’s interests and get involved in their life. They should participate in activities that they all can enjoy. Parents should try out new things that their child likes. Unconditional Love is the key to being an ideal parent. Parents need to love their children no matter what.

If a child doubts a parent’s love for them, the parent is not being a good one. Moreover an ideal parent should be committed. This quality should already be implanted before marriage because a parent should realize that he or she would carry the burden of taking care of the children’s well-being; for instance, in terms of providing emotional and financial supports. A parent who is not committed would not be willing to fulfill his or her duty as a parent and this would result in a downfall of the family. Being firm and well-disciplined are essential qualities an ideal parent should have.

To develop a child to be a well-behaved and well-mannered individual, a parent should correct a child’s wrongdoings so that useful values could be instilled into the child. A parent should never be too lenient towards a child, so much so that, the child becomes too pampered and may become complacent. An ignorant parent would create an ignorant child. This child would then be making mistakes through his or her life and this may result in a self-destruction to the family. That is why, a parent must guide the children to the right path so that they would enjoy a bright future ahead.

Is TV a national disease? For many time Television plays an important role in our life. We can see TVs practically everywhere: at home, in pubs & clubs, in shops, in sport clubs etc. Every day millions of people watch different programs on TV. In general we can’t imagine our live without television. In such circumstances many people suppose that TV can become a national disease. Every man or woman spends their day in a different way, but all people sleep, eat, work & watch TV. About a third of all man’s life is his leisure time, during which people are free to occupy themselves in any way they see fit. In our great-grandfathers’ days the choice of entertainment was strictly limited, but nowadays there is an enormous variety of things to do. The vast majority of the population though seem to be quite content to spend their evenings watching TV. It draws us away from active spending of our time like going to the cinema, the theatre or reading good books.

The great boom in television’s popularity is destroying the art of conversation. It means that very often while talking with the other person we have no more things to discuss except films or other tv programs. As a result television has had a beneficial rather than a detrimental effect on conversational habits: at least people have something to talk about. Families do not communicate their feelings and do not exchange impressions. Children do what they want because parents do not talk with them. Parents are often too busy working or taking care of the home, to monitor exactly what their children are watching at all time. Many times TV set becomes a substitute parents even a friend. More disturbing is the possible effect on people’s mind & attitudes. A lot of people who watch TV are telly addicts, because television is a thief of our time. When we watch, the time goes faster, and we have not got it for things that are more important for us.

There seems to be a particular risk of television bringing a sense of unreality into all our lives. But if television is dulling our reactions to violence & tragedy, it can also be said to be broadening people’s horizons by introducing them to new ideas & activities-ideas that may eventually lead them into new hobbies & pastimes. Telly is the most important source of information about what is happens in every corner of the world. There are many discussions about political and economical situation in country and about some others things. TV is necessary for people who like to know what is going on in politics. But sometimes television do irreparable harm. It has become one of the major sources of political propaganda. Lately there has been a vast increase in educative programs.

You can do sports with TV, learn foreign languages, study history, geography, cooking and many other things. Moreover you can become a viewer of many different real or imaginary events & situations. The good point in TV is the materials which presents on TV are usually easy to assimilate and often are used by students at school and by teachers during the lessons. Television, arguably the most important invention of the 20th century, is bound to be exerting a major influence on the life of the modern man for as long as one dare predict: that it will also continue to grow in popularity as the years go by is virtually certain. Yet in arousing hitherto unknown interests- challenging to its own hold over the lethargic minds of its devotees- it is not inconceivable that television may be sowing the seeds of its own downfall.

The problems of the young

Problems affecting young generation cover a wide range of activities from education, health and housing to employment, criminal justice and participation in public life. These problems of young reflect the problems of society as a whole entity, because our tomorrow day in greatly part depends on how our young generation will be and how it will be able to cope with difficulties of life. That’s why there is an acute need to consider them with more attention and focus, this means an increasingly important role for youth policy within main stream politics which requires a more integrated approach to the needs of young people, intensified contact with youth organizations and further involvement in practical activities such as youth work, non-formal approaches to education, volunteering and development. Young people have to be considered as a resource for society. But first of all, to deal with the problems, they need to be recognized and studied in a fundamental approach, to identify main cause and eradicate it in the very beginning.

In world today, millions of young people suffer from a range of problems which are increasingly related to economic, social and cultural, rather than political issues. Sadly, young people are more likely to be affected by poverty and other results of the high unemployment levels and social difficulties, than adults. Another Problem is education access. Education is considered by many people as the only way to ensure the integration of young people into social life and to lead them out of poverty. Indeed, with the constantly growing technical progress, more and more of uneducated are left outskirt of modern economy and behind of poverty line. In fact it is true to say that today’s young people are better educated than the youngsters of any of the preceding generations.

However, there is still much to do, as recent experience showed to ensure the only access to education system is not enough, it also needs to be harmonized more with the labor market. Finding a job is one more problem for the young people. They are inexperienced enough to get a good job but they have not enough money to live a normal independent live being low paid. It’s also refer to the housing. Nowadays accommodation costs much so it’s difficult to find a house of a flat appropriate for a young man if he had not enough money to buy it. In many countries this problem is still actual because in their policy there is no solution to this matter.

Emotional problems for young people can be far more difficult than financial ones. The typical teenager problem is drug-habit. Some young man use drugs, because they think that will be cool guys. But they don’t understand, that it’s wrong. Some of them can’t stop that, and they become dependent on drugs. And they commit different serious crimes, because they need some money to buy drugs. Youth is also the time to meet your first love. It is, of course, wonderful, but, as it is widely known that first love often has an unhappy end, this also increases young people’s problems. We also face the problem how to spend our free time. We can do it in different ways. Some of teen-ages spend their free time in different night clubs. Other young people spend their free time in the streets.

Another typical problem for most of the teen-ages is problem with their parents. Happiness or unhappiness of any family mostly depends on relations in it. So many families so many family relations. Each family establishes its own relations in its own way. It has its own traditions & customs & its own unwritten constitution including rights & duties of every member of the family. The level of democracy is also different in different families, which mostly depends on the viewpoints of adults usually not coinciding with a child’s point of view. So the problem of misunderstanding becomes urgent. Some people can it generation gap. It as a rule sharpens as soon as a child approaches his or her difficult teens.

And both sides (parents & children) should be patient & tactful & it’s the only way to settle down all the problems & stay friends. Parents say that its difficult to discipline children. But experts state that parents will get the best results if they try to prevent or stop misbehavior in natural, logical & when possible fun ways. So, as you see, it is very difficult to be young nowadays, as it always was. But you only can be young once, & some wonderful things can happen only when you’re young. So, should enjoy youth while it lasts.

What Makes Your Child Difficult? Essay

Internet Child Porn Essay

Internet Child Porn Essay.

According to UNICEF, the United States and Somalia are the only two countries that have not yet ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. However, Somalia currently has no legally recognized government and cannot ratify anything at all, leaving the United States as the only country that still does not agree with it. The Optional Protocol to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography reports that Bill Clinton did not submit it to the Senate for deliberation and ratification.

Perhaps he was too busy with Monica Lewinsky, and maybe the Republicans under Bush were too busy in airport restrooms like Senator Larry Craig. But perhaps Obama can do something about it. Child abuse through internet pornography is growing. In fact, the United States Department of Justice approximates one million children in the United States alone, who were victims of pornographers (Levesque 65). Indeed, tougher internet child-pornography regulations need to be enforced because it continues to be rampant, digital technology has made it easier to proliferate, and the graphic pornography is increasingly becoming more brutal.

