Stages of Heating Sugar Essay

Stages of Heating Sugar Essay.

Carbohydrate when heated results to a complex group of reactions in absence of nitrogen containing compounds. Such reaction is commonly known as caramelization. Sugars will show caramelization to a relatively high temperature. The browning of these carbohydrates is further facilitated by the presence of small amount of acid, salts of this acids, phosphates and metallic ions. Lack of moisture in the sugar molecule with formation of anhydro rings are actually caused by thermolysis. When double bonds are produced this leads to the development of unsaturated rings such as furans.

The conjugated double bonds will then absorb light producing the brown color. Specific types of caramel colors, solubility and acidities are directed by some catalysts to increase the reaction. Mostly some of the unsaturated rings condense into polymers yielding the different colors.

One of the commonly used sugars during caramelization is sucrose solution. The brown caramel color produced in its reaction with ammonium bisulfate is used in cola soft drinks, syrups, candies, pet foods and dry seasonings.

Solutions of it are acidic with pH ranges from 2-4.5 and with colloidal particles having negative charges. The non-enzymatic browning caramel pigments are large polymeric molecules with complex, uneven, and indefinite structures. It is these polymers that form the colloidal particles. Their rate of formation increases with increasing temperature and pH. (Fennema, 1996) The diagram below shows a summary of the caramelization process in the experiment “effects of heating to properties of sugar”.(deMan, 1999)

There are three general types of browning, a.) Reaction of ketones and aldehydes among the reducing sugars with amino compounds like amino acids, peptides and proteins. This reaction is not dependent on the presence of oxygen b.) Caramelization which takes place in polyhydroxy carbonyl compounds such as reducing sugars when heated at high temperatures c.) The oxidative change of polyphenols to d- or polycarbonyl compounds and the oxidation of ascorbic acid which can be partially fully enzymatic (Meyer, 1960)

In order to determine the effect of heating on the characteristics of sugar, an experiment was performed and the observations were noted as shown in table 2.4 below.

Results showed that particular temperature have a corresponding stage of heating. At temperature 110-113°C, a transparent yellow color was observed. It formed threads at the bottom of the Petri dish and then become dispersed upon pouring on the beaker. This can be used in making syrups and some icing. The next stage was soft ball wherein the sample was observed to be flat and dispersed at the bottom of the Petri dish and formed ball when poured at the beaker. This light yellow stage in sugar heating can be used in making fondants, fudge, meringue and some butter creams. The third stage was flat and maintains it shape at the petri dish, upon pouring at the beaker, it formed ball yet it is still dispersed.

Such stage can be used to make caramel candies. For the fourth stage, the hard ball which is yellow was observed to have the same properties with the previous stage. This can be used in making marshmallows, gummies and hard candies. The fifth stage produced hard ball and maintained its shape when poured on the beaker and Petri dish. At this stage, butterscotch and taffies can be made. At the sixth stage, an orange color was observed; there was formation of ball where its shape was maintained. Lollipops can be made at this stage. Lastly was brownish black with defined shape and hard tail, it is also consistently hard. This stage can be used in making light caramels for syrups, spun sugars and coloring agents.

The capability of forming crystals is known property of sugars. Crystallization is an important step in the purification of sugar. If the sugar is pure the easier it is to be crystallized. However those sugars found to have anomers and ring isomers in solution make them intrinsically impure and difficult to crystallize. In some foods like sweetened condensed milk and ice cream, crystallization is undesirable. (deMan,1999)

In candy-making, controlling the rate and extent of sugar crystallization provides a huge range of textures. These range from the soft textures of fudges where crystallization is minimized, to hard candies where crystallization results in a desired grainy structure.(

Belitz H.D Grosch W. Schieberle P.2009.Food Chemistry. 4th revised and extended ed. Derman, J.M. 1999. Priciples of Food Chemistry. 3rd Edition.USA.Aspen Publishers, Inc. Fennema Owen R.. 1996.Food Chemistry3rd Edition. Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Stages of Heating Sugar Essay

Importance Of green Color Essay

Importance Of green Color Essay.

Green: It is the sign of Praise, eternal life, vigor, prosperity, mercy, restoration, health, healing, new beginning, freshness, God’s holy seed, harvest, sowing and reaping, immortality, fresh oil, new life,joy in hope. Green is the color of nature, fertility, life. Grass green is the most restful color. Green symbolizes self-respect and well being. Green is the color of balance. It also means learning, growth and harmony. Green is a safe color, if you don’t know what color to use anywhere use green.

Green is favored by well balanced people. Green symbolizes the master healer and the life force. It often symbolizes money. It was believed green was healing for the eyes. Egyptians wore green eyeliner. Green eyeshades are still used. You should eat raw green foods for good health. Friday is the day of green. Green jade is a sacred stone of Asia.Green Energy:Green contains the powerful energies of nature, growth, desire to expand or increase.

