Compare and Contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt Essay

Compare and Contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt Essay.

The ancient river-valley civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt share many similarities in their social, political, economic, intellectual, and cultural aspects, however, at the same time; both are very separate from one another. Mesopotamia developed first as a civilization without influence, while Egypt built off of the latter to create their own society, hence the shared traits of their educational system, government, religion, and social structure. But, the variable of location also takes place; once the basis of the civilizations were built, they branched off and continued to progress according to their own specific needs, which explains why the differences of the two lay in detail to the economy, intellect, government, and religion.

Both Mesopotamia and Egypt shared certain aspects of their culture, due to the fact that Egypt based their original society off of Mesopotamia’s. The governments of both the civilizations were political monarchies, with a kind in Mesopotamia and a Pharaoh in Egypt. These governments gave the basis to the social structure, which started at the bottom with slaves and peasants, moving upward to the merchants and artisans, then the wealthy aristocrats, with the priest class presiding under the monarch.

The educational system was only available for wealthy, upper class boys, who learned to write and went on to become scribes. The polytheistic faith also ran through both civilizations; the Egyptians and Mesopotamians believed in gods and goddesses who ruled over nature. These similarities were due to the basic society that Mesopotamia laid down for Egypt to later build off on; the plain and simple ideas that were adopted to the need of the civilization came from Mesopotamia.

Although Mesopotamia and Egypt shared their basics of society, the differences lie in the details, where the simple ideas were fine-tuned to fit the needs of the society better. The government for both civilizations was a monarchy, however, due to geographical differences, Mesopotamia was divided into separate city-states, and Egypt was ruled under a centralized, authoritarian government. The economy was also affected by this change in government style, Egypt’s economy was more government regulated while Mesopotamia enjoyed a more free business class. And though both civilizations excelled in science (the measurements of time) and mathematics, Egypt became more advanced in the two subjects- the Greeks would later study them and pass on the knowledge to the Hellenistic world.

The writing systems were also different; Egyptians wrote in pictures, or hieroglyphics, and the Mesopotamians wrote in cuneiform. The religion, although polytheistic in both cultures, differed in the general outlook- the Egyptians saw the afterlife as a reward, a positive experience, and the gods as holding human qualities and able to maintain relationships with humans. On the other hands, Mesopotamia’s religion was dark and gloom, with distant gods and a bleak afterlife. The differences and separations in the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations were in the details, resulting from similar basis, but geographical and other variances alienated them.

Compare and Contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt Essay

Body Rituals of the Nacirema Essay

Body Rituals of the Nacirema Essay.

Body Rituals of the Nacirema tells a story of a tribal group’s lifestyle and the rituals of it. Miner is actually talking about the American culture. As most of us know, Nacirema is American spelled backwards. In this article, Miner’s intention is not to express the extreme human behavior with the Nacirema, but the way it affects our perception of an unfamiliar culture. If we were to look at the Nacirema’s behaviors with regards to appearance and hygiene without the slightest bit of knowledge about their culture, all of their actions might seem absurd and baffling.

Ceremonies performed at the Latipso are among the most interesting practices of the Nacirema. Initially it puzzled me as to why people would fork out money for expensive gifts and willingly go to the temple when a full recovery or survival cannot be guaranteed. The rituals to exorcise sickness or purify patients are often more harmful than the sickness itself. A closer observation of the article indicated that the Latipso actually stands for a hospital, while the medicine men are doctors and the vestal maiden nurses.

The temple seems to portray death to some but it is considered a haven for healing from within the civilization. Miner made the effort to allow others to realize that the way studies were representing distinctive culture was biased. Without the proper understanding of any society, cultural misunderstandings are bound to occur. While we take a step further into the discussion on the Nacirema as an alien group of people, we have to understand their customs and rituals from a cultural perspective. Nothing could be more interesting than to present a cultural analysis of the Nacirema and discern the true nature of their existence. From a sociological point of view, the Nacirema culture depicts a traditional practice through acceptable and respected rituals which help us gain knowledge of an influential custom whereby followers are the ones enlightened with the truth as our society looks upon it. One of the fundamental beliefs of the Nacirema is that the human body is ugly and that its natural tendency is to disease. It is unwise to think that we can completely purge ourselves of all cultural biases or ethnocentricity.

In the eyes of sociologists, rituals are equivalent to daily activities that bring us together with our beliefs, duties and piety. Social solidarity is established as rituals holds people together with their values. Rituals contributes to the making of a society, which is why one must look at things from a different perspective in order to understand another person of a different background. Perhaps Miner wanted us to realize certain truth about ourselves, which in turn creates a dilemma for those who conduct scientific research or pursuits. On one hand they are responsible in presenting their findings without biases but on the other hand, this becomes an unrealistic expectation. It might be more honorable for them to abandon all pretentions of impartiality than to risk declaring their own opinions as fact. It seems ironic to what a paradox the Nacirema culture is, because a person’s body is most abused while it serves as a powerful force behind their beliefs.