Internet child pornography is rampant and increasing. The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) asserts that “approximately 20% of all internet pornography involves children. ” It is a “growing crisis. ” The Internet Watch Foundation also reports that since 1997, internet child pornography increased by approximately 1,500%. Furthermore, internet child pornography is growing because it generates high revenue. Roger Levesque, in Sexual Abuse of Children reports that child pornography is a multi-billion dollar business. It is also one of the fastest growing internet criminal segments (Ferraro, et al. ).

The growth and high demand for it is fueled by addiction, just like illegal drugs. As Ryan Singel of Wired reports, “Internet pornography is the new crack cocaine, leading to addiction, misogyny, pedophilia, boob jobs and erectile dysfunction, according to clinicians and researchers testifying before a Senate committee Thursday. ” Pedophiles are addicted to child pornography, which they use for personal sexual arousal, trading with fellow pedophiles, training for future child abuse victims, or inducement for child prostitution (Crosson-Tower 208).

Consequently, the high demand for addictive internet child pornography increases child abuse cases. As, the Guardian reports, “Demand for child pornography on the internet has led to an increase in sex abuse cases. ” It also adds, “many paedophiles acknowledged that exposure to child sex images fuelled their fantasies and played an important part in leading them to commit physical sexual offences against children. ” Unsupervised children using the internet naively are “groomed for abuse while accessing chat rooms. If the victims take the bait, they become part of future pornographic productions.

The increase in popularity of social-media internet sites such as MySpace has increased these chances, whereas in the past, kidnapping by total strangers made it more difficult for pedophiles to capture victims. Moreover, the Internet Watch Foundation through the Associated Press reports that “Child pornography on the Internet is becoming more brutal and graphic, and the number of images depicting violent abuse has risen fourfold since 2003. Marlise Simons of the New York Times also reports that “even babies and infants were peddled via the Internet and other media to clients in Europe, Russia and the United States. ” Indeed, the Internet facilitates the distribution of child pornography.

In the section “Law Enforcement Efforts Against Child Pornography Are Ineffective” of Philip Jenkin’s book At Issue: Child Sexual Abuse, he points out “overwhelming evidence” that child pornography “is all but impossible to obtain through nonelectronic means. The US Department of Justice also reports that because of the Internet’s “technological ease, lack of expense, and anonymity in obtaining and distributing child pornography,” it “has resulted in an explosion in the availability, accessibility, and volume of child pornography. ” Furthermore, in 2001, “There are estimated to be one million pornographic images of children on the internet, many of them featuring children from third world countries being abused by affluent sex tourists from the west” (Wellard 26).

UNICEF also reports that “a single child pornography site receives a million hits a month. ” In order to receive that much Internet traffic, organized crime groups use sophisticated computer technology to evade detection. Pornographers can send viruses to unwitting Internet users without their knowledge to gain control of their computers, which can be transformed into file servers that can remotely store images and videos of child pornography for downloading later. This happened to Michael Fiola, an unsuspecting man in Massachusetts who was wrongfully charged for possessing child pornography.

As Matthew Healey of the Associated Press reports, “Of all the sinister things that Internet viruses do, this might be the worst: They can make you an unsuspecting collector of child pornography. ” After a virus infected Fiola’s laptop and downloaded heinous pictures and videos into his computer, his employer discovered it through the internet bill, and he “was fired and charged with possession of child pornography, which carries up to five years in prison. He endured death threats, his car tires were slashed and he was shunned by friends. ” But he and his wife “fought the case, spending $250,000 on legal fees.

They liquidated their savings, took a second mortgage and sold their car. ” Eventually, charges were dropped after prosecutors confirmed the defense findings. “It ruined my life, my wife’s life and my family’s life,” says Fiola. These sophisticated techniques emanates from hidden internet levels, where 50,000 to 100,000 online organized pedophiles, one-third American, gather together, as asserted by Jenkins in his book Beyond Tolerance: Child Pornography Online. With the advent of web-cams and digital photography and video, even from cell phones, home-made child porn is now easy to produce.

Peer-to-peer networking, wherein internet users can share files with each other instead of downloading it, along with the use of data encryption, file division and passwords, also makes any illegal porn difficult to detect, as reported by the Internet Watch Foundation. Truly, law enforcement is weak in battling child porn. As of 2008, the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (ICMEC) reports that 93 out of 187 countries do not have child-porn-specific laws. And out of the 94 that do have anti-child-porn laws, 36 do not criminalize the possession of child pornography.

And according to Interpol statistics, only 1% of child-porn abuse victims are located each year by law enforcers, as reported by Emily Friedman in ABC News. Furthermore, violators found with images of post-pubescent minors, even if it is illegal, are often not prosecuted (Wells, et al 277). Currently, China has the most effective method in the war against child pornography. Right now, the US uses highly inefficient methods. To mitigate its image as the porn search engine of the world, Google develops software to fight child porn.

In 2008, Google adapted software for its search engine to track child porn that is available through its search engine, as reported by Maggie Shiels of BBC News. The FBI also posts hyperlinks on the World Wide Web that advertise child porn. Then they raid the homes of internet users who click on the links, as Declan McCullagh writes in CNet. Moreover, the Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (CEOPP), established in 2006, attempts to target the assets or finances of organized child-porn rings, as Jamie Doward from the Guardian reports.

But China simply blocks all porn and American social-media sites from the Internet. China is known very well for its internet censorship and harsh penalties for drug trafficking. Drug use in the country is one of the lowest in the world. As Reuters reports in December 2009, “The Chinese government has run a highly publicized campaign against what officials said were banned smutty and lewd pictures overwhelming the country’s Internet and threatening the emotional health of children.

They also add that “China has banned a number of popular websites and Internet services, including Google’s Youtube, Twitter, Flickr and Facebook, as well as Chinese content sharing sites. ” Jennifer Guevin of CNET also writes, “Google acknowledged last year that the Chinese government asked it to disable a search feature with the goal of censoring pornography. ” In response to CNET’s report, Myles Taylor, a reader, commented, “I wish we’d take some pages from their book and start cracking down on child pornographers, pedophiles and such. ”

In conclusion, law enforcement on child pornography is too weak and tougher regulations need to be implemented to combat this crisis. It would be very effective and simple if the US government were willing to simply block all porno and social-media-sharing sites from the Web, but the US First Amendment would prohibit that. However, unless US lawmakers do something drastic, such as revising the US Constitution, shoppers will continue to see the photographs of missing children on milk cartons, reminding them that their child could be the next victim of thousands of pedophiles simply waiting for the next opportunity.

Internet Child Porn Essay

Early Childhood Essay

Early Childhood Essay.

In Jamaica not much is recorded about the early history of Early Childhood in Jamaica except for the contribution of the early theorist and Pioneers and what they contributed throughout its early development. In the early history of Early Childhood in Jamaica the majority of children’s education was not given priority not much thought was given to their developmental process and teachers who taught them were not properly trained. It was decided that every child had a right to proper education.

The early childhood commission is an agency of the Ministry of Education.

The Early Childhood Commission Act (2003) commissioned a special body, the Early Childhood Commissioned (ECC) to direct all early childhood activities and develop suitable plans and program for the entire childhood sector. Early childhood education in Jamaica has made significant progress since the Inspection and Regulatory System for Early Childhood Institutions (ECIs) was established in 2007 by the Early Childhood Commission, following legislation for the Early Childhood Act and Regulations.