Balance and a sense of order are found in the color green. Change and transformation is necessary for growth, and so this ability to sustain changes is also a part of the energy of green.Put some green in your life when you want:

* a new state of balance * feel a need for change or growth * freedom to pursue new ideas * protection from fears and anxieties connected with the demands of others uses of green color:green color in flags:as green color conveys different messeges,therefore it has been used by different countries in their flags like Pakistan,india etc. Green gem stones:Green gemstones are used to attract money, prosperity and wealth. They are balancing stones that promote growth and fertility. Carry, wear or place green gemstones around your home or office to promote balance, change and growth.

It is a known fact that green color occupies more space in visible spectrum than most of the other colors. On top of that, we can say that green is also a dominant color in the natural world, or in other words, our environment. Right after the blue color. Greeen color and color wheel: Green is actually a very complex color, with different shades having different meanings and messages, which is more connected to human history. when we think about green, . the things that come into our mind are trees, grass and vegetables.

Green light, meaning go, proceed. Green color position in color wheel green: olor is a complementary color for red color. It is positioned directly across red color in a traditional color wheel as we can see in the first example above. Green color is also considered as a cool color, and as such it tends to recede and visually take less space on the page when compared to warm colors in equal amounts. If we take a look at color models, we’ll see that green is one of three primary colors in additive color model, but it is not around in subtractive one, which is mostly used in printing process. That’s because green, in subtractive model, is made out of yellow and cyan mixed together.

Also, wavelength for green color is roughly between 520 and 570 nm. Here we come to one more connection from the beginning of the text. Dark adapted human eye has biggest sensitivity around 507 nm, which is blue-green color, while light adapted eye is most sensitive for wavelengths around 555 nm, which is yellowish-green color. Positive views about green: Green is also considered as calm, and relaxing color, which has a positive effect on our mental and physical condition which, in return, helps us fight depression, anxiety, or nervousness.

We have all heard such advices that in order to preserve our vision, after hours of working with computer, it is really good to spend some time just looking over landscapes. Which is really impossible in crowded cities, but that’s where parks and golf courses come into play. Or at least they should. Green Color Example – “Saint Wolfgang and the Devil” by Michael Pacher, the Devil is green this picture show negative point of view of green color For example, green gemstone in pope’s robes, is also considered to be a Lucifer stone, according to some stories. There are even some cases where Lucifer was painted completely in green color.

Also, a lot of antic and middle age mystics thought of green as occult color, because of its universality. Even today, in many countries, green represents sickness, envy, and death. Even Van Gogh once said I have attempted to express terrible human passions in reds and greens. green Color Example – Air Fresheners, Deodorants, Cleaning Products Green Color Example – Mints, Buble Gums, Mouth Fresheners and drinks use of green color in the world of advertisment designing: green means money in western cultures, like in United States. The green means money, from where we also have such terms like greenbacks.

And where is money, there is advertising, and that’s where designer come into play. When we think about green in such terms like fresh, growth, regeneration, we can also think about household items that keep our homes clean, like detergents, cleaning items, and fresheners. Or even those items that keep us clean like shampoos, mouth washers, toothpaste, etc. The same connotation, absolutely different branch. Hospitals, alternative medicine, cures, and even such disciplines like yoga. Green Color Example – Refreshing, Energy, And Even Alcohol Drinks Lets move on.

Lighter yellowish greens can be very successful in advertising healthy and refreshing drinks, despite the fact that most of the time they actually are not healthy. But, lets keep the focus here. Energy drinks, vitamins, supplements, tonics, sodas, you name it. The global growing trend, which is saying go green, is affecting all pores of the society. even McDonalds is changing their red to green in Europe, to satisfy European customers desire to go green. That is pure example of advertising adapting and adjusting itself to the environment, despite the fact that it is totally miss leading.

Importance Of green Color Essay

Desert Survival Situation Essay

Desert Survival Situation Essay.

The desert survival scenario taught me how to think rationally and demonstrate effective interpersonal skills. There is a certain time when we need to act as a group to achieve a goal, maybe to survive. The SDI and the desert survival scenario were intertwined especially during discussions. In a group. In SDI, we have four colors red, hub, blue and greed and each represent behaviors. Red characteristic behaviors tend to be competitive, forceful risk taker and self confident, Blues trust, helpful, modest, devoted, caring and supportive.

Green characteristics are cautious, principled, fair and reserved. Hubs posses the three characteristics combined. All these four colors have an overdone side of each. In our discussion during the desert survival, were put in group and each group had members who were in these categories of colors.

Interestingly,some group agreed to rank the items in a different ways, while others were able to almost come up with a list almost the experts rankings, Why?.

Looking at their color characteristics, if a group had only gree, blue and hub, they were most likely to come up with no challenge. On the other hand, if we had all reds in a group there was not going to gain anything because all the will do is everyone compete and try to dominate. If all were green, they were likely to avoid and start talking out of the discussion. The Kilman conflict mode also can be applied in this analyses.For example,if in our discussion ,we had a competing member and all the others are avoiding mode,what will happen?.

