Fair Trade Products Essay

Fair Trade Products Essay.

Buying Fair Trade Products means buying a better future for everyone. While a cup of coffee may cost around $2. 00, less than $0. 50 goes to the farmers who planted, cultivated and harvested the beans that were ground to make that cup of coffee. $2. 00 is a cup of coffee for you and me but to the farmers in South America, $2. 00 can make the difference between how many meals the farmer and his family can eat. Buying fair trade products ensures that Jose and his children can have 3 square meals a day.

Coffee farmers around the world earn less than the cost of producing that single cup of coffee and because of this inequality they are forced into a cycle of poverty and debt (Fridell, 2003). Even when the price of coffee increases in the world market, the coffee farmers are not the ones who benefit from this but the exploitative business men and middle men.

The even more distressing fact is that this isn’t limited to coffee alone but also to other commodities such as tea, chocolate, cocoa, bananas, mangoes, grapes, apples and crafts.

Nicholls, 2004). Support for Fair Trade Products means that these farmers are not forced in a cycle of poverty and debt. Fair Trade means that these farmers actually have a chance at getting a better future because Fair Trade provides funding, in the form of loans, and also provides technical training and education to these farmers. Yes I want to help, but what is Fair Trade? Fair Trade is a “trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade.

It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers – especially in the South. Fair Trade organizations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (European Fair Trade Association). What Fair Trade basically does is that ensures that the hard working farmers who grow these products are rewarded for their hard work and given the opportunity to build better futures for themselves and earn a ticket out of poverty.

How can I make sure these Farmers get the benefits? With most of the countries pushing for free trade, the situation of these farmers will only get worse. Companies in search of lower expenses and higher profits will always look for the cheapest source even if it is at the expense of others. Supporting Fair Trade Products ensures that the farmers are able to reap the benefits of their hard work because producers who are part of Fair Trade are able to gain access to technical assistance and education as well as funding to encourage the growth of their farms and to improve the efficiency in production (Fridell, 2003).

Global Impact of Fair Trade Fair Trade works. A study conducted by Loraine Ronchi of the Poverty Research Unit at the University of Sussex in 2002 shows that “in light of the coffee crisis of the early 1990s, fair trade can be said to have accomplished its goal of improving the returns to small producers and positively affecting their quality of life and the health of the organizations that represent them locally, nationally and beyond” (Ronchi, 2002).

In seven case studies conducted by the Fair Trade Research Group at Colorado State University in 2003, it was shown that Fair Trade has “in a short time greatly improved the well-being of small-scale coffee farmers and their families”(Murray, 2003) . These studies found that there was greater access to credit and external development funding, greater access to training and enhanced ability to improve the quality of their coffee for producers under Fair Trade.

Fair Trade certification guarantees not only fair prices, but also the principles of ethical purchasing, making sure that there are no labor violations by the companies and that there is a greater transparency throughout the supply chain (Ransom, 2001). There is no doubt that Fair Trade presents a viable solution to much of the worlds development problems and that continued support for Fair Trade products will transform the world into a better place for everyone to live in.

Arguments against Fair Trade Those who argue that Fair Trade doesn’t work insist that Fair Trade just encourages inefficiency and makes these farmers dependent on subsidies that are given to them while those who are innovative and efficient are left to their own devises and even penalized (Redfern, 2002). This is a very myopic view of the problem because it assumes that everyone deals honestly and that the middle men do not take advantage of the producers.

World Statistics show that during the period from 1970 to 2000, prices for many of the main agricultural exports of developing countries, such as sugar, cotton, cocoa and coffee fell by 30 to 60 percent (Agricultural Commodity Chains, Dependence and Poverty, 2004). This was due to the fact that there was no market intervention and the prices were left to the determination of market forces. The situation has only greatly improved due to the intervention done by Fair Trade as it has helped resurrect many ailing industries by spearheading the development of these industries through direct support of producers under Free Trade (Murray, 2003).

It cannot therefore be argued that Fair Trade results in inefficiency in the production of these products. The argument of inefficiency is also weakened by a study conducted in 2005 on Bolivian Coffee Fair Trade Producers as it was shown that certification led to a positive impact on local coffee prices in Yungas not just on Fair Trade certified products but on all products as well (Eberhart, 2005). Yes, you. Even a student can make a difference in the world For every single pound of coffee purchased, Fair Trade ensures that the farmer gets a more substantial amount than he normally would without the benefit of Fair Trade.

The extra $0. 50 that the farmer gets per pound of coffee that he sells goes a long way in a developing economy. Add to this the fact that by promoting and encouraging Fair Trade the farmer is able to secure loans and get much needed technical assistance and education, that single cup of coffee you purchase or that pound of coffee you buy, allows the farmer who planted, cultivated and harvested those grains to buy an extra pound of rice or corn and maybe even an extra meal. More Fair Trade Products on Campus If a single student can make a difference, then a whole campus can make a world of difference.

There should be more support for Fair Trade Products. Coffee is not the only product that is currently being protected by Fair Trade. There are currently many other goods that are being protected by fair trade: tea, chocolate, cocoa, bananas, mangoes, grapes, apples, soccer balls, and crafts. The next time you go out and buy yourself a cup of coffee or decide to munch on an apple before class, remember that you can make a difference, you can give Jose and his family a better and brighter future. Remember Fair Trade.

Fair Trade Products Essay

Ho Chi Minh City Essay

Ho Chi Minh City Essay.

Trung nguyen is the most famous coffee brand in Vietnam. It was created in 1996 by Mr. D? ng Le Nguyen Vu. During student life in medical school of Tay Nguyen, Mr. D? ng had a question about coffee farmers’ life. Although the price of a cup of coffee wasn’t cheap, but why, farmers were still poor. This question encouraged him to find the answers. He and his company suffered from many accidents, but they kept on trying. Those experiences brought them a good background for opening more shops and expanding their business widely.

And in early 2004, they introduced G7 to the customers. This step turned Trung Nguyen history to the new page, they became the biggest and the most famous firm selling high-quality coffee powder. II. Strategy Trung Nguyen first opened their first coffee shop in Ho Chi Minh City in 1998 and received some positive feedbacks. In 2001 they had built over thousands coffee shops all over Vietnam and became top-rated brand in Vietnamese coffee industry.

They did Franchising, the step which was different from all other Vietnamese firm, they were the first. After 5 years, Trung Nguyen not only could gain the trust, the belief of Vietnamese customers but also customers in other countries like Singapore, Japan, Cambodia, etc. In 2006, Trung Nguyen invested and built the biggest high-quality G7mart system of stores for selling products. In June 2012, Trung Nguyen created the new strategy.

That was creating the string of quick shops, which allows customers to choose some various kinds of coffee beans and the owner of the shop will mix them together for making the customers’ own styles. The evidence for the development of this strategy is the profit which grows 15% per week Trung Nguyen’s customers are not only the elder, the people who understand clearly about coffee but also, they have products for the young, who begin drinking coffee like student, teenager, etc. III. Revenue-Potential Growth.

Although the economics go down, Trung Nguyen still makes profit, and improves themselve powerfully. In 2011, their revenue and production improve up to 151%, and the first six months in 2012, they gain up to 178% compared with the same time in 2011. The biggest evolution of Trung Nguyen is their G7 powder became the leader of coffee powder in Vietnam at the rate 37. 8% In the near future, Mr. D? ng plans to join the world stock market and in the next 10 years, he tries to invest more than 800 million USD to build new factories and some additional options.

Ho Chi Minh City Essay

Coffee preparation Essay

Coffee preparation Essay.

1. Introduction 1. 1 fig Coffee is a brewed beverage with a distinct aroma and flavor, prepared from the roasted seeds of the Coffea plant. The seeds are found in coffee “cherries”, which grow on trees cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in equatorial America, Southeast, South Asia and Africa. Green (unroasted) coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.

Coffee is slightly acidic (pH 5. 0–5. 1) and can have a stimulating effect on humans because of its caffeine content. It is one of the most consumed drinks in the world.

Wild coffee’s energizing effect was likely first discovered in the northeast region of Ethiopia. Coffee cultivation first took place in southern Arabia;[4] the earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century in the Sufi shrines of Yemen. In East Africa and Yemen, coffee was used in native religious ceremonies that were in competition with the Christian Church. As a result, the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia.

The beverage was also banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe. Coffee berries, which contain the coffee seeds, are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown are also the most highly regarded Coffea arabica, and the “robusta” form of the hardier Coffea canephora. The latter is resistant to the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried.

The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor, before being ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways. An important export commodity, coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004, and it was the world’s seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value in 2005. Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Consequently, organic coffee is an expanding market.

Many studies have examined the health effects of coffee, and whether the overall effects of coffee consumption are positive or negative has been widely disputed. The method of brewing coffee has been found to be important in relation to its effects on health. For instance, preparing coffee in a French press leaves more oils in the drink compared with coffee prepared with a paper coffee filter. This might raise the drinker’s level of “bad cholesterol. ” Etymology The first reference to “coffee” in the English language is in the form chaoua and dates to 1598.

In English and other European languages, coffee derives from the Ottoman Turkish kahve, via the Italian caffe. The Turkish word in turn was borrowed from the Arabic:????? , qahwah. Arab lexicographers maintain that qahwah originally referred to a type of wine, and gave its etymology, in turn, to the verb??? qaha, signifying “to have no appetite”, since this beverage was thought to dull one’s hunger. Several alternative etymologies exist that hold that the Arab form may disguise a loanword from an Ethiopian or African source, suggesting Kaffa, the highland in south western Ethiopia as one, since the plant is indigenous to that area.

However, the term used in that region for the berry and plant is bunn, the native name in Shoa being bun. History Ethiopian ancestors of today’s Oromo people were believed to have been the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee plant, though no direct evidence has been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant or even known about it, earlier than the 17th century. The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goatherder who discovered coffee, did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal.

Other accounts attribute the discovery of coffee to Sheik Omar. According to the ancient chronicle (preserved in the Abd-Al-Kadir manuscript), Omar, who was known for his ability to cure the sick through prayer, was once exiled from Mocha, Yemen to a desert cave near Ousab. Starving, Omar chewed berries from nearby shrubbery, but found them to be bitter. He tried roasting the seeds to improve the flavor, but they became hard. He then tried boiling them to soften the seed, which resulted in a fragrant brown liquid.

Upon drinking the liquid Omar was revitalized and sustained for days. As stories of this “miracle drug” reached Mocha, Omar was asked to return and was made a saint. From Ethiopia, the beverage was introduced into the Arab world through Egypt and Yemen. The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries around Mokha in Yemen. It was here in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed, in a similar way to how it is now prepared.

By the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. Coffee seeds were first exported from Ethiopia to Yemen. Yemeni traders brought coffee back to their homeland and began to cultivate the seed. The first coffee smuggled out of the Middle East was by Sufi Baba Budan from Yemen to India in 1670. Before then, all exported coffee was boiled or otherwise sterilised. Portraits of Baba Budan depict him as having smuggled seven coffee seeds by strapping them to his chest. The first plants grown from these smuggled seeds were planted in Mysore.

Coffee then spread to Italy, and to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas. In 1583, Leonhard Rauwolf, a German physician, gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten-year trip to the Near East: A beverage as black as ink, useful against numerous illnesses, particularly those of the stomach. Its consumers take it in the morning, quite frankly, in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful. It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu. —Leonard Rauwolf, Reise in die Morgenlander (in German).

From the Middle East, coffee spread to Italy. The thriving trade between Venice and North Africa, Egypt, and the Middle East brought many goods, including coffee, to the Venetian port. From Venice, it was introduced to the rest of Europe. Coffee became more widely accepted after it was deemed a Christian beverage by Pope Clement VIII in 1600, despite appeals to ban the “Muslim drink. ” The first European coffee house opened in Italy in 1645. The Dutch East India Company was the first to import coffee on a large scale. The Dutch later grew the crop in Java and Ceylon.

The first exports of Indonesian coffee from Java to the Netherlands occurred in 1711. Through the efforts of the British East India Company, coffee became popular in England as well. Oxford’s Queen’s Lane Coffee House, established in 1654, is still in existence today. Coffee was introduced in France in 1657 and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna, when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks. When coffee reached North America during the Colonial period, it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe as alcoholic beverages remained more popular.

During the Revolutionary War, the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically; this was also due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants. After the War of 1812, during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports, the Americans’ taste for coffee grew, and high demand during the American Civil War together with advances in brewing technology secured the position of coffee as an everyday commodity in the United States.

Coffee consumption declined in England, giving way to tea during the 18th century. The latter beverage was simpler to make, and had become cheaper with the British conquest of India and the tea industry there. During the Age of Sail, seamen aboard ships of the British Royal Navy made substitute coffee by dissolving burnt bread in hot water. The Frenchman Gabriel de Clieu brought a coffee plant to the French territory of Martinique in the Caribbean, from which much of the world’s cultivated Arabica coffee is descended. Coffee thrived in the climate and was conveyed across the Americas.

The territory of San Domingo (now Haiti) saw coffee cultivated from 1734, and by 1788 it supplied half the world’s coffee. The conditions that the slaves worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon to follow Haitian Revolution. The coffee industry never fully recovered there. Meanwhile, coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727, although its cultivation did not gather momentum until independence in 1822. After this time, massive tracts of rainforest were cleared first from the vicinity of Rio and later Sao Paulo for coffee plantations.

Cultivation was taken up by many countries in Central America in the latter half of the 19th century, and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous people. Harsh conditions led to many uprisings, coups and bloody suppression of peasants. The notable exception was Costa Rica, where lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries. Coffee has become a vital cash crop for many developing countries.

Over one hundred million people in developing countries have become dependent on coffee as their primary source of income. It has become the primary export and backbone for African countries like Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, and Ethiopia, as well as many Central American countries. World production In 2011 Brazil was the world leader in production of green coffee, followed by Vietnam, Indonesia and Colombia. Arabica coffee seeds are cultivated in Latin America, eastern Africa, Arabia, or Asia. Robusta coffee seeds are grown in western and central Africa, throughout Southeast Asia, and to some extent in Brazil.

Seeds from different countries or regions can usually be distinguished by differences in flavor, aroma, body, and acidity. These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee’s growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing. Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as Colombian, Java and Kona. 2011 Top twenty green coffee producers| Rank| Country| Tonnes| Bags x1000| 1|  Brazil| 2,609,040| 43,484| 2|  Vietnam| 1,200,000| 20,000| 3|  Indonesia| 495,000| 8,250| 4|  Colombia| 468,000| 7,800| 5|  Ethiopia| 390,000| 6,500|.

6|  Peru| 326,580| 5,443| 7|  India| 319,980| 5,333| 8|  Honduras| 270,000| 4,500| 9|  Mexico| 258,000| 4,300| 10|  Guatemala| 225,000| 3,750| 11|  Uganda| 192,720| 3,212| 12|  Nicaragua| 126,000| 2,100| 13|  Costa Rica| 107,940| 1,799| 14|  Ivory Coast| 96,000| 1,600| 15|  Papua New Guinea| 84,900| 1,415| 16|  El Salvador| 70,500| 1,175| 17|  Cambodia| 64,980| 1,083| 18|  Ecuador| 64,500| 1,075| 19|  Democratic Republic of the Congo| 63,360| 1,056| 20|  Venezuela| 60,000| 1,000| Total|   World| 7,875,180| 131,253| 1. 1 (table) Biology 1. 2 fig (Illustration of Coffea arabica plant and seeds).

Several species of shrub of the genus Coffea produce the berries from which coffee is extracted. The two main species commercially cultivated are Coffea canephora (predominantly a form known as ‘robusta’) andC. arabica. C. arabica, the most highly regarded species, is native to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia and the Boma Plateau in southeastern Sudan and possibly Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya. C. canephora is native to western and central Subsaharan Africa, from Guinea to the Uganda and southern Sudan. Less popular species are C. liberica, excelsa, stenophylla, mauritiana, and racemosa.

All coffee plants are classified in the large family Rubiaceae. They are evergreen shrubs or small trees that may grow 5 m (15 ft) tall when unpruned. The leaves are dark green and glossy, usually 10–15 cm (4–6 in) long and 6 cm (2. 4 in) wide. The flowers are axillary, and clusters of fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously and are followed by oval berries of about 1. 5 cm (0. 6 in). Green when immature, they ripen to yellow, then crimson, before turning black on drying. Each berry usually contains two seeds, but 5–10% of the berries have only one; these are called peaberries. Berries ripen in seven to nine months.