The ECC is responsible for the comprehensive development of all children from birth to eight years of age. The comprehensive approach to early childhood development was the driver behind the development of the cross-sectoral National Strategic Plan for Early Childhood Development, 2008-2013, which was formulated after broad consultation with stakeholders and research on the status of services for young children. In 2012 the commission carried out an inspection of Early Childhood Institutions and found out this:.

A total of 2,834 institutions were identified of which 91 per cent applied for registration. Seventy-five per cent were community basic schools, 20 per cent day care/nursery/pre-school and kindergarten and five per cent infant schools. 2277 ECIs were inspected: 80 per cent of all ECIs and 89 per cent of all those that have applied for registration. Early Pioneers of Early Childhood in Jamaica Reverend Henry Ward (1879 – 1981) was one of the earlier pioneers in the history of early childhood in Jamaica. He was a trained teacher who graduated from the Mico Teachers College.

Reverend Ward approach to early childhood development was that every aspect in a child’s development should be considered so he took into account the physical, mental and social aspect in developing a child. Reverend Ward believed that every child had a right to proper education, which he thought began with suitable day care facilities, he established the first play centre in Islington, St Mary in 1938. Being a member of the Board of Education Reverend Ward was instrumental in a resolution which saw the establishment of play centres throughout the island which catered for children 3-7 years.

Dudley R. B. Grant (1915-1988) – was a graduate of the Mico Teachers College who held many post in the teaching profession. Mr. Grant was the Director of the Bernard Van Leer Foundation which played a pivotal part in the history of early childhood development by training of teacher in Jamaica. In 1968 he launched the first early childhood month in Jamaica; his view was to increase public awareness on the importance of early childhood education. Mr. Grant was also instrumental in the training, salary increase of basic school teachers and also curriculum development for basic school children.

Projects established by Mr. Dudley Grant: • Resource Centre training Unit for training resources centre officers • Teenage Mothers Project • Summer Bachelor of Education (B. ED) Early Childhood Programme • North Coast Project Reverend Marjorie Prentice Saunders (1913 -2009) – was born in St Mary in 1913, she became a lawyer at the age of 23, Miss Saunders worked as a traveling organizer for the United Church in Jamaica whilst traveling across the island she noticed that untrained persons were responsible for and operating schools for children.

After her observation she established the first six week basic training course in 1950. A selection was done of six individual from six parishes, they were trained and became the first trained school teachers in Jamaica. She also trained teachers at the Kelly Lawson training center. Reverend Saunders is the founding member of several well known basic, preparatory and high schools. She is accredited with the creation and organization of programs for youth and homeless children across the island. In 2005 Reverend Saunders was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize.

Early Childhood Essay

Behavioral Problems in Early Childhood Essay

Behavioral Problems in Early Childhood Essay.

Abstract Early childhood behavioral problems is are a complex issue and there are many important aspects to consider when discussing this unique age group. The following is a broad review of the research on the subject. Included is an overview of the topic, as well as a review and discussion of risk factors, assessment methods, and intervention strategies. It is also discussed that further research must be done in order to provide better assessment techniques and treatment procedures for young children with behavioral issues.

Behavioral Problems in Early Childhood.

Overview Early childhood behavior has long been a subject of interest among psychologists as well as professionals in other fields. Famous professionals who have studied and developed theories on the subject include Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud, Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget, John Bowlby, Marie Ainsworth, Mari Main, Donald Wincott, and Daniel Stem (Weatherston, 2000). The theoretical framework provided by these theorists has provided usno first person with the building blocks in which to understand behavioral problems in early childhood.

Early childhood behavioral problems are often difficult to define, since many behavioral issues are part of the normal childhood development process. Keenan and Wakschlag explain that “Preschool-age children come to mental health clinics for services, manifest serious and sometimes harmful behavior, and demonstrate impaired functioning as a result of behavioral and emotional problems”(2002). don’t quote this–paraphrase According to the DSM-IV, young children with problem behaviors are placed in the categorychildren are not placed in a category of disruptive behavior disorders.

Disruptive behavior disorders include two sub-categories, composed of including oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder (Keenan & Wakschlag, 2002). A study conducted by Beernink, Swinkels and Buitelaar (2007), determined the presence of behavioral problems in a sample of children between 14 months and 19- months-old of age. The parents of the children were asked to complete a questionnaire to determine the presence of emotional problems, impulsivity, attention difficulties, and social communication issues with their children.

Certain behaviors were present in more than half of the children, and could thus, be considered normal behavior. Social communication issues were present in less than 10% of the sample of children. In this sample of children, boys showeddon’t use “showed to have” to have more problem behaviors than girls. The findings of the study show the importance of early diagnosis and intervention in children. cite Risk Factors Extensive research has been done on the various causes of behavioral problems in early childhood.

One study concluded that the risk factors that correlate most with behavioral problems in young children are parent management skills, early childhood maladjustment, child temperament, and maternal depression (Nelson, 2007). Of all the proposed risk factors correlated with early childhood behavioral problems, the two with the most extensive research include conflict within the family and economical issues. Research studies (cite which ones)on how family conflicts relate to early childhood behavioral problem are consistent in their findings.

It is apparent through research that family conflicts do have an affect on the behavior of young children. One study, which included children who had been in families where child abuse or neglect had been present, was conducted to determine whether family violence is related to early childhood behavior. The outcome of the study determined that family violence has an indirect effect on the behavior and emotional health of children under 6 (English, Marshall & Stewart, 2003). Another study was conducted to determine the role of child temperament and the relationship between family problems and child behavioral problems.

The outcomes of the study show don’t use “show”that children with a difficult temperament show a large correlation between family conflict and behavioral issues (Ramos, Guerin, Gottfried, Bathurst, & Oliver, 2005). The results of these two studies strongly suggest that the family system has a profound effect on the behavior of young children, and that conflicts within the family are a risk factor for behavioral problems. Research also suggests that economical issues are considered a risk factor in regards to early childhood behavioral problems.

One study suggests that children who reside in lower-income communities tend to have a higher chance of having disruptive behavior disorder symptomssymptoms of … (Keenan & Wakschlag, 2001). Another study that reviews the literature on the topic provides similar findings that children from low -socioeconomic backgrounds have a higher chanceprobability of developing behavioral problems (Huaqing & Kaser, 2003). Furthermore, a study conducted by Winslow and Shaw proveresearch doesn’t prove anything that boys lower class neighborhoods are more at- risk for behavioral problems before entering elementary school.

Problems with Assessment Questions have arisen regarding whether or not young children can be accurately assessed for behavioral issues. As stated earlier, it is often difficult to determine whether a child is portraying behavioral problems, since many behavioral outbursts are apart of the development process in young children. Keenan and Wakschlag’s (2002) overview of early childhood diagnosis tries to answer that question. According to the authors “Disruptive behavior problems are the most common reason preschool children come to mental health clinics” (Keenan & Wakschlag, 2002).

don’t use quotes; paraphrase Yet, there are several problems with the assessment of young children. To begin with, the DSM-IV is the most common way of assessing preschoolers. However, the use of the DSM-IV with children has been validated for the use of school-age children and adolescents, not preschoolers. It is important that young children are being assessed accurately within a framework that is valid for their age group. The authors reviewed the research on the validity of the DSM-IV for assessing behavioral problems in young children and compared different ideas on what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior in young children.