The red(competitor) will control all what the others say. No one will object anything and I thing the discussion will yield nothing at the end. If we have majority of accommodating members and avoiders, what will happen?.Everything will be “yes, I will do it” or avoid all. In order for the group to function, we need to have all the above members balanced. In an organization, if the manager is competing and a subordinate staff answerable to the manager is accommodating, that will lead to overworked, overwhelmed and misuse.

In my society, women do not hold powers like men in every aspect of their lives. Although it is now changing the perception has not changed much. They are not entitled to posses or inherit properties. Not like in this country. In our class discussions, the professor does divide students into small groups to discuss the certain topic. I like how small group play because in this class we have members, who are adults and have experiences from their ages. They know how to handle and talk about issues. There personalities and attitudes are positive in how they interact with others. I have not been contributing much to the class and I think that is not being rude but this is something that I have struggle all along in my life.

Desert Survival Situation Essay

Chromatography Lab Questions Essay

Chromatography Lab Questions Essay.

1. A pencil is used rather than a pen to mark the “starting line” in step two because a pen or marker while be used to place a small dot of ink in the center of the X that is made with a pencil. 2. Capillary action is filling of pores in a solid with a liquid. Capillary action is caused by spotting or absorption and is allowed to seep or flow through. 3. The type of pen that will probably give better separation in this paper chromatography experiment with water as solvent is the permanent marker because it will show up clearer.

4. The combination of colors used to make black are all sorts of colors combined. They could be blue, green, grey, and brown. Post-Lab Questions

1. Not all black inks contain the same pigments. The black inks that are made up of more than one pigment are a combination of different colors. 2. Our purple ink appeared to be a single pigment. Different solvents of purple could be tested to see if they also have one pigment like our purple did.

After many different purples compare the results. 3. It is necessary to keep the water level below the ink spots because the water will move up the beaker and bring the pigments with it. 4. It is important to cover the beaker so moisture doesn’t get into the beaker. It is important to not jostle the breaker because when you move the beaker the water moves to messing up the pigments. 5. You could take several dyes with different affinities to the same liquid then compare them after the paper chromatography experiment. To determine the presence of a specific dye you could make a chromatograph of the specific dye and compare it to the chromatograph of a die that is suspected to have the specific dye in it.

Chromatography Lab Questions Essay

Candy Chromatography Essay

Candy Chromatography Essay.


Ever wondered why candies are different colors? Ever wondered why candies are different colors? Many candies contain colored dyes. Bags of M&Ms or Skittles contain candies of various colors. The labels tell us the names of the dyes used in the candies. But which dyes are used in which candies? We can answer this by dissolving the dyes out of the candies and separating them using a method called chromatography.


Candy Chromatography is the method of analysis of separating and comparing dyes used in candies and food coloring.

It is also a proven method to analyze candy and its complex structure, without having to taste it. These complex mixtures can be separated back into pure substances. To find out the ingredients of a favorite candy, chromatography would help to define every ingredient found in the candy sample. The word chromatography is derived from the two Greek words, “Chroma” meaning color and “graphic” meaning to write. Paper chromatography is the best method of separation used in candy chromatography.

Paper chromatography is a technique that involves placing a small dot or line of sample solution onto a strip of chromatography paper.. The paper is placed in a jar containing a shallow layer of solvent and sealed. As the solvent rises through the paper, it meets the sample mixture, which starts to travel up the paper with the solvent. This paper is made of cellulose, a polar substance, and the compounds within the mixture travel farther if they are non-polar. More polar substances bond with the cellulose paper more quickly, and therefore do not travel as far.


The same color candies will have the same colored dyes which are used in making the candy. For example, the green skittle will have a green colored dye used in order to make the skittle.


1. M&M or Skittle Candies (1 of each color)
2. Coffee filter paper
3. A tall glass
4. Water
5. Table salt
6. A pencil
7. Scissors
8. A ruler
9. 6 toothpicks
10. Aluminum foil
11. An empty 2 liter bottle with the cap
1. Amount of water
2. Amount of table salt
3. Bottle
4. Toothpicks
Independent: Type of dye used
Dependent: Color of the candy
Compare the dyes between the skittles and M&M


1. Cut the coffee filter paper into a 3 inch by 3 inch square. Make six dots with the pencil equally spaced along the line. Below the line, use the pencil to label each dot for the different colors of candy that you have. 2. Next we’ll make solutions of the colors in each candy. Take an 8 inch by 4 inch piece of aluminum foil and lay it flat on a table. Place six drops of water spaced evenly along the foil. Place one color of candy on each drop. Wait about a minute for the color to come off the candy and dissolve in the water. Remove and dispose of the candies. 3. Next we’ll “spot” the colors onto the filter paper. Dampen the tip of one of the toothpicks in one of the colored solutions and lightly touch it to the corresponding labeled dot on your coffee filter paper. Then using a different toothpick for each color, similarly place a different color solution on each of the other five dots. Repeat this process three times, waiting for the spots to dry each time.

