Comparative Public Administration Essay

Comparative Public Administration Essay.

The Arab Spring has created opportunities for countries across North Africa and the Middle East to redesign their constitutions. There are ongoing debates on whether these countries will adopt the Anglo-American model or look at other paradigms. Political leaders and scholars have turned to a number of academic fields such cultural studies, sociology, economics, and political science in attempt to answers some of these questions. However, no other field of study will provide more insight into the development of these new government structures than comparative public administration (CPA).

Simply put, it is the study of comparing two or more public administrations by using multiple disciplines.

This definition, however, does not sufficiently describe the complexity of this field or its contributions to other academic areas, government employees, and country leaders. Perhaps the area in which CPA provides the most aid is in its cross-national analysis. Through this research, countries are able to learn from one another. CPA is not limited to cross-national comparison though as it evaluates different administrative processes and systems within countries.

To fully appreciate CPA, however, it is necessary to understand how politics factors into it, its progression over the years, and its analysis towards delineating future challenges to public administration.

Politics in CPA

The study of comparative public administration challenges the notion that public administration and politics are separate entities. Specifically, it has recognized that bureaucrats, pressure groups, and elected officials are all political actors in the policymaking process. In Germany, for example, politics influence policy formation because the law requires public agencies to consult with interest groups before making legislation and regulations. In other countries like the United States, public administrators and pressure groups engage in clientela politics which are mutually dependent relationships. Agencies rely on interest groups not only to shape policies but also for their survival. The interest groups lobby politicians and gain public support in order to help the agencies compete for government resources. At the same time, pressure groups benefit by gaining access to the decision-making process where they are able to represent their interests (Peters, 2010, p. 182). Nations with a single dominant party, in contrast, use politics to develop parantela relationships.

The Chinese Communist party, for example, works with the bureaucrats on behalf of the interest groups, thereby ensuring policies decisions do not steer away from the party’s ideology. CPA also researches politics between public administration and other formal institutions, and it investigates the political strategies each side uses to assert their power and control over policies and budgets. The bureaucrats, for example, have technical knowledge and information which they use to their advantage. In Norway, civil servants collect and analyze vast amounts of data to develop complex plans and budgets which politicians do not have skills or the time to understand. The overwhelmed political leaders have little choice but to accept the administration’s plans. Another useful device that civil servants use in Japan and France are advisory bodies. Although these advisory boards are attached to the ministries, the members are usually civil servants or interest group associates connected to the government agencies. Thus, the bureaucrats determine many of the final outcomes of policies (Peters, 2010, p. 219).

Nevertheless, political institutions have their own devices to counter the bureaucrats. Political leaders create their own specialized institutions and counterstaffs to gain independent sources of information. The president of United States has the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to monitor public expenditures while the Congressional Budget Office oversees the national budget on the legislative side (Peters, 2010, p. 220-221). Executive leaders also hire their own experts such as the Executive Office of the United States and the Office of the Chancellor in Germany. Since civil servants’ positions are permanent, elected officials exert their policy goals through political appointees as in the United States, Belgium, and France. In Germany, however, the minister may directly replace the senior civil servants with their own personnel (Peters, 2010, p. 226).

Changes in CPA

Traditionally, the field of comparative public administration focused on “public administration” aspects such as the bureaucratic structures and systems. In recent years, academics have shifted to the theme of “public management” where CPA identifies best practices to enhance the performance of bureaucracy. The theory of “New Public Management” (NPM) emphasizes generic management and market-based principles. It favors loosening bureaucratic rules to allow more creativity and flexibility, thereby “letting the managers manage” (Peters, 2010, p. 329). Moreover, NPM encourages competition by privatizing government services.

An alternative approach to NPM is the participatory concept of governing. The participatory model streamlines the hierarchy found in traditional administrative system by empowering the lower echelons of civil servants (Peters, 2010, p. 334). Government workers become more productive through involvement in policy decisions (Peters, 2010). Other managerial reforms have included performances measures on the managers themselves and on the organization as a whole. This new tactic focuses on “making managers manage” (Peters, 2010, p. 335).

Since employment is typically permanent in most agencies, leaders recognize that this status have made some civil servants comfortable and unmotivated in their jobs. CPA evaluates different methods to measure employee performances and explores different strategies to encourage them to work, including a variety of rewards and punishments (Peters, 2010, p. 336). Organizational performance reviews are challenging since there are many factors outside the agencies control that impact its successes. CPA aids in this process by identifying the indicators of poor performances in organizations, while also taking into consideration the external influences (Peters, 2010, p.341).

