Foot Binding In China Essay

Foot Binding In China Essay.

Although seemingly incomprehensible for the average Western person today, foot binding was a custom which lasted for more than 1,000 years in China. In fact, foot binding was a particular practice reserved for the elite and was reputedly a sign of social status, hierarchy and wealth. Extreme deformity, by way of bound feet, was practiced for its aesthetic appeal and as a symbol of social status. Starting in about the 10th century A. D. , foot binding gained currency in China and was practiced exclusively among women with an eye to aesthetic beauty.

Seeking to address the mysteries behind the foot binding phenomenon and make sense of a custom which seems appears so foreign to the average Western eye, this essay will conduct a thorough analysis of foot binding in China through an exploration of Fred C. Blake’s “Foot-Binding in Neo-Confucian China and the Appropriation of Female Labor”, published in the scholarly journal Signs in 2009. We will begin with an analysis of the history of foot binding in China, explore the practice of foot binding and explain how it is accomplished, as explained in the article.

We will delve into the reasons why foot binding became such a prominent feature in China, conclude with a summary of Blake’s research and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the article. Accordingly, we will analyze the contribution to the field of anthropology. History Foot binding is a practice which is culturally specific and unique to the Asian context. Foot binding gained currency in the 10th century A. D. as an aesthetic characteristic sought after by women in China and is an excellent example of the evolution of conceptions of beauty.

In China, the “lotus foot” was prized among members of all classes as being a standard of beauty to which many women worked hard to obtain. Accordingly, the foot binding custom was an incredibly painful process which required years to obtain and was additionally a painful process as well. Some oral historians relate the tradition of bound feet to the Chinese Prince Li Yu from the Sung dynasty and the gracefulness of his concubine Yao Niang.

In fact, according to legend, Yao Niang, although not a woman with bound feet herself, had such small feet and walked so gracefully that her gait was one in which people all across China stove to emulate. Another legend discusses the life of the last Empress of the Shang dynasty, beautiful women who were born with a clubbed foot. Due to the stigma associated with such a disability in the era, this Empress bound her foot to conceal her deformity and instructed her husband to make the bound foot mandatory for all girls.

By making a bound foot the norm in the kingdom, she thus made her bound foot beautiful and established an important standard of beauty in China. With Mongol invasions in the thirteenth century, they supported the practice of foot binding, allegedly because it demonstrated the inferiority of women to men and fully entrenched sex segregation and gender hierarchies. Establishing the Yuan dynasty, foot binding became more and more prominent in China and continued for more than 800 years thereafter (Blake 681).

Although it may certainly seem usual for the average Westerner today to understand the beauty and desire associated with bound feet in ancient China, this practice is not so dissimilar to corseting, a practice common among the aristocracy of the Western world from the 15th century to the late 19th century. A corset is a garment which is worn to mold the stomach and torso into an incredibly thin shape, with the desired result being an incredibly thin waste. The corset, much like the bound foot, can be incredibly uncomfortable for the wearer and has the potential to result in permanent torso damage and disfigurement.

Corset wearing has an important aesthetic in the West – particularly prominent in Victorian era England – and was a sign of refinement, privilege and beauty. The bound foot is similar and we will discuss the process of foot binding below. How was Foot Binding Accomplished? Now that we have established that there are important historical precedents for the practice of foot binding and that while we are unsure of how it came about, we do now know that it was common in China for nearly a millennia. How was the unique practice of foot binding accomplished?

An article in the American Journal of Public Health which looked at the physical consequences of bound feet on elderly women succinctly described the process. Beginning at the age of five, “all but the first toe on each foot were broken and the feet bound with cloth strips that were tightened over the course of 2 years to keep the feet shorter than 10 cm and to bend the sole into extreme concavity. ” The process was usually undertaken during the fall or winter so that the foot would be numb to the pain when the toes were broken.

Feet were initially soaked – by the mother, an important actor in the process – in warm water and animal blood and herbs and a special potion was applied to the foot. After the toes were broken, bandages were applied around the smallest toes and were affixed tightly to the heel. For the first two years, the binding was removed and reapplied, a painful process, every two days. To ensure that the feet remained deformed and small, this process sometimes continued for ten years (Blake 663).

Foot binding was a practice undertaken exclusively by women in Neo-Confucian China and was a tradition passed down from mother to daughter. It represented female submission and dependence on the husband and was an essential attribute of womanhood. The particular enforcement of this practice by women, on younger women and girls is particularly interesting from a sociological perspective. Accordingly: Mothers constantly informed their daughters that binding was necessary in order to find a good family into which to marry.

Mothers impressed upon their daughters that the mark of a woman’s attraction resided more in her character as revealed in the bind of her feet than in the face or physique with which nature had endowed her. Her selection in marriage was the task of her prospective mother-in-law, whose criterion for a good daughter-in-law was the discipline that the bound foot represented (Blake 683). When it came to binding, there were certain attributes which were essential to the process.

First and foremost, youth was important because foot binding required the physical breaking of the bones of the fee and for the purpose of binding, the optimum age to begin the process was between the ages of five to seven years old. From the standpoint of the female caregiver who was responsible for initiating the binding process of a young girl, the ages of five to seven were ideal for a variety of reasons. From a physical standpoint, a girl between the ages of five to seven had prepubescent bones which were still flexible and optimal for reconfiguration and breaking.

From a mental and social maturation standpoint, a girl between the ages of five to seven was able to understand the meaning associated with foot binding, the prestige associated with a bound foot and the desire to one day marry. Accordingly, a girl between the ages of five to seven could appreciate the need and have the discipline to pursue the sometimes incredibly painful process of foot-binding. Disease and infection generally followed a foot bound girl into womanhood and oftentimes toenails curled into the toe and the foot physically died all together (Blake 684-86).

Although voluntary and a process undertaken by women themselves, foot binding was an inherent attribute of a patriarchic society and was a custom undertaken in light of the social circumstances of Chinese society. Article Analysis Blake provides an excellent overview of the foot binding phenomenon. His article adequately provides substantive background to foot binding and includes an insightful historical analysis to the trend. An effective case is built utilizing both primary and secondary sources and the author provides meticulous – and sometimes hard to swallow – detail on the foot binding phenomenon.

According to Blake, there are many reasons put forth for an incredibly painful and deforming practice, and foot binding is attributed to aesthetic appeal in a society in which tiny feet were conceived of as something erotic. Social status concerns are important and as mentioned above, bound feet were often necessary for a girl to marry. This is largely a result of the patriarchic social structure of China. Bound feet thus signified the dependency of women on men in Chinese society.

By disabling her feet, the bound foot was perhaps the most ardent example of entrenched patriarchy in Chinese society. Accordingly, A woman’s dependency on her family was made manifest in her disabled feet. A popular saying was that in her lifetime, a woman leaned on three men, her father, her husband, and her son. But if a woman’s bound feet made her appear weak and vulnerable and thus dependent on men, it also veiled her inner sense of managing those appearances and thus being able to exercise considerable control over herself and those to whom she was attached (Blake 683).

Concluding Remarks As a cultural practice which lasted for hundreds of years, foot binding was not all that dissimilar to the use of corsets in order to shrink the torso and waists of women in the Western world. Fred C. Blake’s “Foot-Binding in Neo-Confucian China and the Appropriation of Female Labor” explains that what sets foot binding apart from other measures was the incredible pain associated with the practice and the permanent deformities caused by this practice.

