India’s Journey in Space Essay

India’s Journey in Space Essay.

Since the second world war a new pavilion has been opened in the field of Science and technology-it is space adventure; a result of cold war development. Informer Soviet Union has led the path followed by U. S. A. There after few other countries have participated in this space competition. Through late in starting India has gained a respectable position in this elite group, by sending ‘Aryabhatta’, India’s first artificial satellite into, the space orbit on 9th April, 1975, from Soviet cosmo drome.

The process of India space journey has it’s origin lying with the establishment of Department of Atomic Energy long back in 1950.

But we have our true stepping stone with the foundation of ISRO(Indian Space Return Organisation) under the chairmanship of Dr. Vikram Sarabhai in 1969 with an objective to provide guideline , formulate policies and monitor the implementation of National policies. It has gained lively peace/place with the organization ‘space comision’ It provides inspiration of development of indigenous technology to build up satellite and launch vehicles on it’s own.

After ‘Arybhatta’ we have ‘Bhaskara I’ developed and sent with the help of USSR.

But our self efficiency in this field has proved with development of ‘Rohini’ series of satellites ‘Rohini –IB’ sent in space on 16th july ,1980 from Sriharikota, was boarded on ‘SLV-III’ first indigenously built launch vehicle. It was followed by ‘Rohini II’ on 31st May , 1981 and ‘Rohini III’ on 17th April, 1983 . This series served a lot with the information of weather , telecommunication and geographical features of our country and it’s surroundings. In the meanwhile ‘Bhaskara II’ was set in the Geo-Stationary orbit on 28th November , 1981.

As we are improving we feel wanting in high loading launch vehicle as SLV has the highest capacity of carrying 500kg. This need leads to development of PSLV(Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) and GSLV (Geo Synchonous Satellite Launch Vehicle ) . The achievement really put us in the group of front runners in space work like USA, Russia, France, Japan and China. Unfortunetly our first effort with PSLV failed in 1987. Main-while the successful space journey by Rakesh Sharma, a Squadon leader on 3rd April 1984 has took to be great boost in space research and technology for us.

But the greatest success is certainly the launching of INSAT series satellite. The first one of it was sent from Kaurau from French Guyana boarded on Euro Launch Vehicle System followed by ‘INSAT-IB’ on 30th August 1983, ‘INSAT-IC’ ON 22ND July, 1988. The effortless launchingof later one by PSLV has given the status as same as USA and Russia along with European Union and we can proudly declare , we can compete with the teo best countries USA and Russia as we are able to sent and land safely on the land peace , the moon.

Chandrayan-I’ which was announced by ex-prime minister Atal Bihari Bajpayee. On Independence day 2003 was finally taken place with success on 22nd October, 2008. It has sent a number of valuable documents, slides relating the atmosphere ,surface etc of the moon. The scientist expect new discovery about the moon from those documents . The elated chairman of ISRO, Dr. Madhavan Rao has announced the next mission to mars by 2015. This glorious history which certainly move us to the top of the world again and we will take the leading role in human civilization.

India’s Journey in Space Essay

The Cuban Missile Crisis Essay

The Cuban Missile Crisis Essay.

A British cartoon by Illingworth, published in the Daily Mail on 29th October 1952. Kennedy and Khrushchev arm-wrestle, while nuclear war is only the press of a button away. Khrushchev, who is sweating most, says “OK, Mr President, let’s talk”. The source suggests that Kennedy is of an advantage over Khrushchev, he has the button of the hydrogen-bomb that’s placed under Khrushchev. This could show how he is in control of the situation, and knows how to turn it so that he comes out better.

It also shows how easily he can destroy his opponent, and is not afraid to do so- hence the fact that he has his finger positioned so close to the button. Also, Khrushchev is sweating much more that Kennedy is in the source, this suggests that he is under more pressure and that he may be more scared of what the outcome will be- will the Cold War turn too hot, and transform into a Nuclear War? However this cannot be true, because it also shows Khrushchev’s arm on the furthest side of the image, he probably has the button for the bomb that his challenger is sat on.