Coffea arabica is predominantly self-pollinating, and as a result the seedlings are generally uniform and vary little from their parents. In contrast, Coffea canephora, C. excelsa, and C. liberica are self-incompatible and require outcrossing. This means that useful forms and hybrids must be propagated vegetatively. Cuttings, grafting, and budding are the usual methods of vegetative propagation. On the other hand, there is great scope for experimentation in search of potential new strains. 2. Coffee Production Processing Coffee berries and their seeds undergo several processes before they become the familiar roasted coffee.

Berries have been traditionally selectively picked by hand; a labor intensive method, it involves the selection of only the berries at the peak of ripeness. More commonly, crops are strip picked, where all berries are harvested simultaneously regardless of ripeness by person or machine. After picking, green coffee is processed by one of two methods—the dry process method, simpler and less labor intensive as the berries can be strip picked, and the wet process method, which incorporates fermentation into the process and yields a mild coffee. 2. 1 fig -Coffee sorting in Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). 2.

2 fig – Coffee berries from Kerala, India Then they are sorted by ripeness and color and most often the flesh of the berry is removed, usually by machine, and the seeds are fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the seed. When the fermentation is finished, the seeds are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue, which generates massive amounts of coffee wastewater. Finally, the seeds are dried. The best (but least used) method of drying coffee is using drying tables.

In this method, the pulped and fermented coffee is spread thinly on raised beds, which allows the air to pass on all sides of the coffee, and then the coffee is mixed by hand. In this method the drying that takes place is more uniform, and fermentation is less likely. Most African coffee is dried in this manner and certain coffee farms around the world are starting to use this traditional method. Next, the coffee is sorted, and labeled as green coffee. Another way to let the coffee seeds dry is to let them sit on a concrete patio and rake over them in the sunlight. Some companies use cylinders to pump in heated air to dry the coffee seeds, though this is generally in places where the humidity is very high.

Some coffee undergoes a peculiar process, such as kopi luwak. It is made from the seeds of coffee berries which have been eaten by the Asian Palm Civet and other related civets, passing through its digestive tract. This process resulted in coffee seeds with much less bitterness, widely noted as the most expensive coffee in the world with prices reaching $160 per pound. Roasting 2. 3 fig – Roasted coffee seeds The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee. Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state, and with rare exceptions all coffee is roasted before it is consumed.

It can be sold roasted by the supplier, or it can be home roasted. The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee seed both physically and chemically. The seed decreases in weight as moisture is lost and increases in volume, causing it to become less dense. The density of the seed also influences the strength of the coffee and requirements for packaging. The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the seed reaches approximately 200 °C (392 °F), though different varieties of seeds differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different rates.

During roasting, caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starches, changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown, which alters the color of the seed. 2. 4 fig – The appearance of unroasted, green coffee seeds. Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process and may disappear entirely in darker roasts. During roasting, aromatic oils and acids weaken, changing the flavor; at 205 °C (401 °F), other oils start to develop. One of these oils, caffeol, is created at about 200 °C (392 °F), which is largely responsible for coffee’s aroma and flavor. Grading the roasted seeds.

Depending on the color of the roasted seeds as perceived by the human eye, they will be labeled as light, medium light, medium, medium dark, dark, or very dark. A more accurate method of discerning the degree of roast involves measuring the reflected light from roasted seeds illuminated with a light source in the near infrared spectrum. This elaborate light meter uses a process known as spectroscopy to return a number that consistently indicates the roasted coffee’s relative degree of roast or flavor development. Roast characteristics The degree of roast has an effect upon coffee flavor and body.

Darker roasts are generally bolder because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor. Lighter roasts have a more complex and therefore perceived stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times. A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the seed after processing. Chaff is usually removed from the seeds by air movement, though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the seeds. Decaffeination Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo.

Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee, but all involve soaking the green seeds in hot water (often called the “Swiss water process”) or steaming them, then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils. Decaffeination is often done by processing companies, and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry. Storage Once roasted, coffee seeds must be stored properly to preserve the fresh taste of the seed. Ideally, the container must be airtight and kept in a cool, dry and dark place.

In order of importance: air, moisture, heat, and light are the environmental factors responsible for deteriorating flavor in coffee seeds. Folded-over bags, a common way consumers often purchase coffee, are generally not ideal for long-term storage because they allow air to enter. A better package contains a one-way valve, which prevents air from entering. In 1931, a method of vacuum packed cans of coffee was introduced, in which the roasted coffee was packed, 99% of the air was removed and the coffee in the can could be stored indefinitely until the can was opened.

Today this method is in mass use for coffee in a large part of the world. Brewing 2. 5 fig – Espresso brewing, showing desirable dark reddish-brown crema Coffee seeds must be ground and brewed to create a beverage. The criteria for choosing a method include flavor and economy. Almost all methods of preparing coffee require the seeds to be ground and mixed with hot water long enough to extract the flavor, but without over extraction that draws out bitter compounds. The spent grounds are removed and the liquid is consumed.

There are many brewing variations such as the fineness of grind, the ways in which the water extracts the flavor, additional flavorings (sugar, milk, spices), and spent ground separation techniques. The ideal holding temperature is 79 to 85 °C (174 to 185 °F) and the ideal serving temperature is 68 to 79 °C (154 to 174 °F). The roasted coffee seeds may be ground at a roastery, in a grocery store, or in the home. Most coffee is roasted and ground at a roastery and sold in packaged form, though roasted coffee seeds can be ground at home immediately before consumption.

It is also possible, though uncommon; to roast raw seeds at home. Coffee seeds may be ground in several ways. A burr grinder uses revolving elements to shear the seed; a blade grinder cuts the seeds with blades moving at high speed; and a mortar and pestle crushes the seeds. For most brewing methods, a burr grinder is deemed superior because the grind is more even and the grind size can be adjusted. 2. 6 fig – (An Ethiopian woman preparing coffee at a traditional ceremony. She roasts, crushes and brews the coffee on the spot. ) The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which it is generally used.

Turkish grind is the finest grind, while coffee percolator or French press are the coarsest grinds. The most common grinds are between the extremes; a medium grind is used in most common home coffee-brewing machines. Coffee may be brewed by several methods: boiled, steeped, or pressurized. Brewing coffee by boiling was the earliest method, and Turkish coffee is an example of this method. It is prepared by grinding or pounding the seeds to a fine powder, then adding it to water and bringing it to the boil for no more than an instant in a pot called a cezve or, in Greek, a briki.

This produces a strong coffee with a layer of foam on the surface and sediment (which is not meant for drinking) settling on the bottom of the cup. Coffee percolators and automatic coffeemakers brew coffee using gravity. In an automatic coffeemaker hot water drips onto coffee grounds held in a coffee filter made of paper, plastic, or perforated metal, allowing the water to seep through the ground coffee while extracting its oils and essences. The liquid drips through the coffee and the filter into a carafe or pot, and the spent grounds are retained in the filter.

In a percolator, boiling water is forced into a chamber above a filter by steam pressure created by boiling. The water then seeps through the grounds, and the process is repeated until terminated by removing from the heat, by an internal timer, or by a thermostat that turns off the heater when the entire pot reaches a certain temperature. Coffee may be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press (also known as a cafetiere, coffee press or coffee plunger). Ground coffee and hot water are combined in a cylindrical vessel and left to brew for a few minutes.

A circular filter which fits tightly in the cylinder fixed to a plunger is then pushed down from the top to force the grounds to the bottom. Because the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water, all the coffee oils remain in the beverage, making it stronger and leaving more sediment than in coffee made by an automatic coffee machine. The coffee is poured from the container; the filter retains the grounds at the bottom. 95% of the caffeine is released from the coffee seeds within the first minute of brewing. The espresso method forces hot pressurized and vaporized water through ground coffee.

As a result of brewing under high pressure (ideally between 9–10 atm), the espresso beverage is more concentrated (as much as 10 to 15 times the quantity of coffee to water as gravity-brewing methods can produce) and has a more complex physical and chemical constitution. A well-prepared espresso has reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface. Other pressurized water methods include the moka pot and vacuum coffee maker. Cold brew coffee is made by steeping coarsely ground seeds in cold water for several hours, then filtering them. [85]

This results in a brew lower in acidity than most hot-brewing methods. Serving 2. 7 fig Presentation can be an integral part of coffeehouse service, as illustrated by the common rosetta design layered into this latte. Once brewed, coffee may be served in a variety of ways. Drip-brewed, percolated, or French-pressed/cafetiere coffee may be served as white coffee with a dairy product such as milk or cream, or dairy substitute, or as black coffee with no such addition. It may be sweetened with sugar or artificial sweetener. When served cold, it is called iced coffee.

Espresso-based coffee has a wide variety of possible presentations. In its most basic form, espresso is served alone as a shot or with hot water added, known as Caffe Americano. Reversely, long black is made by pouring espresso in water, which retains the crema compared to Caffe Americano. Milk is added in various forms to espresso: steamed milk makes a caffe latte, equal parts steamed milk and milk froth make a cappuccino,[86] and a dollop of hot foamed milk on top creates a caffe macchiato. The use of steamed milk to form patterns such as hearts or maple leaves is referred to as latte art.

Coffee can also be incorporated with alcohol in beverages—it is combined with whiskey in Irish coffee, and forms the base of alcoholic coffee liqueurs such as Kahlua, and Tia Maria. Coffee is also sometimes used in the brewing process of darker beers, such as a stout or porter. Instant coffee A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own coffee. Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or freeze-dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water.

Originally invented in 1907, it rapidly gained in popularity in many countries in the post-war period, with Nescafe being the most popular product. Many consumers determined that the convenience in preparing a cup of instant coffee more than made up for a perceived inferior taste. Paralleling (and complementing) the rapid rise of instant coffee was the coffee vending machine, invented in 1947 and multiplying rapidly through the 1950s. Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years, particularly in China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan.

Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee, much like brewed or percolated coffee, available both hot and cold. Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled coffee drinks, which are typically lightly sweetened and pre-blended with milk. Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the United States. Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time. It is described as having a flavor about as good as low-grade robusta coffee, and costs about 10?

a cup to produce. The machines can process up to 500 cups an hour or 1,000 if the water is preheated. 3. Coffee beans A coffee bean is a seed of the coffee plant. It is the pit inside the red or purple fruit often referred to as a cherry. Even though they are seeds, they are incorrectly referred to as ‘beans’ because of their resemblance to true beans. The fruits – coffee cherries or coffee berries – most commonly contain two stones with their flat sides together. A small percentage of cherries contain a single seed, instead of the usual two. This is called a peaberry.

Like Brazil nuts (a seed) and white rice, coffee seeds consist mostly of endosperm. The two most economically important varieties of coffee plant are the Arabica and the Robusta; 75-80% of the coffee produced worldwide is Arabica and 20% is Robusta. Arabica seeds consist of 0. 8-1. 4% caffeine and Robusta seeds consist of 1. 7-4% caffeine. As coffee is one of the world’s most widely consumed beverages, coffee seeds are a major cash crop, and an important export product, counting for over 50% of some developing nations’ foreign exchange earnings.

The United States imports more coffee than any other nation. In 2009 the average person in the United States consumed 4. 09 kg (9 lbs) of coffee. Cultivation of the coffee seed originated in Ethiopia, in approximately 850 C. E. Farming of the coffee plant then spread to the rest of Arabia, where it was first mentioned in writing around 900 C. E. The Yemenites guarded it carefully, but some plants were eventually smuggled out to the Dutch, who kept a few plants for gardens in the Netherlands.

The Americas were first introduced to the plants around 1723. South America is now responsible for approximately 45% of the world’s total coffee exports. Most of this coffee is made in Brazil. Significant dates * First cultivation in Europe (also first cultivation outside of east Africa/Arabia) – 1616 * First cultivation in India (Malabar) – late 1600s * First cultivation in Java – 1699 * First cultivation in Caribbean (Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, Santo Domingo, Puerto Rico) – 1715–1730 * First cultivation in South America – 1730.

* First cultivation in Dutch East Indies – 1720 * Roasted seeds first sold on retail market (Pittsburgh) – 1865 * Important spray-drying techniques developed in 1950s Coffee plant The coffee tree averages from 5–10 m (16–33 ft) in height. As the tree gets older, it branches less and less and bears more leaves and fruit. The tree typically begins to bear fruit 3–4 years after being planted, and continues to produce for 10–20 more years, depending on the type of plant and the area. Coffee plants are grown in rows several feet apart.

Some farmers plant fruit trees around them or plant the coffee on the sides of hills, because they need specific conditions to flourish. Ideally, Arabica coffee seeds are grown at temperatures between 15–24 °C (59–75 °F) and Robusta at 24–30 °C (75–86 °F) and receive between 15–30 cm (5. 9–12 in) of rainfall per year. Heavy rain is needed in the beginning of the season when the fruit is developing, and less late in the season as it ripens. The harvesting period can be anywhere from three weeks to three months, and in some places the harvesting period continues all year round.

Content of green coffee seeds The term “green coffee seed” refers to unroasted mature or immature coffee seeds. These have been processed by wet or dry methods for removing the outer pulp and mucilage, and have an intact wax layer on the outer surface. When immature, they are green. When mature, they have a brown to yellow or reddish color, and typically weigh 300 to 330 mg per dried coffee seed. Nonvolatile and volatile compounds in green coffee seeds, such as caffeine, deter many insects and animals from eating them.

Further, both nonvolatile and volatile compounds contribute to the flavor of the coffee seed when it is roasted. Nonvolatile nitrogenous compounds (including alkaloids, trigonelline, proteins and free amino acids) and carbohydrates are of major importance in producing the full aroma of roasted coffee, and for its biological action. * Nonvolatile alkaloids 3. 1 fig – Coffea canephora green seeds on a tree in Goa, India. Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyl-xanthine) is the alkaloid most present in green and roasted coffee seeds.

The content of caffeine is between 1. 0% and 2. 5% by weight of dry green coffee seeds. The content of caffeine does not change during maturation of green coffee seeds. Lower concentrations of theophylline, theobromine, paraxanthine, liberine, and methylliberine can be found. The concentration of theophylline, an alkaloid noted for its presence in green tea, is reduced during the roasting process, usually about 15 minutes at 230 °C (446 °F), whereas the concentration of most other alkaloids are not changed.

The solubility of caffeine in water increases with temperature and with the addition of chlorogenic acids, citric acid, or tartaric acid, all of which are present in green coffee seeds. For example, 1 g (0. 035 oz) caffeine dissolves in 46 ml (1. 6 US fl oz) of water at room temperature, and 5. 5 ml (0. 19 US fl oz) at 80 °C (176 °F). The xanthine alkaloids are odorless, but have a bitter taste in water, which is masked by organic acids present in green coffee, however. Trigonelline (N-methyl-nicotinate) is a derivative of vitamin B6 that is not as bitter as caffeine.

In green coffee seeds, the content is between 0. 6% and 1. 0%. At a roasting temperature of 230 °C (446 °F), 85% of the trigonelline is degraded to nicotinic acid, leaving small amounts of the unchanged molecule in the roasted seeds. In green coffee seeds, trigonelline is synthesized from nicotinic acid (pyridinium-3-carboxylic acid) by methylation from methionine, a sulfur-containing amino acid. Mutagenic activity of trigonelline has been reported.

Coffee preparation Essay

Coffee – Brazil Essay

Coffee – Brazil Essay.

The story seems to begin in Ethiopia, where the coffee berry grew wild. Goatherds there noted that goats which ate leaves and berries of the plant remained awake all night. The Arabs claim that they developed the plant during the reign of Mohammed (c675 AD). Believe that if you wish – we are going with the Ethiopian story. Consumed originally as a food, it would take on the character of a medicinal and eventually that of a social drink.

The coffee tree grows to a height of 14 to 20 feet, producing (along with bright green leaves and white flowers) a berry which, as it matures, goes from green to yellow to red.

Harvested red, they are placed in water so that the good berries will sink and all the debris will float. The berries are then pulped to extract the beans, there being two beans per berry, the beans having a bluish-green color. Next they are dried and cured for several weeks, becoming hard and yellow.

Roasting is next, at the high temperature of 900 degrees Fahrenheit for 17 minutes, then they are stored (aged) and eventually ground into coarse granules. One is obliged to wonder how this all came about: who was the first to decide that roasting the beans would do anything good to them? The decaffeinated type of coffee is made by treating the green beans with chlorine-based solvents prior to the rest of the process. There are some 30 species of the plant, the most important being: Brazilian, Mild, Robusta (or “African”) and Arabian, the last being the predominant tree of the Americas.