However, the important factor to take note of is that even though cultural practices are different, they are exceptionally ordinary to those living in that particular civilization. Miner has helped us realize various aspects of our culture with a brilliant approach. Body Rituals of the Nacirema is meant to get us to look at our own culture from a different view since we have the mentality of ourselves being normal while other cultures seem so strange. In reality, we appear just as strange as other cultures are to us. People are the same everywhere because of our perceptions but more importantly, because of our inability to think further and come to terms with our flaws. At this point, we should look upon other cultures with renewed objectivity and understanding.

Body Rituals of the Nacirema Essay

Chronology of the Mughal Kings Essay

Chronology of the Mughal Kings Essay.

The Mughul empire was founded by in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim lodhi,the last of the delhi sultans at he first battle of panipat. The mughuls were a powerful dynasty and left a profound impact on the thoughts and arts of the sub continent. This is a brief chronology documenting the time when the mughuls ruled

1483 babur is born in farghana.
1526 babur defeats ibrahim lodhi, the sultan of delhi at panipat.
1530death of babur and humayun assumes power.
1540 afghan leader sher shah suri defeats humayun andseizes the empire.

1555 humayun re-conquers delhi.
1556 humayun dies, young akber is enthroned.
1605 death of akber and succession of son jahangir.
1617 revolt in the southern states of the empire breaks out and jhangir sends son khurram to pacify them. Khurram recived the title of shah jahan.

1627 jahangir dies and shah jahan assumes the throne.

1631 shah jahans queen mamtaz mahal dies during childbirth. Shah jahan commissions the building of her tomb, “the Taj Mahal’. 1658 shah jahan’s son aurangzeb executs his brothers, imprisons his father and ascends to the throne of delhi, 1666 death of shah jahan.

1707 aurangjeb dies.
1857 the mutiny results in the massacre of the people of delhi weak mughul empire collapses and india beomes a british colony. 1862 bahadur shah (zafar) II the last of the mughul rulers dies.

Question:- Here is an incomplete write up on the mughal kings,Read the above Chronology of the Mughul Kings. Read the above ‘Chronology of the Mughul Kings’ and the write a ‘sequence’ or chronological order paragraph by adding appropriate sequence markers such as: first, after that, next, then, lastly, finally….

The Mughul Empire started its long regin in 1526 which lasted until 1857. The First Mughul King was Babur who was born In ferghana in 1483. Babur was a descendant of genghis khan and taimur. In 1526 Babur defeated the Sultan of delhi, Ibrahim lodhic

Chronology of the Mughal Kings Essay

Compare and Contrast Egypt and Mesopotamia Essay

Compare and Contrast Egypt and Mesopotamia Essay.

Comparing and Contrasting Ancient Egypt and Ancient Mesopotamia In the ancient world, Egypt and Mesopotamia coexisted between 3000 and 2000 B.C.E. Throughout this essay, I will be comparing and contrasting these two prominent ancient civilizations. Both had many cultural and political differences between them. Although ancient Egypt and ancient Mesopotamia shared similarities in beliefs and agriculture, they differed greatly in afterlife and documentation.

Unlike the majority of today’s civilization who are monotheistic, the belief of one god, both the Sumerians and the Egyptians were polytheistic, the belief of many gods.

Sumerian religion was based around the worship of four life giving deities, the god of heaven, the goddess of earth, the god of air, and the god of water. In Egypt, there were around 2,000 recognized gods and goddesses, one being “Nun” also the god of water.

For the Egyptians and Mesopotamians, life revolved around rivers. The Egyptians depended on the Nile, whilst the Mesopotamians depended on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

All three rivers were sources of life. The rivers provided healthy hydration for each civilization. The water supported life, such as fish, providing a food source. When flooded, the rivers provided fertile soil, or silt. However, the Egyptians were blessed with the “Gift of the Nile” as the Nile flooded at the same time each year, while the Tigris and Euphrates’ floods were violent and unpredictable. Both civilizations utilized their rivers as irrigation systems.

Egyptians and Mesopotamians cherished the importance of many things, however they differed immensely in the way they approached death and afterlife. Mummification is globally known and has become somewhat of a “Halloween joke”, nonetheless the Egyptians saw the preservation of the body as a serious subject. The purpose of mummification was to maintain the human structure as much as possible, in order for the spirit to find its way back to its body. Egyptians were so enthralled with afterlife that they created small tunnels within the pyramids just big enough to allow only the spirit access in and out of burial chambers. The Sumerians lived a much more volatile existence. Their funerals were uncomplicated for their passage into the afterlife.