I know that this is true because Khrushchev was threatening USA with a nuclear bomb; this is when the President of the USA responded with a compromise to both withdraw their explosives from the nuclear sites. This source is a cartoon, Illingworth is using it to portray the Cuban missile crisis as a victory for the USA. It was published just days after the agreement was made to withdraw their weapons, and now that the Cuban missile crisis was out of the worst, there still wasn’t guaranteed.

The cartoon shows Kennedy as the person that has succeeded his aims, this may be because they had forced the Soviet Union to back down, turn away their warships and agree to remove their missile sites. However, we do not see Khrushchev’s hand, therefore insinuating that there is mistrust and uncertainty between the two people. Overall, I agree with the interpretation that Kennedy comes out the strongest of the Cuban missile crisis.

The Cuban Missile Crisis Essay

Apush Containment Essay

Apush Containment Essay.

The year of 1945 was a time of relief for America and its people. That year was the end of World War II. Germany had lost and the time for rebuilding was near. However, the peace did not last long between the Soviet Union and the United States. A difference in political and economic views caused a rift in the Soviet Union and United States relationship of convenience. The Soviet Union was running on a system of government called communism. Communism’s theory of a government run by the economy was the complete opposite of America’s dedication to independence.

This difference caused great tension between the two nations and became a Cold War.

The Soviet Union believed that communism was going to overcome capitalism and that they will win the Cold War. America’s retaliation to the Soviet Union’s spreading of communism was containment. Containment is the attempt to stop the spread of communism. The Cold War split the world into two large groups, those who were under communist rule and those who were against it.

The United States was dedicated in their fight against communism with instances like the Truman Doctrine, which vowed to support anyone who was being threatened by communist rule, and The Marshall Plan, which gave over 10 billion dollars to European countries in the effort to rebuild the damage done during World War II. By 1947, the United States and Soviet Union were constantly on their toes and pushing boundaries to see who would gain the upper hand in the Cold War.

By the end of World War II Germany occupied by the four major powers and divided into two territories. The three allied forces became West Germany and East Germany was communist. The capital of Berlin was divided between communism and independence. In an effort to test the United States’ commitment to containment Joseph Stalin decided to put up a blockade around West Germany. (Doc B) The blockade prevented all supplies, including food, from getting into Western Berlin.

Because the U.S. was already sending billions of dollars into Europe the Soviet Union felt that they would not get involved in the small confrontation going on. However, the United Sates honored their commitment to the Truman Doctrine and along with help from their allies; America flew in supplies and food to West Berliners for over a year. The Berlin Airlift was a success and on May 12, 1949, Stalin removed the blockade. (Doc B) This act of containment proved that the States kept their word when it came to preventing the spread of communism.

Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union had their sights set on another territory that they felt could be overthrown, South Korea. North Korea was supported by the Soviet Union while South Korea was supported by the U.S., which meant there was a standoff between the two territories. In 1950, South Korea was invaded by North Korea and the United States vowed to support and protect them. American troops occupying Japan after WWII were sent to support South Korea. (Doc C) A battle on the separating border between the North and South proceed for several years. After continuous attacks and counter attacks the war finally ends in 1953. The resulting borders ended up being very similar to the original borders of 1950. (Doc C) The war caused over 50,000 American deaths but also stopped the Soviet Union from gaining any ground in their goal to spread communism. This act of containment was a success.

Years later on the other side of the world confrontation was becoming unavoidable between the United States and Cuba. In 1959, communist leader Fidel Castro takes control of Cuba. (Doc D) President Kennedy puts support in an invasion of Cuba, known as the Bay of Pigs, but efforts fail and Castro remains in power. In May of 1962 the Soviet Union secretly begins to send nuclear warheads, missiles, and troops to Cuba. (Doc D) The U.S. sees the nuclear missile sites swiftly being put together in Cuba and quickly takes action. Quarantine was placed against all ships carrying weapons and supplies to Cuba. Quarantine is an isolation to prevent the spread of something considered dangerous. The United States was in a constant state of terror during the time of this Cuban Missile Crisis.