Discovered by Arabs traveling in Ethiopia in the 13th century, it was taken to Arabia and flourished at Mocha in Yemen, where the Arabic name for it was “qahwah” and from that word to “coffee”. It’s popularity steadily increased. In the 1500s it arrived in Turkey, and in Italy in the 1600s. About this time, establishments for preparing the drink (“coffee houses”) sprang up all over Europe.

In 1714 the French succeeded in bringing a live cutting to their island of Martinique, and, from that single plant, coffee growing spread throughout Central and South America. Meanwhile, the Portuguese introduced the plant into their colony of Brazil, where it took readily. In fact, Brazil today produces 25% of the world’s coffee, and Central and South America combined produces two-thirds of the world’s supply. Since coffee grows in Java and Southeast Asia, an alternate name for coffee is “java”. Then Starbucks came along and showed how coffee could be jazzed up by adding other things to it. At a hefty price.

Coffee – Brazil Essay

Coffee Industry Essay

Coffee Industry Essay.

From the discovery of small, brightly colored red berries on trees in Ethiopia came the largest imported commodity in the world, second only to oil. The coffee bean provides a livelihood for over 20 million people worldwide with an estimated worldwide retail sales expected to grow by a compounded rate of 6. 9% from 2005-2010, reaching $48. 2 billion by 2010, according to The U. S. Market for Coffee and Ready-to-Drink Coffee. [1] The two main species of coffee beans are Arabica and Robusta.

Arabica is a high-quality coffee typically grown at higher elevations where the optimal climatic conditions necessary to grow this specialty grade of coffee are found.

Arabica coffee is traded in two ways: ? On the highly volatile New York “C” market where the “C” price is affected by the global supply as it rises and falls. The average “C” price for a pound of coffee during fiscal 2005 was $1. 04. ? Higher-quality Arabica beans are used in specialty coffee. Specialty coffee represents 10 percent of the total worldwide coffee market.

Prices for specialty coffee are higher than the “C” offers in order to provide better rates payable to producing farmers for quality. [2] According to the National Coffee Association in Volume 2005. 4 of Coffee Trax, as of December 2005, forecasts for the world coffee production for 2005-2006 will be 113. 1 million bags. Production is down 5. 5% over the actual 2004-2005 yields of 119. 8 million bags. Domestic consumption in producing countries in 2005-2006 is forecast to increase to 31. 2 million bags, indicating domestic use should be 9. 9% higher in 2005/06 than in 2004/05.

Using the most current data, world coffee consumption for 2003/04 was 96. 5 million bags, up by 1. 8% over 2002/03’s production. “In 1999 there were 108,000,000 coffee consumers in the United States spending an approximated 9. 2 billion dollars in the retail sector and 8. 7 billion dollars in the foodservice sector every year (SCAA 1999 Market Report). It can be inferred, therefore, that coffee drinkers spend on average $164. 71 per year on coffee. The National Coffee Association found in 2000 that 54% of the adult population of the United States drinks coffee daily (NCA Coffee Drinking Trends Survey, 2000).

They also reported that 18. 12% of the coffee drinkers in the United States drink gourmet coffee beverages daily (NCA). In addition to the 54% who drink coffee everyday, 25% of Americans drink coffee occasionally (NCA). The average consumption per capita in the United States is around 4. 4 Kg. Among coffee drinkers (i. e. not per capita) the average consumption in the United States is 3. 1 cups of coffee per day (NCA). Per capita men drink approximately 1. 9 cups per day, whereas women drink an average of 1. 4 cups of coffee a day (NCA).

The USDA’s 2005/2006 December estimate for world exportable production is 82.0 million bags which is 10. 2% lower than 2004/05. Total U. S. imports were down 15% for the second to third quarter of 2005. Estimated roastings for the third quarter of 2005 were up to 4. 7 million bags compared to the second quarter but down by 5. 8% for the year-ago quarter. [3] Retail prices were up from $3. 33 to $3. 40 for the average quarterly retail price of a pound of roast-and-ground coffee or 2. 1% after comparing the third-quarter 2005 to the second quarter. Compared to the year-ago quarter, average retail prices were up by 18. 1%, moving to $3. 40 from $2. 88.

The average monthly retail price continues to be 20. 8% below its seven-year high of $4. 67 in August 1997. [1] Fair Trade coffee is beginning to affect the economics of the coffee industry. Coffee retailers to help maintain a sustainable supply of coffee are increasingly adopting the Fair Trade movement. Over the years a coffee crisis has developed as supply has greatly exceeded demand. This paradox of continued growth of retail pricing at the expense of the small coffee farmers has driven retailers like Starbucks to create their own methods of providing higher profits to producing farms so that supply can be maintained.

Under a Fair Trade agreement producers are guaranteed a fair price consisting of a floor price of $1. 26 per pound and $1. 41 for certified organic coffee. [2] From 2002 to 2004, USAID invested over $57 million on coffee projects in over 18 countries in Latin America, East Africa and Asia in an effort to create sustainable supplies of coffee. Other movements such as Organic and Shade Tree coffee have had similar goals to help with environmental and quality concerns on the producing farms. [4] Coffee consumers are continuing to show a preference for premium coffees.

While most brands have declined in sales during the past year, premium coffees have managed growth, according to data from Information Resources Inc. , which measures sales through supermarkets; drug stores and mass merchandise outlets. Ground coffees lost 1. 8 percent of sales for a category total of $1. 6 billion, but whole bean coffees were up 2. 2 percent. Starbucks grew in both segments, with a 13. 2 percent increase in ground coffee sales and 6. 4 percent in whole bean sales. [5] Retailers such as Starbucks in the specialty coffees use the highest-quality Arabica.

Specialty coffee is a broad category of coffee positioned as the highest quality and/or roasted with the ideal techniques or even coffee from particular plantations. “Even though the overall U. S. coffee market has been sluggish lately, the specialty component has seen significant growth, with retail dollar sales approaching $9 billion in 2003. The segment’s sales in 2003 represented growth of 6. 7 percent over 2002’s $8. 4 billion. In 2003, coffee cafes – the approximately 11,240 retail locations including seating, such as most Starbuck’s outlets – generated $6. 1 billion in retail sales, or 68. 3 percent of the segment’s total.

Coffee bean roasters and retailers – the 1,350 sites with on-premise roasting – accounted for 14 percent of sales with $1. 3 billion. Coffee retailers without seating, also known as kiosks, had sales of $810 million, which represented 9. 0 percent of the total. There were approximately 2,700 coffee kiosks operating in 2003. Mobile retailers (i. e. , carts) accounted for an additional 3. 2 percent of sales, with all other channels responsible for the rest. ” [6] Driving Forces in the Coffee Industry Competitive and industry conditions experience change due to the forces that are pressuring industry participants to alter their actions.

Competitors, customers, or suppliers are enticed to change their ways. Those with the biggest influence on industry structure and the competitive industry environment are driving forces. The coffee industry has four driving forces that originate in the industrial and competitive environment. A change in who buys the product and how they use it is one of the four driving forces in the coffee industry. Shifts in buyer demographics and the way consumers use the product have altered the competition for this industry.

The variation has prompted producers to broaden the product line and try different sales and promotion approaches. Changing societal concerns, attitudes, and lifestyles is the other driving force that ties in with the customer base and usage. Society is changing, with the new generations being a huge influence. Parents, a huge factor in the lifestyle, attitudes, and opinions of their children, drink coffee and are, thus, promoting coffee to the offspring. These young persons are looking for caffeine to keep them going through their increasingly busy days.

At age 13, who knew that coffee was needed to add to their ever-so hyper lives? Coffee is established as a drink older people consume. Young people are always aspiring to be older than they are, so coffee is marketed in a different way to the younger generations as specialty coffee and gourmet beverages. Marketing these drinks as “cool” and “hip” is also a successful method of attraction. Establishing loyalty early while coffee drinkers are young will ensure a prospective future for this industry. In addition, the use of coffee has changed over the years.

Coffee was first marketed as a breakfast drink for the working parent to get a boost of energy for the day. As more women started joining the workforce, the coffee consumption increased. Throughout the years, an increasing amount of people started drinking coffee more frequently throughout the day. Today, it is not uncommon to see a person drinking a gourmet coffee drink at 10:00 p. m. , as well as anytime throughout the day. Whenever you need that caffeine-boosted beverage or just want that coffee bean taste most love, consumers now can look for multiple types of coffee drinks to satisfy the craving.

Growing buyer preferences for differentiated products instead of standardized is the driving force that allows the product innovation to take lead in this industry. Due to consumers demand for something different, companies in this industry needed to expand current products to fit customer needs and wants. The success of product innovation of introducing coffee drinks and coffee flavors, made the choices for consumers grow. Consumers wanted more flavor and excitement, instead of the regular or decaffeinated options.

During the hot summer months, many coffee lovers wanted the taste of coffee but were not fond of drinking a hot drink. Iced coffee drinks helped to solve that problem. Now, people can drink coffee anytime of the year. Many consumers do not just drink coffee in the morning, like the generations before; meetings, study sessions, hanging out, talking amongst old friends and other events are all done through coffee drinking. Due to the buyer influences, the coffee industry has grown in all directions and continues to see a future with innovation and other driving forces helping it along the way.

Lastly, product innovation is a driving force that has allowed the coffee industry to grow. The competitive environment is fierce and product innovation is one of the key driving forces to stay on top of the industry’s market share. Coffee drinks were developed as an anytime coffee drink. Such drinks are Espressos, Cappuccinos, Frappaccinos, Lattes, and Mochas. Whether a consumer likes it hot or cold is no difference now; iced coffee is for those that do not feel like a hot cup. Black, White, Irish, Turkish and Americano are also other types of coffee to choose from.

Flavored coffee is a pillar innovation to this product category allowing different consumers’ taste buds to run wild. Chocolate covered coffee beans are another innovation that expands the use of coffee in a nontraditional way, a snack. This industry growth has also allowed companies the opportunity to promote to different consumer markets. Young and old purchasers, people that like hot or cold coffee, and those that like a coffee drink in the morning or evening are all targeted now that the product lines have broadened the scope of the industry.

Product innovation has helped consumers’ differentiation issues, along with allowing them to drink it anytime of day they need an extra tasty boost of energy. In order to stay on top of the competitive environment in this industry, a company has to accept the driving forces and make each one positive for the company in the long run. The following driving forces are influencing the coffee industry: change in who buys the product and how they use it; changing societal concerns, attitudes, and lifestyles; growing buyer preferences for differentiated products instead of standardized ones; and product innovation.

Each of these driving forces increases the competition in the industry. The increased demand for products, especially the new innovated ones, is an opportunity for profitability as well. Because of the innovation, many people are expecting choices for the long run; the companies that offer the products consumers want will prosper. Competitive Analysis of the Coffee Industry Although there are many substitutes for coffee when it is regarded as nothing more than a liquid to drink, most people would agree that there are relatively few that would be considered viable substitutes to dedicated coffee drinkers.

Historically, teas have been the greatest rival substitute for coffee, and just as there are specialty coffees, there are specialty teas as well. The key to coffee substitutes being successful in luring coffee drinkers over to their products is differentiation. While tea alone may be substantially differentiated from coffee, a dedicated coffee drinker will need some sort of hook, or angle, to get them to try something different. Often this angle comes in the form of a doctor telling them to cut back on caffeine or to stay away from coffee altogether.

According to About. com the top five coffee substitutes are: 1. )Roastaroma ? a tea “blend of roasted barley, roasted chicory root, and roasted carob, with spices cinnamon, allspice, and star anise. ” 2. )Genmaicha ? a “green tea with roasted brown rice. ” 3. )Teechino ? “made from roasted carob, roasted barley, and roasted chicory” containing “figs, almonds, and dates. ” 4. )Cafix ? “a freeze-dried grain drink made from barley and chicory. ” This drink is non-acidic and does not contain caffeine. 5. )Pero ? “made from malted barley, chicory, and rye. ”

Although coffee substitutes are readily available and reasonably priced, traditional coffee drinkers are usually dedicated to coffee in general, if not one particular brand. Therefore, buyers tend to view substitutes as not adequately comparable alternatives. One of the coffee industry’s greatest attributes is the loyalty of their customers. Buyers of coffee can be broken down into two groups; individuals and businesses. An individual coffee drinker will have little or no real power to influence the industry or a particular seller beyond switching brands.

The switching costs of individuals are virtually nothing; therefore they can move between brands whenever they are dissatisfied with quality or price. Business buyers such as restaurant chains, hotel chains, convenience stores, and supermarket chains have considerably more power than an individual buyer. This is simply due to economies of scale where a restaurant chain purchasing several thousand pounds a week will have more influence on a supplier than an individual buying one or two pounds per month. Supermarket chains are in a strong position as well, as they can offer as much or as little shelf space as they want.

They can also switch brands on shelf space, virtually without cost, to replace poor selling brands with other brands, which may have a higher sales rate. Therefore buyer power depends upon the quantity bought, as with many industries. The power of buyers may range from weak to strong or even fierce. The threat of new entrants into the coffee industry is somewhat strong. While entrants into large markets may not be many, the entry of small shops in local markets offering specialty coffees has grown rapidly in the last several years.

Entrants into the specialty coffee arena have been lured in by rising demand of such coffee and attractive profit margins. While these local shops will not be able to compete with large corporations such as Kraft, Proctor & Gamble, or Starbuck’s on an international basis, they can account for some competition in local, concentrated markets by offering a niche; an alternative to corporate retailers with a less personable and hospitable atmosphere. Retailers such as these tend to do well in more rural areas where major corporations may not wish to enter, or in areas where collegiate or more naturalistic atmospheres prevail.

These areas may be less inclined to cater to large corporations. New entrants into the coffee industry are also faced with the obstacle of overcoming name brand loyalties. Although in some small specialty coffee markets a new brand with a unique name or style may do well, in most arenas coffee drinkers are extremely loyal to their brands when they are purchasing for home consumption. These buyers are not likely to switch brands for superficial reasons. The competitive pressure from suppliers is relatively weak in the coffee industry.

The individual coffee bean farmers have little control over the price of the coffee they sell. The worldwide market has little fluctuations and any that may occur have little effect on any one particular farm. Recently world coffee supply has been exceeding demand, which has taken even more power away from the suppliers who must compete with growers from around the world. The futures market provides security to firms purchasing beans from governments. By buying these futures contracts the company is promising to buy a certain amount of coffee at a stated price no matter what the overall market price may be at the time.

The government selling the contracts is promising to provide the amount of coffee stated to the buyer at the stated price regardless of the current market price. Governments also have a role in determining supply as they can set regulations governing the number of trees that are planted, provide price subsidizing for farmers, and impose tariffs. Furthermore, the price of coffee beans has not been increasing at the same rate as the price of your average cup at a specialty shop, or as fast as inflation. In January of 1996 the price of coffee beans was $1. 02 per pound [7].

Ten years later in January of 2006 the price has only increased to $1. 17 per pound, an increase of 14. 12% [7]. In the same period inflation had risen approximately 25. 3% [8]. Rivalry in the coffee industry among competing sellers is vigorous. Although the overall market for coffee grew fast in the late 1990’s, especially regarding the specialty coffee markets, it has leveled off some in the last few years and the overall demand is growing slowly. Another reason for the high level of competitiveness within the industry is due to the relatively low differentiation ability of coffee.

While specialty coffees derive some level of differentiation from region of growth or roasting methods, the overall product is fairly standardized. This leads to increase jockeying for position among existing firms, as they cannot lure customers in with a variety of unique products. Some firms however are attempting to lure customers in with new products such as Folgers’ Home Cafe system, which is a one-cup pressure-brewing system. These devices use “pods,” or individually packaged coffee for single serve applications. Other companies have also been marketing individually packaged coffee so that consumers can make a “perfect cup” every time.

The switching costs of buyers are also very low, if not non-existent. Buyers only have to purchase a different brand in order to switch. While some businesses may have to replace equipment if they switch brands, a business of large purchasing capacity will likely have equipment provided for them by their coffee bean supplier. The recent surge in specialty coffee brands has increased rivalry among existing firms. As companies such as Starbuck’s have grown and acquired market share, companies such as Kraft, Proctor & Gamble, and Nestle have had to increase advertising and create new specialty coffees of their own in order to compete.