4. When the paper is dry, fold it in half so that it stands up on its own, with the fold standing vertically and the dots on the bottom. 5. Next we will make what is called a developing solution. Add ⅛ teaspoon of salt and three cups of water to your 2-liter bottle. Then screw the cap on tightly and shake the contents until all of the salt is dissolved in the water. You have just made a 1% salt solution. 6. Now pour the salt solution into the tall glass to a depth of about ¼ inch. The level of the solution should be low enough so that when you put the filter paper in, the dots will initially be above the water level. Hold the filter paper with the dots at the bottom and set it in the glass with the salt solution. 7. When the salt solution is about ½ inch (1 cm) from the top edge of the paper, remove the paper from the solution. Lay the paper on a clean, flat surface to dry. 8. Repeat this process 3 times and record your observations.

Results Sentence

With the same colored dyes, the same candies were produced, but with a mixture of dyes, candies were also produced.

Summary Paragraph

As the coffee filter paper was set in the glass with the salt solution, the salt climbed up the paper. As the salt solution climbs up the filter paper, the color spots climb up the paper too, and some colors start to separate into different bands. The colors of some candies are made from more than one dye, and the colors that are mixtures separate as the bands move up the paper. This process is called chromatography. The salt solution is called the mobile phase, and the paper the stationary phase. The word “affinity” to refer to the tendency of the dyes to prefer one phase over the other. The dyes that travel the furthest have more affinity for the salt solution (the mobile phase); the dyes that travel the least have more affinity for the paper (the stationary phase). The mixture is dissolved in a fluid called the mobile phase, which carries it through a structure holding another material called the stationary phase.


The purpose of this experiment was to use paper chromatography to see which dyes are used in the coatings of colored candies. The major findings were that the dyes were the same colors as the candies, thereby supporting the hypothesis. But, however, some of the candies were made up of a mixture of dyes, causing the colors that are mixtures to separate as the colors moved up the paper, and thereby only partially supports the hypothesis. These, however, are not the only reasons as to why the mixtures separated out as they did. Firstly, solubility: If the components of the mixture are soluble in the solvent being used, the mixture will be carried up the paper strip as the solvent travels.

If the material is soluble, the mixture will dissolve as the solvent front moves through it. If the material is a mixture of substances, some of these substances will likely be more or less soluble than others. The more soluble substances will move faster and to a greater distance than those that are less soluble. Secondly, molecular weight: Those substances of lighter molecular weight will move higher up the paper than those substances having a higher molecular weight. Thirdly, as I mentioned before, the chromatography paper is made of cellulose, a polar substance, and the compounds within the mixture travel farther if they are non-polar. More polar substances bond with the cellulose paper more quickly, and therefore do not travel as far.

If this experiment were to be repeated again, different types of candies will be used such as Sour Patch Kids, Gummy Worms, and Starbursts. Also, I would like to see the effect of chromatography on Kool-Aid, and other powdery drinks. Then, using the results from these I could compare it to the results received from this experiment. The results probably would have been more accurate this way.

“Candy Chromotography.” Candy Chromotography. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. <>. “Candy Chromatography: What Makes Those Colors?” Candy Chromatography: What Makes Those Colors? N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. <>. Helmenstine, A.M.( 2007). Candy & Coffee Filter Chromatography. Retrieved February10, 2013 from Shakashiri, Bassam. Candy Chromatography (EXPERIMENT). New York: Penguin, 2002.

Candy Chromatography Essay

For Colored Girls Essay

For Colored Girls Essay.

In the Ntozake Shange’s For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide When the Rainbow is Enuf there are different ladies with different colors. Every lady and every color is very significant to this book. This text by Shange is full of symbols; each lady can be described differently. I believe each lady can be identified with a more specific description or feeling throughout the different poems that can be related to their color for example: passion for red, sadness for blue, fun for orange and so on.

I will start with Shange’s Lady in Red because it is the first color of the rainbow. Her second line in this book is “it was good! ” (Shange, 11) in the poem “Graduation Nite” (Shange, 7). Right away there is a sense of passion from Lady in Red. In the poem “No Assistance” (Shange, 13) she explains how much she has loved this man, sending packages, writing poems. In spite the fact that she loved him at the end of the poem she just leaves him the plant so he can water it himself.

The words that Shange used for the ending of this poem emit a very strong emotion-passion. Lady in Red is someone who does not hold back for anything or anyone; she will say whatever is on her mind. The color orange can be related to party, carnival overall: FUN and I think Lady in Orange is full of fun. For example in Shange’s poem “I’m a Poet who” lady in orange says she wants to sing and make everyone dance. Also during this poem Willie Colon’s “Che Che Cole” plays and everyone starts to dance (Shange, 15).

Lady in Orange is the life of the party, has fun and wants everyone to enjoy the fun with her. She is the type of woman who even though might have problems, had a rough past she will let it go and enjoy the moment. Lady in Yellow is youthful and full of joy. In the poem “Graduation Nite” (Shange, 7) she tells everyone she was the only virgin in the crowd on graduation night, but by the end of the night she would “[give] it up in a Buick” (Shange, 10).