According to their research, they found that the DMSDSM-IV is a valid method of assessing young children for oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. However, slight modifications need to be made based on each individual child’s developmental level. They also stress the need for further research on the subject to develop more tools to assess the children in this age group (Keenan & Wakschlag, 2002). Intervention Strategies One main underlying commonality in the majority of research on this topic is the importance of early intervention.

Stacks (2005) suggests that “Intervention for children with moderate to severe behavior problems in early childhood is crucial because behavior problems are likely to persist into elementary school leading to a variety of social and academic concerns. ”. not appropriate citation–paraphrase The primary reason for the assessment and diagnosis of behavioral problems in early childhood is to be able to provide treatment before the problem worsens as the child develops. Regardless of the child’s age or socioeconomical status, there are programs available to help children with behavioral problems, as well as their parents.

There are several local community agencies that are available to help with children who possess exhibit behavioral problems. These include programs such as Head Start, the Department of Social Services, Community Mental Health, and the Health department. These programs are most often used by lower income families; however, they are also available to higher economic groups. For families who can afford individual therapy, there are therapists who are trained specifically in helping children with behavioral problems.

Some of these therapists have had extensive training in techniques such as play therapy or infant mental health. One way to find therapists who have experience and training in early childhood is to look on websites such as The Association for Play Therapy and the World Association for Mental Health (Stacks, 2005). Formalize! More and more research has been conducted to prove the importance of family- centered intervention strategies for young children (Keen & Dempsey, 2008). Sometimes, in order to provide help to the child, the family structure must undergo some changes.

However, family therapy is only successful when the all members are devoted to the therapeutic process. Family-centered therapy is a complex subject, and more research needs to be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness (Keen & Dempsey, 2008). Conclusion Early childhood behavior is a complex issue, and there are many aspects that should be considered when discussing the topic. There are various risk factors that may contribute to behavioral problems, including family conflicts and children from lower-income neighborhoods.

mismatch There are various problems with the assessment and diagnosis of preschool- aged children, and more research needs to be done in the area. Although there are many community agencies and child therapists available to help with the intervention of early childhood behavioral problems, more research needs to be done on what type of therapy is helpful, particularly family-centered therapy. In conclusion, it is important that more research be conducted in all aspects of early childhood behavioral issues in order to ensure that early intervention is possible and successful.

References Beernink, A. , Swinkels, S. , & Buitelaar, J. (2007). Problem behavior in a community sample of 14- and 19-month-old children. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 16 (4), 271-280. English, D. , Marshall, D. , & Stewart, A. (2003). Effects of family violence on child behavior and health during early childhood. Journal of Family Violence, 18(1), 43-57. space here Dempsey, I. (2008). A review of processes and outcomes in family-centered services for children with a disability. Topics on Early Childhood Special Education, 28,(1) 42-52.

Nelson, R. (2007). Risk factors predictive of the problem behavior of children at risk for emotional and behavioral disorder. Council for Exceptional Children, 73(3), 367-379. Ramos, M. , Guerin, D. , Gottfried, A. , & Oliver, A. (2005). Family conflict and children’s behavior problems: The moderating role of child temperament. Structural Equation Modeling, 12(2), 278-298. Stacks, A. (2005). Using an ecological framework for understanding and treating externalizing behavior in early childhood. Early Childhood Education Journal, 32,(4) 269-278.

Qi, C. , & Kaiser, A. (2003). Behavioral problems of preschool children from low income families: Review of the literature. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 23(4), 188-216. Wakschlag, L. , & Keenan, K. (2002). Can a valid diagnosis of disruptive behavior be made in preschool children? American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(3), 351-358. Wakschlag, L. , & Keenan, K. (2001). Clinical significance and correlates of disruptive behavior in environmentally at-risk preschoolers. Journal for Clinical Child Psychology, 30(1), 262-275. Weatherston, D.

(2001). Infant mental health: A review of relevant literature. Psychoanalytic Social Work, 8(1), 39-69. Winslow, E. , & Shaw, D. (2007). Impact of neighborhood disadvantage on overt behavior problems during early childhood. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 207-219. I counted at least 55 errors in all that were worth 1-5 points each. I recommend considering making the corrections suggested for the next paper for great success, and in order to improve your chances of success in the course, rather than give a 45 or less on this paper, will give a 65.

Behavioral Problems in Early Childhood Essay

Characteristics of an Early Childhood Educator Essay

Characteristics of an Early Childhood Educator Essay.

Early childhood educators work hard to prepare young children for the transition into kindergarten. The importance of pre-kindergarten education has resulted in a larger number of preschool teachers needed across the country. These educators should have certain characteristics to be effective teachers. To properly prepare young children, the teachers must have patience, compassion and creativity. For most students in preschool, this is their first experience with schooling. These children commonly struggle with following classroom rules and staying focused while working on activities.

Preschool teachers must be patient with these beginning learners and understand that, without previous school experience, everything is new to them. Without patience, the teachers are likely to become frustrated, and the overall effectiveness of the lesson being taught will ultimately suffer. Preschool students often struggle to control their emotions. This is because they are still developing the skills needed to handle sadness, anger and other emotions. Preschool teachers need to understand that children this age do not have the ability to control their emotions on their own.

This means these teachers must be compassionate and understanding. They need to offer comfort to scared or upset students when it is needed, instead of ignoring their feelings. Keeping preschool age students engaged in learning activities can be difficult. Preschool teachers must have the creativity needed to create interesting lessons that teach and entertain kids. Art activities can make lessons easier for preschoolers to learn. They also allow them to practice the skills that they are learning without getting bored or losing focus.

Preschool is also a time when students develop their imaginative play skills. These skills are used in everything during this stage. If you engage students in creative activities, the preschool teacher can help them learn these skills and give them with the opportunity to explore their imagination. These are just a couple of examples of characteristics that an early childhood educator should posses. Without the proper skill set, teaching preschool aged children may be more difficult than it needs to be. However, if you do have these characteristics, you have the ability to be a successful educator.

Characteristics of an Early Childhood Educator Essay

Early Childhood Pioneers Essay

Early Childhood Pioneers Essay.

Froebel pioneered the view that play acts as an organising function which integrates learning and helps children apply their knowledge and understanding in relation to their developing ideas, feelings, physical bodies and relationships. Froebel thought that schools should be communities in which the parents are welcome to join their children. He believed that parents were the first educators of their child. He thought that children learned outdoors as well as indoors. He encouraged movement, games and the study of natural science in the garden.

He invented finger play, songs and rhymes.

He encouraged the arts and crafts and a love for literature as well as mathematical understandings. He thought that children should have freedom of movement, clothes which were easy to move about in, and sensible food which was not too rich. Foebel deeply valued symbolic behaviour and encouraged this in very young children. He realised how important it is for children to understand that they can make one thing stand for another.

He thought that the best way for children to try out symbolic behaviour was in their play. He thought that as they pretend and imagine things, children show their highest level of learning.

Similarly to Vygotsky he thought that children’s best thinking is done when they are playing. He also designed various items and activities to help symbolic behaviour. He encouraged children to draw, make collages and model with clay. He encouraged play with special wooden blocks (Gifts) and made up songs, movements, dancing AND crafts (occupations). He allowed children to use Gifts and Occupations as they wished thus introducing what is called now free flow play. He emphasised the expressive arts, mathematics, literature, sciences, creativity and aesthetic things.