“Sales of specialty coffee were $10 Billion in October of 2005 and expected to rise at a rate of 7% annually, while sales of traditional brands have been falling. ” [9] Over the past two years Maxwell House has seen a decline of $75 Million in supermarket sales alone. ” [9] Furthermore, companies like Starbuck’s have been acquiring smaller companies and thereby growing in market share and sales. This has been done to such an extent to make them comparable to big firms such as Kraft and Proctor & Gamble who compete in various markets with multiple products.

This has increased rivalry among these firms as they struggle to maintain their market share. Key Success Factors in the Coffee Industry Coffee drinkers are becoming interested in the type of coffee they drink, people who want specialty chocolates and wines want specialty coffee. Specialty coffee is label “gourmet” or “premium” coffee. The specialty coffee bean comes form rare locations and is 100% from that origin; that means no mixing with another bean. People want to know the beans country of origin and if the bean is a blend or a single-origin.

Coffee originates from a variety of places like South America, Africa, Middle and Far East, and Jamaica. The Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA) said people want specialty coffee because of its superior coffee, “People want things to taste good and clean and no longer want cheap coffee. ” The SCAA reported that 15% of American adults drink specialty coffee an increase from 6% points over 2000. According to Mintel International Group, saw producers who specialize in coffee rise, Procter and Gamble’s Millstone premium brand increased 37.

5% and Starbucks rose 23% between 2001 and 2003 (Chater, 2005). Along with specialty coffee is flavored coffee, which is increasing popular. Flavored coffee ranges from Cherry Vanilla with Pecans and Cashews, Orange Cappuccino, or even Hazelnut. The SCAA claims flavor coffee will continue to grow in the total market share. The Motley Fool Stock exchange reported that the 7-Eleven saw 5% of sales come from coffee products like the Slurpee with flavors Cherry Creme and Vanilla Nut. The Black Mountain Gold Coffee (BMG) offers its flavor coffee through Amazon.

com and it is their number one flavor; Cinnamon Crumb Cake-flavor coffee became so popular that Albertsons in Texas included the brand inside the store (Friedman, 2004). The United States is the largest base of coffee drinkers and the second largest importer of coffee (Packed Facts, 2003). Therefore, it is evident that coffee is popular drink. Coffee is sold in airplanes, office buildings, hotel rooms, train terminals, schools, and grocery stores. Some grocery stores even offer coffee to drink while shopping. It is good having these locations offer coffee because it stimulates more coffee being drunk and later more purchases.

It is also a good way to get non-coffee drinkers to try coffee and turn them into coffee drinkers. Coffee is sold in most stores, and even on the Internet. Having coffee sold in a variety of places ensures the consumers have easy access to purchase the product. Locations benefit by selling coffee because usually when coffee is being bought customers have a tendency to buy other products such as, milk, cream, sugar, or a mug. Numerous studies are indicting coffee can offer health benefits. It would be beneficial for the coffee industry to further these studies and use as a selling tool.

The coffee bean is a plant base food, therefore offers rich antioxidants more so than broccoli and blueberries. These antioxidants can help prevent cancers, Parkinson disease, gallstones, and used for an antidepressant. Other nutrients inside coffee like potassium, niacin, magnesium, and chlorogenic acids can possibility help reduce diabetes (McAuliffe, 2005). Cautious coffee drinkers are concerned with how coffee effects the environment and farmers. Sun-grown coffee, uses fertilizers and pesticides, and contributes to deforestation; shade-grown is grown beneath a canopy of trees while preserving the forest.

Organic coffee has increased 54% in 2005 through Nov 6, while non-organic coffee increased 8. 5%. Coffee drinkers want to be reassured that producers of coffee are treated fairly. Are farmers compensated fairly, no abuse, or child labor? Companies should be very weary of this issue because, if the source of coffee is not on good terms, if the farms are not healthy or unhappy employees than it could affect the industry in a negative way. Starbucks is a perfect example showing support to farmers by offering decent wages, and ways to help protect their asset (farms).

Starbucks as teamed with the Fair Trade Certified Coffee by offering “Coffee of the Week” to bring awareness for the Fair Trade Certified Coffee. Other companies should take notice of the Fair Trade Certified Coffee, the Fair Trade Certified Coffee ensures farmers are properly compensated, health care, and economic stability of farms (Gimbl, 2005 & Chater, 2005). Overall Industry Attractiveness In order to decide if the coffee industry presents an attractive opportunity for earning good profits, it is important to base a conclusion on several factors.

By drawing upon previous analysis of the intensity of competition, whether the impacts of the driving forces are positive or negative, the market positions of industry members as shown on the strategic group map, and also close examination of the industry’s key success factors an educated answer can be deduced. First, by examining the market size and growth potential the coffee industry presents a livelihood for over 20 million people worldwide with an estimated worldwide retail sales expected to grow by a compounded rate of 6.

9% from 2005-2010, reaching $48. 2 billion by 2010, according to The U. S. Market for Coffee and Ready-to-Drink Coffee [1]. Competitive forces in the industry point to growth through the development of product innovation and specializing in gourmet coffee and specialty drinks. “Sales of specialty coffee were $10 Billion in October of 2005 and expected to rise at a rate of 7% annually, while sales of traditional brands have been falling. ” [9] This has increased rivalry among these firms as they struggle to maintain their market share.

Competitive forces are conducive to rising industry profitability as long as companies continue to offer product innovation and stay ahead of the curve when it comes to the driving forces in the industry Degree of risk and uncertainty in industry’s future encompasses many issues. Coffee drinkers are many and are seemingly very loyal to their drink. Proof being that recently the coffee supply has been exceeding its demand, which has taken even more power away from the suppliers who must compete with growers from around the world. In addition several tentative studies show positive health benefits to coffee drinkers.

With a trend in the United States to be more health conscious, the coffee industry has opportunity to capitalize on these finds. In contrast when examining the severity of problems facing the industry it is evident that although demand is growing the trend is that it is steadying off. Due to little differentiation and small increase in the price of coffee since 1996, companies have been forced to focus on increased product differentiation in areas such as specialty coffees; however, that too is steadying off in growth over the past couple of years.

Possible strategic issues include customers increasingly loyal to certain brands, which possibly make it more difficult for smaller coffee companies to edge into large consumer base. Also coffee companies need to consider the growing demand of consumers in the ethical treatment of coffee workers and focus their attention to a coffee drinker who looks to drink it for its benefits and special offering in taste. Ultimately when drawing conclusions about the attractiveness of an industry, the perspective is important. It depends on the scope and breadth of a particular company.

The attractiveness of the opportunities an industry presents depends heavily on whether a company has the resources and the competitive capabilities to secure them. A standard judgment of if an industry is profitable is if the industry’s overall profit prospects are above average, the industry environment is basically attractive; if industry profit prospects are below average, conditions are unattractive (Strickland III et al, 2004). However this analysis of the industry shows that the coffee industry has a strong future and to the right players offers an attractive business opportunity.

Works Cited

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Middle Tennessee State University. 2 Feb 2006 http://find. galegroup. com/itx/infomark. do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T002&prodId=ITOF&docId=A140760166&source=gale&srcprod=ITOF&userGroupName=tel_middleten&version=1. 0. McAuliffe, Kathleen. “Enjoy!. ” U. S. News &World Report 139. 23 (Dec 19, 2005):67-68. InfoTrac Online. Thomson Gale.

Middle Tennessee State University. 2 Feb 2006 http://find. galegroup. com/itx/infomark. do? &contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T002&prodid=ITOF&docId=A139695515&source=gale&srcprod=ITOF&userGroupName=tel_middleten&version=1. 0 Friedman, Susan. “Beyond cream & sugar: savvy Retailers recognize the value of flavored coffee. ” Tea & Coffee Trade Journal 176.

3 (March 2004): 30(3). InfoTrac One File. Thomson Gale. Middle Tennessee State University. 2 Feb 2006 http://find. galegroup. com/itx/infomark. do? &contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID+T002&prodId=ITOF&docId=A114819506&source=gale&srcprod=ITOF&userGroupName=tel_middleten&verson=1. 0 Introducing Starbucks Cafe Estima Blend(TM).

Fair Trade Certified(TM) Coffe. Business Wire. LOAD DATE: Oct 10, 2005. 23 Feb 20006. /cnn/sbux. shtml Strickland III, A. J. , Arthur A. Thompson Jr. , and John E. Gamble . Strategy Core Concepts, Analytical Tools, Readings. 2nd ed. Boston: Mc-Graw-Hill Irwin, 2004.

Coffee Industry Essay

Coffee retail Essay

Coffee retail Essay.

1. Introduction The report revolves around the Retail Industry. As it is a very generic industry we have taken the Coffee Retail Market as the highlight of scrutiny. Our scope of study is focused taking in consideration only India as the geographic segment. We broadly look at the Porter’s Five Forces of the industry specifically. Also the complementors are observed and how they affect the retail business of coffee houses. The major players identified in the industry are Starbucks, Cafe Coffee Day, Barista, Costa Coffee, and Nescafe.

Grilling down further the report includes SWOT analysis, External Factor analysis matrix ,Internal Factor analysis matrix and PESTEL analysis. 2. Porter’s Five Forces The porter’s five forces model framework is very helpful in understanding the industry and market closely. It further helps in determining the profitability of the industry as a whole. Also helps the management in taking strategic decisions accordingly. 2. 1 Threat of New Entrants In the present world coffee has become a really popular beverage among Indians.

This makes it an attractive market for the potential companies who are looking up for opening their retail coffee houses in India. Entering the industry is not that cumbersome in case a business house admires to open up a small coffee shop. Problem arises in respect to entering the industry when they aspire to set up retail coffee chains or speciality coffee shops. Due to many established names in the industry like Cafe Coffee Day and Costa Coffee, establishing brand name also becomes an issue.

Companies already with established brand names like Coca Cola, Starbucks can enter the industry easily without much caution as they already have marketing strategies designed in their favour. As a conclusion, we can state that barriers to entry are Low especially for global brands and they can easily enter the coffee retail industry with established marketing strategy, name, and huge capital and financial stability. Otherwise, hard for new and unknown firms admiring to be in the business. 2. 2 Bargaining Power of Suppliers The suppliers for the coffee retail industry in India generally come from southern India i.

e. Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Though these days different types of coffee are becoming popular among the Indians like, Gourmet, Organic, Eco-friendly coffee, and they are being sold for better prices in comparison to the traditional brewed coffee. Still the situation is not really in favour of these suppliers. These coffee growers are poor, competitive and rely on the buyers to a great extent. Therefore, power remains to be limited. This proves to be good for the retail outlets in the business. 2. 3 Bargaining power of Customers.

The whole retailing coffee industry depends upon the customers. So it is of vital importance to satisfy the customers in order to give them a reason to visit again. In this case word-of mouth plays an important role. So, if people appreciate about a particular coffee shop or chain, others are likely to try it. Thus, retailers must find new strategies and techniques of luring away the customers. But it is very important for the localities coffee retail shops to understand that they cannot charge prices as high as the industry players like Starbucks, Barista or Cafe Coffee Day.

They need to maintain a low price profile in order to attract customers. So in case of these small locality retail shops the bargaining power of customers is very high. Otherwise the other coffee retail chains (industry players) do hold some control over the prices charged but it becomes important to consider the customers purchasing power. Otherwise they would switch over to other brand as there is no switching cost for them. This establishes that the bargaining power of customers is high and really important measure for the conduct of efficient business.

Also these coffee retail chains should understand that the customers can also make the coffee at home which justifies their higher bargaining power. 2. 4 Threat of Substitute products There are a lot of substitutes for the coffee retail industry in general. Specially, the soft drinks industry has always given fierce competition. Also, other products like ice cream, candy, and beer are also a part of substitute products. It becomes important for these retail houses to make coffee more popular and drinkable amongst the masses. People should never consider switching from their coffee shops.

But with changing preferences of Indian masses in favour of coffee the players within the industry are making maximum efforts in favour of differentiating its products from the substitute products. Also strategic decisions and marketing activities are initiated to shift the customer base from the substitutes resulting in high demand of coffee from the retail sector. So the threat of substitutes is also moderate. 2. 5 Competitive Rivalry within the Industry Considering the entire coffee retail industry as the scope of study, there are number of retail chains serving the industry effectively.

To top the list is Starbucks, and than many more such as Cafe Coffee Day, Barista, Costa Coffee, Gloria Jeans, Nescafe, Bru Cafe, Dunkin Donuts, Mc Donalds, and small Kiosks and coffee points are also emerging in localities. They all are different in size and serve different segments of the society but are competing with each other in some or the other way. Each retailer follows different marketing strategy to lure away their target segments. Also with moving times the industry is occupying a stable position in the retail sector and is saturated .

Therefore, we can say that the competitive rivalry though on the higher side does not affects the profit margins for the industry. 3. Complementors There is a sixth force to the porter’s five forces model, the power and competence that the complementors provide to the business. The complementors are those that help in selling and adding value to the existing products of the industry. When these products are used together they help in satisfying customer demands more effectively. It is also to be believed that these complementors play an important role in drawing in the demand for the industry.

This in turn helps in scaling up the profits. Conversely, the poor products being manufactured or supplied by the complementors may harm the profits and demand. So it becomes important on part of managers to analyse all the six forces and then think systematically how their strategic choices would affect the industrial competition. Majorly the complementors can be associated with high-tech industries wherein they literally help in hiking the sales and profits for the industry. In our case, coffee retailing is not an industry that has any such complementors that would help in boosting sales or profits.

But certain products are identified by us that in a slight way might affect the coffee retailing business. Like, merchandising, snacks offered for sale in coffee retail chains. Merchandising includes apparels and coffee mugs and other products such as soft toys and key chains available for sale by many coffee retail houses Cafe Coffee Day, Barista, Starbucks etc. Snacks are offered mainly by all the coffee houses in the form of cookies, patties, croissants, sandwiches, pasta, oats etc. So these complementors directly help in pushing up the sales of the business. 4. SWOT Analysis 5. External factor Analysis External strategic forces.

Weight Rating Weighted score Comments Opportunities 1. India Large market .18 4 .72 Second most populated nation of the world 2. Increase in spending power .15 3 .45 The GDP or the purchasing power is rising adequately 3. Youth population .13 4 .52 Youth are the ones who are more prone and exposed to cafes 4. Favourable labour cost .07 2 .14 Easily available manpower at lower costs 5. Favourable infrastructure cost .07 2 .14 Low and easy access to infrastructure 6. Opportunity to serve the tea drinking segment .05 1 .05 A major portion of population is attracted towards tea drinking. Threats 1. Low per capita income.

.07 3 .21 Huge requirement to extend products at competitive prices 2. Increasing health consciousness .04 1 .04 3. Competiton from fast food joints .04 3 .12 Mc Donalds, Pizza Hut, Subway 4. Hiking coffee prices .06 3 .18 5. Tea drinking segment .10 4 .4 This segment consumes tea at least twice a day 6. Rare habit of travelling to cafes .04 1 .04 Total score 1. 00 3. 01 The EFE matrix is made by comparing the coffee industry with the other beverage industry in India and weights and ratings are assumed according to personal knowledge. Considering the external factors effecting the industry EFE matrix is created.

A score of more then 2. 5 reflects that the industry has more than average capability in response to external forces particularly the beverage industry in India. 6. Internal Factor Analysis Internal strategic forces Weight Rating Weighted Score Comments Strengths 1. Increasing Coffee demand .18 4 .72 Changing lifestyle leading to coffee adaptation 2. Favourable labour relations .15 3 .45 3. Non-perishable commodity .12 4 .48 Coffee is a non-perishable commodity which has no threat of being spoiled easily. Weakness 1. Low dominance over price .15 2 .3 Due to competitors in the industry.

2. Heavy export of coffee .05 1 .05 Low domestic consumption 3. High operating cost .2.5 1 .25 Total 1 2. 25 In the above tables, Column 1 depicts the strategic factors Column 2 depicts weight assigned to each strategic factor from 0 to 1 i. e. not important to most important Column 3 depicts the rating assigned to each factor wherein a scale of 1-4 is used. It signifies industry’s present response to each factor. In EFE matrix 1-4 is responses from poor to superior and In IFE 1-2 is major and minor weakness and 3-4 is major and minor strength. Column 4 gives in the weighted score.