By October of 1962, the Soviet Union was already removing missiles from Cuba and the crisis was avoided. A quiet agreement made between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. The United States’ action in Cuba demonstrates the policy of containment because they used all resources available to prevent any type of communist revolt by Cuba from happening. In conclusion, containment was the United States effort to stopping the spread of communism. In every form of it the U.S. was successful.

This is why containment was such a good theory for us. It was a non-aggressive way to fight Communism. Since we used containment, the Soviet Union was less tempted to bring out nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. The Cold War would have become a “hot war” very quick if they forced the issue of containment. The policy was set up to serve the purposes of stopping Communism, not starting a massive war. Which kind of war is better: a massive attack resulting in thousands of dead soldiers or a long, drawn out war? The most logical answer is the long, drawn out war, which is exactly what the Cold War was. It was not a war to “fight to the death.” It was a war of do as you please but keep it within your own nation, or come through us.

Apush Containment Essay

Wood Grouse on a High Promontory Overlooking Canada Essay

Wood Grouse on a High Promontory Overlooking Canada Essay.

Memories can be either good or bad and they often follow you through your entire life. We all have memories which we would rather forget, but you just have to live with the bad memories as well as with the good ones. In Wood Grouse on a High Promontory Overlooking Canada, we meet Gary who is deeply affected by his memories from the Vietnam War. The story is about the two brothers Bud and Gary, and it takes place at the border between the U.

S.A. and Canada in an idyllic landscape. We get the idea that it’s summer because they are wearing sunglasses in “the cloudless sunlight (line 18)”. Bud is telling the story while looking back on what happened during their journey. Gary’s younger brother Bud is looking back; narrating the story in which he was fifteen years old. We don’t get any information why Bud is travelling with his brother, but it sounds like he just naturally came along.

Bud is a very natural storyteller, and he doesn’t show that many emotions throughout the story compared to his brother.

When bud hits the wood grouse with a stone so it has to be killed by Gary, Bud doesn’t show a reaction and he doesn’t really know why he did it as described: “ “Jesus,” Gary said. “What did you do that for?” – I had no good answer. I said, “I didn’t think I was going to hit one, Gary” (line 58-60)”. Bud doesn’t seem have any empathy for Gary, he doesn’t quite understand that Gary has been traumatized during the Vietnam war, and Bud hitting the wood grouse with a stone putting it into incredible pain and suffering, making it necessary for Gary to end its misery, would make Gary remember the terrible thing he had seen in Vietnam. At this point in the story Bud still haven’t shown any emotion at all, and he doesn’t really do that until the very last part of the story “I couldn’t fall asleep that night; I felt ashamed of myself. (line 119-120)”.

By waiting to reveal any feelings Bud might have until the end of the story, the author lets Gary’s feelings come in first row and Bud’s in second. The story makes me believe that Gary has changed a lot after being in Vietnam, and that is why Bud is having a tough time talking to his brother. When Gary kills the wood grouse to end its misery, it unleashes a lot of tragic emotions and memories that Gary had buried deep inside of him for a long time. We don’t get a clear answer on whether or not Gary killed anyone in Vietnam, but just having been so close to death, could have torn him onto the stage which he is on, even if he hadn’t killed anyone. Gary calls the place they are at “Draft-dodger heaven (line 37)”. The two brothers are in the middle of nowhere up in the mountains at the border between the U.S.A. and Canada, and it’s definitely not a coincidence that Gary has lead Bud up there, and it has nothing to do with Bud’s dream about living of the land since he didn’t tell Gary about that.