He believed that each brought important but different kinds of knowledge and understanding. He also place great emphasis on ideas, feelings and relationships. Influence on current practice and curriculum models Most mainstream settings encourage learning through first hand experience and play remains central to provision for children’s learning, including language development through rhymes and finger plays. Most early years settings encourage imagination to flow freely in play, and symbolic play is seen as very important for children’s development.

Early years settings integrate care and education and today this is emphasised more than ever. Children’s development is still encouraged through provision of a wide range of materials and activities tailored to the needs of the individual child. Current best practice still emphasises creativity, science and the humanities and learning opportunities are integrated across curriculum partnerships. Maria Montessori (1870- 1952) Montessori devised a structured teaching programme which she based on her observations of children who were mentally challenged, and she believed she was making Froebel’s work more scientifically rigorous in doing this.

There are Montessori schools in the UK within the private sector. Children are seen as active learners who go through sensitive periods in their development when they are more open to learning particular skills and concepts. Montessori designed a set of didactic materials which encouraged children to use their hands. Her method involves a series of graded activities through which every child progress working through specially designed materials. Each material isolates one quality for the child to discover e. g. size, colour or shape. The materials are self correcting.

Whereas Froebel stressed the importance of relationships, feelings and being part of a community, Montessori stressed that children should work alone. She thought that this helped children to become independent learners. For her the highest moment in child’s learning was what she called the polarisation of the attention. This means that the child is completely silent and absorbed in what they are doing. Montessori did not think there was need for adult correction. The role of the adult was limited to facilitating the child’s own creativity, the teacher is known as directress.

Children are not seen as part of a community but work largely on their own in a quiet and peaceful environment of total concentration. Little parental involvement is encouraged. Unlike Froebel, Montessori did not see the point in play or the free flow. She did not encourage children to have their own ideas until they had worked through all her graded learning sequences, she did not believe that they were able to do free drawing or creative work of any kind until they had done this. The child is thought to solve problems independently, building self confidence, analytical thinking and the satisfaction that comes from accomplishment.

There are significant similarities between Piaget’s theory of the stages of cognitive development and the Montessori system’s organisation of students in the classroom. The Montessori system places children into classrooms based upon a common cognitive stage and not by grade level, children are divided into age groups and are presented with activities that correspond to their cognitive ability at that level, this coincides closely with Piaget’s stages of development in which certain cognitive tasks must be mastered during a certain age in order for formal learning to progress.

Furthermore students in Montessori system are placed in an environment that is tailored to their cognitive development, Montessori believed that classrooms should be furnished and equipped in a manner that allows children to explore and interact with their surroundings in a safe and engaging environment. Piaget believed that interaction with one’s surroundings aids in cognitive development in a way that is referred to as schema theory. The Montessori system also provides the necessary growth opportunities as designated by Piaget to progress from one cognitive stage to next.

These four criteria include maturation, experience, social interaction and equilibration Influence on current practice and curriculum models Mainstream provision also sees the child as an active learner and some Montessori ideas and materials are used such as graded sizes of particular shapes, e. g. small, medium and large blocks. Many other aspects of Montessori provision are different from mainstream early years practice. For example mainstream settings emphasise that the role of adults in intervening and supporting the child’s learning.

Current mainstream practice would not usually leave children to work through activities alone but encourages group work and sensitive intervention by adults to support learning. Sometimes quiet concentration is encouraged but according to individual children’s needs rather than basic approach to all learning activities. Current practice would involve parents/carers as partners with a high degree of involvement. Susan Isaacs (1885- 1948) Like Margaret McMillan, Susan Isaacs was influenced by Froebel, she was also influenced by the theories of Melanie Klein, the psychoanalyst, Isaacs made detailed observations of children.

Isaacs valued play because she believed that it gave children freedom to think, feel and relate to others. She looked at children’s fears, their aggression and their anger. She believed that through their play, children can move in and out of reality. This enables them to balance their ideas, feelings and relationships. She said of classrooms where young children have to sit at tables and write that they cannot learn in such places because they need to move just as they need to eat and sleep. Isaacs valued parents as the most important educators in a child’s life.

She spoke to them on the radio, and she wrote for parents in magazines. Isaacs encouraged people to look at the inner feelings of children. She encouraged children to express their feelings. She thought it would be very damaging to bottle up feelings inside. She supported both Froebel’s and Margaret McMillan’s view that nurseries are an extension of the home and not a substitute for it, and she believed that children should remain in nursery type education until they are 7 years of age. Isaacs kept careful records of children, both for the period they spent in her nursery and for the period after they had left.

She found that many of them regressed when they left her nursery and went on to formal infant schools. Modern researches have found the same. Influence on current practice and curriculum models Mainstream early years settings today give opportunities for children to let off steam in controlled way through vigorous physical play and encourage controlled expression of feelings through language and imaginative play. Play is still seen as central to learning and parents/carers are seen as partners. Careful observation of children and accurate record keeping is emphasised in early years settings.

Many countries throughout the world do not start children at school until age six or seven years and many early years educators in the UK argue that this should be the case here. Margaret McMillan (1860-1931) Margaret worked in the Froebel tradition. She believed in active learning through first hand experiences and emphasised feelings and relationships as well as physical aspects of movement and learning. She believed that play helped a child to become a whole person and was an integrating force in learning and development. McMillan was a pioneer in nursery education.

She believed in the introduction of nursery schools as an extension of home and as communities in themselves. She emphasised the value of the open air and introduced gardens for families to play and explore. She believed in partnership with parents who developed with their children in the nursery environment. McMillan was the first to introduce school meals and medical services and stressed the importance of trained adults to work with children. Influence on current practice and curriculum models McMillan has had a powerful influence on the provision of nursery education in the UK and many of her principles are widespread.

At present time children are given access wherever possible to outdoors areas and encouraged to make gardens and use natural materials. Early years settings give opportunities for children’s physical, social, imaginative and creative play and encourage expression of feelings. Active learning is encouraged through provision of a wide range of materials and equipment together with a skilled and qualified workforce. McMillan’s views on the nursery school as a community are followed through today as parents are invited into schools and seen as partners in the care and education of their children.

As well as being a community in itself, early years settings extend provision into the community and become part of the community. School meals and medical services are now an accepted part of provision. Learning theories and Play The importance of Play, the environmental factors and the view of the child as an active learner are also reflected in the social constructivist model. Similarly to the pioneers of play, Piaget, Vygotsky and Bruner saw the child as an active participant in their own development and learning. Piaget

stated that children passed through a series of stages of cognitive development always in the same order but at different rates. He emphasised that the child was an active participant in their own learning and development. According to Piaget children had schemas or patterns of behaviour that are part of the child’s powerful drive to understand its experiences. Piaget believed that young children in preoperational stage began to think and represent actions with symbols and judged situations on what they could see not being able to conserve, he also prescribed them as egocentric and felt that they learned by discovery.

Whereas Piaget saw the child as a solitary learner, Bruner and Vygotsky similarly to Froebel stressed the importance of the role of adults and interactions in play. Vygotsky emphasised the role of adults in helping children learn. He identified the zone of proximal development and believed that the adult role was to intervene and help children to move into the zone of actual development and the cycle goes on. Bruner believed that children learn through doing, imagining what they have been doing and then turning what they know into symbols such speech, drawing and writing.

Bruner saw the adult as important in supporting children’s learning especially when informal, everyday interactions are utilised to help children make sense of the world. Influence on current practice and curriculum models Current practice acknowledges the role of schemas in children’s learning and development. Different types of schemas were identified by early years practitioners, teachers and psychologists, such as transporting, orientation, enveloping, horizontal and vertical schemas. Social constructivism (reflecting many of the early childhood pioneers’ ideas) is widely acknowledged to underpin and influence mush early years provision.