On her graduation night she was dancing, drinking and thinking she “WAZ FINALLY GROWN” (Shange, 9). This all give a sense of joy and youth and innocence because many times youth and innocence does not let us think past those actions before we have all that “fun”. Green is one of the primary colors and can represent growth and in Shange’s book this can be noticed from the second line Lady in Green has: “we used to do it all up in the dark in the corners…” (Shange, 10). Lady in green appears she has changed.

In “Somebody Almost Walked off Wid Alla My Stuff” Lady in Green is in search of her own identity Shange says “now why dont you put me back & let me hang out in my own self” (Shange, 49) this line truly shows growth in her. Lady in green no longer wants to be mixed with anyone else but go back to her own self. This can be any woman who has lost herself in a man but now searches to become her own person. Lady in Blue represents sadness. In the poem “Now I Love Somebody More Than” Lady in Blue expresses how much she loved Willie Colon and she traveled to see him at a dance marathon but Willie Colon never showed up.

She went out of control but no matter what happened she loved him more than that. In the poem “Latent Rapist” Shange starts by expressing how difficult it is to press charges against a friend. She makes excuses for the man that has raped her and betrayed her. Many women are represented by Lady in Blue, feeling upset and disappointed and betrayed by the ones we love. Purple represents royalty in many cases and it is a mixture of red and blue. Lady in purple is just that a mix of sadness and passion.

In “Latent Rapist” Shange’s character Lady in Purple says the guy might have “a lil dick” (Shange, 18), and “& expect like a stranger we always thot waz comin” (Shange, 19) these lines show anger although later on she say “we must have known … especially if he has been considered a friend” (Shange, 20) Shange expresses sadness in these lines. Lady in Purple manifests the betrayal and rage coming from some she knows and trusted. She represents the strength each woman has inside.

Lady in Brown represents the secrets that are part of our life and makes us who we are. Shange starts the book with Lady in Brown and the poem “Dark Phrases”. The first line “dark phrases of womanhood” (Shange, 3) dark phrases are the unknown; the secrets that have assisted this girl become a woman. Even though Shange’s characters are all different, each can be related to each other. The same way each lady can be related to every woman. Many of us have felt sad, happy, full of joy and wanted to share all of this with our family and friends.

For Colored Girls Essay

Comparing Two Artists Essay

Comparing Two Artists Essay.

Magritte uses minimal dull colours though he changes tones within his colours to create shadowy effects and also creates a layered element contributing to line within his artwork; the horizontal layers between the background make the vertical lines of the owls stand out in the foreground of his artwork. Magritte is known to not leave hidden messages within his artwork, cleverly painting the reality he see’s.

For this particular symbolic painting Magritte uses oil on canvas, the sharp detail he uses in his brush strokes make the image look real but not real at the same time.

His witty version of reality he paints fall into surrealism, although his artwork include symbolic owls his painting is clear, interesting and well defined, he wanted his viewers to look at his painting and appreciate what is right there, not leaving them wondering why or what it means, because everything he wished to portray is right there in the artwork.

Owls symbolize wisdom. In many cultures they are believed to be able to see all things that are usually hidden quite possibly fears. Magritte uses these owls to represent as an ancient human fear or the owls are the companions of our ancient fears, the birds growing from the soil may represent the ‘roots’ to our fears. In comparison to Magritte, Peter Booth’s artwork ‘Untitled 1976’ displays an image of apocalyptic shock, at the same time Booth includes his painful personal experiences and his view of humanity.

This is evident when he uses harsh and cold colours to represent the apocalyptic vibe he sends through his artwork, the tones are very similar within each colour although when looking at the whole painting the contrast between the different colours is quite prominent leaving a cold feeling for his viewers to feel. Line has most strongly been used to create the strong horizon line and hence fore-middle- and background. The thin repeated lines of the fire and sky create pattern and simulated texture.

The texture of the paint Booth uses to illustrate the industrial side of his landscape maybe suggesting he had a rough childhood. The shape of the figures in Booth’s artwork are all out of proportion, implying they could be apart of his hazy memory or hallucination, and this is how he remembers them. Booth uses gouache on paper for this particular artwork his intense brush strokes create perspective on his painting, guiding his viewers to understand and follow where he directs them.

His work is characterised by an intense emotional power of often dark narratives, and esoteric symbolism, this artwork also reflecting on his nightmarish dreams which categorise him in surrealism, as he works closely with the element of surprise or shock difference. The colours he uses are symbolic to aspects of his childhood growing up in the industrial surroundings.

Comparing Two Artists Essay

Classic Landscape: Compare and Contrast Essay

Classic Landscape: Compare and Contrast Essay.

Charles Sheeler. It was painted on a canvas with oil. The First thing to catch my eye in this painting was how defined and straight the lines are. There are lines everywhere in this painting. I really like this painting because it’s abstract but not in a way most people would define abstract as. Metaphysical Interior with Bisquits was painted by Giorgio De Chirico in 1916. It was also painted with oil onto a canvas. These two paintings are very similar to each other but also contrast in elements as well.