While explanations for foot binding often point towards the beauty and the aesthetics of the practice, foot binding was inherently about female submission and subjugation in Chinese society. Foot binding was about patriarchy and the consequences of foot binding on the health of millions of Chinese women are incredibly grave. Thus, deformities due to foot binding are prevalent among women in China and they include being more prone to falling, less able to rise from a chair and a loss of the ability to squat.

Additionally, “women with bound feet also had somewhat lower femoral neck bone density, perhaps because of limited weight bearing activity. The combination of lower hip bone density and greater risk of falling is likely to increase the risk of hip fractures” (Blake 684). For centuries, foot binding thus resulted in severe lifelong disability for millions of women. Works Cited Blake, C. Fred. “Foot-Binding in Neo-Confucian China and the Appropriation of Female Labor” Signs 19. 3 (2009): 676-712.

Foot Binding In China Essay

A Pair of Tickets – Short Analysis Essay

A Pair of Tickets – Short Analysis Essay.

Who am I? Have you ever sat and thought about the contributing elements that make you the person you are? In “A Pair of Tickets,” in hopes of finding her true self, June May struggles to identify who she is. Amy Tan is an author who uses the element of character development to bring out the theme of self-awareness and identity in this story, mainly focusing on the main character having the dual identity of being Chinese American. While June May discovers her ancestral home, she also finds a part of herself.

June May’s mother was an immigrant from China. At the beginning of the story, June tells of how her mother tries to convey their family’s history and legacy to her. June, who is fully americanized and almost completely ignorant of their heritage, tells of how at the age of fifteen she believes she is no more Chinese than her Caucasian friends even though her mother was persistent in convincing her that being Chinese could not be helped.

Her pass port reveals her American name which is June May but she chooses to introduce herself as Jing-Mei, which is her Chinese name. This incident is the start of her accepting her Chinese heritage. She has many misconceptions throughout the story; most about what is to be Chinese and the culture of China and the people that reside there. One example being she did not think that “communist China” would have such luxurious hotels, which is an example of American stereotyping. She compares her height to those of the people she is surrounded by when she gets off the train to head to customs, saying that she was much taller. She was expecting a traditional Chinese meal but her family opted for the hamburgers, fries, and apple pie instead. She was shocked when her younger cousin Lili posed as if she was a supermodel while taking a picture. June started to take in how American culture had shaped her way of thinking and that she was wrong in believing her family would be more different from her.

Often looking on the experiences of your families past is sometimes needed to discover who we are as a person. Going to China helps June understand how she is Chinese. As she learns more about her family and her mother’s life and the sacrifices she had to make, June’s mindset changes more. She compares being Chinese to transforming into a werewolf as though it was something she would have to become. By the end of the story, she realizes that the part of her that is Chinese is her family, and it is in her blood. Becoming Chinese was not realistic and her mother was right. She was already Chinese, and it could not be helped. June May’s journey was never about becoming Chinese, or understanding the culture, it was about understanding who she is and knowing that there are parts of herself that she had no control of their existence. Finding her ethnic and cultural roots while in China allowed June May Woo to discover Jing-Mei Woo.

A Pair of Tickets – Short Analysis Essay

India vs China Essay

India vs China Essay.

1.India and China fight for Super power tag.The two countries meet face to face only at The Himalayas, all other things for comparison will make stand these two countries individually, at their own socio-economic-political-cultural areas. To know who is super power, India or China or two know each areas of strength and weakness, let’s get into the points of concern for both to become super power.

Military Strength – Conventional and Nuclear.

2.As two rising Asian powers with high GDP growths and increasing geo-political influence, India and China have been arch rivals in their race to superpowerdom.

The race for regional dominance between these two countries has also spawned a race for militarization, with India sparing no efforts to match China’s military might. A comparative analysis is therefore overdue, to see how India and China fare against each other in their military strengths. According to United States DoD (Department of Defense) reports for 2006, China’s military expenditure is estimated to be 80 billion US dollars.

However, the official Chinese CPC government quote is a $30 billion military expenditure (which a lot of analysts believe is under quoted).

The actual Chinese military capabilities and budget are masked in deep secrecy to prevent foreign countries having an idea of its military might…and perhaps to create the strategic advantage of uncertainty. If we were to go by the conservative official Chinese figure of $30 billion, it would put China second only to USA in global military spending. On the other side, India’s official military expenditure for 2006 is quoted at $22 billion by the Min of Finance. India however, does not keep a level of secrecy as cloaked as China does, as its democratic government system requires public accountability. By its official 2006 military budget figures, India stands at 9th position in global military spending.

3. India’s active military personnel numbered over 1,325,000 (approx) while China was significantly higher at 2,255,000. In air defence, China’s PLA (People’s Liberation Army) Air Force has 9,218 aircrafts of which about 2300 are combat aircrafts, operating from its 489 air bases. The Indian Air Force has 3382 aircrafts which includes 1335 combat aircrafts operating from 334 bases and its sole aircraft carrier INS Viraat. The air superiority in China’s PLAAF is maintained by its fleet of Russian Su-30 MK and indigenously built J-10 fighters. Indian Air Force, on the other hand has French built Dassault Mirage 2000s and Russian Su-30 MKI as the best aircrafts in its combat fleet (no indigenous fighters or aircrafts have been deployed by India so far). Indian Navy is the world’s eighth largest navy with a with a fleet of 145 vessels consisting of missile-capable warships, advanced submarines, the latest naval aircrafts and an aircraft carrier in its inventory.

It is experienced both in combat and rescue operations during wartime and peace as seen from its wars with Pakistan in 1971, the December 2004 Tsunami, etc. In comparison, China’s PLA Navy with its fleet of 284 vessels is quantitatively larger but lacking in actual war experience, which could undermine its strategic capability. As of 2007, China has no aircraft carriers in its naval fleet but is slated to build and induct an aircraft carrier by 2010. 4.In strategic nuclear defence and delivery systems, China’s PLA is miles ahead of India’s nuclear forces. The PLA’s stockpile is estimated to have 200-400 active nuclear warheads. In comparison, India’s strategic nuclear force is estimated to have stockpiled about 50-70 nuclear warheads.

The most powerful warhead tested by India had an yield of 0.05 megatons which is quite small compared to China’s highest yield of 4 megatons. India’s nuclear delivery system consists of bombers, supersonic cruise missiles and medium range ballistic missiles. Agni 2, India’s longest range deployed ballistic missile is capable of a range of 2500 km, carrying a single nuclear warhead of 1000 kg. In stark contrast, China’s nuclear delivery system is far more capable with multiple warheads (MIRV) ICBMs like DF-5A [12000 km] and DF-4 [7500 km]. It also fields submarine launched SLBMs like JL-2 [8500 km] and strategic fighter bombers like Su-27 Flanker in its nuclear delivery arsenal.

5.Economic theory teaches us that incentives drive decision making by a nation or an individual. In case of India, a democracy with no serious military adversary, its militarisation drive is often overshadowed by internal militancy issues and political struggles. In case of a communist China, it has a powerful military adversary in United States; the conflicts over Taiwan give China a strong incentive to beef up its military defence to counter the US military might. The situation is much similar to that of USSR vs USA Cold War, albeit on a much smaller scale. The end result is China walking far ahead of India in military might with overpowering superiority if both conventional and nuclear forces are taken into account.