Notable Challenges to Public Administration

The study of CPA emphasizes a comparative approach to identify new challenges that public administration will face in the 21st century. One such challenge will be the issue of accountability. As mentioned above, many countries have transferred public services to the private sector. However in their attempts to increase efficiency, they have lost accountability. Transparency and ethical standards are no longer guaranteed. In order to solve this dilemma, a restoration of some form of government control is necessary. The challenge will be to find new models that balance efficiency and accountability (Peters, 2010).

Yet, the biggest challenge will be finding long-term economic solutions in the face of demographic changes. In many societies, the over-65 population is increasing more than twice as fast as the overall population (Peters, 2010, p.8). Unless policy changes are made, this demographic shift will create unsustainable public expenses leading to budgetary deficits which could compromise pension programs and health care systems. By comparing public policies, governments can analyze policy options and understand the implications of their choices. Some countries have already changed their pension plans by increasing the age of eligibility for retirement; however, they may soon have to make difficult decisions regarding austerity measures such as benefit cuts.


It is important to understand that CPA does more than recognizing similarities and differences. CPA provides descriptive analysis and theories that help advance government institutions, improve government performance, and expand policy options. Before CPA can achieve its purpose, politics must be recognized as an influential factor in the research. In every aspect, politics is involved in the governmental decision making processes, especially policymaking. CPA research explores alternative strategies to improve public management and helps anticipate future challenges. As new regimes are formed, the field of CPA will be a valuable source of information to aid leaders in the process of nation-building. In return, existing CPA theories will likely be changed and new theories emerge through the research of the new governments in the Middle East and other parts of the world.

Peters, B. G. (2010). The Politics of Bureaucracy: An Introduction to Comparative Public
Administration (6th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Comparative Public Administration Essay

The Comparative Advantage of Using Electric Tricycle Essay

The Comparative Advantage of Using Electric Tricycle Essay.

“The atmosphere is already menaced: several harmful substances are changing their composition, with possible catastrophic consequences. ” This is according to an article written by Dieter Schwab (2004). And this is also the reason why global warming or more-correctly climate change is a hot topic these days. Needles to say, the main culprit allegedly for the acceleration of this global climate scenario is the unstoppable expansion of CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) emissions into the atmosphere.

Carbon dioxide which is mostly emitted by the current polluting modes of public transportation is estimated to cause 60 percent of this warming phenomenon.

Every time a person uses a gasoline in his car, Carbon dioxide is released. Every time a person becomes a passenger even just in tricycle transportation CO2 is created. (Tacio, H. , Sun Star Davao, June 20, 2005). And it has been noted that carbon dioxide emission is expected to triple in the next 20 years coming mainly from the transport sector.

That’s why sustainable transport and clean energy utilization are considered key measures that can help mitigate global warming as well as build more climate resilient communities.

In New Delhi, India, a statement from the India’s popular engineer who pioneered India’s first electric car: “With the growing climate change awareness, our world is at the tipping point for electric cars. Electric cars, as called in some other countries are the latest innovation in technology that is considered as the best solution to the many issues that the transportation machines are facing now-a-days.

(www. mb. com. ph). Aside from carbon emission that making highly industrialized and greatly developed countries like China and US as the World’s biggest carbon emitter, transportation machines also face the issues of expensive consumption of fuels and high cost of maintenance. (France-Presse, A. , Sunday Times, 2009) In the Philippines, with the jeepneys as their popular mode of local transportation plus the increasing number of tricycles scattering in every corner of the streets, it is no doubt that they too are facing the same dilemma when it comes to environmental issues.

That is why, with the launching of the electronic-powered jeepney in one of its city, every citizen were one of mind in encouraging the complete development and use of the said machine. (Yap, D. ,www. ewsinfo. inquire. net. ,2007) In addition, with the skyrocketing of the fuel’s prices, Makati Mayor Jojo Binay, as posted by the DJ Yap on the same site, believes that this electronic jeepney will help increase the income of transportation drivers by removing their expenditures for diesel. And with no more need of clutch and oil changes, maintenance and spare parts will be very minimal, thus giving drives the chance to increase their income.

Meanwhile, in Davao City, though it is far less polluted than other cities in the archipelago, still, air pollution from the increasing numbers of public and private transportations and as well as from the rapid growth of numbers of tricycles within the area, is still visible. With 234,379 carbon-emitting vehicles (www. lto. gov. ph) running on its highways and a lot more in its every streets, it is no wonder that Councilor Pilar Braga, Chairman of Energy and Transportation and Communication, as reported by Grace L. Plata, proposes the demonstration and public-test and use of e-jeepney in the city.

She cited that e-jeepney is a very viable solution and addition to cut carbon emission as well as help in lightening the load of our fellowmen by decreasing their expanses in gasoline and maintenance. On the other hand, with the advent of this new technology, it is of no surprise that there are still a lot of people of who are afraid to change the old ways of things. They may seem to be excited to try the news trends but they are still hesitant to completely adopt it, thus causing them to look for its flaws and weaknesses.