Gary wants to show Bud that there is a way to avoid getting drafted, that’s also why he calls the place “draft-dodger heaven”. During the Vietnam war every teenager turning 18 were drafted so they could go to war and serve their country. Gary had already done this and his memories from the time he had in Vietnam can’t be forgotten too soon, so Gary shows Bud that he has an opportunity to go to Canada and not go to war. So, Wood Grouse is a story about coming to terms with your bad memories. Gary experienced some very strong things which he most certainly will never forget, which will always be a part of him. He is deeply affected by his past, but through the story he somehow learns to live with it. He learns to appreciate the little things in life, and he learns that you will be all right as long as you’ve got a shoulder to cry on.

Wood Grouse on a High Promontory Overlooking Canada Essay

Summary of October Sky Essay

Summary of October Sky Essay.

Peter Travis creates a brand new look on the Movie, October Sky directed by Joe Johnston by reviewing the movie for Rolling stones in february 1999. He discovers the movie to be very unique and refreshing from the movies directed at that period of time. He considers October sky’s optimistic look on life to be way more necessary for common people than those Cynical outlooks of other movies. Traver states that the movie is based on the autobiography “The Rocket boys : A memoir “ written by Homer Hickham, who worked as an aerospace engineer for almost twenty years in NASA.

Traver briefly describes the Plot and Summary of the Movie which provides a good insight about the movie for readers. He starts saying that the movie is setback during the space race between the United States and the Soviet Union when the Soviets launched Sputnik towards the space. Travers states that even though the people of coalwood do not recognize the historic essence of this event , they still consider this achievement to be of great importance in the Technological Field.

However, Homer Hickham , the protagonist of the movie discovers a new passion after watching this event take place. His desire of building rockets not only helps him to create a new future for himself but also provides him strength from not following his father’s footsteps towards working in the mines.

Traver highlights the innumerable amount of difficulties Homer had to face before convincing his father Jim Hickham ( Chris Copper) to accept his passion for building rockets and help him choose a new path of life which is completely different from his own.

Traver also states that the underrated actor Chris cooper does not slip into Caricature and plays his role very well . But out of all the events that takes place in the movie the most important one is difficulties Homer overcomes till the end and wins the Science Fair at last.

He concludes by highlighting details about the plot of the movie to be distinctive and rich in favor. Nevertheless, he says Homer and friends turning out to choose their own futures different from what their parents wanted would sound corny but the movie surely focuses on the idealistic time in the American history

Summary of October Sky Essay

Imperial presidency Essay

Imperial presidency Essay.

In the age of the imperial presidency, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that, in the totality of American history, a powerful chief executive has been the exception rather than the rule. Indeed, until the mid-twentieth century, the most powerful person in peacetime American governments was the Speaker of the House of Representatives rather than the president. Prior to World War II, presidential power was ascendant only during wartime. It is no mistake that the three men commonly cited as our greatest presidents also led the nation through its three most important wars.

The image of George Washington as president is inseparable from his role in the American Revolution. Abraham Lincoln is remembered for his role in preserving the Union through the Civil War; other aspects of his presidency are largely ignored. Although Franklin Roosevelt accumulated considerable personal power during the 1930’s, he will be remembered for guiding the United States through World War II in the 1940’s.

George W. Bush often refers to himself as the “Commander in Chief” rather than simply the “President” or the “Chief Executive”.

This reflects President Bush’s acknowledgement of the fact that “Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces” is the most concentrated and unchecked power that a president is granted under the constitution. Any student of history is aware that a president is far more powerful when he is perceived to be not just a chief executive but a commander in chief. In other words, for a president to be historically powerful, there must be a war on. The watershed moment for the imperial American presidency was the aftermath of World War II.

After every prior American war, the nation had demobilized, the president had assumed his traditional, more limited portfolio, and the Congress had reestablished its position as the pivotal branch of the federal government. After World War II, however, and especially after the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, there was no demobilization. Instead, the executive branch of the federal government underwent an overhaul and reorganization that irreversibly changed the nature of the presidency and of the United States itself.

President Truman would mold a policy that was without precedent in American history; this policy would call for large standing armies in peacetime, a radically strengthened and centralized executive, and a willingness to project American force around the world, at times without direct congressional approval. The underlying logic to this revolution in American government was the need to contain the expansionist designs of the Soviet Union. In 1947, the National Security Act created the CIA, the Department of Defense, and the National Security Council.