Column 5 represents the comments for the strategic factors Since internal factor analysis is used to judge wether the company is performing inline with the expected strengths and weaknesses or not. Generally an average score of 2. 5 on 10 is expected. After the analysis, we conclude that the internal weigted score of coffee industry in India is almost in line with 2. 5,reflected that the respected industry is running as astrong business internally as well. 7. Value Chain It is a series of activities aimed at delivering maximum value to a customer, through a product or service, at the minimum cost.

This model analyses how a firm procures raw materials, adds value to these material through various processes and sells the finished product to the ultimate consumer. All these functions are performed with the objective of maximizing customer value at minimum cost. The value chain of the retail coffee industry consists of the following processes and activities: 7. 1 Primary activities 7. 1. 1 Inbound Logistics: This is primarily concerned with the procurement of raw materials in the form of coffee beans and various types of dairy products, required by all the coffee retail outlets.

The aim is to procure high quality materials so that best of the flavours is served to the customers. Cafe Coffee Day does in-house sourcing through coffee estates owned by the company. Starbucks Coffee and Barista Lavazza chains have sourcing agreement with Tata Coffee. Cafe Nescafe, owned by Nestle works through community farming, where it provides high yielding quality, disease resistant seeds to the farmers for improved productivity. The company provides regular and fair remuneration to the farmers. Dairy products are also sourced through community farming. 7. 1.

2 Operations: There are various operations involved in the business of retail coffee outlets. The most important operation to be performed is roasting of the coffee beans, which gives the taste, flavor and smell to the coffee. Tata coffee provides roasting services to Starbucks and Barista through its own roasting facility. The outlets undertake all the operations to run an outlet like preparation of items, serving them to the customers and billing, etc. Starbucks and Cafe Coffee Day work on the model wherein order is taken and served to the customers on the table, whereas Barista works as self-service outlet.

7. 1. 3 Outbound Logistics: The customers are serviced through company owned or licensed retail outlets, which may be in the form of lounge, highway cafes or store-in-store. The stores are set up in centralized locations, which are easily accessible to the customers, in order to achieve maximum footfall. According to a business standard report, top 40 cities in India have around 1700 coffee outlets. CCD is the largest coffee chain in India with 1200 outlets, followed by Barista having 154 outlets and Starbucks having 21 outlets. Starbucks also sells some of its products through retail stores and super markets.

7. 1. 4 Marketing and Sales: Companies undertake various promotional activities to attract a large number of customers, which may be in the form of sponsorships and co-marketing initiatives. Customers are also benefited through loyalty card programs, carrying various offers and advantages. Value meal combos attract students who have low purchasing power. Marketing is also done through TV and media sources. All this is done to maximize sales. 7. 1. 5 Services: Coffee retail industry relies on the quality of service to the customers. These chains don’t sell coffee, they sell experience.

For this, highly trained staff is recruited to provide high quality customer service. Other services offered are newspapers, magazines and free Wi-Fi to the customers. 7. 2 Support services 7. 2. 1 Firm Infrastructure: In order to have a smooth flow of operations, the companies need to have sound infrastructure for accounting, planning, finance, management, etc. The retail outlets have inviting interiors and comfortable seating space. 7. 2. 2 Human Resource Management: Human Resources are the most valuable assets of any organization, and same also goes with these retail coffee chains.

Highly trained people are recruited to provide high quality customer service. Various training and motivation programs are conducted to further enhance the skills of these people, which will add to the customer value. 7. 2. 3 Technology: Companies have started using latest technology to perform their operations. Computerized roasting machines are being used to maintain the consistency in the flavour of coffee beans. Barista has installed control systems like Total Quality Management to ensure the quality of materials distributed. Latest software is being used to achieve maximum operational efficiency.

7. 2. 4 Procurement: In order to achieve maximum customer satisfaction, companies need to procure raw materials that are of best quality available in the market. Companies also need to source furniture, kitchen equipment, utensils, etc. , which act as complements in the operations of coffee retail outlets. All the above-mentioned activities aim to maximize the customer value at the minimum cost. 8. PESTEL Analysis A strategic framework of macro economic , political, economical, socio-cultural, technological, environmental, and legal factors include :- 8. 1 Political factors.

Indian coffee board has proved a helping hand to the coffee industry of the same after 1996 de-regulation of coffee marketing. after it it has grown up as a free market leading to a four times growth in its trade. around 70-80% of the country’s production is exported . A coffee produced with set standards named fair trade coffee is one of the major constituents to coffee retailing. the one managing this in the country is fair trade alliance , kerela. Starbucks in India is certified to fair trade coffee provider ,whereas barista lavazza has fair trade coffee compliance abroad buit not in India and same is the case with dunkin donuts. 8.

2 Economical factors Development in lifestyle of people and coffee turning as a delighting factor in the economy ,the consumption of coffee is taking a pace. Increase in consumption by urban young generation is expected to take the industry at a whopping business of around 2250 crores by the year 2017. Though it currently stands at Rs. 1100 with its major players trading like barista, CCd etc. The infrastructure developements, the enhancing demand and smoothing trade procedure leads to incremental trade for the industry. A coffeeproduced with set standards named fair trade coffee is one of the major condstituents to coffee retailing.

The one managing this in the country is fair trade alliance,kerela. Starbucks inIindia is certified to fair trade coffee provider , whereas barista lavazza has fair trade coffee compliance abroad but not in India and same is the case with dunkin donuts 8. 3 Socio- Cultural factors Catering to the ever increasing population of the country, it is the responsibility of the businesses to look for to the socio economic factors in place . For instance, the development in lifestyle of people is leading to increase in the coffee consumption in the country.

Keeping these factors into mind businesses like cafe coffee day claims of training 400-500mpeople every month to enhance employment and as a part of responsibility to the society, MC Donalds along with CCD keep staff to clean right under your feet. Similar to those dunkin donuts provides 21 day training program to the staff to help customers better. As a part of social responsibility 50% Costa coffee employees in Delhi and NCR are deaf people.

8. 4 Technological factors With the changing lifestyle and gezmo addicted generation, one cannot afford to have a internet free cafe . The presence of bluetooths and wifi within the outlets of coffee companies is the basic requirement to get on the customer to the shop. The comfort of checking the emails, organising commercial meetings in the coffee shops an sitting there for hours requires the business to have a wifi enabled cafe. For eg -starbucks (India) uses help AT&T(India) to provide a click, no password facility for easy internet accessSalong with there mobile apps and various online facilties. Moreover whotspot also helps in proving in these facilities.

Barista lavazza uses strategy ‘ internet with mugs’ named strategy to lure customers in contract with spectranet. Along with this value addition it also provide facilities like hot deals with customers downloading deal on their tablets or smartphones and avail the services on the spot. 8. 5 Environmental factors The weather conditions play a major role in production of coffee. Environmental factors in case of coffee is the seasonal dependecy of the amount of coffee produced across different seasons.

For instance:- with on time monsoon this year in the country,the coffee production in southern area of country raised upto 8-10%. in india other factors on which the coffee production depends are the pest infestation and limitation of mechanisation. conserving water, recycling,energy and plastic management etc are also few termenologies which companies takecare off.

8. 6 Legal factors Legal establishments popping up prooved as aiding cushions to the domestic market of the industry as well along with the outside trade. with liberalisation of industries in 1991 this particular industry was also benefited. One of the drastic help was with the FDI in retail industry i. e around 51% which turned trade more smoother then before.

Tarrif charges in india are 40-605 on raw material and 60-100% on semi finished goods. Mc Donalds bring its coffee reatailing from its brand mccafe originated in melbourne,australlia. Starbucks got the way to enter in Indian markets after FDI was allowed by government but still restriction to get 30% of sourcing from SME’s of India. Indian institute of plantation management, Banglore (IIPM)usually takes up the responsibility of coffee retailing in the country along with its entrepreneurship and development. 9. Conclusion The coffee retail industry in India is on the expansion path and has doubled over the last decade.

The present size of the market is estimated at Rs. 1520 crore, which is expected to reach Rs. 3775 core by the year 2018, a CAGR of around 20%. Earlier there was no such demand for moving out of the houses for coffee consumption but the emerging coffee retail chains have changed the scenario triggering consumption need amongst the young adults. Serving the evolutionary phase exceptionally well, these coffee retail chains are overwhelmed with the response in the Indian market are planning further expansion of their networks in the country.

The above analysis of porter’s five forces highlights that the profitability of the industry is expanding with westernised culture being adapted by Indians. (Porters 5 force analysis). The snack and merchandise industry are complementing the coffee retail industry very effectively thereby leading to inflated sales and profits for these retail houses. (complementors).

Reflected by the study of strategy of coffee industry hereby conclude that the Indian coffee industry is a strong respondent to the external factors (EFA matrix) as well as internally also industry is doing well(IFA matrix).

To increase the figures of sales and profitability, a number of varieties of coffee and eatables are offered, targeted at different price-points of the market. The companies are using innovative strategies and marketing tactics. A large young population, rapid urbanization and changing lifestyle, coupled with not-so-difficult entry into the market have attracted a large number of domestic and foreign players in the country. Global brands like Starbucks are keen in investing in the Indian market due to the huge potential it displays.

This is evident from the sizeable revenues that these brands have generated over the years. (PESTEL and Value chain). Only home grown coffee is served in the Indian market as coffee import attracts a duty of 120%. Coffee beans are sourced from company owned estates or through the means of community farming. Companies with established brand names are able to run their business successfully, whereas small business houses are in a way struggling to compete in the market.

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Coffee retail Essay

Yuban coffee Essay

Yuban coffee Essay.

I. Introduction/Executive Summary and Product Description Yuban coffee is a brand of coffee you can find in your local grocery store that you probably did not know existed. It was founded by John Arbuckle, a famous coffee roaster, who has invented the original Yuban coffee in 1986. Yuban coffee only uses the best Arabica beans. In addition, Yuban is certificated by the Rainforest Alliance, which declares that at least 30% of Yuban coffee is organic.

Chemical fertilizers and pesticides are not used on the organically grown beans and the rainforest alliance also works to sustain agriculture, forestry and tourism in the regions of the forest that the coffee beans are grown.

More recently, Yuban coffee has been slowly grown, if grown at all, and has not been reaching its full potential. The main problem of Yuban is the lack of brand awareness and an unsuccessful marketing strategy. When the marketing strategy changes to solve these problems, it will make the Yuban brand more competitive and successful in the coffee market.

Our marketing plan will be discussed in detail in the pages to come, but our general objective is to build brand awareness by defining and marketing towards a more specific target market. Also, with the implementation in of our recommendations, Yuban coffee will be able to reach this objective.

Ultimately our marketing plan will consist of the following: 1. Increase Yuban’s brand image by: a. increasing brand awareness from business-to customers / Business-to-Business markets by penetrating the online and social media sectors b. creation and implementation of the vending machine/coffee brewing machine c.using recent acquisitions to push the Yuban name d. redesigning product packaging to reflect environmentally conscious brand II.

Target Customer Analysis People in the United State love coffee, just like how people in China love tea. Research suggests that 50% of the population of United States drinks coffee and those coffee drinkers in the United State drinking more than 3 cups of coffee each day! Aside from the United States there are so many other people in the world who love coffee (E-imports, 2012). This makes coffee become the second valuable trading product after oil.

For the people who love coffee, most of them have a favorite brand, even a specific taste. So for Yuban, they have a big market and great opportunity to develop. Yuban coffee is certified by the Rainforest Alliance Certification, which means Yuban coffee is healthier and environment friendly. “Made from 100% premium Arabica beans, YUBAN mountain-grown coffees offer uncompromising, robust flavor and seductive aroma” (Kraft. com). Also, because of this reason, Yuban coffee is more expensive than some other instant coffee, especially its caffeine-free organic coffee.

Therefore, the target customer of Yuban coffee should be those people who are environmentally and health conscious, and willing to pay more money on coffee. In figure 2. 1 of the Appendix, the two charts show the difference purchasing power on different generations. We can see in the first chart that people in age 25-34, 35-44, and 45-54 have the strongest purchasing power. And people now in those ages fall into 3 generations different generations, the Baby boomer (1946-1965), Generation X (1966-1976) and the Millennial Generation (1977-1992).

We feel the older generation being the baby boomers may not care too much about being health conscious, but if we had the time and money we would want to research this to find out if they are a part of our target market. The younger generation, being the millennial generation is anyone currently age 21-34. Then you finally have the last generation, which is Generation X, who includes anyone currently 37-47 years old. So, out of these 3 generations it will be in our best interest to go with the millennial generation. They have good economic condition, and they have good education background.

It means they can afford higher price of coffee, and the Millennial generation will be the most environmentally conscious, which we will discuss in another part of the paper. III. Competitor Analysis Yuban competes in the premium coffee bean and ground coffee market. While there are numerous coffee brands competing in the North American marketplace, most of these compete on a cost leadership strategy.

Only a few competitors such as Green Mountain Coffee, J. M. Smucker’s Folgers are brands which have small premium distributors such as Fair Winds Coffee and Organic Coffee Co., and all compete in the premium coffee category within the environmentally friendly and fair trade category (Agas, 2006; Statistics, 2013).

These brands specifically differentiate on quality rather than cost. Market Share of Main Competitors: The coffee bean and grind industry is highly fractured in terms of market share. While Yuban only has some 1. 93% of the marketplace, companies such as Folgers and Maxwell House have 21. 6% and 14. 62% respectively but with down market products (Statistics, 2013). Thus, it is quite clear that there is extensive room for further growth of the Yuban brand.

Market Structure: The coffee industry is an extremely competitive one. However, the market structure of the coffee industry and specifically the coffee bean industry that provides the raw materials for Yuban could be described as an oligopoly. The specific characteristics of this oligopoly are, however, more reminiscent of a cartel because a relatively small number of suppliers control the supply and distribution of coffee beans globally (Igami, 2011). Consequently, Yuban, which is a brand within the Kraft Foods umbrella, has limited choice in selecting its supplies.

The coffee bean industry was controlled officially through a cartel structure until 1989 under the International Coffee Agreement or ICA but thereafter market competition with new entrants such as Vietnam eroded the control of this official cartel organization (Igami, 2011). Yet, because coffee bean production is largely limited to certain geographic regions, these countries’ governments express a great deal of control over which entities control production and distribution. Competitive Barriers: There are a number of significant competitive barriers within the coffee bean and coffee grind industry.

While virtually any firm can purchase the raw materials or even the finished product in the form of ground coffee, the packaging and distribution of the product is a much more sophisticated endeavor. The most significant competitive barrier is the establishment of a retail distribution channel which requires negotiated shelf space in retail outlets, distribution channels including warehousing and transportation services and product packaging and design facilities (Amato & Amato, 2009). All of these factors require both material resources as well as managerial competencies that must be established prior to actually entering into the industry.

Sources of Competitive Advantage: Yuban’s coffee retail coffee industry has several sources of competitive advantage. The primary source of competitive advantage for Yuban is its parent corporation’s size, scale and revenues. Kraft as a corporation that earned more than $18. 3 million during 2012 and its coffee products which include Yuban contributed an estimated 8% of these revenues to Kraft’s earnings for that period (Annual, 2012). Consequently, Yuban has access to Kraft’s considerable financial resources as well as its developed competencies in the selling and marketing competencies of major food product brands.

IV. External environment analysis Economic environment: The main emerging markets in coffee consumption especially in Asia and South America market under the background of rising, global demand for coffee during fiscal year 2011 to 2012 rose 2%. During the fiscal year 2012 to 2013, global coffee production stabilized at about 146 million bales (60 kg per bag). Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide and in the United States. There are 183 million coffee drinkers in US and a 7% increase over 2011 in coffee consumption.

Technological environment: Modern technology can improve the production process and achieve economies of scale. Ultimately sophisticated technology can help coffee production in many factors, the product brand, and the coffee beans. Ultimetly, the process of producing good quality coffee beans is relatively the same with some secrets of the drying process that differ. In our recommendations, we suggest the introduction of coffee vending machines, which will be an area that Yuban will differentiate itself from the rest of the coffee market.

Political and legal environment: Low production of coffee beans, causing unstable climate could lead to a protectionist producers. So higher import prices to offset the damage caused by the low production. Yuban coffee is already rainforest certified, and thus the political environment is in its favor and will only cause it to grow more to become a more active leader in this political and legal area. Cultural and social environment: More than 50% of Americans drink coffee every day.