As I said before, there are lines everywhere in Classic Landscape. Sheeler uses lines to make shape in the painting, and even as detail in the mounds on the left side of the painting. One line that really caught my eye was the diagonal of the railroad track. It makes our eyes follow and go deeper into the industrial part of the painting. In Metaphysical Interior with Bisquits, lines also play a very important role in the painting.

The diagonal lines on the ceiling draw our eyes to objects that we would usually see as not important. There are also lines verywhere in this painting.

Many of these lines are used as detail throughout the painting as well as a way to make shapes. Most of the lines in both of these paintings are straight and very bold. They are very defined by being black in color. Sheeler does a great Job of using shape in Classic Landscape. He mostly uses angular, geometric shapes. For example, the mounds of what I’m guessing to be either dirt or coal are in pyramid shapes, and the silos in the middle of the painting are a cylinder shape. Another shape Sheeler creates is rectangles. Most of them are buildings in he painting.

Chirico uses both geometric and organic shapes throughout his painting. For example, he uses circles as bisquits and many rectangles for geometric shapes. There are also many shapes in this painting that are organic and not as defined as the geometric shapes are. Organic shapes in Classic Landscape are also not well defined. The clouds and smoke clash together and don’t really have a certain shape to either one of them. Sheeler created value in Classic Landscape in a contrasting way. He used light colors in the distance of the painting and draws our yes forward to the bottom left corner by using dark color.

I don’t think Sheeler had the intentions of drawing eyes to that spot in the painting, but if he did it was because that is where the beginning of the rail way started. Chirico also uses color to create value in Metaphysical Interior with Bisquits. He uses darker color to show the importance of the object. He used darker color in these objects because if he didn’t, many of them would go unseen. Chirico uses lighter colors on the ceilings and walls of the room because there really isn’t anything special about them.

Sharp Shadowing hits the ground and across the buildings in the painting of Classic Landscape. The shadowing helps the 3D objects stand out and seem more realistic. Chirico also uses shadowing to make 3D objects stand out. The shadowing in Metaphysical Interior with Bisquits also makes certain objects in the painting seem very big compared to others. Sheeler uses unique and abstract forms throughout his painting. Many of these forms can be seen in the shapes that he chose to use in the painting. Chirico Metaphysical Interior with Bisquits than in Classic Landscape.

Classic Landscape has a very simple color scheme consisting of shadows of white, brown, and blue. Shades of blue are used to create a skyline and the smoke coming out of the industrial pipe. Sheeler uses bright whites on the buildings and a creamy pearl color on the mounds in the painting except one, where he used a deep brown on instead. Sheeler defines lines in Classic Landscape by making them black and very bold. The colors set the tone and mood of the painting. Both whites and blues are calming colors and the darker colors portray the importance of certain objects.

Chirico uses many different colors in his painting. Many are very bright and exciting, which sets the tone of happiness in the painting. He does use darker color, but very sparingly. Most of the dark colors that Chirico used are for shadowing purposes. The texture in Classic Landscape is very smooth. The railway looks as if it would have a rough surface, but if it were to be touched it would be smooth. The details on the boardwalk created by lines make it come alive and seem very realistic. Also, the line structure makes the mounds seem a lot larger than they really are.

Chirico also does this with some of his forms used to make the object seem way bigger than it really is. The texture used in Metaphysical Interior with Bisquits is also smooth. Some of the objects in the painting seem to also have a rough edge, but again if they were to be touched, they would be smooth. Classic Landscape and Metaphysical Interior with Bisquits are both balanced and well-proportioned throughout. The only thing contrasting in both paintings are the different sizes of objects. In Classic Landscape, the farther back our eyes go, the smaller the objects get.

I think this is the same case for Chirico’s painting. Chirico does have some smaller objects in the front of the painting, but most of them are big. Unity is formed in both of these paintings with the many lines they both have. All the lines bring the piece of artwork together to be formed into one. I think that these paintings overall are very similar, though I do believe that the meaning behind each of them is very different. Both Sheeler and Chirico used abstract forms in their paintings, but the meanings of abstract in these paintings are very different from each other.

Classic Landscape: Compare and Contrast Essay

Color Scheme and the Work Place Essay

Color Scheme and the Work Place Essay.

Color Scheme and Work Productivity 1 Running Head: Color Scheme and Work Productivity Color Scheme and Work Productivity How Does the Color Scheme of a Building Affect Work Productivity Introductory Psychology Research Paper Using APA Style Jessica N. Russell Milwaukee Area Technical College July 2008 Color Scheme and Work Productivity 2 Creating a productive work environment is a shift in both the blue collar and white collar work worlds that has the potential of influencing change in the wider arena of life.

High work productivity while maintaining quality could have an extremely positive impact on the economy.

Research indicates that employees produce a higher output of work when they are employed where there is a positive work environment. A huge part of the positive environment is the color scheme of the work building. Using color psychology when designing work environments can make a difference in attitude and work performance, thereby impacting the bottom line of a company. It is the higher work productivity and positive attitudes that are the focus of this research.