The Sumerians were one of the first peoples to develop a writing system. The name of their writing system, cuneiform, was named after the wedge shaped utensil. It was etched onto clay tablets, which were then fired in kilns to preserve the writing. The Egyptians developed a different system of writing called Hieroglyphics. It was a very different style of documenting history. The Egyptians wrote their information on papyrus created from reeds. Papyrus was cheaper and easier to produce than clay tablets. This resulted in a vaster amount of records kept by the Egyptians than the Mesopotamians. The differences in geography between the two civilizations led to the development of different writing technology.

Compare and Contrast Egypt and Mesopotamia Essay

Confidence and Arrogance Essay

Confidence and Arrogance Essay.

“Life for both sexes — and I looked at them, shouldering their way along the pavement — is arduous, difficult, a perpetual struggle. It calls for gigantic courage and strength. More than anything, perhaps, creatures of illusion as we are, it calls for confidence in oneself. Without self-confidence we are as babes in the cradle. “ —- Virginia Wolf, A room of one’s own, chapter 2 (1929). I was going through the writing of Virginia wolf last night and I realized how practically relevant these phrases are.

I engrossed myself into my abilities and the struggle I do everyday to push myself towards the invisible boundaries. This is something make me explore more on my own way.

I am determined not to look through books or dictionaries which can only define these words but I am feeling an urge to define from my surrounding. Within my experiences what are those mental-images and facts that I can link to confidence and arrogance. From corporate world to academics, we encountered various situations and people around them responded to these in a variety of different ways.

I believe we would be able to develop a marathon debate on this topic. It would be better to cut the long story into short. One of those controversial misunderstanding, I would love to introduce here.

The famous astronomer and philosopher Galileo was often considered as arrogant while he was opposing Pope and geocentric ideas. The arrogant ideas of him put him into the daylight and the truth came out of superstitions that already had been embedded on people’s minds. If we look around we would be able to spot so many examples of how arrogance and confidence are often misunderstood. Someone said earlier that confidence is arrogance under control. But distinct characteristics can be differentiated within these two separate categories of people. Confident persons dwell within a sea of tranquility. They are aware of their limitations and strengths. They deal with the situation seizing an immense positivity and work hard enough to produce result. These types of people can be easy to cooperate with.

Confident guys would not be baffled by criticisms and what other people think about them. Arrogant are those who are having overbearing pride and belief in him. They treat others as inferiors and often people get annoyed by these activities. They can only value themselves by putting others down. I think confessing truth or mistake is a significant sign of confidence. But arrogance people most likely to hide their own mistake and they will accuse others for any blunders. We as a human being more civilized than any other life forms. Our superior intelligence is not only giving us freedom to make a comfortable world for us but also to become more responsible than before. Confidence and arrogance of human civilization can be used as a positive and fruitful way for a more harmonized world.

Confidence and Arrogance Essay

Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Indus Valley Essay

Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Indus Valley Essay.

Throughout the history of Earth, there have been many fascinating developments, the most prominent being the first civilizations, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. They had many similarities, such as characteristics of early civilizations and social structures, but they also had their differences. The most embossed differences included the divergent geography, prior belief, trade, relations with other civilizations, and politics. The earliest societies, such as Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt exhibiting indicator traits of civilization developed along the floodplains of great rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq, and the Nile in Egypt.

People had settled in Mesopotamia by 7000 B. C. and the First Dynasty of Egyptian rulers was founded before 3000 B. C. , implying a much earlier period of occupation in the Nile River valley and delta. To protect themselves and channel the forces of nature, people living near the rivers created new technologies and forms of political and social organization. The geographical similarities were that both civilizations resided on banks of major rivers, Tigris & Euphrates, and Nile.

Another similarity is that both civilizations developed a writing system.

It first appeared in Mesopotamia before 3300 B. C. E. Cuneiform was the name of it, and wedge-shaped symbols represented words or syllables. Hieroglyphics were the Egyptians’ way of writing, and it had been developed by the beginning of the early Dynastic period. Pictorial symbols represented sounds, syllables, or concepts. Literacy was confined to a relatively small group of scribes and administrators in both of these civilizations due to long period of study required to master the systems. Also, both civilizations had social classes, with the king and the royal families at the top, next were the priests, local leaders and artisans, and lastly, slaves and peasants occupied the bottom.

Both Mesopotamians and Egyptians acquired substantial knowledge about mathematics, engineering, medicine, and transportation for various reasons such as, creating calendars, calculating the quantity of agricultural produce, building temples and pyramids, and practice astronomy. Egypt and Mesopotamia were in contrast to one another in many ways. Egypt emphasized strong central authority, while Mesopotamian politics shifted more frequently over a substructure of regional city-states. They were also culturally different; Egypt developed in relative isolation, all foreigners were considered enemies while Mesopotamia was a multicultural society.

Also, Egypt was well endowed with natural resources and far more self-sufficient than Mesopotamia. They used papyrus reeds growing in marshy areas to make sails, ropes, and a kind of paper. Hunters pursued the abundant wild animals and birds in the marshes. Egypt’s art and architecture are very different from Mesopotamia. From pyramids to temples, rigid pharaohs to flowing art of Amarna, Egypt’s style was totally different from Mesopotamia’s. Mesopotamian art focused on less monumental structures.