6.China can be called The big tree of a forest, where plenty of things happen by nourishing other small plants and giving space for generation of more fruitful plants; that is its population. The one child per family policy is about to savor negative implications by large in future, through having more male births to continue their family and to maintain income levels, which leads to less female births, which doesn’t strike a balance between male to female sex ratio, and depicts the clear picture of future possibility to find a girl to sustain its offspring. Another major problem stands at the feet of China is, an unusual increase in the old age population which poses problem to maintain.

7.India being the next tree adjacent to the China in the forest of this world doesn’t have such limit of family members, which contributes more population and makes India the most populated country in the world in a decade span. Of this population, most of the people are below the age of 25 which adds new, promising, young talent to steer the Indian economy smoothly and also maintains female ratio which doesn’t leads to gender imbalance thus assuring working population balance to its best. Predicted to overtake China’s population in a decade, India has oceanic human capital which promises un parallel economy in the world.

Education System

8.Education being the cornerstone for any economy, China laid much emphasis and achieved an Adult literacy rate of 94% as provided in World Bank preliminary census for the year 2011. For adult girls it remains at 99% striking a mastered balance in creating requisite opportunities for equal education and employment. Though primary education is much accentuated; secondary education didn’t got much attention especially in rural areas which poses a threat to future skill pool of the country.

The major con for China in this area is its inability to produce large number of English speakers per capita. 9.India has an adult literacy rate of 74% and after taking efforts to increase the level of education for women between the age of 15 to 24, it has registered 80% literacy. Several NGO’s, corporate companies and women concerned societies are taking many initiatives for improving the literacy rate. Though urban areas strike a balance in the ratio of education for male to female; rural counterparts couldn’t fare well because of its infrastructural and social problems. One point that India has advantage over china is in the production more number of English speakers per capita with growing literacy rate.


10.China caters for its domestic market with mass production concept in producing the items such as toys, electronic devices, mobiles, T-shirts. Obviously, fast consuming goods are given priority for production which wants a mere copying or imitation in work design rather than innovation. Apart from this China faces challenge to cater for heavy industry for which expertise and skills are needed and ability to serve global clients is the one area at which they dawdle. Recent initiative to kick start in automotive sector has left better chops for china without tasting much success. 11.India focuses on Industrial area to gear up its economy.

The high technology steel produced through high spirit in India, has no comparable competitors across the world. Apart from intensified industrial production, IT sector is reined by vibrant skilled youth with wide range of attributes to contribute. As under from the above mentioned areas, it is experiencing advancement in the areas of engineering and services market and is having a consolidated automobile market in terms of production, engineering services, spares and marketing capability.


12.China has an un parallel history in reducing the poverty through equal distribution of resources, but due the long line it couldn’t be properly rationed which again struggling in the poverty pond that has been posing many non-social evils giving birth to rebellions and undesired effects like prostitution, drug mafia thus leading to HIV AIDS. Of course, there exists a difference between feeding a crow and a lion; but China government was never hopeless to feed the ever growing elephant called “Poverty” in their country. 13.India’s deeply disturbing social issue which has been deep rooted and chronic in its nature is persistent in its annual record showing no growth or probably negligible.

Illiteracy, inaccessibility to safe drinking water, medical facilities and under nourishment is the roots of this ever growing, undesirable, social element. More children per family, crop failure, loss of assets are some points that can be characterized for the rising of poverty in an alarming way; but not given much importance by Indian politicians who spend always their whole time for making the lives of common people much better! Oops! Right or wrong, we have nothing to do, but to follow the flow, because India is a democratic country.


14.China has shown a remarkable score in corruption which has been deep rooted in government offices and ministries as the adage says failing is not a problem but refusing to stand again shows the difference, China did remarkably well in the crackdown of corruption, by punishing its Supreme ourt former vice-president, Huang Songyou for life time jail with connection to his fraud and bribery offences. That’s what called accountability and the action fills trust to curb corruption in China. 15.India fares worst compared do China, by being more corrupted than China giving a strong competition for which even it doesn’t have any people representative to take accountability to clean the trash left by most familiar corrupted officials and ministers.

Neither former Telecom minster A. Raja has been awarded any punishment nor the officials and ministers involved with Common Wealth Games fraudulence and Adarsh Society scandal has been brought totally the under the control of law. The system being totally vicious, will take long time to get itself out from the ever growing poisonous pangs of the most favorite word of our Nethas called as “Corruption. “ Otherwise it continues to dwell along with other evils that exist in the country.


16.Making an in depth study and analysis of India vs. China economy seems to be a very hard task. Both India and China rank among the front runners of global economy and are among the world’s most diverse nations. Both the countries were among the most ancient civilizations and their economies are influenced by a number of social, political, economic and other factors. However, if we try to properly understand the various economic and market trends and features of the countries, we can make a comparison between Indian and Chinese economy. Going by the basic facts, the economy of China is more developed than that of India. While India is the 12th largest economy in terms of the exchange rates, China occupies the third position. Compared to the estimated $1.209 trillion GDP of India, China has an average GDP of around $7.8 trillion. In case of per capital GDP, India lags far behind China with just$1016 compared to $6,100 of the latter.


17.Agriculture is another factor of economic comparison of India and China. It forms a major economic sector in both the countries. However, the agricultural sector of China is more developed than that of India. Unlike India, where farmers still use the traditional and old methods of cultivation, the agricultural techniques used in China are very much developed. This leads to better quality and high yield of crops which can be exported.

Liberalization of the market

18.In spite of being a Socialist country, China started towards the liberalization of its market economy much before India. This strengthened the economy to a great extent. On the other hand, India was very slow in embracing globalization and open market economies. While India’s liberalization policies started in the 1990s, China welcomed foreign direct investment and private investment in the mid 1980s. This made a significant change in its economy and the GDP increased considerably. Difference in infrastructure and other aspects of economic growth 19.Compared to India, China has a much well developed infrastructure. Some of the important factors that have created a stark difference between the economies of the two countries are manpower and labor development, water management, health care facilities and services, communication, civic amenities and so on.

All these aspects are well developed in China which has put a positive impact in its economy to make it one of the best in the world. Although India has become much developed than before, it is still plagued by problems such as poverty, unemployment, lack of civic amenities and so on. In fact unlike India, China is still investing in huge amounts towards manpower development and strengthening of infrastructure. 20.China mostly depends on Foreign Investments and also gets debts from US for mobilizing the required resources for its production and growth and has modernized its army by seizing civilian lands which has nothing to do with stumbling financial markets.

China accelerates its growth by its export driven economy that places good at Balance of Payments, foreign exchange reserve s. 21.India is developing home grown companies to cater to its own and overseas needs and is attracting foreign investment which is offering 20% returns on investment opportunity that is the reason for Japan’s 5 billion dollar investment in industrial corridor in India. Also the takeover tool of Indian companies like TATA, Reliance is zooming growth rate with a handful promise of contribution fostered by government owned companies like ONGC, IOC.

Other Areas

22.China has got good infrastructure and a breakthrough for making The fastest train which runs at 430km/hr owns by china strengthens the transportation connectivity and infrastructure is provided ample importance by building vast roads with single way allowance for commutation thus offering more feasibility for trade relations in the country. On the other hand it is employing knowledge people, but some constraints like, non English speaking people has been recently brought into light, for which China government took initiative to train their human capital with enough English to deal with International Business.


24.India still being called as a developing country has drastically improved in providing urban infrastructure while the rural community has been neglected showing the cause in terms of economic development through industrial area. Industrial corridors and other innovative action is driving both growth and employment making it a power hub in the future with an abundant human capital both qualitatively and quantitatively.