Color Scheme and Work Productivity

How Does the Color Scheme of a Building Affect Work Productivity Introductory Psychology Research Paper Using APA Style Introduction The author of this research paper has been in the workforce for over ten years. During this time, the author has worked in a wide variety of industries, including: clerical work, food service, sales and service, and collections. The author is most currently a team lead in the current position of collector. Working as an employee, and now in a somewhat supervisory role, the author has seen both high and low levels of productivity performed by employees.

There is a noticeable pattern that Color Scheme and Work Productivity 3 either most employees are highly productive at some of the companies, or most of the employees are less productive than they should be at some of the companies. The one thing that has intrigued the author is the difference in attitudes and work productivity when moving from one workplace to another. In some work settings, people did unpleasant and difficult work tasks, yet they maintained a positive attitude and high productivity rates.

In other work environments, people had a great job and worked in a pleasant environment, yet their attitudes were not upbeat to reflect that and work productivity was average or low. What in these work places makes the difference in work productivity? The author spoke of this project with employees at work. When the author referenced what in the “workplace environment” makes a difference, many employees stated things such as furnishings, ergonomic work stations, colors of the walls, windows and art in the workplace. The feedback that was given led to the topic for this research paper.

It is important to know the answer to color schemes and their affect of work productivity, as work productivity is what affects a company’s bottom line. The company’s bottom line, in turn, has a huge affect on the economy. Since economic conditions affect all people in this world, it is important to Color Scheme and Work Productivity 4 research and find ways to increase worker productivity. Since there are many things that affect work productivity, the author narrowed the research down to one main thing that affects levels productivity. Does the color scheme of a building affect work productivity?

Method There has been much research done on how to increase work productivity, going far back at the mid 1800s. However, most research has been on management style and hierarchies in the work place. Not as much emphasis has been put on researching the work environment in regards to color schemes. To find information for the research, the author looked in the library research database EBSCOHOST to find articles related to color psychology. The author also utilized a book written on the topic of contemporary management. Results and Findings

The earliest known study in regards to the work environment was series of studies was conducted from 1924 to 1932 at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company. This research, now known as the Hawthorne Studies began as an attempt to investigate how characteristics of the work setting – Color Scheme and Work Productivity 5 specifically at the level of lighting or illumination – affect worker fatigue and performance. (Jones & George, 2008, p. 65). The researchers conducted an experiment in which they systematically measured worker productivity at various levels of illumination.

The experiment produced some unexpected results. The researchers discovered that regardless of whether they raised or lowered the level of illumination, productivity increased. In fact, productivity only began to fall when the level of illumination dropped to the level of moonlight, a level at which, presumably, workers could no longer see well enough to do their work efficiently. (Jones & George, 2008, p. 65). It was concluded that the employees were just happy that people were paying attention to them, and seeing what caused them to work more productively.

The Hawthorne Studies did not look at how illumination at higher or lower intervals for a set period of time affects the performance. This would have answered the question if the illumination affects work performance. Thus, from there, research could have been done in regards to the color schemes of a room. Also, much of the research cited for the Hawthorne Studies was perception based. This would suggest that it is important to ask the workers involved what their illumination preference, as well as their color, preference is. (Hart, 2004, Color Scheme and Work Productivity 6

P. 1). According to research completed by Blumber Capitals Partners, 80 percent of workers said the condition of their work environment affects their productivity, and 33 percent said they have actually left a job or taken a new one nased on the condition of the building and/or amenities offered. (Kampert, 2008, p. 1). In 1998, a study was conducted in regards to task type, posters, workspace color on mood, satisfaction and performance. This study was overseen by the department of psychology at Creighton University in Omaha, NE. There were 112 student participants.

As part of the experiment, they either performed a low or high demand task in a blue or red workspace, with or without a scenic poster. (English and Stone, 1998, p. 175). Only hostility was affected by task type. Satisfaction and performance were not significantly affected by either the posters. Performance decreased for the high demand tasks and decreased for the low demand tasks. Posters made the workplace more pleasant, but also increased perceived task demand. Perceived task demand was marginally related to workplace color.

Perceived task demand may moderate the effects of posters and workplace color on mood and other perceptions. Other date support the notion that cool Color Scheme and Work Productivity 7 colors are calming and warm colors are stimulating. (Stone & English, 1998, p. 175). Many studies in regards to color have actually been done by interior designers who decorate homes,and some who decorate offices. Interior designers are aware that while people do not spend a lot of time thinking about room color, it affects every day of our lives.

Room color influences our mood and thoughts. Colors affect people in many ways, depending on one’s age, gender, ethnic background, or local climate. (Corrigan, 2008, p. 3). Also,certain colors, or groups of colors tend to get a similar reaction from most people, regardless of their age, gender, ethnic background, or local climate. The overall difference is in the shades or tones that are used. To understand what colors work best in certain rooms in either a home or place of business, it is first important to understand the moods that colors evoke.