This represents more than 150 million daily drinkers. 30 million U. S.adults have professional coffee drinks daily, which includes drinks such as mocha lattes, coffee, mocha coffees, cappuccino, and etc. 65% of coffee consumption in the breakfast time, between meals, with the remaining 5% and other foods. At the same time, 35% of coffee drinkers prefer black coffee.

V. Company Analysis Yuban is an inexpensive brand of South American coffee. Comparing the same kind of coffee, Yuban provides lower price coffee than other brand in the market. Though Yuban coffee offers a lower price, it also emphasizes the quality of the product. Strength: Yuban provides 100% Arabica beans which are the finest coffee beans.

To support the high quality coffee beans, the company gets the Arabica beans from some of the best coffee growing regions in the world, and the highest quality coffee beans are sourced from some of the finest beans grown in Central and South America. Thus, Yuban will continue to be made with 100 percent Arabica beans but not 100 percent from Colombia, and some of them from Brazil, Peru and Nicaragua and so on. In addition, to avoid ruining the coffee’s flavor, Yuban used a sugar and egg glaze on the beans in a roasting process, ensuring to keep the flavor of the beans a rich taste.

Currently, Yuban is owned by Kraft Foods which is the world’s biggest buyer of Rainforest Alliance-certified coffee. And Yuban has been granted certification with the Rainforest Alliance in 2006. It means that there are at least 30% of its beans are organic. According to the certification, Yuban not only uses environmentally friendly farming methods, it is also required to provide a fair system to worker and efficient farm management. It is to keep the product quality in a high level while still supporting the team who is responsible for growing and protecting Yuban coffee beans. Weakness:

Yuban does not have its own official website. If people want to buy Yuban coffee, they can only purchase it off of websites like Amazon and of course super markets. In a shopping website like Amazon, there are many different kinds of coffee brand, not just Yuban coffee. In fact, if people buy an instant coffee or coffee beans, most of them have a particular brand they buy and will not search another brand’s product. Consumers just focus on what they need and in this situation Yuban is not targeting its target customer because it is sharing the arena with many other coffee options available too.

Yuban also does not have a renowned brand of coffee name or customer loyalty. An official website is useful to let customers focus on your brand’s product, and support more detail information about your company. It is an image that you are selling the customers. Thus, this is a weakness for Yuban coffee. Opportunity: People lifestyles are changing because more and more people enjoy drinking coffee, especially when humans reach a certain age in their life that is acceptable to drink coffee. Yuban can use the change of lifestyle trend to promote its coffee.

After all, Yuban coffee is historic brand in coffee market, and it will give consumer confidence to taste its coffee. Thus, it is a good chance to increase the market share. Moreover, Yuban is owned by Kraft Foods which is one of the top 500 companies in the world. It can use Kraft Foods’ awareness and resources to attract more customers, because people may know what Kraft Foods is, but they may not know what Yuban is. Thus, Kraft Foods can support the confidence for the consumer, when the consumer consider whether to buy Yuban coffee or no. Yuban coffee also does not own different kind of coffee products.

It keeps the style of traditional instant coffee, and launches several different types of coffee to suit customer preferences. So far, there are no other products other than instant coffee or whole coffee beans. Regardless of the season Yuban coffee products do not change where as some other coffee brands may offer different roasts or blends. There is an opportunity here because it can develop some new products which are based on 4 seasons a year. This can help attract more potential customers if we offer something different from time to time but still maintain our original product.

Yuban coffee is also not packaged with much innovation to differentiate itself and sell. Yuban can increase market share through diversifying the products and also focusing on the packaging to offer a design that matches the purpose of it. Threat: Yuban coffee is certified through the Rainforest Alliance, but that only guarantees 30 percent of the beans in any package of Yuban coffee are organically grown. It means that there are 70 percent of Yuban coffee product that do not probably come from ecologically-sensitive farms.

Customer may focus on the 70 percent of Yuban coffee product and worry about the quality of them. Yuban strives to support lower price and high quality product, but the organically grown coffee beans are more expensive than coffee beans that are not organically grown. If more and more customers pay more attention to this, Yuban coffee will lose some customers. Thus, this is one of the threats for Yuban coffee. What’s more, in the external environment, the economic recession will reduce customers’ demand of coffee, and there are many competitors in the coffee market, such as Folgers, Maxwell House, and Nescafe.

However, Yuban coffee does not focus on the promotions or advertisements. It will affect the company’s business. It probably reduces its sales and profits, even market share. Thus, Yuban must confront these problems, and how to solve them. VI. Marketing Information Requirements In our research, we learned that Kraft Foods has a wide portfolio of recognized roast and ground coffee brands that is unique to every type of coffee customer. Their portfolio includes Maxwell House, Gevalia Kaffe, Yuban, and Cafe Collection.

Yuban coffee is made from 100% premium Arabica beans, is mountain grown coffee which offers uncompromising, robust flavor and seductive aroma. According to the Kraft food website, Yuban coffee is made to appeal to those consumers who demand environmentally conscious products. Thus, Yuban coffee is perfect choice for customers who want to make a difference in the world. This strategy of marketing Yuban coffee to the environmentally conscious is part of our objective, however, Kraft foods has not differentiated who the environmentally conscious really are.

We discussed earlier who our target market included, but let us take a closer look and understand them and their habits better. In a study conducted by Generate Insight (2009) “69% of millennial’s surveyed expressed genuine interest in the environment, but they also admitted to a lack of personal involvement in green-related activities. In short, this group understands the why but is unsure of the how” (Gaudelli, 1). Thus it will be our job to tap into how they can be a part of the green movement.

If we had the time and money, which Kraft does have, we would recommend doing marketing research on the three generations which include gen x, baby boomers and the millenials to understand their buying habits especially when it comes to choosing an environmental conscious product over one that is not. VII. Marketing Mix Product: The package of Yuban coffee suggests that its drinkers can have great tasting cup of java and feel that they are participating in doing something great for coffee farmers as well as the environment. Yuban is grown according to Rain forest Alliance Certified standards and also applies organic coffee beans.

Therefore, the product has two benefits, being better for the rain forest and world, and is also organic, which means you can feel really good when you drink Yuban. The package description also comprises information of there being a minimum of 30% Rain Forest Alliance Certified Coffee in each bag which is supposed to help in conservation of the environment as well as support coffee farmers (Cliath, 2007). Yuban coffee has a very distinctive smell than any other coffee. It has a fresh and pleasant smell, loaded with a fresh ground coffee bean fragrance.

It is mild and has no bitter after taste (Cliath, 2007). The introduction stage is the first stage in the life cycle where the coffee was introduced to the market. At this stage there were low sales with high retail prices. Then there is the growth stage that is characterized by rapid increase in sales. This happened when the Yuban coffee was just introduced to the market. It is believed by some industries that Yuban coffee is still in the growth stage, signs indicate that it is in the maturity stage. In the maturity stage, there is high brand awareness, high distribution, and lower prices.

Yuban coffee is believed to be in this stage (Cliath, 2007) however, we feel differently about this. We feel that Yuban can be reintroduced into the market with our recommendation and back track to the introduction and growth stage once more. The coffee is packaged in what seems to be a 12 ounce bags. Today it is packaged in the traditional preserved coffee containers, or in coffee cases. Coffee cases are individually sealed cups of premeasured grounds, designed for use in one cup coffee makers. They are packaged in reasonable pouches for convenience and freshness and the label also contains a K for Kosher on the outside.

There is no indication through whether the bag is made of recyclable material or is (Cliath, 2007). Thus Yuban is not differentiating its packaging in relation to its purpose either. Customer service is required for the coffee brand so as to get the feedback from the customers on what they need improved. The product also does come with a warranty from the company. Customers are assured of the quality in the product. Place: Some products need much less market exposure than others. An ideal market exposure degree makes the coffee available widely enough to reach the target customer’s needs.

This however, should not be exceeded. The ideal exposure degree involves intensive distribution, selective distribution, as well as exclusive distribution (Cliath, 2007). Yuban coffee is distributed both at the wholesale and the retail level. It distributed all across nations of the world. One is likely to get Yuban coffee at the supermarkets, retail shops, and coffee shops. It is also distributed directly by the company to the wholesalers. The product is aimed at individuals who feel that they are participating in the preservation of the environment and minimize or stop further destruction to the rain forest (Cliath, 2007).

With our recommendation of introducing the Yuban vending machine, placing these machines in call centers across the nation, colleges and universities will be another way to introduce our environmentally conscious product to our target market. Promotion: The promotion objectives are to get customers to remain committed to buying environmentally conscious products and our customers will feel like they are doing their part in sustaining the world and environment through their purchase of Yuban coffee. Promotion Blend:

The advertising plan will focus mainly launching a website for Yuban as well as its own Facebook, YouTube and other media site promotions. Though print advertising can be very beneficial we will try not to dive too deep in this area as we are promoting an environmentally conscious product and want to track our carbon footprint. Our copy thrust will be more psychological to ensure that customers are aware that they are doing the right thing by choosing to buy Yuban coffee. Personal selling can be used especially if we show customers who and where the original Yuban coffee beans are grown and cared for.

This can be demonstrated through videos on YouTube and also shared on our Facebook page and website, similar to what Kashi does with their cereal products. Yuban can initiate a reward system that if their coffee packaging is recycled to certain grocery stores they can get a discount on the next Yuban coffee product they buy. Again here, customers can feel good about this buying process. Publicity will be used when we introduce Yuban coffee in the coffee shop recommendation through Tom n Toms and Urth Cafe. It will become recognized as the coffee used in these shops and slowly grow to the coffee used in customer homes and so on and so forth.

Price: The demand for an entirely organic coffee is price sensitive because the cultivation of organic coffee is difficult. Thus, if we can figure out what the minimum requirements are to be certified as organic in FDA standards and such, then maybe 30% is good enough and we do not have to promote that our product is only 30% organic, and we can call it entirely organic if the requirements are not demanding. The pricing strategy for Yuban would be price slightly higher than competitors such as Folgers but only because of the environmental work that goes into sustaining what Yuban believes in.

Also, by pricing our coffee slightly higher we can including something in our promotion that a part of the revenue from sales is pumped back into the environment to fix what matters most in the world environmentally. Yuban can offer discounts if their packaging is recyclable or reusable. We may be able to start an imitation to return Yuban coffee cans or jars to grocery stores to get a discount on their next Yuban purchase. This goes in line with what Yuban is all about and is also a discount to the customer which will get them to continually buy our brand of coffee. VIII.

Recommendations and Implementation Brand recognition is very important and closely connected to the implementation of our recommendations. We recommend that Kraft first redesign and assign Yuban its own website so customers are aware of the different product offering and what this brand of coffee is all about. In the Internet age, people have always enjoyed looking on the different websites for the information they can find on each individual product, however, there is no independent or well put together website for Yuban coffee, which will make it difficult for investors to learn more.

For example, Folgers which is another brand of coffee that everyone knows quite well due to the Folgers jingle actually has its own website despite the fact that it is a part of the Smuckers Company. Kraft food also has a portfolio of coffee that is targeted to different customers, however, Yuban has not been given that independence or leadership to stand alone or gain reputation. Maxwell House Coffee, the second of the 4 coffee brands/products of Kraft Foods has its own website, Facebook, and YouTube. Though Yuban is a product of Kraft Foods, Yuban has a poorly designed website with little information on it at all.

Also, the Yuban page in Kraft Company official site is very simple. Yuban is a coffee made under the Kraft Food line, and it appears they are unwilling to pour in the proper funds needed to fund a separate Yuban Coffee Website. Customers are considered as the backbone of any businesses. Hence, Yuban need to be well aware of their customers’ satisfaction for their products or services, especially in their efforts to track the ‘environmentally conscious’ customer base. Also, Yuban should conclude problems reported by customers and try to fix the problems, which benefit the company’s further development.

In addition, another recommendation for Yuban is that the brand can also develop vending machines that will provide hot coffee and specialty drinks with the touch of a button or two. Yuban is well known as a ground coffee product. However, making a coffee run to the nearest Starbucks or local coffee shop is not an option during the day. Hence, our recommendation of vending machines is also a very convenient to those customers. Especially if the machines are placed in locations such as college hallways and buildings where students are only allowed enough time to grab a quick beverage or snack during their short break.

Placing the vending machines in call centers where hours of operations usually start early in the morning and are located in large multi-level buildings that grind and brew a cup of fresh coffee is would be a strategy which would allow Kraft foods to tap into the coffee machine business because not only would Kraft supply the coffee, which is Yuban in our case, but it would also sell the machine that brews the coffee to these business, or collect some sort of rent or lease for having it.

Our third and final recommendation would be to become the coffee supplier of coffee shops such as Tom n Tom’s and Urth Cafe. Tom n Tom’s has an interesting location base in Los Angeles, Australia, Singapore and Thailand. They do not however carry or brew good quality coffee. Thus, by becoming the sole coffee provider for Tom n Tom’s will be a win-win situation. Urth Cafe is a cafe which offers exclusively organic coffee and tea, Yuban would fall into this category and could provide lower prices than other organically grown coffee.

Though Urth Cafe currently only has location here in Los Angeles, it is only an example of the position that Yuban coffee can take in the market. Appendix Figure 2. 1 Figure 8. 1 Research and make improvement Time Event Cost Note One month Redesign a new website $30,000 Two months Shot video on You Tube $50,000 Three months Research and make improvement Included in customer service Long time Customer service department 200,000 per year Work Cited Agas, G. (2006).

Conscious choice: Yuban coffee. Natural Health, 36(10), pp. 20-24. Amato, L.

H. , & Amato, C. H. (2009). Changing retail power and performance in distribution channels. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 37(12), pp. 1057-1076. Annual form 10-K. (2012). Kraft Foods, Investor Relations (online).

Retrieved from: http://ir. kraftfoodsgroup. com /sec. cfm Igami, M. (2011). Oligopoly in International Commodity Markets: The Case of Coffee Beans. Available at SSRN 1531401. Statistics and facts on the coffee market in the U. S. (2013). Statista Research Publications, 01(05), pp. 1-72. E-imports.

Coffee Statistics.

Retrieved from http://www. e-importz. com/Support/specialty_coffee. htm Kraft. (n. d. ). Your customers care. about the planet. about people.. Retrieved from Oches, S. (2012, November). Meet your customer. Retrieved from http://www. qsrmagazine. com/consumer-trends/meet-your-consumer Cliath, A. (January 01, 2007). Seeing Shades. Organization & Environment, 20, 4, 413-439. Gaudelli, Janis. The Greenest Generation (April 29, 2009).

Yuban coffee Essay

History of Coffee Essay

History of Coffee Essay.

Coffee is one of the world’s most poplar beverages. Some claim it is the most widely consumed liquid in the world aside from water. Coffee is more than a beverage , however. It is a memory , anticipation, a lifetime of consoling moments of modest pleasure woven into our lives. Coffee’s success as a beverage undoubtedly owes both to the caffeine it harbors and to its sensory pleasure. Coffee lovers come to associate the energizing lift of the caffeine with richness and aroma of the beverage that delivers it.

Coffee is grown in more than 50 countries around the world and the principal commercial crop of over a dozen countries, half of which earns 25% to 50% of their foreign exchange revenue from coffee exports. More than 10 billion pounds of coffee beans are grown per year, providing more than 20 million jobs. Coffee is indigenous to Ethiopia and was most likely discovered as a food before it became a drink. The most popular legend of how coffee was discovered involves an Abyssinian goat herder named kaldi.

Kaldi awoke one night to find his goats dancing around a tree speckled with red cherries.

When he tasted one of the cherries, he too started dancing with the goats. As interesting as this story may be it is more likely that coffee was used as a food supplement by wandering Ethiopian tribes-men. The tribes-men are said to have squashed the coffee cherries and carried them on long journeys, eating them for nourishment as needed. Later, the coffee cherries were soaked in water, possibly to make wine, but some historians say it was not until 1000 AD, when the Arabs discovered how to boil, that coffee was serve hot.

Coffee was also believed to have medicinal properties. Avicenna, an Islamic physician and philosopher of the eleventh century, said of coffee: “It fortifies the members, it cleans the skin and dries up the humilities that are under it, and gives an excellent smell to all the body” CHAPTER – 1 HISTORY OF COFFEE HISTORY OF COFFEE [pic] Palestinian women grinding coffee the old fashioned way, 1905 The history of coffee goes at least as far back as the fifteenth century, though coffee’s origins remain unclear.