It emphasises that children have different and distinct ways of thinking, behaviour and feeling at different stage of development and that children’s thinking is different from adults. Children are seen as active agent in their own learning, adults observe and assess children, work closely with the child, support their learning, extend play opportunities and parents are involved as partners. Carefully structured and well resourced learning environment are essential including the indoors and outdoors to encourage

exploration and discovery with a balance of adult structured activities and play and learning opportunities freely chosen by children. Current principles and Curriculum models High/Scope curriculum model High scope is a structured programme developed in the 60s in the USA and now extended for use with preschool children and babies. Some mainstream settings in the UK use the High scope approach. The High/scope is based on well accepted educational principles: Active learning: the child is encouraged to become an active learner involved directly in their own learning.

Personal initiative: the child is encouraged to use personal initiative to plan, do, and review their own learning. Consistency: children need consistent stable daily routines and organised learning environment to help their confidence and independence. Genuine relationships between practitioners and children Appropriate curriculum designed to provide key learning experiences. The EYFS Curriculum The principles of good practice in early years provision have integrated many of the key features of the work of the early educators.

Currently is general agreement about what constitutes a good practice and these ideas have been drawn together in the curriculum guidance for the foundation stage in England. The key areas are Adults and children, the curriculum and the environment. Children and adults: Children are active learners, they engage with adults, materials, events and ideas in immediate, direct and meaningful ways, adults are skilled and trained and understand how children learn and develop. Children are viewed as a whole and their individual needs are met. Adult observe and assess children’s progress and are able to respond appropriately.

Imagination and symbolic play are seen as very important. The curriculum: There is a balanced between adult initiated and children self chosen activities, well planned and purposeful play is seen as the most important vehicle for learning. A brad balanced, well panned relevant and appropriate learning curriculum is provided, a wide range of activities and equipment is available indoors and outdoors and the equality of opportunity and access to learning for all children are essential. The environment: A well organised, safe, stimulating, secure and reassuring environment is provided and positive relationships with parents are maintained.

[pic] Bibliography Beaver M, Brewster J, Jones P, Keene A, Neaum S, Tallack J, 1999, Babies and Young Children Book2, 2nd edition: Early Years Care and Education, Stanely Thornes (Publishers) Ltd Bruce T. , 2004, Developing learning in early childhood (0-8), Paul Chapman Publishing, A Sage publications company London. Bruce T & Meggitt C, 2007, CACHE Level3 Award Certificate Diploma in childcare and education, London, Hodder Education. Edwards C. P. , 2002, Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia, Early Childhood Research and Practice, Volume 4 Number 1, 2002.

Grisham-Brown J. (? ) INFLUENCES ON EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT, Early childhood development, Education. com Holachek K. , 2007, The benefits of alternative education: How Piaget theories of Cognitive development in children support the Montessori system, (? ) Hucher K. & Tassoni P, 2005, professional development Planning play and the Early years (2nd Edition), Oxford, Heinemann Educational publishers Sagarin S. K. , 2009, The Seer and the Scientist: Rudolf Steiner and Jean Piaget on Children’s Development, JOURNAL for Waldorf/R. Steiner Education Vol. 11. 1, May 2009.

Early Childhood Pioneers Essay

Early Childhood Growth and Development Essay

Early Childhood Growth and Development Essay.

This assignment we were asked to review chapter 2 of our text Developmental Profiles: Pre-Birth through Twelve. We were asked to write a three to four page paper which includes the following: * A description of how the concept of development differs from the concept of growth. * A summary of the domains of development identified in chapter 2 course text * An analysis of the developmental milestone examples in the text i. e. sitting, walking, talking and the purpose they serve. * Lastly, identify and explain three factors that may contribute to atypical development.

Now that we have all of this discussed and what this paper entails let us get to it. Before we can even get into the meat of this paper we first must know and understand the definition and the difference between development and growth. Our text gives us a definition of both growth and development. Development according to our text refers to an increase in complexity, from simple to more complicated and detailed.

Growth is defined in our text as physical changes leading to an increase in size. (Allen & Marotz, 2010) The terms growth and development refers to a dynamic process. Often used interchangeably, these terms have different meanings.

Growth and development are interdependent, interrelated process. Growth generally takes place during the first 20 years of life; Development continues after that. (www. scribd. com). After reading the above lines and sitting and contemplating on them. The Human Growth and Development website stated that “Growth takes place during the first 20 years of life and development continues after that. ” (www. scribd. com). I am not a board certified doctor but I do disagree with that statement because of that fact that yes growth and development are interdependent of one another but we all develop as we grow.

Yes there is a difference in the concept of growth and development but one must look at the definition of each. Growth is the physical aspect of the two, example after a baby is born the birth weight, height, and head circumference is charted. The pediatrician then requests the parent(s) to bring the child back in two months. The two month check-up everything again is charted and this is done in intervals through out the life of the child. The chart shows the growth of the child from birth to present. As we grow we also develop. This means that we develop our senses, our thoughts, personality etc.

According to the Human Growth and Development site development is the behavioral aspect of the two. (www. scribd. com). I tend to believe this because as we get older we tend to grow or develop into ourselves. We are not born with our personality, this has to develop. We were not born walking we had to develop the strength of our legs in order to walk. The next phase of our assignment is to summarize the developmental domains mentioned in our text. Before I do this summary I just want to point out that “the early childhood years are filled with staggering growth and development.

There are four main areas of development that occur all at the same time. (www. teachpreschool. org). The domains listed in the text are as follows: * Physical Development – governs the major tasks of infancy; this domain also governs both gross motor skills (crawling, walking, running) and fine motor skills (hand-eye coordination, cutting, writing, weaving) (Allen & Marotz, 2010; www. teachpreschool. org). * Cognitive Development – addresses the expansion of a child’s intellect or mental abilities.

(Allen & Marotz, 2010) * Perceptual Development – this domain addresses the complex way a child uses information received through the senses- sight, hearing, touch, smell taste and body position. This domain also enables the child to focus on what is relevant or irrelevant at any given moment. (Allen & Marotz, 2010) * Language Development – is the domain that enables the child to communicate with his/her peers. Most children tend to understand a variety of words, concepts, and relationships before they have words to describe or communicate.

This ability is called receptive language. There is another term used called expressive language which is words used to verbalize thoughts and feelings. (Allen & Marotz, 2010) * Social Development- the understanding on how to communicate, share and make friends. This also covers how we feel about ourselves. (www. teachpreschool. org; Allen & Marotz, 2010) * Emotional Development- The building blocks for positive self esteem and self confidence. Most theorists place Social development and Emotional development in one because these two are interrelated as well.

(www. teachpreschool. org). We are almost through walking through Early Childhood Growth and Development; now let us talk about developmental milestones. Developmental milestones are a set of functional skills or age specific tasks that most children can do at a certain age range. (www. med. umich. edu). In our text it talked about sitting, walking, and talking milestones, but before I get into the analysis of each one we must remember that “Babies develop at their own pace, so it is impossible to tell exactly when you child will learn a given skill.

” (www. mychildwithoutlimits. org) The milestones that are talked about in our text can vary from child to child. Some babies may learn to sit up on their own as early as six months of age while others according to the Developmental Milestones Chart printed by My Child without Limits. org states that a child getting to a sitting position happens at 1 year. This is not uncommon some children develop faster than others. The purpose of the developmental milestones is to let the parents know that their child is growing up normally.