Much research has been done in the area of color psychology – the study of colors and their affects on moods. Below you will see the colors listed and mood that are evoked. The descriptions come from a book titled Color and Human Response by Faber Birren. The colors and the moods they evoke can also be located on any internet site that discusses color psychology. Color Scheme and Work Productivity 8 Red – raise’s a room’s energy level. It stirs up excitement, but has also been shown to raise blood pressure, speed respiration and speed heart rate.

Red can sometimes be too stimulating for a room. Crimson – makes people feel irritable. People sitting in a crimson room for a long period of time will likely break down any peace or harmony that one is striving to create. Overall red and crimson colors, should only be used in rooms that are used after dark where just a lamp makes the room have an elegant feel. Many steak restaurants like to use red and crimson. Yellow – captures the joy of sunshine and communicates happiness. Thought it is a cheerful color, it should only be used in kitchens, dining rooms and bathrooms.

People are more likely to lose their tempers in a yellow room, as it tends to create feelings of frustration and anger in people. The color yellow is also fatiguing on the eyes. Blue – brings down blood pressure and slows respiration and heart rate. It is considered calming, relaxing, and serene. Pastel blue, however, can come across as unpleasantly chilly, especially in a room that receives little natural light. Color Scheme and Work Productivity 9 Green – considered the most restful color on the eye. A sage or medium green cools things down, encourages unwinding, and promotes comfort and togetherness.

Green is believed to relieve stress by helping people relax. Purple – in its darkest forms is rich, dramatic and sophisticated. Light purples have the same effect as pastel blues, but without the chilly effect. Orange – evokes excitement, enthusiasm, and is an energetic color. It is great for an exercise room. Orange was used in ancient cultures to increase energy levels. Neutrals (black, gray, white, and brown) – are calm colors. Black is used sparingly as trim, same as dark tones of brown, because too much of a dark color make a room feel smaller. White brightens up small areas.

Color Scheme and the Work Place Essay

Color of Water Analysis Essay

Color of Water Analysis Essay.

The book is more like two intertwining books than just a single book. It switches between two points of views, Ruth McBride and her son James McBride. In Ruth’s chapters, she chronicles out her life story beginning with her migrating to the United States when she was two years old. At a young age, Ruth’s life is filled with hardship.

Her father did not love her mother, her mother suffered from polio; she was verbally abused at school for being Jewish, and physically abused by her father.

As soon as she could, Ruth began to put her past behind her. She moved to New York, converted to Christianity, and married a black man. The other half of the book is the biography of the author James McBride. James was one of twelve children and because of that his childhood was full of chaos. Yet his mother kept the children under control by instilling the importance of church and school into their minds.

During his teenage years, James started rebelling against his mother by skipping school and taking drugs and alcohol. But before graduating high school, he decides to turn his life around. After doing that, he attended Oberlin College then Columbia University. As an adult, James worked as a journalist for many magazines and newspapers, but he also started uncovering his mother’s past because she had kept it a secret to all her children. By uncovering his mother’s past, James was able to build an even deeper relationship with her.

While reading this book, it was hard to compare it to anything else because of its originality. A story about an old, white lady taking care of twelve black children; there is almost nothing like that! Although the concept of digging into someone’s past and in doing so gaining a deep respect for them comes close to the movie Hugo. Hugo is about an orphan boy who lives in the walls of a Paris railway station. As Hugo repairs clocks and builds machines, he begins uncovering the truth about a grumpy, old toymaker who works at the train station.

Hugo discovers that the toymaker was actually a brilliant filmmaker, but after World War II, people lost interest in his movies and to avoid bankruptcy, the toymaker had to burn all his film into chemicals. The toymaker was haunted by his past and put the past behind him and wanted nothing to do with it, just like Ruth McBride. But just as James gets his mother to face her past, and in doing so helps her comes to terms with her past, so does Hugo with the toymaker.

By showing the toymaker some of his movies that were not destroyed, and getting him to talk about his past, the toymaker comes to terms with his past and remembers the joy of imagination. James gets a similar result from his mother as he gets her to open up about her past and step into a synagogue for another time. Hugo was then able to see the toymaker in a new light and it helped Hugo build a deep respect for the toymaker. The best part about the book and what kept it so engaging, was that it was able to express some very important and universal themes.

One line that stands out is when James says, “The greatest gift that anyone can give anyone else is life. The greatest sin a person can do to another is to take away that life (McBride 229). ” These words emphasize the idea that our life is the most sacred thing we have. James was able to give his mother the gift of life by helping her come to terms with a part of her life that she chose to bury. This teaches us that we must treasure the good and the bad aspects of our life because when we lose our life, we lose the most important thing we have. “God is the color of water. Water doesn’t have a color (McBride 51).

This quote from the book uncovers a central theme and plotline from the book. No matter your race, religion, or gender, God loves all us of and represents every single one us. This is important to know because James is the son of a white lady, but he and his siblings are all black. Because of this James grows up confused about his race and religion, but his mother would always tell him that since God is the color of water, he loves all the people in the world, no matter what color their skin is.

Color of Water Analysis Essay