This creation of a spy agency, a permanent standing army, and a radically strengthened executive changed forever the nature of American government. After the National Security Act of 1947, a permanent war footing, or at least a war psychology, settled over Washington, D. C. Although the United States was technically at peace more often than not for the rest of the century, the president’s identity as “commander in chief” maintained a gravity that simply would have been impossible in prior periods.

One mitigating factor in this shift was the logistical realities of modern warfare, embodied most purely and terribly by nuclear weapons. The incomparable damage that such weapons could exact, and the relative speed with which they could be delivered, precluded consultations between the President and the Congress under many feasible scenarios. This inevitably strengthened the latitude and increased the responsibility of the chief executive, who could become the commander in chief, responsible for the physical survival of the United States, at any given moment.

The psychological shift was just as important as the revolution in weaponry. For the first time the United States, or at least its leadership, perceived itself to be under siege even in the absence of a hot war. The idea of a global and aggressive Soviet menace led to a willingness in American leaders to interpret local and isolated conflicts as part of a broader communist conspiracy that must be contained by a massive American military machine.

Human nature being what it is, the unprecedented size and power of the Pentagon made it far easier for American presidents to order the use of force, which in turn consolidated their power as active “commanders in chief”. From 1947 through 1991, the United States fought two major wars in Korea and Vietnam, but the overarching Cold War solidified the idea that the president’s primary and permanent role was to serve as commander in chief. This notion would have known no place in America prior to World War II.

The nation was founded on a well-reasoned fear of centralized executives and the nation had spent most of its early history avoiding such pitfalls. During the Cold War, it embraced this pitfall as an unfortunate necessity, if not a virtue. At the end of the Cold War, there was talk of a “peace dividend” which would allow for radically reduced defense spending and, by implication, a more restrained presidency. The Gulf War of 1991 arrived just in time to forestall any radical lurch in that direction.

During the Clinton administration, the presidency remained powerful, and the United States carried out several military operations from Haiti to Kosovo. The strength of the presidency was only magnified by the fact that the United States was now the only global superpower. The 9/11 attacks, of course, put America on an indefinite war footing analogous to the Cold War. George W. Bush declared with what looked to some as great excitement that he was a “war president”.

Since the United States has been at war in Afghanistan and Iraq for six years, Bush’s personal power has been established by stressing his identity as commander in chief, identifying the defense of the United States as his most important task. Another issue that has risen out of Bush’s embrace of the imperial presidency is how such power is exercised domestically as opposed to internationally. President Bush and his attorneys have argued that the United States is involved in a war in which all of the Earth, including the United States, is the “battlefield”.

This means, according to their arguments, that the president’s power as commander in chief applies just as much in the United States as anywhere else. This dubious and dangerous idea has led to unwarranted surveillance of American citizens in the United States, indefinite detention without charge or legal representation for anyone identified by the commander in chief as an “enemy combatant”, and the use of “enhanced interrogation” on detainees, which any honest person would call torture.

These draconian measures are best embodied in the Military Commission Act of 2006, which effectively suspends Habeas Corpus and all subsequent legal rights to any individual declared an enemy on the sole authority of the commander in chief. The domestic and international conditions which prevailed when the founding fathers wrote the constitution are obviously no longer valid. It is a testament to the genius of these men that the American system has lasted as long as it has.

While certain changes are necessary and inevitable over the decades and the centuries, I am personally very uncomfortable with the level of power that is concentrated in the modern presidency, especially as manifested by the Bush administration. The current administration is the embodiment of the danger inherent in so much power being vested in a single person. After World War II, new global realities called for a more robust presidency, but the balance that was struck with varying degrees of success throughout the Cold War is absent from the current situation.

The Military Commission Act of 2006 allows the President to kidnap an American citizen, hold him in prison without charging him with a crime, letting him see a lawyer or a judge, or telling his family where he is, torture him, and never release him. This is not hyperbole; it is now allowable under American law. Most people with respect for human dignity and for the American constitution can agree that this is not the America we want to live in. “A democracy cannot wage war. When you go to war, you pass a law giving extraordinary powers to the President.

