Communication Network Essay

Communication Network Essay.

 Communication network are large system distributed in wide area which are designed to send and receive information from one computer to another computer and this computers are called host. Network achieves this providing a set of rules which in terms of networking are called protocols. This protocols are set for communication which every host should follow and participate. The network is made up of two types of components: Nodes and Communication lines. The nodes manages the network protocol and provides switching capabilities.

Usually a node is a computer itself which operates different network. The communication lines is the route that connects a power house to its base. Examples : copper wire cables, radio waves and telephone lines. Human resources are nowadays dependent on communication through network and their various types and protocols. Human uses this network to exchange information through symbols, signals and speeches and for this type of communication network provides different tools such as radio, television, computer etc. The role of communication network is globally in current era.

Networks are constructed across wide area buildings. Networks may also be citywide and even international, using both cable and air connections. There are three types of major networks . 1> LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) 2> WIDE AREA NETWORK (WAN) 3> METROPOLITAN AREA NETWROK (MAN). 1. LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) Group of computers which all belong to same organizations and which are linked within a small geographic area using a network and often the same technology. Data transfer speeds over a local area network can reach up to 10 Mbps to 1 Gbps.

Local area network can reach as many as users may be 100 or even 1000 users. LOCAL AREA NETWORK is also divides in two small area network. 1> TINY AREA NETWORK (TAN) AND 2> CAMPUS AREA NETWORK (CAN). TINY AREA NETWORK are locally used within the houses and small associations while CAMPUS AREA NETWORK are usually used for schools and universities. LOCAL AREA NETWORK are operated by two different modes * Peer-to-peer – Network in which communication is carried out from one computer to another computer without a central computer and where each computer has the same role *

Client/server – Environment in which a central computer provides a network service to users 2. WIDE AREA NETWORK (WAN) WAN connects multiple local network to one another over great geographic distances. The speed available on Wide network depends on the cost of connection the buyer spends on it. WAN usually operate using routers. Big corporation and business owns wide area network for the company users. 3. METROPOLITAN ARE NETWORK (MAN) Connects multiple geographically near by LANS to one another at high speeds.

Thus a MAN lets two remote modes communicate as if they were part of some local area network. MAN is made from switches or routers connected to one another with high speed links. ACCESS RESTRICTION When it comes to network then how can one forget about the restrictions one has accessing it. There are two kinds of restriction. 1) Public Network 2) Private Network. * Public network – The networks that are publically visible to the internet and also some of the network can be easily access to the public. By this it doesn’t mean that public can have access to the network of the company.

This network are generally used by the public but may require registration fees * Private network – In private network the device cannot access directly to the network nor they can directly communicate to them. Networks that are maintained and used by banks, hospital, airlines etc. OSI MODEL:- The International Standards Organization (ISO) has developed a reference model for network design called the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). It proposes a seven-layer architecture for networks 1. Physical layer 2. Data-link layer 3. Network layer 4. Transport layer 5. Session layer 6.

Presentation layer 7. Application layer The seven layer represents the protocol architecture for the communications components of host but the nodes in the network applies to only first three lower layers and the reason behind the node using only lower three layers is that the upper four layers are not capable to the task of communication between the nodes 1. Physical layer – Physical layer focuses on transmissions of data bits over communication lines 2. Data link layer – The data link layer concerns with the transfer of data over the communication links provided by physical layer. 3.

Network layer – Is concerned with the routing of data across the network from one end to another end. With this network layer converts the data into packet and makes sure that the packet is delivered to their specific final destination where the packet is again converted into data. 4. Transport layer – The main concern of the transport layer is to isolate the upper three layers from the network so that if there are any changes to the network equipment technology will be confined to lower three layers. 5. Session layer- The session layer provides a structured means for data exchange between user processes on communicating hosts. . Presentation layer – The presentation layer provides represents the application data communicated between two user processes. 7. Application layer – It is concerned about what the data means to application. It provides standards for support a variety of application independent services. CONCLUSION:- In conclusion communication network helps us provide all the information using internet protocols and through its different layers. It’s a network which is divided in wide area for receiving and transmitting information and data from computer to another.

Communication networks have their types depending on the area and how large the network is. With all the network division from region to region each have their own restriction through which the network are privately used or publically. Work cited Hekmat,Sharam. “CommunicationNetworks. “N. p. ,n. d. Web. Apr. 2013. <http://www. pragsoft. com/books/CommNetwork. pdf>. Patel, Mayur. “The Communications Network. ” The Communications Network RSS. The Communications Network, 26 Apr. 2013. Web. 29 Apr. 2013. <http://www. comnetwork. org/>. AG, SAMSON. “Communication Networks. ” SAMSON. N. p. , n. d. Web. <: http://www. samson. de>.