India vs China Essay

Competitors Analysis for Hoi Tin Tong Essay

Competitors Analysis for Hoi Tin Tong Essay.

Hung Fook Tong (HFT) founded in 1986 and more than 120 stores in China and HK. HFT turned traditional herbal tea shop into a modern and innovative enterprise over the years which have over 100 products, including herbal jellies, herbal tea, homemade soups, and preservative-free healthy drinks. An innovation that helped both the popularity and the portability of herbal tea, they have more than 3000 retail points across the territory, including supermarkets, convenience shops, schools and restaurants.

Kung Wo Tong (KWT) was established in 1904 by an imperial physician in the Qing Dynasty, there are total 10 stores in HK and 1 in China.

The stores located along a main street and keeps old-fashioned herbal drinks shops in typical sized with limited even no decoration over hundred years. Most of shops sell four to six kinds of herbal drinks, but the herbal jelly is one staple that seldom miss the list. They keeps tradition way and focus more on the health benefits rather than its taste.

HealthWorks (HW) started as a traditional Chinese herbal tea shop in 1989 and decided to modernize the company in 2000 in order to follow their global expansion plan.

HW use modern technologies involves in develop, produce and distribute an array of traditional Chinese natural nourishing productions including herbal soup, herbal tea, medicinal tea, herbal jelly and other Chinese medicinal diet. There are 22 shops which mainly at MTR stations with trendy decoration and more than 1500 point of sales distributing ready-to-drinks herbal tea in various supermarkets and convenient stores

Compare to HTT, customer regard KWT is more traditional and believe the products have more medical function while HFT and HW are trendier and provide health supplement goods. So, customers who go to HTT and KWT will be the local people who believe traditional herbal benefits, mainly the adult and elderly. The customers who go to HFT and HW will be younger age customers with health conscious and even tourists.

HTT lost the competitive advances to HFT on product range and market coverage due to HFT do a good job at distribution strategy which has lots of products and large distribution channels. HFT also use price strategy to set their price is the lower among these competitor, these advances make HFT become the biggest herbal tea group in HK according to survey by AC Nelson.

HTT use location strategy and branding strategy better than other competitors who have many chain stories and strong image, so HTT have competitive advances on sales network, number of chain stores and customer loyalty.

Competitors Analysis for Hoi Tin Tong Essay

Water Pollution in China Essay

Water Pollution in China Essay.

River like blood in Roxian, Guangxi About one third of the industrial waste water and more than 90 percent of household sewage in China is released into rivers and lakes without being treated. Nearly 80 percent of China’s cities (278 of them) have no sewage treatment facilities and few have plans to build any and underground water supplies in 90 percent of the cites are contaminated. Water shortages and water pollution in China are such a problem that the World Bank warns of “catastrophic consequences for future generations.

” Half of China’s population lacks safe drinking water.

Nearly two thirds of China’s rural population—more than 500 million people—use water contaminated by human and industrial waste. In summer of 2011, the China government reported 43 percent of state-monitored rivers are so polluted, they’re unsuitable for human contact. By one estimate one sixth of China’s population is threatened by seriously polluted water. One study found that eight of 10 Chinese coastal cities discharge excessive amounts of sewage and pollutants into the sea, often near coastal resorts and sea farming areas.

Water pollution is especially bad along the coastal manufacturing belt. Despite the closure of thousands of paper mills, breweries, chemical factories and other potential sources of contamination, the water quality along a third of the waterway falls far below even the modest standards that the government requires. Most of China’s rural areas have no system in place to treat waste water. A study by China’s Environmental Protection Agency in February 2010 said that water pollution levels were double what the government predicted them to be mainly because agricultural waste was ignored.

China’s ‘s first pollution census in 2010 revealed farm fertilizer was a bigger source of water contamination than factory effluent. water pollution by Caijing Water pollution—caused primarily by industrial waste, chemical fertilizers and raw sewage— accounts for half of the $69 billion that the Chinese economy loses to pollution every year. About 11. 7 million pounds of organic pollutants are emitted into Chinese waters very day, compared to 5. 5 in the United States, 3. 4 in Japan, 2. 3 in Germany, 3. 2 in India, and 0. in South Africa. Water consumed by people in China contains dangerous levels of arsenic, fluorine and sulfates. An estimated 980 million of China’s 1. 3 billion people drink water every day that is partly polluted. More than 600 million Chinese drink water contaminated with human or animal wastes and 20 million people drink well water contaminated with high levels of radiation. A large number of arsenic-tainted water have been discovered. China’s high rates of liver, stomach and esophageal cancer have been linked to water pollution.

In many cases factories fouling critical water sources are making goods consumed by people in the U. S. and Europe. Problems created by China’s water pollution are not just confined to China either. Water pollution and garbage produced in China floats down its rivers to the sea and is carried by prevailing winds and currents to Japan and South Korea. Water pollution and shortages are a more serious problem in northern China than southern China. The percentage of water considered unfit for human consumption is 45 percent in northern China, compared to 10 percent in southern China.

Some 80 percent of the rivers in the northern province of Shanxi have been rated “unfit for human contact. ” A poll conducted by the Pew Research Center before the 2008 Olympics found that 68 percent of the Chinese interviewed said they were concerned about water pollution. Effects of Water Pollution in China Waters that used to team with fish and welcome swimmers now have film and foam at the top and give off bad smells. Canals are often covered layers of floating trash, with the deposits particularly thick on the banks. Most of it is plastic containers in a variety of sun-bleached colors.

Deformities in fish such as one or no eyes and misshapen skeletons and a decreasing numbers of rare wild Chinese sturgeon in the Yangtze has been blamed on a paint chemical widely used in Chinese industry. China is the largest polluter of the Pacific Ocean. Offshore dead zones — oxygen-starved areas in the sea that are virtually devoid off life — are not only found in shallow water but also in deep water. They are mainly created by agricultural run-off—namely fertilizer—and reach their peak in the summer. In the spring freshwater creates a barrier layer, cutting off the salt water below from the oxygen in the air.

Warm water and fertilizers cause algae blooms. Dead algae sinks to the bottom and is decomposed by bacteria, depleting oxygen in deep water. Water Pollution and Health and Protests Nearly two thirds of China’s rural population—more than 500 million people—use water contaminated by human and industrial waste. Accordingly it is not all that surprising that gastrointestinal cancer is now the number one killer in the countryside, More than 130 residents of two villages in Guangxi Province in southern China were poisoned by arsenic-contaminated water.

Arsenic showed up in their urine. The source is believed to be waste from a nearby metallurgy factory. In August 2009, a thousand villagers gathered outside a government office in Zhentouu township in Hunan Province to protests a the presence of the Xiange Chemical factory, which villagers say has polluted water used to irrigate rice and vegetables and caused at least two deaths in the area. Sources of Water Pollution Major polluters include chemical factories, drug manufactures, fertilizer makers, tanneries, paper mills.

In October 2009, Greenpeace identified five industrial facilities in southern China’s Pearl River delta that were dumping poisonous metals and chemicals—such as beryllium, manganese, nonylphenol and tetrabromobisphenol— into water used by local residents for drinking. The group found the toxins in pipes that led from the facilities. In February 2008 the Fuan textile factory, a multimillion dollar operation in Guangdong Province that produces enormous quantities of T-shirts and other clothes for export, was shut down for dumping waste from dyes into the Maozhou River and turning the water red.