As a parent you should not typically be alarmed if your child is a couple of months behind other children their age, but lets say your child is 24 months old and has not yet walked then yes there should be some concern there. Atypical growth and development is not an uncommon situation. This type of development stems from poor health and nutrition, injury, genetic errors, and many other factors. (Allen & Marotz, 2010). I have listed several factors that may contribute to atypical development and I will talk about each as follows: * Injury- A woman has to protect themselves at all costs when pregnant.

If for whatever reason she falls and hurts herself it is a possibility that there can be damage to the child. A car accident can cause damage to the child * Genetic factors- these factors could come from either parent or both. Genes play a major part in development because we all get 26 chromosomes from each parent for a total of 52. If either parent’s chromosomes are genetically defective then the child could be affected.

* Poor Health and Nutrition- the child feeds off of the mother in vitro and if the mother is using drugs and not eating right or taking her pre natal pills then the child could come out deformed, with some sort of brain deficiency or some sort of health problem.

Now that this is all said and done. I do hope that this paper can help you as it did me in the growth and development of the early child. REFERENCES: Developmental Profiles: Pre-birth through Twelve Allen, Eileen K and Martoz, Lynn R. 2010 Wadsworth Publishing Developmental Milestones www. med. umich. edu Developmental Milestones Chart www. mychildwithoutlimits. org Brief Look at Developmental Domains in Early Childhood Education www. teachpreschool. org Human Growth and Development www. scribd. com.

Early Childhood Growth and Development Essay

Early Childhood Curriculum Essay

Early Childhood Curriculum Essay.

One of the goals of preschool education is to improve children’s school success. Early childhood educators need to enhance a child’s developmental skills and knowledge. We are to build upon their ever growing need of curiosity and creativity. Without knowing what, why, and how to developmentally teach preschool children in an early childhood environment teachers will not have a great impact on the knowledge children will gain and retain in this environment. Children are eager to learn and acquire new life changing skills.

The text (2008) emphasizes the importance of a child-centered curriculum that encompasses the whole child- physical, social, emotional, creative, and cognitive. Teachers practical knowledge of how and what to teach children is not taught in school. Teachers receive and understand the theoretical knowledge of children learning but they are unable to blend the theories with practical applications appropriate for young children. There are many preschool classrooms with qualified teachers but they do not understand the steps needed to provide a curriculum that is age and developmentally appropriate.

Most teachers have the book knowledge but their hands on and one on one skills are lacking when it comes to implementing activities to stimulate and excite children in learning. Kostelnik states that, “Teachers who lack adequate knowledge in any of these areas are hampered in their attempts to create developmentally appropriate programs for young children. The areas are: the fundamental components of early literacy and numeracy; how children experience literacy and mathematical concepts in their play; what teachers can do intentionally to support literacy and numeracy in all areas of the curriculum throughout the day”.

Teachers must know and understand a child’s developmental needs and how to develop ways to meet these needs. Early childhood education recommends that programs utilize Developmentally Appropriate Practices. It is vital that young children have a curriculum that provides learning goals and guidance for teachers to develop activities and interactions. The National Association for the Education of Young Children approved the Early Childhood Standards and Accreditation Performance Standards and Accreditation Performance Criteria in 2005. These standards guide programs in a variety of areas including the curriculum (pp.232-233).

• Children have varied opportunities to be read books and to be read to in individualized ways. • Children have activities that allow them to become familiar with print. • Children are given opportunities to recognize and write letters, words, and sentences as they are ready. • Books are displayed and writing is encouraged in one or more areas of the classroom. Curriculum development should focus on promoting learning and development in the areas of social, emotional, physical, language, and cognitive growth (NAEYC Program Standards). There should be themes that are hands on and developmentally appropriate.

Activities should include: art, math, science, social, studies, reading, and creativity. Classroom s should be filled with laughter and excitement. Hands on learning should take place, stories should be told, and play encouraged. Play is child’s work and when they enjoy what they are doing, then, they are more apt to learn, discover, and investigate their surroundings and environment. So how do we know that play is child’s work? This question and many more are answered when we look at research and theories of education. Theories are the foundation for which teachers choose to teach from.

Theories help guide teachers in understanding the reason why they set up their classrooms and for carrying out the lessons they teach children on a daily basis. Theories teach us that relationships are the foundation for learning. We need to have relationship with the children we teach and with families of the children we provide a program for. Theories teach us that children learn through play and that they learn when they interact with their peers and their environment.

There are many theories of learning to use to decide what type of curricula to use • Vygotsky’s Constructivist theory- puts the learner in the center and believes that teachers should provide experiences that link prior knowledge to what they are studying. The constructivist teacher organizes the classroom with children’s stages of development in mind. Children learn when they collaborate with others, discussion and talking about the how and why of things. • Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development- learning is viewed as active, constructive process in which students seek organization and meaning in their worlds.

• Abraham Maslow focused on human potential and proposed that all persons strive to reach the highest within them. His theory also asserts that children learn best when their physical needs are met and they feel a sense of psychological safety and security. • B. F. Skinner Behaviorist Theory emphasizes the roles of environmental conditions and overt behaviors in learning. Children learn through the effects of their own intentional responses. Consequences will determine whether a person will repeat a particular behavior that led to the consequences.

Our theorists teach us that as children play they are learning about themselves, other people, and the world. As the text (2008) states, learning and development in the early years are critical to the child’s long term well-being. This theoretical base in early childhood education guides and provides a framework of understanding for how children learn. The text also states that, theoretically, there is widespread acceptance of the idea that play is important- that it is the serious business for the young child.

Elkind reviewed a variety of theories that support the role of children’s play, including Montessori, Freud, Piaget, and Vygotsky. By taking these theories and putting them into perspective we provide ways to meet the differences and developing needs that children have. For children to excel and have success in school we have to address all areas of their development. Research has shown us that it is during these times of play that a child’s brain is affected. Connections are made as a child repeatedly does the same types of activities. If these connections are not made or used they will eventually disappear.

Our text (2008) states that, “Play is a time where children needs are met. Good play experiences unite and blend all aspects of development, reaping social, emotional, physical, intellectual, moral, creative, and cultural benefits for young children. ” As children engage in play in the early childhood classroom they are learning and growing developmentally. Age appropriate activities are provided for them. Vanderwater says that, “Play is simply shorthand for our capacity for curiosity, imagination, and fantasy — our creative dispositions.

” In order for children benefit from play a curriculum is needed to meet their needs. It is important for young preschool children to have a curriculum that includes planned environments and activities in the classroom, such as music and creative movement, dramatic play, singing, and creative art. Planned and unplanned spontaneous learning should take place everyday. We know that children are unique and different therefore they all learn differently. With this knowledge we have to teach the whole child. This

includes teaching social-emotional, physical, cognitive, and language development to preschoolers. Preschool curriculum models vary widely. Some may detail exactly what to teach and how to teach it with step by step instructions. Others on the other hand leave room for teacher ideas and input. Then there are some that provide guidance in developing activities and interactions that are crucial to social development. When choosing curricula, programs need to take into account children’s ages, needs, behavior, language and cultural backgrounds.