In Mesopotamia, women lost social standing and freedoms in societies where agriculture superseded hunting and gathering; whereas in Egypt, they are depicted with dignity and respect, could own properties, and inheritance from their parents was possible. Both civilizations traded differently but Mesopotamia was more productive due to technological advance. Egypt’s interests abroad focused on maintain access to valuable resources rather than acquiring territory. Both Mesopotamia and Egypt were ruled by kings, however, in Egypt, their kings were called pharaohs and they had significantly more power than the Mesopotamian kings of the city-states.

Also, relating the above comparisons to larger global context, The Indus Valley is one of the world’s earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. One of the differences between these three civilizations is that there is a large quantity of metal in the Indus Valley than in Mesopotamia and Egypt, and most metals are utilitarian tools and everyday objects. However, more jewelry and other decorative objects have been unearthed in Mesopotamia and Egypt.

Also, Indus Valley people were technologically skilled in irrigation and using the potter’s wheel. They also have a system of writing with more than 400 signs. Like the Mesopotamians, the people of Indus Valley had widespread trading contacts reaching as far as Mesopotamia. There is little known about the political, social, and economic institutions of Inds Valley, however, there is a statue called the “Priest-King” because some scholars believe it may represent someone with religious and secular authority, but the true identity of this person is unknown.

Conclusively, certain traits are indicators of civilization such as: political system based on control of a defined territory, long-distance trade, and major advances in science and the arts are among others, which the earliest societies, such as Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Indus Valley have exhibited. They were the first civilizations to develop high levels of political centralization and urbanization. Because little is known about the Indus Valley people, there is not a lot of information for their political and social status; however, they clearly possessed the technology which par with those found in Mesopotamia and Egypt.

Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Indus Valley Essay

Ancient Structures: Comparing Egyptian and Mayan Essay

Ancient Structures: Comparing Egyptian and Mayan Essay.


The study of ancient history is made possible by the remains of great civilizations that are now long gone. Archaeologists, anthropologists, and other disciplines work hand in hand to understand the past, knowing very well that it is the key to understanding the present. Thus, the discovery of paintings, artifacts, ruins and other objects that can help decipher antiquity is highly valued. If a shard of pottery can reveal so much about a particular civilization, how much more information can be extracted from huge and well preserved structure for archaeologists and historians?

This is the case with Egyptian and Mayan pyramids that miraculously survived the ravages of time, fairly intact, and offering so much clues to an ancient way of life.

The pyramids are modern day tourist attractions but in their heyday were considered as object worthy of veneration and respect, almost the same way as the gods and deified persons that used them. This paper will look into two great civilizations of Egypt and that of the Mayan people.

The scope of this study is limited to their use of ancient buildings that are now popularly known as pyramids.


The official site of the National Geographic pointed out that there is a classical view of pyramids. It is the shape commonly associated with the pyramids found in Egypt; a massive structure with a square base and four triangular sides and having a common vertex.  The four-sided structure with a pointed top is an image that was brought to the Western world by historians from Greek, and Roman Empire. When Christianity became the dominant religion in the West the idea that the sons of Israel were the ones used to build these colossal structures became part of Christian lore.

Recent historical works however reveal that pyramids come in different shapes and sizes. Even in Egypt the first pyramids built looked more like ziggurats or step pyramids. The “classical” design came later when the Pharaoh’s perfected the technique of building a four triangular sides on top of a square base. The Cheop’s pyramid considered as the greatest pyramid structure in the world is an example of classic design. Indeed, it took some time before ancient builders perfected the art of making high rise structures that began with crude mounds of earth to towering buildings fit for the gods. But once they had learned the secret of building one, the Egyptians went on to make a massive structure fit for a deity such as the Pharaoah Kufu (a.k.a. Cheops).

The Cheops’ pyramid was the largest pyramid ever built. The builders used 2.3 million stone blocks, weighing an average of 2.5 to 15 tons each (see National  The colossal structure serves primarily as the burial chamber of their god-king Khufu and has three burial chambers one believed to be for Khufu’s wife and the other one for Khufu’s sacred statue. The great pyramid was the focal point in an elaborate complex that included several small pyramids and a mortuary temple.

The same concept of a complex built around a major pyramid can be seen in the Mayan pyramid-temples of ancient Americas. The pyramids found in the Mayan civilization are similar to those that can be found in the Middle East. Just like those in Egypt, Mayan pyramids were designed and constructed using sophisticated knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. This conclusion is based on the fact that the pyramids are constructed in a way that it will align with the stars – in the case of Cheops it was aligned in such a way that it would be pointing to the North Pole. Such accurate calculations before the invention of high-powered telescopes and computers are very impressive.
On the other side of the world, another ancient civilization was building their own version of empire and pyramids. They do not have an Alexander the Great or a Julius Caesar to speak of their existence and splendor but still the same they built a great nation in the American continent long before the time of Columbus.