It turned out the factory produced 47,000 tons of waste a day and could only process 20,000 tons with the rest being dumped into the river. It latter quietly reopened in a new location. Polluted Chinese Rivers and Lakes China has some of the world’s worst water pollution. All of China’s lakes and rivers are polluted to some degree. According to a Chinese government report, 70 percent of rivers, lakes and waterways are seriously polluted, many so seriously they have no fish, and 78 percent of the water from China’s rivers is not fit for human consumption.

In a middle class development near Nanjing call Straford a polluted river has buried underground in giant pipe while a new ornamental river, rally a lake, has been built above it. According to one government survey, 436 of China’s 532 rivers are polluted, with more than half of them too polluted to serve as sources of drinking water, and 13 of 15 sectors of China’s seven largest rivers are seriously polluted. The most polluted rivers are in the east and south around the major population centers with the pollution getting worse the further downstream one goes.

In some cases each city along a river dumps pollutants outside their city limits, creating increasingly more pollution for the cities down stream. Chinese environmentalist Ma Jun said, ‘What’s not receiving attention is the destruction of the river ecosystem, which I think will have long-tern effects on our water resources. ’ Many rivers are filled with garbage, heavy metals and factory chemicals. Suzhou Creek in Shanghai stinks of human waste and effluence from pig farms. There have been devastating fish kills caused by the release of chemicals into the Haozhongou River in Anhui province and Min Jiang River in Sichuan Province.

The Huai flows through densely populated farmland between the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers. Bottlenecks and elevation changes make the river both prone to flooding and collecting pollutants. Half the checkpoints along the Huai River in central and eastern China revealed pollution levels of “Grade 5″ or worse, with pollutants detected in ground water 300 meters below the river. The Huai river in Anhui province is so polluted all the fish have died and people have to drink bottled water to avoid getting sick. Some places have water that is too toxic to touch and leaves behind scum when it is boiled.

Here, crops have been destroyed by irrigation water from the river; fish farms have been wiped out; and fishermen have lost their livelihoods. The South-North Water Transfer Project—which will travel through the Huai basin—is likely to deliver water that is dangerously polluted. The Qingshui River, a tributary of the Huai whose names means “clear water,” has turned black with trails of yellow foam from pollution from small mines that have opened up to meet the demand for magnesium, molybdenum and vanadium used in the booming steel industry.

River samples indicate unhealthy levels of magnesium and chromium. The vanadium refineries foul the water and produce smokes that deposits a yellowing powder on teh countryside. The Liao River is also a mess. Gains made with new water treatment facilities have been canceled out by higher than ever levels of industrial pollution. In May 2007, 11 companies along the Songhua River, including local food companies, were ordered to shut down because of the heavily-polluted water they dumped into the river. A survey found that 80 percent exceeded pollution discharge limits.

One company turned off pollution control devices and dumped sewage directly into the river. In March 2008 contamination of the Dongjing River with ammonia, nitrogen and metal-cleaning chemicals turned the water red and foamy and forced authorities to cut water supplies for at least 200,000 people in Hubei Province in central China. Cancer Villages and Polluted Waterways in China According to the World Bank, 60,000 people die each year from diarrhea, bladder and stomach cancer and other diseases directly caused by water-borne pollution. A study by the WHO came with a much higher figure.

Cancer village is a term used to describe villages or towns where cancer rates have risen dramatically because of pollution. There are said to be around 100 cancer villages along the Huai River and its tributaries in Henan Province, especially on the Shaying River. Death rates on Huai River are 30 percent higher than the national average. In 1995, the government declared that water from a Huai tributary was undrinkable and the water supply for 1 million people was cut off. The military had to truck in water for a month until 1,111 paper mills and 413 other industrial plants on the river were shut down.

In the village of Huangmengying—where a once-clear stream is now greenish black from factory wastes—cancer accounted for 11 of the 17 deaths in 2003. Both the river and well water in the village—the main source of drinking water—have an acrid smell and taste produced by pollutants dumped upstream by tanneries, paper mills, a huge MSG plant, and other factories. Cancer had been rare when the stream was clear. Tuanjieku is town six kilometers northwest of Xian that still uses an ancient system of moats to irrigate its crops.

The moats unfortunately don’t drain so well and are now badly contaminated by household discharges and industrial waste. Visitors to the town are often overwhelmed by the rotten egg smell and feel faint after five minutes of breathing in the air. Vegetables produced in the fields are discolored and sometimes black. Residents suffer from abnormally high cancer rates. One third of peasants in the village Badbui are mentally ill or seriously ill. Women report high numbers of miscarriages and many people die in middle age. The culprit is believed to be drinking water drawn from the Yellow River downstream from a fertilizer plant.

The waters around Taizhou in Zhejiang, the home of Hisun Pharmaceutical, one of China’s largest drug makers, are so contaminated with sludge and chemicals that fishermen complain their hands and legs become ulcerated, and in extreme cases need amputation. Studies have show that people who live around the city have high cancer and birth defect rates. Polluted Yangtze, Pearl and Yellow Rivers China’s three great rivers—the Yangtze, Pearl and Yellow River—are so filthy that it is dangerous to swim or eat fish caught in them. Parts of the Pearl River in Guangzhou are so thick, dark and soupy it looks like one could walk across it.

In recent years pollution has become a problem on the Yellow River. By one count 4,000 of China’s 20,000 petrochemical factories are on the Yellow River and a third of all fish species found in the Yellow River have become extinct because of dams, falling water levels, pollution and over fishing. More than 80 percent of the Hai-Huaih Yellow river basin is chronically polluted. In October 2006, a one kilometer section of the Yellow River turned red in the city of Lanzhou in Gansu Province as result of a “red and smelly” discharge from a sewage pipe.

In December 2005, six tons of diesel oil leaked into a tributary of the Yellow River from a pipe that cracked because of freezing conditions. It produced a 40 mile long slick. Sixty-three water pumps had to be shut down, including some in Jinan, the capital of Shandong Province. The Yangtze River is polluted with 40 million tons of industrial and sewage waste. Half of China’s 20,000 petrochemical factories lie on its banks. About 40 percent of all waste water produced in China—about 25 billion tons—flows into the Yangtze, of which only about 20 percent is treated beforehand.

The pollution has taken its toll on aquatic life. Fish catches from the river declined from 427,000 tons in the 1950s to 100,000 tons in the 1990s. The Yangtze is in danger of becoming a “dead river” unable to sustain marine life or providing drinking water. According to report by the Chinese Academy of Sciences released in April 2007 the Yangtze is seriously and largely irreversibly polluted. More than 600 kilometers of its length and almost 30 percent of its major tributaries are in critical condition.

Sections of the Grand Canal that have water deep enough to accommodate boats are often filled with trash sewage and oil licks. Chemical waste and fertilizer and pesticide run-off empties into the canal. The water is mostly brownish green. People who drink it often get diarrhea and break out in rashes. Polluted Lakes, Canals and Coastal Areas in China Dead fish in Hangzhou pond Studies have showed that the quality of coastal waters are deteriorating quickly as a result of land-based pollution.

The study found that 8. 3 billion tons of sewage was released in Guangdong Province’s coastal waters in 2006, 60 percent more than five years earlier. Altogether 12. million tons of polluted “material was dumped in waters off the southern province. Some lakes are in equally bad shape. China’s great lakes—the Tai, Chao and Dianchi—have water that is rated Grade V, the most degraded level. It is unfit for drinking or for agricultural or industrial use. Describing China’s fifth-biggest lake a Wall Street Journal reporter wrote: “The slow, hot days of summer are here, and sun-fed algae is starting to clot the milky surface of Chao Lake.