The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Association of Early Childhood Specialist in State Departments of Education (NAECS/SDE) therefore advise the following: “Curriculum is more than a collection of enjoyable activities. Curriculum is a complex idea containing multiple components such as goals, content, pedagogy, or instructional practices. Curriculum is influenced by many factors including society’s values, content standards, account ability systems, research findings, community expectations, culture and language, and individual children’s characteristics.

” The early childhood (preschool) classroom has a need for a developmentally appropriate curriculum. Designing a curriculum gives teachers the opportunity to come together and brainstorm on what is needed to meet the needs of individual children. Dodge states, “When teachers build curriculum with each other and with the children and are willing to really listen to each other and to the children’s ideas, and really value them, there is a very different kind of relationship being established and a climate of mutual trust is formed.

She also shares that, the nature of this relationship between teachers and children and parents would be very different in our opinion, if the teacher’s plan were already written and all the planning spaces filled in, and all the outcomes predetermined and articulated ahead of time. Relationships again are the foundation that is needed in the early childhood classroom. Society has put a lot of pressure on early childhood programs to produce results. Kostelnik states that, kindergarten teachers report that one out of three children begin formal schooling lacking the basic experiences they need to succeed.

Because of this, programs make decisions each day about the type of curriculum to use. They see the importance of early learning experiences that will build a firm foundation for learning and development later on in life. There are many types of curriculum in our society today. The two most commonly used in the Unites States according to Dodge are: The Creative Curriculum and High/Scope. In addition to these many directors used a variety of models and resources to supplement their planning.

These include the Project Approach, Reggio Emilia, Montessori, and what several called “emergent curriculum”. There is evidence that high quality early childhood programs can and do make a difference in children’s development. Children can develop the skills they need as they participate in child care and other early learning programs from birth to age eight. Kostelnik states that children need to know the fundamental components of early literacy and numeracy for literacy involves listening, viewing, speaking, writing, and reading.

Some of the numeracy components are: understanding number, how people represent number, the relations among numbers, and number systems, using mathematical tools, and recognizing, describing, and extending patterns. Literacy and numeracy can be displayed in the classroom when the dramatic play area has been transformed into a hairdressing shop. The children can create signs that say haircuts, shampoo, curlers, and perms. The children can also include prices on the signs. The children can move in and out of this area taking turns as customers, receptionist, haircutters, and cashiers.

They will pretend cutting hair, giving permanents, making appointments, writing out receipts, using the play cash register, and making change. Literacy and numeracy is also seen in the block center as children make signs and count trucks, in the writing center as children write in their journals and in the art center as children draw and create pictures of their choice. Kostelnik tells us that, skilled teachers intentionally create opportunities for children to become engaged in varied literacy and numeracy experiences every day. Developmentally appropriate activities do not happen

by chance, they have to be planned out. Children are looking for direction and opportunities to investigate. Teachers are being provided with training and professional development on how to teach, what to teach and why they need to follow a curriculum. As teachers gain the skills they need they begin to understand the developmental need s of children. They create opportunities for learning through play and they advocate for the needed changes in the system. As curriculum choices are being made and teachers are trained in how to implement the curriculum children are excelling.

In an early childhood classroom teachers are better equipped and have a greater impact on what, why and how to teach children in a developmentally appropriate way. References: Eliason, C. F. , Jenkins, L. (2008). A Practical Guide to Early Childhood Curriculum (8th ed. ). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Dodge, D. (2004). Early Childhood Curriculum Models Why, What and the How Programs Use Them. Retrieved from the Exchange magazine. www. ChildCareExchange. com Kostelnik. M (2008). Academics in Early Childhood. Retrieved from the Exchange magazine. www. ChildCareExchange. com.

National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education (NAECS/SDE). (2003). Joint position statement on early childhood curriculum, assessment, and program evaluation building an effective, accountable system in programs for children birth through age 8. Washington, DC: NAEYC, p. 6 Vanderwater, E. A. , Rideoout, V. J. , Wartella, E. A. , Huang, X. , Lee, J. H. , Shim, M. S. (2007). “Digital Childhood: Electronic Media and Technology Use Among Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers. ” Pediatrics 119(5): e1006-e1015 [pic].

Early Childhood Curriculum Essay

Child Labor Since the Industrial Revolution Essay

Child Labor Since the Industrial Revolution Essay.

Child labor has changed dramatically since the time of the industrial revolution. Teens everywhere can now have part time jobs that aren’t hazardous to their health and follow strict child labor laws. Although pretty much all our ancestors weren’t so lucky. During n the Industrial Revolution there were no child labor laws. The factory owners just saw it as jobs that could be done by anyone, and grown men would not stand for such low pay so who better than children who are just as happy with pennies and nickels.

Children working in factories didn’t just have to deal with low income they also had horrid working conditions, health hazards, low wages, long hours worked per day, and almost every day worked per week. Child Labor had existed long before the Industrial Revolution; children were usually forced to work in family farms or as servants. But it wasn’t until the Industrial Revolution that children were forced into factories with horrid working conditions.

These kids would often work 10-12 hours a day, and also had to deal with constant abuse from superiors who demanded faster production.

Children as young as four were employed to work in coal mines. Conditions were dangerous very dangerous in the coal mines, many children developed lung cancer and other diseases and died before the age of 25, while others died from gas explosions. Some children were employed as “scavengers” by cotton mills, their jobs would be to climb under machinery to pick up cotton, some died from being crushed under the machines, and some lost hands or even limbs.

After reports of these atrocities became widespread politicians and the government tried to limit child labor by law, but factory owners resisted; some felt that they were aiding the poor by giving their children money to buy food to avoid starvation, and others simply welcomed the cheap labor. The English governments’ efforts only led to the limit of 10 hours of work per day for children but working conditions were still atrocious. In the 21st century there are many regulations that have drastically improved safety and limits on child workers in the U. S.

The minimum age for “Non-Hazardous” work is 14, and for agricultural work that age is dropped to 10-11 years old with parental consent on farms not regulated by minimum wage requirements, and 12-13 years old just with parental consent. The laws on today’s limit on hours of employment are as follows: No work during school hours, on school days: 3 hours/day, 18 hours/week maximum, when school is out of session: 8 hours/day, 40 hours/week with at least 30 minute s of break time included each day.

These laws helped to keep hours of work limited to ensure more time for school and other activities. There have also been laws for minimum wage that a teen can receive for work. Federal Minimum is $7. 25 per hour as of 7/24/09 youth minimum is $4. 25 per hour for employees under 20 years of age during their first 90 consecutive calendar days of employment with an employer. In today’s working world hazards teens will face while working are limited to just slipping on wet floors, minor burns, and small cuts. Granted this is if most safety precautions are carried out and it was accidental.

So far no child worker has been exposed to any harmful diseases while working, during the 21st century. The managers overseeing children working are very helpful and are punished by law if they harass or physically injure any employees. Since the Industrial revolution the ages of child workers have changed from as young as 4 to, at the very least, 10. Child workers today are no longer allowed to work 12 or 14 hours a day, instead there are strict laws that allow for a thirty minute break everyday and no more than 18 hours of work per week.

Minimum wage has been changed from pennies and nickels to $7. 25 since the Industrial Revolution. Teems working nowadays are ensured by workers compensation and serious injuries are rare because of safety precautions taken; as opposed to frequent diseases, serious injuries, and even death that were reported in the Industrial Revolution. Thankfully many changes have ensured the health and safety of child workers today. I am personally thankful for these laws and regulations because as of next week I will be working at Panera Bread and it is nice to know that I am safe as a working teen.

Child Labor Since the Industrial Revolution Essay