It is in this light that the researchers are prompted to conduct the study to assess the comparative advantage of using electric-powered tricycle to the traditional motorized –tricycle as public vehicle. In that way, people would be able to know which machine would likely be of great help in mitigating global climate issues as well as, aid in uplifting the standards of living of many of our countrymen whom, transportation driving is their main source of income. Statement of the Problem This study is purposely designed to study the comparative advantage of using e-tricycle to motorized-tricycle as a public vehicle..

1.) Specifically, it aims to determine the following: 1. 1. ) Maintenance cost of using E-tricycle and motorized tricycle. 1. 2. ) Determine the income of e-tricycle drivers as well as motorized tricycle drivers, and 1. 3 Determine the efficiency between e-tricycle and motorized-tricycle. Hypothesis (Null Hypothesis) There is no significant difference in the efficiency of an e-tricycle and a motorized tricycle tested and evaluated at 0. 05 level of significance. Review of Related Literature This section contains varied courses that were reviewed relevant to the research problem.

The literatures reviewed were books, magazines, journals, newspapers, in the internet sources on the electric-powered-jeepney and diesel-powered jeepney and its various outcomes when used. This part is a discussion about electric-powered jeepney and diesel-powered jeepney followed by different subject matters associated with the area of the study. The literatures are presented in order to present a workable background of study. Eelectric-cars “Electric cars produce zero localized emissions since they’re propelled by electric motors that run on batteries charged at home, or special electric vehicle charging stations.

Car manufacturers are actively developing a new generation of electric cars using technologies and lessons learned from electric vehicles developed in the 1990s. Electric cars are extremely efficient and run for pennies per mile, much cheaper than any other alternative fuel. ” (www. greencar. com) According to Al-Hallaj, head of renewable energy programs at the Illinois Institute of Technology that the only sustainable solutions for the auto industry are electric-based vehicles. (R. Popely, “Battery-powered car race is on”, www.archives. chicagotribune. com, 2008).

Most consumers at the present time preferred to use tools or equipments that are environmentally friendly due to the unmistakable effects of using traditional cars that causes global warming. “With growing climate change awareness, I think we’re at the tipping point for electric cars,” said the engineer who pioneered India’s first electric car and the man behind Reva Electric Car Company, Chetan Mini during the interview by an AFP to the Manila Bulletin in New Delhi, India.

He added; “Driving across the continent on the sun’s energy made me think how we could use alternative energy to power cars in the Indian context. When I saw how our cities were getting polluted, I realized employing clean, alternative energy could make a lot of sense — we needed to develop this kind of “The real trigger that started serious development of electric cars by the major automotive manufacturers was the sales mandate issued in 1990 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB).

This required that by 1998, 2 per cent of light duty vehicle sales of each automotive company selling more than 35,000 vehicles per year in California, must be zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs). (Michael H. Westbrook,“Electric Car: Development and future battery, hybrid and fuel-cell cars”,www. books. google. com. ph, 2009). “The electric-powered “Trikebayan” does not emit any noise or carbon monoxide, providing a breather from the incessant whine of gasoline-powered motorcycle engines and the poisonous gases that come out of their exhaust pipe, enveloping the air in an unhealthy haze. ” (Andrade, J. , “Finally, a tricycle we could all love”. www. newsinfo. inquirer. net,2008).

“With only eight hours of charging, the e-tricycle can run up to 120 kilometers costing only P38. ” said Sean Gerard Villoria, chief executive officer and president of Electric Vehicle Solutions on a report to Daily Inquirer . (Morelos, M. , “Taguig shifts to electric jeeps”,www. newsinfo. inquirer. net. ,2008). Motorized-car “Diesel fuel is principally a blend of petroleum-derived compounds called middle distillates (heavier than gasoline but lighter than lube oil) and may or may not contain additional additives. Other middle distillates include kerosene and No. 2 Heating Oil.

Diesel fuel is designed to operate in a diesel engine where it is injected into the compressed, high-temperature air in the combustion chamber and ignites spontaneously. This differs from gasoline, which is ignited in a gasoline engine by the spark plugs. (www. exxon. com, 2009). Maintenance Cost “There’s no maintenance involved when using the e-car. No change oil, for instance. The batteries have an average life span of two to three years. Changing batteries would around P50, 000. ” A statement from Karl Magsuci, a business planning and development manager for EVonnovations, Inc.

(R. Camongol, 2007, www. inquirer. net) Though e-car and e-jeepney hold opposing views with their physical features but still both are using batteries and therefore, they are similar when it comes to ways of maintaining its engines. “Lead acid batteries have what is referred to as memory. This is very inconvenient phenomenon whereby if you re-charge the batteries before they are fully discharged, over time, the batteries will remember that the point and this will actually reduce the amount of electricity that can be stored in the battery.