Soon a living scum will carpet a patch the size of New York City. It will quickly blacken and rot… The smell is so terrible you can not describe it. ” Canals, See Changzhou, Places Apple Accused of Making a River Runs Black In March 2012, Peter Smith wrote in The Times, Beyond the brick cottages of Tongxin runs Lou Xia Bang, once the soul of the farming village and a river where, until the digital revolution, children swam and mothers washed rice. Today it flows black: a chemical mess heavy with the stench of China’s high-tech industry — the hidden companion of the world’s most famous electronics brands and a reason the world gets its gadgets on the cheap.

Source: Peter Smith, The Times, March 9, 2012] The article then goes on to describe how the town of Tongxin was being affected by chemical waste from local factories that, as well as turning the river black, has caused a “phenomenal” increase in cancer rates in Tongxin (according to research by five Chinese non-governmental organisations). The factories have grown up in the last few years and make circuit boards, touch screens and the casings of smartphones, laptops and tablet computers. As usual in these cases, Apple as mentioned – although the evidence appears to be a little sketchy as to whether these factories are actually players in the Apple supply chain. [Source: Spendmatter UK/Europe blog] Smith wrote in the Times: “Workers at the Kaedar factory, five metres from a kindergarten where children have complained of dizziness and nausea, have secretly confirmed that products had left the factory bearing the Apple trademark. ” Red Tides, Salt Tides and Algae Bloom in China Algae blooms, or eutrophication, in lakes are caused by too much nutrients in the water.

They turn lakes green and suffocate fish by depleting the oxygen. They are often caused by human and animal waste and run off of chemical fertilizers. Similar conditions create red tides in the sea. The government estimates that $240 million worth of damage and economic loses was caused by 45 major red tides between 1997 and 1999. Describing a red tide near the town of Aotoum that left the seas blanketed with dead fish and fishermen badly in debt, a fisherman told the Los Angeles Times, “The sea turned dark, like tea.

If you talk to the fishermen around here, they’ll all break into tears. ” In some places the Chinese have tried to minimize the damage caused by algae blooms by pumping oxygen into the water and containing the blooms by adding clay which acts as a magnet for algae. A lack funds keeps China from tackling the problem using more conventional means. A severe drought in 2006, caused large amounts of seawater to flow upstream on the Xinjiang River in southern China. In Macau salinity levels in the river jumped to almost three time above the World Health Organization standards.

To combat the problem water was diverted into it from the Beijiang River in Guangdong. Water Bodies Struck by Algae Blooms in China Red tides have increased in their numbers and severity in coastal areas of China, particularly in Bohai Bay off eastern China, the East China Sea and the South China Sea. Large red tides have occurred around the Zhoushan Islands near Shanghai. In May and June 2004, two huge red tides, covering a total area size of 1. 3 million soccer fields, developed in Bohai Bay.

One occurred near the mouth of the Yellow River and affected an area of 1,850 square kilometers. Another struck near the port city of Tianjin and covered nearly 3,200 square kilometers. It was blamed on the dumping of large amounts of waste water and sewage into the bay and rivers leading into the bay. In June 2007, coastal waters off the booming industrial town of Shenzhen were hit by one the biggest ever red tides. It produced a 50 square kilometer slick and was caused by pollution and persisted because of a lack of rain.

There were large algae blooms in freshwater lakes throughout China in 2007. Some were blamed on pollution. Others were blamed on drought. In Jiangsu Province the water level in one lake dropped to its lowest level in 50 years and became inundated with blue-green algae that produced smelly, undrinkable water. Lake Tai Pollution Lake Tai is often choked with industrial waste from factories producing paper, film and dyes, urban sewage and agricultural run-off. It sometimes is covered with green algae as a result of nitrogen and phosphate pollution.

Locals complain of polluted irrigation water that causes their skin to peal, dyes that turn the water red and fumes that sting their eyes. Dams built for flood control and irrigation have prevented Lake Tai’s from flushing out pesticides and fertilizers that flow into it. Particularly damaging are phosphates which suck out life-sustaining oxygen. Starting in the 1980s a number of chemical factories were built on its shores. As of the late 1990s there were 2,800 chemical factories around the lake, some of which released their waste directly into the lake in the middle of the night to avoid detection.

Lake Tai Algae Blooms Algae bloom in Lake Tai In the summer of 2007, large algae blooms covered parts of Lake Tai and Lake Chao, China’s third and fifth largest freshwater lakes, making the water undrinkable and producing a terrible stench. Two million of residents of Wuxi, who normally rely on water from the Lake Tai for drinking water, couldn’t bathe or wash dishes and hoarded bottled water that rose in price from $1 a bottle to $6 a bottle. Some turned on their taps only to have sludge emerge.

The bloom on Lake Tai lasted for six days until it was flushed out by rain and water diverted from the Yangtze River. The bloom on Lake Chao did not threaten water supplies. Reporting from Zhoutie, near Lake Tai, William Wan wrote in Washington Post, “You smell the lake before you see it, an overwhelming stench like rotten eggs mixed with manure. The visuals are just as bad, the shore caked with toxic blue-green algae.

Farther out, where the algae is more diluted but equally fueled by pollution, it swirls with the currents, a vast network of green tendrils across the surface of Tai Lake. [Source: William Wan, Washington Post, October 29, 2010] “ Such pollution problems are now widespread in China after three decades of unbridled economic growth. But what’s surprising about Tai Lake is the money and attention that’s been spent on the problem and how little either has accomplished. Some of the country’s highest-ranking leaders, including Premier Wen Jiabao, have declared it a national priority. Millions of dollars have been poured into the cleanup. And yet, the lake is still a mess.

The water remains undrinkable, the fish nearly gone, the fetid smell lingering over villages. [Ibid] At Tai Lake, part of the problem is that the same industrial factories poisoning the water also transformed the region into an economic powerhouse. Shutting them down, local leaders say, would destroy the economy overnight. In fact, many of the factories shut down during the 2007 scandal have since reopened under different names, environmentalists say. ” [Ibid] “Tai Lake is the embodiment of China’s losing fight against pollution. This summer, the government said that, despite stricter rules, pollution is rising again across the country in key categories such as emissions of sulfur dioxide, which causes acid rain.

Just months before, the government had revealed that water pollution was more than twice as severe as previous official figures had shown. ” [Ibid] The algae bloom on Lake Tai was caused by toxic cyanobacteria, commonly called pond scum. It turned much of the lake florescent green and produced a terrible stench that could be smelled miles away from the lake. The Lake Tai bloom became a symbol of China’s lack of environmental regulations. Afterwards a high-level meeting on the lake’s future was convened, with Beijing closing down hundreds of chemical factories and promising to spend $14. 4 billion to clean up the lake.

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Water Pollution in China Essay

Preparation for Chinese New Year Essay

Preparation for Chinese New Year Essay.

Preparations for the New Year begin a couple of weeks before the big day. This is a fun time full of anticipation and joy as we get ready for the thrill and excitement of the celebrations. According to the traditions, this is the time to clean the house, prepare food for the feast and make banners and decorations special for the New Year. A clean house to welcome the New Year

Before the New Year comes, it is one of the Chinese New Year customs to clean the house from top to bottom to get rid off all the bad luck gathered in the previous year.