Egyptian Pyramids

As mentioned earlier, there is that “classical design” made popular by the movies and historians who had more incentive to investigate Egyptian history as opposed to that of the ancient ruins of the Mayan civilization. But that design evolved from a more simpler earthen mound traditionally used for burying the dead. Thus, to narrow the scope of this study, a comparison will be made between two major pyramids. The Cheops’ pyramid found in Egypt and the Templo Mayor found in the American continent. The Cheops’ pyramid is a fitting representative of the splendor that was Egypt. It was considered as the greatest pyramid in the world.

Mayan Pyramids

At this point all similarities between the Egyptian and Mayan pyramids ends. The Egyptian pyramids, no matter how large and imposing are nothing more than very expensive mausoleums. While Mayan pyramids on the other hand are a combination of temple, altar, and observatory for astronomy all rolled into one.  This sentiment is taken from a close reading of Carrasco’s work where one can find the following assertions, “The Egyptian pyramids were basically tombs for the pharaohs and their families. While they are magnificent to look at and are monumental in the extreme, they were ritually important as interior architecture and not basically stages for ongoing public rituals” (1998, p. 21).

Carrasco adds that for the Mayan race the emphasis was on the public display of rituals, calendrical cycles, imperial display that goes on and on as long as the sun rises and sets their way of life revolves around this structure. John Armstrong Crow describes how the Mayan people utilized the pyramids to increase religious fervor and he wrote, “…the temple capped the sub-structure and was the culmination of a harmonious series of ascending planes, calculated to increase the illusion of height by emphasizing the effects of mechanical perspective. When a great religious procession ascended the stairs of a temple the effect must have been stupendous, for the spectators below were conscious only of the massive ascent disappearing into space” (1992, p. 58).

Indeed, the Mayan pyramids are at the center of religious life in the ancient lands of the Mayan people. But it is not simply a place to offer prayers, incense or even animal sacrifice; its purpose is for a more gruesome task and it is to shed the blood of humans in order to offer it to their gods. This maybe the reason why the Spaniards who later came to conquer this part of the Americas will not give them so much as a leeway in the transition from their old religion to that of their conquerors. The brutality of the human sacrifice will be explained much further in the following pages. According to Michael Smith, the fundamental idea of Aztec religion was that the gods sacrificed themselves so that mankind can live a better life and he adds:

In one myth the gods threw themselves into a huge fire to crate the the sun; in another they spilled their own blood to create people. These myths established a debtor relationship between humankind and the gods – a debt that could be repaid only through offerings of human blood and life. Human sacrifice and bloodletting, also known as auto-sacrifice, were primary forms of ritual…” (2003, p. 192).

With this belief deeply ingrained in their psyche the need to satisfy their gods is a very powerful force that dictates the way they should live their lives. It is hard to imagine priests plunging crude flint knives into the chest of unwilling victims. And then after the lethal blow the priest practiced in the art of human sacrifice expertly plunge his hands into the chest cavity and pulls out the heart. After offering it to their gods the still beating muscle is discarded just as mindlessly as the now decapitated body of the sacrifice.


In the study of ancient history, the discovery of the pyramids, especially those that can be found in the Mayan world of antiquity is a tremendous source of information. These superstructures obviously offer more information than a hundreds of broken shards of pottery. These structures, which are well preserved is very helpful in providing a window to the past as compared to mere ruins of ancient civilizations. The discovery of pyramids in the ancient American continent is very crucial in understanding how ancient people think and behave. It is now clear that ancient men and women do not have inferior intellect. In fact, the modern mind cannot find easy answers to the question of how they were able to build these massive structures without the use of heavy equipment and other sophisticated machines.

Furthermore, they are not only expert builders and have more than enough knowledge of advanced engineering principles they are also well-educated in the science of astronomy. This people made it possible for modern day inhabitants of this planet to enjoy the use of clocks and calendars. It is now easier to read the seasons, lunar/solar equinoxes etc. because of their pioneering efforts.  This leads to the next realization that pyramids are not only centers of religious activities but also served as ancient observatories that allowed the priests to study constellations and the movement of the earth.

This of course leads to another conclusion that the priests are not only religious men versed in the spiritual language of their day but they are also expert mathematicians and gifted astronomers. In order to fully appreciate their talent one has to get an in-depth analysis of the design and lay-out of the pyramid complex which according to some resemble the ordered layout of the solar system.

But more importantly the pyramids are the main conduit between the physical real and the spiritual. In the ancient world, high-rise structures fire up the imagination of their poets, builders, holy men, and national leaders. A high-rise structure is not only a testament to great engineering techniques and admirable building skills, it also an expression of piety towards their gods who live in the heavens. Thus, in order to approach them or in order to be closer to them pyramids must be built to offer the human spirit and human body to the all powerful being living above the earth.

