Bruno – Boy in the Striped Pajamas Essay

Bruno – Boy in the Striped Pajamas Essay.


Bruno is portrayed as talkative in the novel The Boy in the Striped Pajamas because when he went exploring he found a boy, named Shmuel on the other side of the fence he was not afraid to not only talk to him but, to have a bit of a conversation with Shmuel, although he had never met this boy before. Here is some of the conversation the two young boys carried on the first time they had met: “Hello,” said Bruno.

“Hello,” said the boy. “I’ve been exploring,” he said. “Have you?” said the little boy. “Yes. For almost two hours now.” “Have you found anything?” asked the boy. “Very little.” “Nothing at all?” “Well, I found you,” said Bruno after a moment (page 106-107).


Bruno is described as creative in this novel because when he let it slip to his sister that because of the rain he hadn’t been able to go and see Shmuel for a few days he was quickly able to make up an excuse that Shmuel was his imaginative friend: “I have a new friend,” he began.

“A new friend that I go see everyday. And he’ll be waiting for me by now. But you cant tell anyone.” “Why Not?” “Because he’s an imaginary friend,” said Bruno trying his best to look embarrassed, just like Lieutenant Kotler had when he had became trapped in his story about his father in Switzerland. “We play together everyday” (page 155)


In this novel Bruno is showed as curious because he loves to explore even though it is off limits at the new house, ‘Out-With’, Here is an example of a time when Bruno went exploring: ‘Before heading of in that direction, though, there was one final thing to investigate and that was the bench. All of these months he’d been looking at it and staring at the plaque from a distance and calling it ‘the bench with the plaque’, but he still had no idea what it said. Looking left and right to make sure that no one was coming, he ran over to it and squinted as he read the words. It was only a small bronze plaque and Bruno read it quietly to himself. ‘Presented on the occasion of the opening of…” He hesitated. ‘Out-With Camp,’ he continued, stumbling over the name as usual. ‘June nineteen forty’ (page102).


Bruno is defined as caring throughout the book because he doesn’t recognize the various barriers presented, between him and Shmuel, Bruno is also very caring as he treats Shmuel as an equal unlike the soilder’s and many people around him. ‘Perhaps you can come to dinner with us one evening,’ said Bruno, although he wasn’t sure it was a very good idea. ‘Perhaps,’ said Shmuel, although he didn’t sound convinced. ‘Or I could come to you,’ said Bruno. ‘Perhaps I could come and meet your friends,’ he added hopefully (page 132). This specific reference from the novel shows two different barriers between Shmuel and Bruno, one being the fence between them and the other being the families when they go to supper together.

Bruno – Boy in the Striped Pajamas Essay

Cities and the Creative Class by: Richard Florida Essay

Cities and the Creative Class by: Richard Florida Essay.

With the shift from manufacturing to “creative” industries, a new creative age is increasingly becoming a defining aspect of securing a nation’s economic growth. According to Richard Florida, human creativity is now the “decisive source of competitive advantage” and cities can thrive by tapping and harnessing the young, mobile, and talented individuals known as the “creative class” (Florida, 2003). Florida particularly outlines how certain cities are able to attract these innovative and talented individuals. He argues that cities that succeed have three main ingredients: technology, talent and tolerance (Florida, 2003).

To prove his point, Florida uses information of both thriving and failing cities, showing their contrasting features. He examines San Francisco Bay area, Boston, Washington, Austin and Seattle’s openness and bohemia as magnets for the young, highly-talented creative class while criticizes Baltimore, St. Louis and Pittsburgh for their unwillingness to be sufficiently tolerant and open-minded, therefore unable to attract top creative talent.

Richard Florida argues that the creative class look for “communities with abundant high-quality experiences, an openness to diversity of all kinds, and above all else, the opportunity to validate their identities as creative people” (Florida, 2003).

These people, in turn, create economic growth and innovation. Although Florida was successful in selling the idea of a “creative class,” this is hardly news. Florida was simply describing the “human capital theory,” which states that the amount of highly-educated people in an area is what drives economic growth. Florida argues, however, that his theory differs from the human capital theory as “(1) it identifies a type of human capital, creative people, as key to economic growth and (2) it identifies the underlying factors that shape the location decisions of these people” (Florida, 2003).