If you charge your batteries for only a few hours, the batteries will be greatly effected by the memory issue and will rapidly decline in overall output. ”(Didik, F,”Questions and answers regarding electric vehicles”,www. electriccarsociety. com, 2005). “This type of car seems to be any environment concerned driver’s dream. Using one or two motors for propulsion, therefore converting fuel into electricity, they are the less polluting type of vehicles at the moment. That’s not all.

If you’re a speed addicted, you will surely appreciate its second major advantage: it can launch from standstill with maximum force, where do you add that, from a mechanically point of view, is much easier to get it repaired. ”(“Diesel vs Electric vs Hybrid Cars”,www. articlesbase. com. ,2009). “From a financial point of view, a diesel car, running on something like filtered, used vegetable oil, such as the discarded oil from restaurants, might be a better solution, however, the effort in doing the conversion and in acquiring the used oil might not be worth the effort.

” (Didik, F,”Questions and answers regarding electric vehicles”,www. electriccarsociety. com, 2005). Energy Efficiency “An electric motor has what is known as continuous torque and therefore has almost the same horsepower at any speed, though an electric motor is more efficient at high rotational speeds. For this reason, an electric car normally has better acceleration from standstill of then the acceleration of a gasoline powered car. ” A statement taken from the site of Frank Didik, a car designer from Electric Car Society. (www. electriccarsociety. com).

“Diesel fuel is inherently unstable, solids begin to form and the accumulating tank sludge will eventually clog your diesel fuel filters, ruin your injectors and cause diesel engines to smoke. The solids that form as the result of the inherent instability of the diesel fuel and the debris formed in the natural process of fuel degradation will accumulate in the bottom of your fuel tank. The sludge will form a coating or bio-film on the walls and baffles of the fuel tank, plug your fuel filters, adversely impact combustion efficiency, produce dark smoke from the exhaust, and impact performance.

Eventually fouled diesel fuel will clog fuel lines and ruin your equipment. ”(“Most Diesel Engine Failures Originate In The Fuel Tank”,www. diesel-fuel. com. ,2007). “The range of most electric cars is about 100 miles, or about one-third that of gasoline cars, and it requires three to ten hours to recharge them. Some car batteries, like nickel-metal hydride batteries, can give cars range of 300 miles on a single charge-even farther than many gasoline-driven cars-but they don’t provide rapid acceleration. (Michael H. Westbrook,“Electric Car: Development and future battery, hybrid and fuel-cell cars”,www. com. ph, 2009).

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework The environmental idea is anchored from the book of Anderson, J. and Anderson, C. (2005) entitled “Electric and Hybrid cars: a history” (books. google. com. ph) which affirms that the technology that is being created today points to solutions that will allow automobile manufacturers to produce an environmentally friendly electric vehicle that is better than the conventional technology currently used in the internal combustion engine, and at a competitive price. On this framework, the researchers consider three inputs and two outputs as the basis of the study.

The inputs are the electricity, gasoline and the maintenance cost, and the outputs are the income of the drivers and the kilometers per hour driven. Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the Study Significance of the Study Though e-tricycles face great deal of uncertainties from the traditional motorized tricycle, they may still be the solution for the global warming in the field of transportation in the community. Tricycles today dominate in a small barrios in the city, especially in rural areas and in some universities in the country.

This is an environmental apprehension and calls for the adaptation of the technological revolution in the city. Also, this green technology that will be developed will ensure clean and environmentally friendly effects than to existing motorized tricycle. The study is specifically significant to the following: The findings of the study will be beneficial to the following: Department of Science and Technology. The result of this study could help the agency to determine the degree of consciousness of the community about the new technology.

Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The study will help the agency by giving them collective figures about the number of motorized-tricycle users who used different non-renewable source of energy to support the United Nations’ “Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol. ” Community. The outcome of this study will give information regarding the effect of using motorized-tricycle as well as e-tricycle. Definition of Terms Protocol . This term refers to a memorandum on record of an agreement, especially one reached in international negotiations. Kyoto Protocol.

This term linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate (UNFCCC) strengthens the international response to climate change. It was negotiated in 1997 and binds a group of 37 industrialized countries to greenhouse gas emissions reduction of 5% by 2012 (compared to 1990 levels). Diesel Fuel. This term refers to a blend of petroleum-derived compounds called middle distillates (heavier than gasoline but lighter than lube oil) and may or not contain additional additives. ———————– Motorized-tricycle Outputs Inputs Efficiency • Electricity/ gasoline • Maintenance Cost • Income • Km per hour driven E-tricycle.

The Comparative Advantage of Using Electric Tricycle Essay