Communication Network Essay

Assignment as Essay

Assignment as Essay.

As part of the network security team, we will be proving IDI with a network security plan to mitigate the vulnerabilities that have been discovered. A secure site will be set up with network intrusion detection and network protection systems will be available to access via the internal network. Policies will be presented for remote access and the use of VPN. Also contained within this report will be strategies for hardening the network and mitigating risks. An updated network layout with increased network security to meet the current needs will be included.

In the interest of business continuity, remote access will be utilized. User wishing access to internal network assets will only be able to access said assets with the use of a company issued laptop. We will make use of MAC address filtering to allow remote users access to the internal network via VPN. Each of the remote access laptops will have been loaded with VPN and have the MAC address added to the list on the MAC address filter.

Users will be able to login to the VPN by using their local username and password.

By making use of a VPN connection, users should be able to easily access the network assets. VPN connections are protected by SSL encryption which provides communication security over the internet. Each of the remote access laptops will be encrypted with McAfee safeboot encryption and all local data will remain encrypted until a valid login is entered. McAfee safeboot encryption requires additional login information to access the IDI internal network. At the present there is one web server for employees to access both internal and external sites.

The network security team will be integrating a web server located within the internal network. This Web server will be accessible only from within IDI’s local area network. We will be using the layered security concept to protect IDI’s internal servers. An (IDS) intrusion detection system will be set up to send out alerts in the event of an intrusion and log all connections. An (IPS) intrusion prevention system will be set up to prevent the detected intrusions and will make use of MAC address filtering to deny or allow connections based off the MAC address or physical address of each machine.

MAC address filtering will allow the servers to accept incoming traffic from predetermined hosts. To further secure the local area network, the network security team will be implementing the principle of least privilege in regards to the users. By using the principle of least privilege we will be preventing multiple forms of malicious or accidental risks by only giving the user the permissions and privileges necessary to complete their job. Microsoft’s default security software is commonly used and well known making the vulnerabilities well known, which would make it easier for a hacker to plan out an attack.

Third party antivirusmalware and firewall software will be used on all machines. The servers located within the network will make use of a statefull firewall to monitor and filter all traffic on the network by scanning for congruence between data packets. The public facing servers used to connect the internal webserver to the customer website are contained within the demilitarized zone. Due to the demilitarized zones proximity to the wide area network, we will be taking a layered security approach. There will be a statefull firewall located between the router and the demilitarized zone.

This firewall will protect the internal network via the LAN-to-WAN connection by performing in-depth packet inspection and closely monitoring the LAN’s inbound and outbound traffic. A stateless physical firewall device will be in place between the internet service provider and the demilitarized zone. This firewall hardware will allow for larger amounts of inbound and outbound traffic. The demilitarized zone will make use of both an IDS and IPS to handle any intrusions within this part of the network. Current IDI Network Weaknesses/vulnerabilities Logisuite 4. 2.2 has been installed 10 years ago, has not been upgraded, however over 350 modifications have been made, and license is expired RouteSim-

The destination delivery program is used to simulate routes, costs and profits , it is not integrated into Logisuite or oracle financials to take advantage of the databases for real-time currency valuation and profit loss projections IDI needs to standardize office automation hardware and software currently there are about 600 workstations , 200 HP, 150 Toshibas, 175 IBM, 50 dell, rest are apple PowerBooks without CAD software available Software ranges from various antique word processing packages of which are incompatible for integration with each other, causing transfer of files to become corrupt when opened by incompatible software Polices exist that prohibit the introduction of personal devices, many executives have had administrators install clients on their unsupported non-standard personal laptops, pcs, ws that interface with internet with little or no personal protection WAN was designed by MCI in early 2000’s which has not been upgraded since data rate increases have occurred in Asia and Brazil has been distressed. Between September and March (peak hours) capacity is insufficient, customers are lost due to dropped connections and abandoned shopping baskets, further reducing growth and revenue Telecommunications – limited Mitel SX-2000 private automatic branch exchange (PABX) that only provides voicemail and call forwarding Current IDI Strengths

Sao Paulo is presently the strongest link in the chain. Sao Paulo Brazil is a model of standardization; all other sites will be modeled after this site. The Sao Paulo office includes the following setup 30 MS windows for file and print 4 Linux (Unix) servers for major production applications 2 Linux (Unix) servers with the internet zone with juniper high-speed switches and routers A storage area network based on EMC CLARiiON SAP R/3(ECC6-Portal based apps) Up-to-date security policies although in Spanish The telephone system provided by SP Telesis- one of the four competing providers in the metropolitan city The NEC NEAX 2400 Series PABX used for internal and external communications

Assignment as Essay