There are areas in the planet that boasts of amazing pyramid structures. In both places one can observe well preserved buildings from antiquity rising more than a hundred feet from the ground. These structures play an important role in both Egyptian and Mayan civilizations. But both nations differ in their usage of pyramids. The above-mentioned discussion was able to show that the pyramids in the old Mayan Civilization had far more uses for their pyramids as compared

It is through their usage of the pyramid that can help people in the modern world understand what these ancients value most. With regards to the Egyptians use of an expensive structure to bury a dead ruler speaks volumes of what they believe will happen to the Pharaoh in the after life. The Egyptian rulers are convinced that they will rule again on the other side as Osiris King of the Dead.

On the other side of the world, the Aztecs utilize their pyramid in a different way. The pyramids found in the Americas are used for human sacrifices. And again this practice is rooted in their religious belief that they owe their lives to their gods. But instead of living a strict moral code to please their gods, they instead sacrificed others – preferably their enemies or members of neighboring tribes – to show their piety to their warrior-god. This study made it clear that the Egyptians do not have a monopoly to the engineering techniques necessary to build high-rise structures. It is also made clear that the design of the pyramids and its use depended much on the religious beliefs of the ancients.

It is just unfortunate that even with all the scholarly work and effort poured into the analysis of both Egyptian and Mayan civilizations there is still no easy answer to the question on how exactly did the ancients constructed a complicated structure with very limited resources. In the case of the Mayan pyramids the mystery is not only in the construction of their magnificent pyramid-temples and their knowledge of astronomy it is also the question on why they suddenly disappeared, leaving a majestic city in ruins. It is good to know that the remains of these two civilizations are here to stay and that the next generation of archaeologists and scientists are welcome to probe the secrets of the pyramids once again.

Carrasco, D. (1998). Daily Life of the Aztecs: People of the Sun and Earth. Westport, CT:
Greenwood Press.
Crow, J.A. (1992). The Epic of Latin America. CA: University of California Press.
Dupre, J. (2002). From Pyramids to Skycrapers: Building in the Americas. New York:
Benchmark Education Company.
National Geographic. Introduction to Pyramids. Available from:
<> Retrieved 10 December
Smith, M. (2003). The Aztecs. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Zuravicky, O. (2004). Exploring Pyramids Around the World. New York: The Rosen Publishing
Group, Inc.

Ancient Structures: Comparing Egyptian and Mayan Essay

Indian Civilization Essay

Indian Civilization Essay.

Civilization is the greatest achievement in the history of human beings. While defining the term civilization, Philip Atkinson says, “Civilization is a community that dominates all other communities by violence. ”[1] The things which are essential to make a civilization are cities, governments, armies, and communal achievements like subjugations and inventions. The civilization started from the formation of the cities. And most of the ancient civilization flourished in the bank of rivers. E. g.

Egyptian Civilization which was flourished in the bank of Nile River while Indian civilization prospered in the bank of Ganga River and the Saptasindhu (The land of seven rivers) region.

In ancient world the different civilizations developed. Among them some major and noteworthy civilizations were the Egyptian Civilization, Greek Civilization, Persian Civilization and the Indian Civilization. Indian civilization during the Later Vedic Period is explained in this paper through intuitive, rational, and empirical means India is regarded as the cradle of civilization. Civilization started here in this land very long time ago.

About 3000 B. C. , the civilization shaped in India. This civilization is supposed to be one of the world’s first great civilizations. We can find innumerable amazing things which are the proof of the immensity of this civilization from all perspectives such as literature, art, architecture, science mathematics and astrology. Indian civilization has given a platform to many scientific discoveries. Here in our paper we are considering the specific period for our research and that is Vedic Period which started in 1500 B. C. After the ruin of Harappan cities Indian subcontinent experienced a new civilization.

This new culture was brought in India by the Aryans. Aryans came from central Asia through Khaibar Khind and settled in the region of seven rivers which was known as Saptasindhu. And after that they started settling in Ganges valley which was known as Aryavarta. This particular era is called Vedic period because in this age the religious and philosophical hymns called Veda were composed by the Aryan people. The Vedas composed by Aryans were basically in Sanskrit language. The Vedas were of four types, first is Rigveda which is the oldest hymns The other three are Sam Veda, Yajurveda, and Athharva Veda.

These three Vedas basically laid a strong foundation to Hindu religion and the Hindu doctrines. Rigveda is the mythical text which includes the knowledge in its abstract imagery of what the clairvoyant had realized. Yajurveda is the Vedas of ritual which consisted of 1975 verse mantras. It has divided into forty chapters. Samveda is the veda of song or music while Atharva Veda is the Veda of Chants. The Vedic period is also divided into two different eras, Early Vedic period and Later Vedic Period. Later Vedic period started in around 1000B. C. to 600 B. C.