It had been believed that Ethiopian ancestors of today’s Oromo people were the first to have discovered and recognized the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant. However, no direct evidence has been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant or even known about it, earlier than the 17th century. The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee, did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal. From Ethiopia, coffee was said to have spread to Egypt and Yemen.

The arliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen. It was here in Arabia that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed, in a similar way to how it is now prepared. By the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. Coffee then spread to Italy, and to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and tothe Americas. Origins Etymology: The word “coffee” entered English in 1598 via Dutch koffie.

This word was created via Turkish kahve, the Turkish pronunciation Arabic qahwa, a truncation of qahhwat al-bun or wine of the bean. One possible origin of the name is the Kingdom of Kaffa in Ethiopia, where the coffee plant originated; its name there is bunn or bunna. Legendary accounts. There are several legendary accounts of the origin of the drink itself. One account involves the Yemenite Sufi mystic Shaikh ash-Shadhili. When traveling in Ethiopia, the legend goes; he observed goats of unusual vitality, and, upon trying the berries that the goats had been eating, experienced the same vitality.

A similar “Legend of Dancing Goats” attributes the discovery of coffee to an Ethiopian goatherder named Kaldi. The story of Kaldi did not appear in writing until 1671, and these stories are considered to be apocryphal. It used to be believed Ethiopian ancestors of today’s Oromo tribe, were the first to have recognized the energizing effect of the native coffee plant.

Studies of genetic diversity have been performed on Coffea arabica varieties, found to be of low diversity but which retained some residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, and closely-related diploid species Coffea canephora and C.liberica; however, no direct evidence has ever been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant, or known about it there, earlier than the seventeenth century.

The Muslim world: The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge Of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia.

It was in Yemen that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed as they are today. From Mocha, coffee spread to Egypt and North Africa, and by the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia and Turkey. From the Muslim world, coffee drinking spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, and coffee plants were transported by the Dutch to the East Indies and to the Americas. Syrian Bedouin from a beehive village in Aleppo, Syria, sipping the traditional murra (bitter) coffee, 1930.

The earliest mention of coffee noted by the literary coffee merchant Philippe Sylvestre Dufour is a reference to bunchum in the works of the 10th century CE Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, known as Rhazes in the West, but more definite information on the preparation of a beverage from the roasted coffee berries dates from several centuries later. The most important of the early writers on coffee was io-de-caprio, who in 1587 compiled a work tracing the history and legal controversies of coffee entitled Umdat al safwa fi hill al-qahwa.

He reported that one Sheikh, Jamal-al-Din al-Dhabhani, mufti of Aden, was the first to adopt the use of coffee (circa 1454). Coffee’s usefulness in driving away sleep made it popular among Sufis. A translation traces the spread of coffee from Arabia Felix (the present day Yemen) northward to Mecca and Medina, and then to the larger cities of Cairo, Damascus, Baghdad, and Istanbul. Coffee beans were first exported from Ethiopia to Yemen. Yemeni traders brought coffee back to their homeland and began to cultivate the bean. The first coffeehouse opened in Istanbul in 1554.

Coffee was at first not well received. In 1511, it was forbidden for its stimulating effect by conservative, orthodox imams at a theological court in Mecca. However, the popularity of the drink led these bans to be overturned in 1524 by an order of the Ottoman Turkish Sultan Selim I, with Grand Mufti Mehmet Ebussuud el-Imadi issuing a celebrated fatwa allowing the consumption of coffee. In Cairo, Egypt, a similar ban was instituted in 1532, and the coffeehouses and warehouses containing coffee beans were sacked. Similarly, coffee was banned by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church some time before the 12th century.

However, in the second half of the 19th century, Ethiopian attitudes softened towards coffee drinking, and its consumption spread rapidly between 1880 and 1886; according to Richard Pankhurst, “this was largely due to [Emperor] Menilek, who himself drank it, and to Abuna Matewos who did much to dispel the belief of the clergy that it was a Muslim drink. ” Europe [pic] Dutch engraving of Mocha in 1692 Coffee was noted in Ottoman Aleppo by the German physician botanist Leonhard Rauwolf, the first European to mention it, as chaube, in 1573; Rauwolf was closely followed by descriptions from other European travellers.

Coffee was first imported to Italy from the Ottoman Empire. The vibrant trade between Venice and the Muslims in North Africa, Egypt, and the East brought a large variety of African goods, including coffee, to this leading European port. Venetian merchants introduced coffee-drinking to the wealthy in Venice, charging them heavily for the beverage. In this way, coffee was introduced to Europe. Coffee became more widely accepted after controversy over whether it was acceptable during Lent was settled in its favor by Pope Clement VIII in 1600, despite appeals to ban the drink.

The first European coffee house (apart from those in the Ottoman Empire, mentioned above) was opened in Venice in 1645. England Largely through the efforts of the British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company, coffee became available in England no later than the 16th century according to Leonhard Rauwolf’s 1583 account. The first coffeehouse in England was opened in St. Michael’s Alley in Cornhill. The proprietor was Pasqua Rosee, the servant of Daniel Edwards, a trader in Turkish goods. Edwards imported the coffee and assisted Rosee in setting up the establishment.

Oxford’s Queen’s Lane Coffee House, established in 1654, is still in existence today. By 1675, there were more than 3,000 coffeehouses throughout England. Popularity of coffeehouses spread rapidly in Europe, and later, America. The banning of women from coffeehouses was not universal, but does appear to have been common in Europe. In Germany women frequented them, but in England they were banned. Many believed coffee to have several medicinal properties in this period. For example, a 1661 tract entitled “A character of coffee and coffee-houses”, written by one “M. P. “, lists some of these perceived virtues:

Not everyone was in favour of this new commodity, however. For example, the anonymous 1674 “Women’s Petition against Coffee” declared: France Antoine Galland (1646-1715) in his aforementioned translation described the Muslim association with coffee, tea and chocolate: “We are indebted to these great [Arab] physicians for introducing coffee to the modern world through their writings, as well as sugar, tea, and chocolate. ” Galland reported that he was informed by Mr. de la Croix, the interpreter of King Louis XIV of France, that coffee was brought to Paris by a certain Mr. Thevenot, who had travelled through the East.

On his return to that city in 1657, Thevenot gave some of the beans to his friends, one of whom was de la Croix. However, the major spread of the popularity of this beverage in Paris was soon to come. In 1669, Soleiman Agha, Ambassador from Sultan Mehmed IV, arrived in Paris with his entourage bringing with him a large quantity of coffee beans. Not only did they provide their French and European guests with coffee to drink, but they also donated some beans to the royal court. Between July 1669 and May 1670, the Ambassador managed to firmly establish the custom of drinking coffee among Parisians. [pic].

Melange in Vienna Austria The first coffeehouse in Austria opened in Vienna in 1683 after the Battle of Vienna, by using supplies from the spoils obtained after defeating the Turks. The officer who received the coffee beans, Polish military officer of Ukrainian origin Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki, opened the coffee house and helped popularize the custom of adding sugar and milk to the coffee. Until recently, this was celebrated in Viennese coffeehouses by hanging a picture of Kulczycki in the window. Melange is the typical Viennese coffee, which comes mixed with hot foamed milk and a glass of water.

Netherlands The race among Europeans to make off with some live coffee trees or beans was eventually won by the Dutch in the late 17th century, when they allied with the natives of Kerala against the Portuguese and brought some live plants back from Malabar to Holland, where they were grown in greenhouses. The Dutch began growing coffee at their forts in Malabar, India, and in 1699 took some to Batavia in Java, in what is now Indonesia. Within a few years the Dutch colonies (Java in Asia, Surinam in Americas) had become the main suppliers of coffee to Europe. Americas.

Gabriel de Clieu brought coffee seedlings to Martinique in the Caribbean circa 1720. Those sprouts flourished and 50 years later there were 18,680 coffee trees in Martinique enabling the spread of coffee cultivation to Haiti, Mexico and other islands of the Caribbean. Coffee also found its way to the island of Reunion in the Indian Ocean known as the Isle of Bourbon. The plant produced smaller beans and was deemed a different variety of Arabica known as var. Bourbon. The Santos coffee of Brazil and the Oaxaca coffee of Mexico are the progeny of that Bourbon tree.

Circa 1727, the Emperor of Brazil sent Francisco de Mello Palheta to French Guinea to obtain coffee seeds to become a part of the coffee market. Francisco initially had difficulty obtaining these seeds yet he captivated the French Governor’s wife and she in turn, sent him enough seeds and shoots which would commence the coffee industry of Brazil. In 1893, the coffee from Brazil was introduced into Kenya and Tanzania (Tanganyika), not far from its place of origin in Ethiopia, 600 years prior, ending its transcontinental journey. The French colonial plantations relied heavily on African slave laborers.

Ancient Production of coffee The first step in Europeans’ wresting the means of production was effected by Nicolaes Witsen, the enterprising burgomaster of Amsterdam and member of the governing board of the Dutch East India Company who urged Joan van Hoorn, the Dutch governor at Batavia that some coffee plants be obtained at the export port of Mocha in Yemen, the source of Europe’s supply, and established in the Dutch East Indies; the project of raising many plants from the seeds of the first shipment met with such success that the Dutch East India Company was able to supply Europe’s demand with “Java coffee” by 1719.

Encouraged by their success, they soon had coffee plantations in Ceylon Sumatra and other Sunda islands. Coffee trees were soon grown under glass at the Hortus Botanicus of Leiden, whence slips were generously extended to other botanical gardens. Dutch representatives at the negotiations that led to the Treaty of Utrecht presented their French counterparts with a coffee plant, which was grown on at the Jardin du Roi, predecessor of the Jardin des Plantes, in Paris.

The introduction of coffee to the Americas was effected by Captain Gabriel des Clieux, who obtained cuttings from the reluctant botanist Antoine de Jussieu, who was loath to disfigure the king’s coffee tree. Clieux, when water rations dwindled during a difficult voyage, shared his portion with his precious plants and protected them from a Dutchman, perhaps an agent of the Provinces jealous of the Batavian trade.

Clieux nurtured the plants on his arrival in the West Indies, and established them in Guadeloupe and Saint- Domingue in addition to Martinique, where a blight had struck the cacao plantations, which were replaced by coffee plantations in a space of three years, is attributed to France through its colonization of many parts of the continent starting with the Martinique and the colonies of the West Indies where the first French coffee plantations were founded. The first coffee plantation in Brazil occurred in 1727 when Lt. Col.

Francisco de Melo Palheta smuggled seeds, still essentially from the germ plasm originally taken from Yemen to Batavia, from French Guiana. By the 1800s, Brazil’s harvests would turn coffee from an elite indulgence to a drink for the masses. Brazil, which like most other countries cultivates coffee as a commercial commodity, relied heavily on slave labor from Africa for the viability of the plantations until the abolition of slavery in 1888. The success of coffee in 17th-century Europe was paralleled with the spread of the habit of tobacco smoking all over the continent during the course of the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48).

For many decades in the 19th and early 20th centuries, Brazil was the biggest producer of coffee and a virtual monopolist in the trade. However, a policy of maintaining high prices soon opened opportunities to other nations, such as Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Indonesia and Vietnam, now second only to Brazil as the major coffee producer in the world. Large-scale production in Vietnam began following normalization of trade relations with the US in 1995. Nearly all of the coffee grown there is Robusta.

Despite the origins of coffee cultivation in Ethiopia, that country produced only a small amount for export until the Twentieth Century, and much of that not from the south of the country but from the environs of Harar in the northeast. The Kingdom of Kaffa, home of the plant, was estimated to produce between 50,000 and 60,000 kilograms of coffee beans in the 1880s. Commercial production effectively began in 1907 with the founding of the inland port of Gambela, and greatly increased afterwards: 100,000 kilograms of coffee was exported from Gambela in 1908, while in 1927-8 over 4 million kilograms passed through that port.

Coffee plantations were also developed in Arsi Province at the same time, and were eventually exported by means of the Addis Ababa – Djibouti Railway. While only 245,000 kilograms were freighted by the Railway, this amount jumped to 2,240,000 kilograms by 1922, surpassed exports of “Harari” coffee by 1925, and reached 9,260,000 kilograms in 1936. Australia is a minor coffee producer, with little product for export, but its coffee history goes back to 1880 when the first of 500 acres (2. 0 km2) began to be developed in an area between northern New South Wales and Cooktown.

Today there are several producers of Arabica coffee in Australia that use a mechanical harvesting system invented in 1981. *** CHAPTER – 2 INSIGHT ON COFFEE INSIGHT ON COFFEE |Coffee | |[pic] | |Roasted coffee beans | |Type |Hot or cold beverage | |Country of origin |Ethiopia, and Yemen | |Introduced |Approx. 15th century AD (beverage) | |Color |Brown | Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. They are seeds of coffee cherries that grow on trees in over 70 countries. Green coffee, for example, is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.

Due to its caffeine content, coffee can have a stimulating effect in humans. Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. It is thought that the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant was first recognized in Yemen in Arabia and the north east of Ethiopia, and the cultivation of coffee first expanded in the Arab world. The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia. From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas.

Coffee has played an important role in many societies throughout history. In Africa and Yemen, it was used in religious ceremonies. As a result, the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption until the reign of EmperorMenelik II of Ethiopia. It was banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons, and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe. Coffee berries, which contain the coffee bean, are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown are Coffea canephora (also known as Coffea robusta) and Coffea arabica.

Both are cultivated primarily in LatinAmerica,Southeast Asia, and Africa. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways. An important export commodity, coffee was the top agricultural export for 12 countries in 2004, and in 2005, it was the world’s seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value. Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment.

Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions; whether the overall effects of coffee are ultimately positive or negative has been widely disputed. However, the method of brewing coffee has been found to be important. Biology Several species of shrub of the genus Coffea produce the berries from which coffee is extracted.

The two main cultivated species, Coffea canephora(also known as Coffea robusta) and C. arabica, are native to subtropical Africa and southern Asia. Less popular species are C.liberica, excelsa,stenophylla, mauritiana, and racemosa.

They are classified in the large family Rubiaceae. They are evergreen shrubs or small trees that may grow 5 m (15 ft) tall when unpruned. The leaves are dark green and glossy, usually 10–15 cm (4-6 in) long and 6 cm (2. 4 in) wide. Clusters of fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously and are followed by oval berries of about 1. 5 cm. Green when immature, they ripen to yellow, then crimson, before turning black on drying. Each berry usually contains two seeds, but 5–10% of the berries have only one; these are called peaberries.

Berries ripen in seven to nine months. Cultivation Coffee is usually propagated by seeds. The traditional method of planting coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season; half are eliminated naturally. A more effective method of growing coffee, used in Brazil, is to raise seedlings in nurseries, which are then planted outside at 6 to 12 months. Coffee is often intercropped with food crops, such as corn, beans, or rice, during the first few years of cultivation. [pic].

Map showing areas of coffee cultivation: r:Coffea canephora m:Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica a:Coffea arabica Of the two main species grown, arabica coffee (from C. arabica) is considered more suitable for drinking than robusta coffee (from C. canephora); robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor but better body than arabica. For these reasons, about three-quarters of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. arabica. However, C. canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. arabica and can be cultivated in environments where C. arabica will not thrive. Robusta coffee also contains about 40–50% more caffeine than arabica.

For this reason, it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends. Good quality robustas are used in some espresso blends to provide a better foam head, a full-bodied result, and to lower the ingredient cost. The species Coffea liberica and Coffea esliaca are believed to be indigenous to Liberia and southern Sudan, respectively. Most arabica coffee beans originate from either Latin America, eastern Africa, Arabia, or Asia. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa, throughout southeast Asia, and to some extent in Brazil.

Beans from different countries or regions can usually be distinguished by differences in flavor, aroma, body, or acidity. These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee’s growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing. Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as Colombian, Java or Kona. Production Brazil is the world leader in production of green coffee, followed by Vietnam and Colombia the last of which produces a much softer coffee.

|Top twenty green coffee producers — Tonnes (2007) and Bags thousands (2007) | |Country |Tonnes |Bags thousands | |[pic] Brazil |2,249,010 |36,070 | |[pic] Vietnam |961,200 |16,467 | |[pic] Colombia |697,377 |12,515 | |[pic] Indonesia |676,475 |7,751 | |[pic] Ethiopia |325,800 |4,906 | |[pic] India |288,000 |4,148 | |[pic] Mexico |268,565 |4,150 | |[pic] Guatemala |252,000 |4,100 | |[pic] Peru |225,992 |2,953 | |[pic] Honduras |217,951 |3,842 | |[pic] Cote d’Ivoire |170,849 |2,150 | |[pic] Uganda |168,000 |3,250 | |[pic] Costa Rica |124,055 |1,791 | |[pic] Philippines |97,877 |431 | |[pic] El.