And after the New Year comes, you cannot sweep during the first days otherwise all the new luck will sweep away! So one of your Chinese New Year activities will be to… clean your room! Wouldn’t want all that accumulated bad luck for another year would you??!! Cleaning house also means settling all your unfinished business to start fresh for the new year: Pay off all your debts, resolve all quarrels with friends, catch up with homework!!!

Make some Banners and Decorations

Red banners with New Year messages of good luck decorate the main entrance of your house/room.

Red is a very lucky color and symbolizes vitality of life and happiness. You can make your own Chinese New Year decorations with bright red paper and markers or a brush if you prefer. Here are some instructions to make your own New Year Banners including the “Lucky Characters” stroke by stroke.

Preparing the Chinese New Year Banquet

On New Year’s Day, the families come together to celebrate and everything must be ready for this important fest. Food must be prepared ahead of time, as one of the popular Chinese New Year superstitions dictates that all knives must be put away. Using a knife during the first days of the New Year “cuts off” all the good luck for the coming year. The New Year’s feast takes many days to prepare. These are some of the traditional chinese new year foods served on New Year’s day and throughout the festivities:

* meat dumplings for good luck
* tangerines for good fortune
* apples for peace
* sweet rice cakes for more wealth every year
* fish for plenty
* veggies with long noodles for long life
* chicken for wealth
* mustard greens for a green year for farmers
* soup means everything better than last year
* oranges for money and wealth
* shrimp for abundance

Paying respects to the Ancestors

The New Year Celebrations can only begin after paying respect to the ancestors.

On New Year’s Eve, people will go to the temples and pray for good fortune for the new year.

They bring offerings of food and incense to please the spirits of the deceased so that they might bring good luck.

So now that all the preparations are done with, the long-awaited day arrives and the New Year’s festivities can begin!

Chinese New Year Preparation

Preparing for the Chinese New Year begins on personal and social front and can start months before the New Year. These preparations are made in the hope to usher the New Year in the best context possible. Most people try to settle their debts with friends before the New Year so that they can start the New Year debt free. However, this settling of debt often refers to debt between friends and do not include home or car loans with financial institutions. These are considered as investments. Many people will also check predictions of their luck in the New Year. The Chinese calendar has a 60 year cycle and each year is presided by a star. Everyone has a star that corresponds with the year of birth. This birth star may conflict with next year’s presiding star, 犯太岁 creating difficulties in work, business or personal life. To avoid or minimize the impact, rituals can be conducted at temples before the New Year. During the dates for these rituals, temples are often crowded with devotees.

Nearer to the New Year families start their spring cleaning to welcome the New Year. This is the period when new furniture or minor renovations will be undertaken. Chinese New Year decorations such as couplets, banners are used to create a festive atmosphere. A major activity before the New Year is the exchange of gifts. Most of the gift items have symbolic meanings or status symbols to demonstrate good will or to express good wishes. New Year gifts can be presented to family, friends and between companies. Popular items include New Year cakes, Niangao, 年糕 in auspicious shapes, Mandarin oranges, Bakkwa (BBQ meat), sweets, candies, chocolates and hampers.

New Year cards 贺年卡 are also sent to family members, friends and business contacts. A few weeks before the Chinese New Year, markets and fairs specializing in New Year goods can be found in most cities. These markets offer foodstuff, candies, New Year decorations, flowers, clothes, New Year CDs and almost everything required for the New Year. These items are bought as gifts, for home consumption or used to entertain visiting family members or guests. These New Year markets often end in the early hours of New Year’s day. Many people visit these markets after their reunion dinner and stay till after midnight to buy the items at huge discounts.

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Preparation for Chinese New Year Essay

Comparing the Fall of Han China and Roman Empire Essay

Comparing the Fall of Han China and Roman Empire Essay.

Han China and Rome were two of the most powerful and popular empires of their time, but they fell like any other empire before them. Han China and Rome’s Empires had the same causes for their declines, but their effects are different.

The major reasons for the fall of Rome are truly those that have to do with Rome’s political and economic state. One of the Rome’s problems prior to its fall was the lack of respect for authority, among the citizens and military forces.

All the attacks from the barbarians caused problems in the military. This basically led to a lot of political turmoil because of all the chaos that was born, and it started to make the military crumble as well. Rome’s economy started to go downhill too, after a long period of time, especially because of the gold. The Romans started using gold (coins) and because of that the trade shortage of the eastern regions of the Empire served to block the growth of wealth in the west.

The major reasons for Han China Empire’s fall were also because of their economic and political problems, but the effects are different. One of Han China’s problems was the uprising of desperate and hungry peasants. Another problem was their lack of authority to the Han government, which caused the economic problem. The Han Empire was being invaded by nomads, which were also known as barbarians. These barbarians kept invading the empire and made them have to keep fighting, and provide military forces. This worsened the economy and Han finances. Han government had to hire foreign soldiers who only wanted to be paid for their services which made the economy even worse.

Comparing the Fall of Han China and Roman Empire Essay

Roles of Women in Ancient China Essay

Roles of Women in Ancient China Essay.

In the times of 221 BC Woman in ancient Chinese culture lived accordingly to rules set by men. They lived there lives from when they were born being controlled with no input to what they wanted as they were considered inferior to Men.

For about two thousand years the life of an ancient Chinese woman was almost unbearable as they were treated with no respect and were treated as slaves until death. It was believed that it was unacceptable for a woman to have ambitions, although the male would teach that the woman’s greatest duty was to have a son.

In the family household, whole families would live together and a Grandmother would become important and offered the most respect if she outlived her husband.

From the day of birth girls growing into women knew of no other life but serving men, Most girls didn’t go to school, as Chinese didn’t find it important that women got and education.

There marriages were arranged by their fathers and once married the women served her husband’s family and often became a servant of the mother- in-law forbidden to disobey any of her wishes.

The Chinese culture always celebrated the birth of a male more they did of a girl and the women would gain more respect if she gave birth to a male. At a very young age a Chinese girl would get her feet binded, which means twisting and deforming feet to make them smaller as small feet were considered beautiful, poorer families would bind there girls feet to improve their social status, but if too much damage was done in an un wealthy family, the woman would still continue to work in the fields with bound feet but instead had to work on her hands and knees.

Although it was extremely hard to have ambitions as a woman, there was an extraordinary lady that challenged the way Chinese life was lived by the name of Empress Wu. She was the only woman in Chinese history to rule as emperor not only gaining power but keeping it. She ruled during the Tang Dynasty which from (618 BC until 705).it was a time for freedom for women in China, where a number of exceptional women contributed to the culture of politics as they were able begin work instead of being a stay at home mother. Also in this time period foot binding was not acceptable.

Over the years slowly women began to gain independence around the nineteenth and twentieth century, in 1868- 1912 the Chinese nation began to listen to women give them the right to speak through speeches and magazines, this was the first wave of feminism, to raise women’s consciences about their position and they were encouraged to adopt new more “modern” ways of life.

Roles of Women in Ancient China Essay

China a Threat to Indian Industry? Essay

China a Threat to Indian Industry? Essay.

1) Are Japanese products a threat to US industries?  Are Eastern EU products a threat to Western EU industries? 2) Is the Chinese Auto industries a threat to India? Dont know. Is the Chinese Food Product better than India? Dont think so. Is the Chinese Manga Books better than India? Dont think so. Is the Chinese textile industries a threat to India? Yes. Is the Indian software industries a threat to China? Yes. 3) As a wide range of cheap Chinese products flooded the Indian market, some local industries were adversely affected, while others benefitted by using these products as raw materials.