This age is also known as the Epic age because the one of the greatest epics from the world were composed during this era. They are Ramayana and Mahabharata. Ramayana was written by sage Valmiki while Mahabharata was composed by Sage Vyas. Intuitive Theatre, Music and Drama in Vedic Period: Aryans created Samveda to fulfill their deep predilections and flair for art. The different Gods were worshipped during different times of the days and nights. The Brahmanas who supposed to be the highest topmost Varnas were responsible for teaching the art and literature.

The religion and music were associated with each other and the artist was supposed to give up all worldly pleasures and comforts and devote himself fully to his art. The women basically were expert in fine art than performing arts. Indian Classical dances also flourished in the same period. “Along with the progress in music, the arts of choreography and theater were also in vogue. According to the Linga Puraana, a major disciple of Shivaa named Nandikeshwara wrote a treatise on the subject of dancing called Nritya- Darpan. (Nritya means dance and darpan means mirror).

”[2] In Vedic period the music would be highly esteemed place in every family. Vocal Music, dance, and instrumental music would be performed in strict rhythm. Vedic period was prosperous from all point of views. In music theatre and drama also this civilization had given remarkable contribution. The major book written on classical music dance and drama was by sage Bharata which then became popular as “Natyashastra. ” It is the major dramatic theory of Sanskrit drama. This book has given the proper rules of writing, performing dance, music, and theatre.

The exact period of Natyashastra is unknown but it is predicted that it was written in 200B. C. to 200A. D. Vedic Architecture: There was a strong background of science behind every Vedic Architecture. Vedic Architecture was known as “Vastu Shastra. ” Basically the buildings built in ancient India were based on the scientific parameters. While describing about the Architecture in India Swami B. G. Narasingha in his article “Vastu Shastra and Sacred Architecture” states, “Throughout the world it’s hard to find a place where sacred architecture is as developed a science as is that found in India.

India’s ancient temples and palaces are certainly among the finest ever built. From the Taj Mahal, the seventh wonder of the world, to the Pagodas of Tamil Nadu, from the Himalayan hill shrines to the great temple at Jagannatha Puri, India is a veritable treasure-house of sacred architecture. In fact there are more existing examples of sacred architecture in India than in all other countries of the world combined. ” [3] Empirical Vedic mathematics: In Vedic period, the major mathematicians like Aryabhatta, Brahmagupta, and Bhaskara II who contributed in achieving the outstanding progress in mathematics.

The Indian mathematics was well advanced and the scholars of mathematics studied basically decimal number system, zero, and negative numbers, arithmetic and algebra. “There was a gap of a few hundred years between Vedic period and the first millennium A. D. when the works of some major Indian astronomer-mathematicians like Aryabhatta, Brahmagupta, Shridhara and Bhaskara I and II appeared. ”[4] The Vedic mathematics was basically composed in Sanskrit language which used to be the official language of Aryans. The mathematical works consisted of the section of sutras.

In these sutras the mathematical problems were stated into verses so that it would be possible for the students to understand them quickly. The special characteristic of Vedic mathematics is that though the bulky texts they were they were preserved by generation through oral tradition. The people in those days used to learn it and thus by learning the sutras and all other mathematical concepts they preserved the mathematics and handed over it to the next generation. It is really an amazing characteristic of Indian culture. “truly remarkable achievements of the Indian pandits who have preserved enormously bulky texts orally for millennia. ”[5]

Indian Civilization Essay

Turning Points For The Neolithic Revolution Essay

Turning Points For The Neolithic Revolution Essay.

Turning points changed history. Turning points have had significant and lasting impact on human development. The Neolithic Revolution was one such point.  The Neolithic Revolution was a major change from the Paleolithic Revolution. It went from hunting and gathering to farming. Migration occurred for in search of food. Soon enough, nomads learned to farm and cultural diffusion started and trade which were one of many main reasons from the change to the Neolithic Revolution from the Paleolithic Revolution.

The Neolithic Revolution made a major impact on the course of events on human history.

There were many advancements made as tools, agriculture and the domestication of animals. Families could settle and produced their own food and crops. The eight elements of culture or the way people lived contributed in people’s lives a lot and still to this day. Politics which is government and laws, protection and the start of leaders in a city, soon developed by the rise of civilizations. Economy is the way a culture gets the things it needs such as farming and trade.

Religion is beliefs and rituals of a culture, which follows art, the expressions of a cultures idea. Geography is the land, location, and resources. Language plays a big part for communication, the starting of the writing system. The customs are traditions of a culture. Society the last element, the type of people in a culture. Civilizations gave a steady food supply, advanced technology, form of writing, architecture, religion, laws and specialized jobs.