Salvador |95,456 |1,626 | |[pic] Nicaragua |90,909 |1,700 | |[pic] Papua New Guinea |75,400 |968 | |[pic] Venezuela |70,311 |897 | |[pic] Madagascar[note 2] |62,000 |604 | |[pic] Thailand |55,660 |653 | |  World |7,742,675 |117,319 | Ecological effects [pic] [pic] A flowering Coffea arabica tree in a Brazilian plantation Originally, coffee farming was done in the shade of trees, which provided a habitat for many animals and insects. This method is commonly referred to as the traditional shaded method, or “shade-grown”.

Many farmers switched their production method to sun cultivation, in which coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy. This causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields, but requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides, which damage the environment and cause health problems. When compared to the sun cultivation method, traditional coffee production causes berries to ripen more slowly and produce lower yields, but the quality of the coffee is allegedly superior.

In addition, the traditional shaded method is environmentally friendly and provides living space for many wildlife species. Opponents of sun cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation, pesticide pollution, habitat destruction, and soil and water degradation are the side effects of these practices. The American Birding Association, Smithsonian Migratory Bird- Center, Rainforest Alliance, and the Arbor Day Foundation have led a campaign for “shade-grown” and organic coffees, which it says are sustainably harvested.

However, while certain types of shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems, they still compare poorly to native forest in terms of habitat value. Another issue concerning coffee is its use of water. According to New Scientist, if using industrial farming practices, it takes about 140 liters of water to grow the coffee beans needed to produce one cup of coffee, and the coffee is often grown in countries where there is a water shortage, such as Ethiopia.

By using  sustainable agriculture methods, the amount of water usagecan be dramatically reduced, while retaining comparable yields. Coffee grounds may be used for composting or as a mulch. They are especially appreciated by worms and acid-loving plants such as blueberries. *** CHAPTER – 3 TYPES OF COFFEE TYPES OF COFFEE Coffea Arabica | | |Scientific classification | |Kingdom: |Plantae | |(unranked): |Angiosperms | |(unranked): |Eudicots | |(unranked): |Asterids | |Order: |Gentianales | |Family: |Rubiaceae | |Genus: |Coffea | |Species: |C. arabica | |Binomial name | |Coffea arabica |.

Coffea arabica is a species of coffee originally indigenous to the mountains of Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula, hence its name, and also from the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia and southeastern Sudan. It is also known as the “coffee shrub of Arabia”, “mountain coffee” or “arabica coffee”. Coffea arabica is believed to be the first species of coffee to be cultivated, being grown in southwest Arabia for well over 1,000 years. It is considered to produce better coffee than the other major commercially grown coffee species, Coffea canephora (robusta). Arabica contains less caffeine than any other commercially cultivated species of coffee.

Wild plants grow to between 9 and 12 m tall, and have an open branching system; the leaves are opposite, simple elliptic-ovate to oblong, 6–12 cm long and 4–8 cm broad, glossy dark green. The flowers are white, 10–15 mm in diameter and grow in axillary clusters. The fruit is a drupe (though commonly called a “berry”) 10–15 mm in diameter, maturing bright red to purple and typically contain two seeds (the coffee ‘bean’). | | Distribution and habitat Originally found in the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia, Coffea arabica is now rare there in its native state, and many populations appear to be mixed native and planted trees.

It is common there as an understorey shrub. It has also been recovered from the Boma Plateau in southeastern Sudan. Coffea arabica is also found on Mt Marsabit in northern Kenya, but it is unclear whether this is a truly native or naturalised occurrence. Yemen is also believed to have native Coffea arabica growing in fields. Cultivation Coffea arabica takes about seven years to mature fully and does best with 1- 1. 5 meters (about 40-59 inches) of rain, evenly distributed throughout the year. It is usually cultivated between 1,300 and 1,500 m altitude, but there are plantations as low as sea level and as high as 2,800 m.

The plant can tolerate low temperatures, but not frost, and it does best when the temperature hovers around 20 °C (68 °F). Commercial cultivars mostly only grow to about 5 m, and are frequently trimmed as low as 2 m to facilitate harvesting. Unlike Coffea canephora, Coffea arabica prefers to be grown in light shade. Two to four years after planting Coffea arabica produces small, white and highly fragrant flowers. The sweet fragrance resembles the sweet smell of jasmine flowers. When flowers open on sunny days, this results in the greatest numbers of berries.

This can be a curse however as coffee plants tend to produce too many berries; this can lead to an inferior harvest and even damage yield in the following years as the plant will favor the ripening of berries to the detriment of its own health. On well kept plantations this is prevented by pruning the tree. The flowers themselves only last a few days leaving behind only the thick dark green leaves. The berries then begin to appear. These are as dark green as the foliage, until they begin to ripen, at first to yellow and then light red and finally darkening to a glossy deep red.

At this point they are called ‘cherries’ and are ready for picking. The berries are oblong and about 1 cm long. Inferior coffee results from picking them too early or too late, so many are picked by hand to be able to better select them, as they do not all ripen at the same time. They are sometimes shaken off the tree onto mats, which means that ripe and unripe berries are collected together. The trees are difficult to cultivate and each tree can produce anywhere from 0. 5–5 kg of dried beans, depending on the tree’s individual character and the climate that season.

The real prize of this cash crop are the beans inside. Each berry holds two locules containing the beans. The coffee beans are actually two seeds within the fruit; there is sometimes a third seed or one seed, a peaberry in the fruits at tips of the branches. These seeds are covered in two membranes, the outer one is called the ‘parchment’ and the inner one is called the ‘silver skin’. In perfect conditions, like those of Java, trees are planted at all times of the year and are harvested year round. In less ideal conditions, like those in parts of Brazil, the trees have a season and are harvested only in winter.

The plants are vulnerable to damage in poor growing conditions and are also more vulnerable to pests than the Robusta plant. Gourmet coffees are almost exclusively high-quality mild varieties of coffea arabica, like Colombian coffee. Arabica coffee production in Indonesia began in 1699. Indonesian coffees, such as Sumatran and Java, are known for heavy body and low acidity. This makes them ideal for blending with the higher acidity coffees from Central America and East Africa. Coffea canephora | | |Scientific classification | |Kingdom: |Plantae | |(unranked): |Angiosperms | |(unranked): |Eudicots ||(unranked): |Asterids | |Order: |Gentianales | |Family: |Rubiaceae | |Genus: |Coffea | |.

Species: |C. canephora | |Binomial name | |Coffea canephora | Coffea canephora (Robusta Coffee Coffea robusta) is a species of coffee which has its origins in central and western subsaharan Africa. It is grown mostly in Africa and Brazil, where it is often called Conillon. It is also grown in Southeast Asia where French colonists introduced it in the late 19th century. In recent years Vietnam, which only produces robusta, has surpassed Brazil, India, and Indonesia to become the world’s single largest exporter.

Approximately one third of the coffee produced in the world is robusta. Canephora is easier to care for than the other major species of coffee, Coffea arabica, and, because of this, is cheaper to produce. Since arabica beans are often considered superior, robusta is usually limited to lower grade coffee blends as filler. It is however often included in instant coffee, and in espresso blends to promote the formation of “crema”. Robusta has about twice as much caffeine as arabica.

History of Coffee Essay

Wake Up and Smell the Coffee! Black Gold Essay

Wake Up and Smell the Coffee! Black Gold Essay.

The following paper is a movie review of “Wake Up and Smell the Coffee! Black Gold” which is directed by Marc Francis and Nick Francis. In the movie, the director tries to make the customers realize that what they actually are drinking on the name of coffee. Customers can convey a revolution if consciousness is specified to patrons. It is not simply on coffee, all goods are receiving an extremely little value – and the manufacturers are exceedingly having an influence. Nowhere is this contradiction in terms further obvious than in Ethiopia, the place of birth of coffee.

Tadesse Meskela is one male on an assignment to accumulate his 74,000 under pressure coffee cultivators from economic failure. As his farmers make every effort to produce a number of the uppermost eminence coffee beans on the intercontinental market, Tadesse moves around the world in an effort to come across purchaser agreeable to compensate a reasonable value. Review: The movie is about the journey of a man called Tadesse, who has his long journey against the surroundings of London to Seattle.

In this journey, a number of huge international players who deal in trading the coffee around the world become noticeable.

New York product traders, the intercontinental coffee connections, and the twice over transactions of trade preachers at the World Trade Organization make public the numerous and countless confronts Tadesse copes with in his expedition for an extensive tenure clarification for his farmers. The movie is more like a documentary. The main objective of the documentary are the unreasonable proceeds that coffee growers in Ethiopia acquire in relation to the enormous profits international business similar to Nestle, Proctor and Gamble, and Starbucks put together each and every year.

This analysis was conducted using the method in the book “A Short Guide to Writing about Film” (Timothy Corrigan, 150). A large quantity of the documentary goes behind Tadesse Meskela, a spokesperson of the Oromio Coffee Farmers Cooperative Union which is located in the Southern Ethiopia. Meskela and the Union’s great efforts are to accumulate 74,000 under pressure coffee farmers commencing economic failure.

The motion picture furthermore give you an idea about the fight back of emergent country in demanding to acquire their right to be heard and to take notice of at the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Fifth Ministerial Conference in Cancun, Mexico in the year of 2003. The WTO lays down the regulations for the comprehensive dealing organizations and the film demonstrates how those regulations are over and over again indomitable in good turn of the more affluent Western associates (Rob Cawston, pp. 1) Spectators require not be efficiently versed in the ins and outs of the coffee manufacturing organizations to tag on this motion picture.

The filmmakers have taken coffee, the most important sale to other countries for Ethiopia, which is the prevalent exporter of coffee in Africa, and publicized how the unreasonable and unjust worldwide and international market values place Africa at an inconvenience. According to the makers of the film the international businesses who contract in coffee formulate a predictable USD$80+ billion a year, manufacturing coffee the mainly most precious buying and selling product in the world subsequent to lubricate.

The quantity that dribbles along to the African coffee growers who’s administrations cannot come up with the money for financially supporting them relentlessly undercuts the significance of in cooperation with their goods and their manual labor. Conclusion: The overall film was just an average one. But the positive aspect of the film was that it bought a number of unknown facts to reality. The screening of the movie is in the form of a documentary which also brings life into the screen play of the movie.

This prized documentary is a convincing, informative and unremorseful depiction of the multi-billion dough coffee business, sourcing a universal mix ever since its pictures release in 2006.


Cawston, Rob. Black Gold: wake up and smell the coffee. Retrieved on 1st March 2009 from Corrigan, Timothy. 2003. A Short Guide to Writing about Film. Publisher: Longman; 5th edition

Wake Up and Smell the Coffee! Black Gold Essay

Coffee Speech Essay

Coffee Speech Essay.

General Purpose: Informal Specific Purpose: is on the topic of caffeine… its beneficial effects AND its negative effects. Statement: also to inform coffee users about coffee. Introduction IOpen with impact: before you go to Starbucks store buy take and take a sip of your favorite coffee… AWouldn’t you want to know a better about what you benefit and don’t out of your coffee? B I drink a lot of coffee, so I was wondering how that might affect my health CThis inspired me to do some research on the subject II Thesis: This knowledge better informs the user on what they are investing their money in.

Connect: What you whant to know about caffeine is, A. Why do most humans use it. BWhat products have it CWhat are the advantages and disadvantages Preview: How many of you here consider yourself caffeine addicts? How much coffee do you drink in a day? One cup? Two cups? More? How about caffeinated sodas? Body I.

Main point: Caffeine is pervasive in our society these days and every few months we hear about how a study has shown that it is bad for us or good for us. What are we to believe? A. Benefits B. Disadvantages C. Safe levels of caffeine consumption D. Effects on the body II.

Main point: Today, I’d like to give you some of the facts about caffeine and its effects on your body. I may not cause you to change your coffee consumption, but at least you’ll be better informed about what you are putting into your body. III. (Transitional sentence: I’m going to talk about the beneficial effects of caffeine, the negative effects and discuss what are considered to be ‘safe’ levels of caffeine consumption Main point: Let’s start with the good news. Caffeine, which comes from the leaves, seeds and fruits of about 63 different plants, is well known as a stimulant.

That’s why people drink it, right? A. Caffeine does help you wake up and feel more alert and it has been shown to increase attention spans. 1. This is a beneficial effect for people who are driving long distances and for people who are doing tedious work. 2. Calling this a health benefit may be stretching it, though staying awake while you are driving a car definitely contributes to your well-being! 3. Caffeine also contains antioxidants, which have been shown to have cancer prevention qualities 4.

When consumed in small quantities – for example, when you have one cup of coffee or one soda – caffeine can increase your heart rate, cause you to urinate more (which can cause dehydration) and prompt your digestive system to produce more acid. B. When larger amounts of caffeine (over 600 mg per day) are ingested over long periods of time, they can cause sleep problems, depression and digestion issues, and headaches when not used. 1. Transition: According to a Medline article on the National Institutes of Health website, having caffeine in your diet is not of any benefit to your health, but by the same token moderate consumption is not considered harmful.

2. They say that having up to 3 eight ounce cups of coffee a day – or 250 mg of caffeine – is considered (quote) “average or moderate”. 10 cups of coffee a day is considered excessive. Also, remember that the amount of caffeine per cup can vary greatly depending on the type of beans that are used and the strength of the brew. Conclusion Summarize: As you can see, caffeine can have both positive and negative effects on our health and well-being. Nevertheless, the bottom line is that if you drink your coffee or sodas in moderation, you don’t have to worry too much. Close with impact:

So, the next time you are wondering whether or not you should have that second cup of coffee to perk you up, relax. At least now you know what it will – and won’t – do for you! References before you go to Starbucks or any other coffee selling store or brands, buy and take and take a sip of your favorite coffee, Wouldn’t you want to know better about what you benefit and don’t out of your coffee? I drink a lot of coffee, so I was wondering how that might affect my health, this inspired me to do some research on the subject.

This knowledge better informs the user on what they are investing their money in, Why do most humans use it, what products have it, what are the advantages and disadvantages. How many of you here consider yourself caffeine addicts? How much coffee do you drink in a day? One cup? Two cups? More? How about caffeinated sodas? : Caffeine is pervasive in our society these days and every few months we hear about how a study has shown that it is bad for us or good for us. What are we to believe? But Today, I’d like to give you some of the facts about caffeine and its effects on your body.

I may not cause you to change your coffee consumption, but at least you’ll be better informed about what you are putting into your body, I’m going to talk about the beneficial effects of caffeine, the negative effects and discuss what are considered to be ‘safe’ levels of caffeine consumption. Let’s start with the good news. Caffeine, which comes from the leaves, seeds and fruits of about 63 different plants, Caffeine does help you wake up and feel more alert and it has been shown to increase attention spans. It’s well known as a stimulant. That’s why people drink it, right?

This is a beneficial effect for people who are driving long distances and for people who are doing tedious work, calling this a health benefit may be stretching it, though staying awake while you are driving a car definitely contributes to your well-being! Caffeine also contains antioxidants, which have been shown to have cancer prevention qualities, When consumed in small quantities – for example, when you have one cup of coffee or one soda – caffeine can increase your heart rate, cause you to urinate more which can cause dehydration but it can prompt your digestive system to produce more acid.

When larger amounts of caffeine over 600 mg per day are ingested over long periods of time, they can cause sleep problems, depression and digestion issues, and headaches when it’s not used. According to a Medline article on the National Institutes of Health website, having caffeine in your diet is not of any benefit to your health, but by the same token moderate consumption is not considered harmful. They say that having up to 3 eight ounce cups of coffee a day or 250 mg of caffeine is considered “average or moderate” now 10 cups of coffee a day is considered excessive.

Also, remember that the amount of caffeine per cup can vary greatly depending on the type of beans that are used and the strength of the brew. As you can see, caffeine can have both positive and negative effects on our health and well-being. Nevertheless, the bottom line is that if you drink your coffee or sodas in moderation, you don’t have to worry too much. So, the next time you are wondering whether or not you should have that second cup of coffee to perk you up, relax. At least now you know what it will – and won’t – do for you!

Coffee Speech Essay