4) One-hour technology’ products from China started entering Indian households some years ago. Even though the majority of these products did not succeed in the Indian market due to their ‘inferior’ quality, the Chinese ‘invasion’ of our market is still continuing. The dumping of Chinese-made fans, locks, watches, bicycles, radios, batteries etc is slowly replacing our own products and has become a threat to Indian industry.

5) China herself is one of the victims of the counterfeit products they produce; in the year 2001, fake and low-quality medicines produced in China killed about 192,000 people. 6) Many Indian companies have already shifted their production bases from small Indian towns and villages to China. This has resulted in unemployment for lakhs of workers, pushing them to the brink of starvation. China’s steady entry into our textile, food, information-technology, pharmaceutical, automobile and other sectors may result in the collapse of many Indian industries — in both organised and unorganised sectors. 7) The low rate comes due to the fact that the Chinese Government lends a subsidy ranging from 30 per cent to 100 per cent. The Chinese made goods, of better quality and low rate, have flooded the Indian market in hordes encompassing all types of products – chocolates, toys, garments, computer hardware, and so on, and are finding ready and eager takers among the Indian consumers and this is the factor which has caused a great sense of uneasiness among the Indian industry community.

8) Cheap bulk drug imports from China may soon post a threat to the Rs 20,000 crore domestic bulk drug industry.Ind-Swift Laboratories, a pharmaceutical major based in Chandigarh, halted the production of roxycomycin and arithromycin last month. It is not Ind-Swift alone. Companies like Alembic, Kopran and Torrent are all bearing the brunt of Chinese imports. The consequences are severe on firms producing bulk drugs like azithromicin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, roxycomycin, cephalosporins and anti-quinolones. As a result, the pharma industry is losing business worth Rs 2,500 crore a year. 9) The price of a battery-operated Chinese car has fallen from Rs 300 two years ago to Rs 60. The fall in prices has caught the fancy of low-income families.

There is no threat to our companies from cheap products imported from China 1) whatever products imported from China unfortunately are mostly below any standards or quality criteria. So the consumer is not very keen to purchase Chinese products in India except for the toys. But if you talk about the fluorescent lamps or electronic products nobody is buying them. 2) In the year 2000, Indian motorcycle makers were a worried lot. A number of them had announced plans to launch dirt-cheap Chinese bikes, fearing that such dumped motorcycles would swamp the Indian market. Today, the fear of Chinese motorcycles no longer stalks manufacturers. 3) Only one company, Monto Motors, launched Chinese motorcycles in the country. In a market, which sells over 2.5 million units a year, the firm claims to have sold around 15,000 bikes so far. 4) Dhoot and other Indian producers did face an initial challenge from Chinese brands like Konka and TCL, but these names failed to make headway.

China has always been compared to India in terms of population and technological advancements. China undoubtedly has a humongous software market, but is definitely not a threat. * India has its own unique power and intelligence. * Indian IT companies have captured Asia and Japan as well. * India is becoming one of the world’s largest internet and mobile user’s country. * India’s mobile market is growing by leaps and bounds. * Most countries prefer employees from India rather than China because of communication barrier. English is spoken by almost all IT industries in India. * India has a large consumer and industrial market, all thirsting for products, with great brands and distribution networks.ForThere is no doubt that India may take many years to have a market like China.

* China has a huge population. Moreover people there are advancing each passing day. * China launches new mobiles, technologies, automobiles almost everyday. * China’s automobile industry is much bigger than India’s. it can therefore serve quality products at lower cost. * China has a string support from the government. Indian IT industries have negligible support. * China launches many products like gadgets etc everyday. Because of this they can sell them at a cheaper rate.China’s market cannot be a thread untie India considers and works on each opportunity that comes its way. It should efficiently make use all possible resources and infrastructure to welcome foreign investment and manpower hiring.<<Previous Next>> Write your comment – Share Knowledge and Experience Discussion Board| Group Discussion- China market – a threat to Indian market

China market is a threat to Indian market as they provide very cheap products with good quality as compared to Indian products. The kind of technologies China uses is much better than the technologies which India uses. Every year huge amount of Chinese items are being imported to India and lot of people are using these items. The industries in china are much bigger and growing everyday. The inventions which is being done in china is much more advanced and then selling of those technology at cheaper rates is what affecting Indian markets.

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China a Threat to Indian Industry? Essay

How Far Do I Agree That the Hundred Flowers Campaign Was a Trick Essay

How Far Do I Agree That the Hundred Flowers Campaign Was a Trick Essay.

Mao travelled the length and breadth of China during the 1950’s. The massive amount of support that he got where ever he went convinced him that he was in touch with the people. He took this opportunity to give some greater freedom of expression to his people and he encouraged constructive criticism of how he and his party were transforming china into a proletarian state. He also gave intellectuals a greater say in debate which was unusual as Mao hated them.

It was quite possible that Mao was affected by the attack on Stalin by Khrushchev who publicly said that Stalin was evil and wrong; Mao did not want this backlash himself . erhaps the hundred flowers campaign closed the gap between his people and him, the people would not make a comparison of him and Stalin and it would make him seem that he really cared what the people thought. In early 1957 the party and Mao prepared themselves for criticism which let ordinary every day people be able to say where the CCP had gone wrong.

After the initial thoughts of people being classed as anti party were dismissed people flocked in their hundreds to criticise the party top government officials and even as far as Mao himself on the grounds of corruption, inefficiency and not being realistic.

After this Mao changes direction and stops the hundred flowers campaign and everything goes backwards it was not a time of expression but a time of great oppression and was replaced altogether with the anti-rightist movement. Those people who had spoken out the most about the regime were forced to retract there statement and many University staff, writers, school teachers and economists some of the finest minds in china were forced to retract there statements and were humiliated in front of their peers and were forced to enter re-education classes where they were broken down and re built with the information about the CCP.

Even high ranking government officials were not safe as Zhou Enlai found out when he was forced to say that he had been too slow in putting Mao’s industrial plans into action which was not true, this sent out a message to everyone else saying that no one is safe and forcing everyone to conform. Some people say that it was a trick from the start and the speed in which he retracted the campaign and replaced it with the other one shows that it was a trap from the beginning, they also say that it was a deliberate measure to bring his critics out in to the public and catch them.

He could use what they said against them most of the people who did this were intellectuals and the educated who were the most likely to speak up these people also happened to be the two sets of people that Mao didn’t like. It was a movement towards a controlled society in which all expression of opinion had to fit within the government’s criteria. However. People say that Mao was genuinely seeking criticism in which he would turn the peasants against the other classes.

By giving scientists and engineers the freedom to express their idea’s’ Mao sought to prevent party bureaucrats from interfering with technical decisions. He wanted intellectuals to expose and attack corruption and bureaucracy. He also wanted peasants, students and workers to speak out and even demonstrate to prevent government bureaucrats from running roughshod over their rights. Another theory is that Mao did it on a whim and he did not set out with an agenda and was the quick thinking of CCP party main officials.

In the event Mao’s motives may or may not have been, it was the scale of the criticism that it unleashed that took him aback, he had not realized the size of the problems that his ever so perfect regime had. Whether or not he had set out flush out opponents it had the same outcome, he had discovered the extent of the opposition. He crushed those who he thought were opposed to him. So yes I think that the hundred flowers campaign was a trick used by Mao to flush out opponents. the ruthlessness the he showed can only mean that he set out to do it in the first place.

How Far Do I Agree That the Hundred Flowers Campaign Was a Trick Essay