In conclusion, the Neolithic Revolution has impacted the development of civilization and is one of many turning points in all of mankind. Community, writing systems, population increase, religion, and more contributed to humans lives in many ways, from the beginning of the Neolithic Revolution. The starting of homes happened and advanced things people still use today happened from the Neolithic Revolution.

Turning Points For The Neolithic Revolution Essay

Why Rules Are Important Essay

Why Rules Are Important Essay.

What are the rules and why are they so important? Everyone poses this question regularly. The answer is simple – they are needed to impose regulation in the society and allows to avoid chaos in everything start from the minor thing and ending with the more global ones. This is the most general explanation; however, it covers only the surface of the notion of a “rule.” This concept is much more complicated than it may seem at first glance. So, what are rules in the broader understanding? Primarily, it is essential to clarify the general meaning of this concept.

A law is a specific norm that should be preserved to maintain order. This universal explanation may suit any activity or any field of knowledge. While relation the notion of a rule to other disciplines, its meaning may transform partially.

While talking about rules in the society, those are the specific sets of norms of behavior, regulations, and laws established on purpose to regulate the life in the community.

  These norms secure the order and allow avoiding total chaos. The sets of rules available nowadays have undergone a long formation process. There were many variations and transformations applied. Due to that, nowadays we have a well-established social, governmental and educational mechanisms that work as a clock – accurately, simultaneously and in an organized way. The availability of rules is a crucial criterion allowing to call a nowadays society civilized and well-developed.

Why do we have rules?

Rules help people in many aspects of life. First and foremost, they enable people to organize all the processes correctly, starting from house chores and ending with more complicated issues as, for example, the functioning of a whole country. Rules are specific modes of behavior that secure a regulated flow of all processes.

A well-developed system of rules helps humanity to avoid chaos and many problems that may be caused by the lack of regulations. Laws dictate what is proper and what is wrong. In many spheres of life, we have guidelines to follow. Thanks to them, we can perform various processes. Norms enable people to interact, to work together and contribute to the global development. Rules of nutrition can help to prevent health problems. Religious laws help people to identification their belonging to a particular group, who have the same views on life and live by the same principle. Moral rules assist people in the establishment of shared values and norms in accordance to which an honorable member of society can be identified.

Why are rules important?

They are the pieces of the mechanism that influence the substantial and peaceful development of the world and humanity. Thanks to the availability of regulations the society exists, not just a crowd of people. These simple algorithms from ancient times helped people to organize their life. Rules provoked the arising of the civilization, contributed to the development of countries, technology, education, etc.

People may do anything, but their plans and actions may bring harm to other members of society. Sometimes the interests of some people contradict with the desires and aspirations of others. It may cause conflicts and lead to serious misunderstandings. In order for people to know how to behave in such situations properly, there is a need for established rules of conduct, apart from laws.

Many years ago, when there were no laws or written rules, people resolved their disputes, turning to the wisest man in their community. He, in turn, listened carefully to them and dealt with their problems. Then he advised to talk and look for the best solution to the situation. People respected elders, and their instructions never caused any doubts. The rules of conduct help a person to understand what he or she can do due to certain circumstances, and what it is strictly forbidden. These are the regulations imposing certain limits. There are also rules that are necessarily attributed to one or another model of behavior.

Without the proper functioning of the system of rules of conduct, it is impossible to exist a peaceful society. People would not be able to interact peacefully, because without a certain restriction of freedom one cannot be completely controlled. By establishing a framework of behavior for each individual, general order and harmony can be achieved. In addition, the obedience and following of rules of conduct demonstrate a certain level of culture. When a person does not adhere to the established social norms, interlocutors may have a negative attitude to this person, and communication will be doomed to failure.

Rules of conduct to some extent allow you to simulate the effects of different situations. For example, when planning any conversation, meeting, etc. you can count on the fact that your interlocutor in most cases will behave exactly as the established social norms suggest.

We need rules to regulate all processes related to the interaction of individuals. These are the means securing the proper functioning of all social institutions and mechanisms. They enable to avoid chaos. Thanks to the availability of rules, people managed to create countries, live peacefully and happily. It may happen that complicated and unpleasant situations may arise leading to serious conflicts. Rules help to lighten the tension and find the optimal solution. Of course, roles cannot eliminate all misunderstandings that may arise in the society. However, they became means of mediation between two opposing sides.

The essential issue for every person is to realize the importance of rule and assists in the creation of the new ones. Rules guarantee us peace and security. They allow avoiding chaos and misunderstandings. People once settled on a specific list of guidelines to follow, and it allowed them to develop quicker, to see new horizons, to work effectively as well as maintain effective communication with other individuals. Rules assist in the organization of all life processes, even the most primitive. Specific sets of norms and standards help people to move forward, live in a secure environment, make new inventions and uncover unknown things. Each member of society has to contribute to the development and implementation of the new rules that will help to secure the well-being of the humanity in general, even if he or she will start from the most primitive level.

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Why Rules Are Important Essay