The people of the country assume when the emergency is over, the rights and powers that were temporarily delegated to the Chief Executive will be returned to the states, counties and to the people. ” –General Walter Bedell Smith (Weiner 189).

Works Cited Lowi, Theodore J. , Benjamin Ginsberg, and Kenneth A. Shepsle. American Government: Power and Purpose. W. W. Norton, 2005. Shafritz, Jay M. and Lee S. Weinberg. Classics in American Government. Wadsworth Publishing, 2005. Weiner, Tim. Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA. Doubleday, 2007.

Imperial presidency Essay

Compare and Contrast the Historical Significance Essay

Compare and Contrast the Historical Significance Essay.

Compare and Contrast the historical significance between the two world WARS. http://www. diffen. com/difference/World_War_I_vs_World_War_II Similarities Topical sentence: A) Both war led to heavy casualties. 1) WW1: Estimated to be 10 million dead, 21 million wounded, and 7. 7 million missing or imprisoned. 2) WW2: More than 40 million men and women were serving in the armed forces by 1944 and civilian and military deaths exceeded 55 million. Topical sentence: B) same both created a new international co-operation hoping to prevent further conflicts in the future.

) WW1: The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. 2) WW2: The United Nations was established to foster international cooperation and prevent conflicts. Topical Sentence: C)

Similarly, Both brought out the creation of new and dangerous weapons. 1) WW1: Supported by artillery and machine guns, infantry assault, early airplanes and poisonous gas. 2) WW2: a) Nuclear power and missiles were used, modern concepts of covert and special operations. Submarines and tanks were also more heavily used.

) Encryption codes for secret communication became more complex. Topical Sentence: D) Similarly, Genocide was used to torture people from weaker countries. 1) WW1: The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) carried out genocide of Armenians. 2) WW2: German Nazis committed genocide against Jews. Topical Sentence : E)Both sowed the seeds of future wars. 1) WW1: Several alliances formed over the past decades were invoked, so within weeks the major powers were at war; as all had colonies, the conflict soon spread around the world. 1)Rise of Nazism in Germany (regain national glory and prestige) a) Treaty violations and acts of aggression on various fronts. b) Political and economic instability in Germany including with humiliation over its defeat in World War 1 and the harsh terms of the Treaty of Versailles. c) Rise of power of Adolf Hitler of the Nazi Party. 1) In the mid-1930s Hitler began secretly to rearm Germany, in violation of the treaty. 2) Adolf Hitler signed alliances with Italy and Japan to oppose the Soviet Union. 2)

Rise of Fascism in Italy (regain national glory and prestige) a) Joined the allies in 1915 in hope in getting Dalmatia and Fiume however was only given Istria and Tyrol at the Paris and Peace Conference. b) Italian nationalists occupied Fiume in September 1919 WW2: The wartime conferences and wartime conferences revealed the mutual distrust and disagreements between the USSR and USA cause Cold War. (1)Launching opposing plans and forming opposing organizations a) US- Marshall Plan and formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. ) USSR- Molotov Plan formed the Warsaw Pact within the communist bloc. (2)

Organizing spy activities out of deep suspicion and a great sense of insecurity. a) US- Central Intelligence Agency b) USSR – Committee of State Security (3) Using political propaganda to promote each other ideas and attack the other side. a) US- Voice of America to attack communism b)USSR-Radio Moscow to attack capitalism (4) Stopping all kinds of communication to prevent people of its bloc from going over to the other side. ) US- stops communication and stop all cultural exchange b) USSR- tightened all controls and no contact to the west was allowed. Differences Topical Sentence: A) Politically, WW1 had just brought the first recognition & partial actualization of the principle of national self-determination. BUT, after WW2 no people even for colonies could accept their national right being deprived.

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Compare and Contrast the Historical Significance Essay