However, the creative people that Florida is describing are, for the most part, highly-educated and they choose to move to certain locations mainly because they have employment opportunities, not because of creativity and diversity. In a knowledge-based economy, it’s hard to believe that creative capital is worth more than human capital. Simply, it is the highly-educated people who are the driving force of the economy. Richard Florida only reiterates this idea by describing these highly-educated people as “creative and valuable”. Another criticism of Florida’s “creative class” is that he exaggerates the size and creativity of this group of people. He describes a “super creative class” that includes scientists, engineers, professors, artists, entertainers, actors, designers and architects (Florida, 2003). He also goes beyond this core group and scrutinizes “creative professionals” working in knowledge-based occupations in high-tech sectors. Florida seems to reiterate that there is a pool of talented individuals everywhere and that all human beings are potentially members of this creative class.

However, Florida fails to acknowledge individuals who are deemed as “non-creative”. These “non-creative” people mainly work in service and production industries with little flexibility in working hours and conditions. The non-creative class is practically invisible as they live to support the creative population. Thus, Richard Florida is unsuccessful in discussing the effects of the creative age on individuals who do not possess the talent and creativity to flourish in a creative environment. Lastly, Richard Florida is criticized for failing to take into account the neighboring cities around creative cities. Creative cities are feeding into these small, surrounding neighborhoods in order to sustain such creativity and innovation. This means that creativity is only limited to certain areas, while the rest of the surrounding cities lose their resources and people in order to support the economic growth of these centres.

Richard Florida’s idea of creative class promotes growth at any cost, creating a high concentration of innovation and growth to only certain areas. Creative cities tend to attract talented, highly-educated young people, causing a local “brain drain” in other neighbouring cities. As well, there is a notion that creative cities will provide wealth and opportunities for everyone. As a result, even “non-creative” people are pooled in to relocate into these centres only to find that they lack talent and skills necessary to find meaningful and creative jobs. Overall, creative cities are only promoting greater social inequality, in which people are increasingly becoming disconnected from each other and their communities. In conclusion, Richard Florida is overly optimistic about the notion of the “creative class.”

His ideas are hardly news, as he merely attempts to redefine the idea of “human capital theory”. He suggests that creative and innovative people are valuable but these groups are also highly educated. This simply means that economic growth is not a result of the creativity or diversity, but powered by knowledge and education within the society. Florida also exaggerates the quantity of the so called “creative class” and capitalizes on the idea that creative cities are composed of an increasing number of “more creative, more innovative, and more gay” people. Lastly, he fails to consider the detrimental effects of these creative cities on surrounding neighborhoods. These centres often create brain drains in their neighbouring cities, emphasizing the idea of growth at any cost. Overall, Richard Florida’s ideas of “creative class” can be problematic as it neglects other populations that only act to support the interests of the centres.

Cities and the Creative Class by: Richard Florida Essay

Nature vs Nurture – Depression Essay

Nature vs Nurture – Depression Essay.

For years there has been an ongoing debate of nature versus nurture. Nature refers to genetics, inheritance and genes, and nurture refers to characteristics shaped by one’s environmental influences. For the purpose of this paper, the development of depression will be researched in terms of the nature versus nurture debate. Studies show that while some people are genetically predisposed to mood disorders, many people develop them through environmental factors. However, a different study looked at the relationship and interaction of nature and nurture.

Therefore, the development of depression can not be pinpointed to one just one specific cause; it can be developed through genetics, environmental influences, or a mixture of both. Mood disorders tend to run in families, which suggests that depression could be inherited.

Those with a first-degree relative (parent, sibling) with depression are three times more likely to become depressed than those without. Researchers studied identical twins with the same DNA. They found that if one twin had depression, the other twin had a 76 percent chance of developing it as well if they were raised together.

When the twins were raised apart, the other twin had a 67 percent chance of becoming depressed. These numbers are high enough to suggest that genetics do play a part in the development of depression. (Heimler, 2011) In a study lead by Dr Myrna Weissman, professor of epidemiology in psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, and director of the Division of Epidemiology at the New York State Psychiatric Institute found that thinning of the brain cortex thinning can be linked to depression, because it ‘disrupts a person’s ability to pay attention to and make sense of social and emotional cues from others’. Researchers found that the offspring of those with depression had thinner cortexes than those with non-depressed parents. (Paddock, 2009)

This shows that depression can be inherited from parents or family members through genetics. It has been proven that things people experience can affect their state of mind. Depression often comes from traumatic life experiences, such as the illness or death of a loved one, socioeconomic issues, major life changes, or intense stress. Chronic stress is often linked to the development of depression. If a person is under continuous stress, it may not change anything about the person’s mental well-being. However, if a sudden traumatic experience is added on top of that, it may be enough to trigger clinical depression. Childhood experiences can also lead a person to becoming depressed. It can come from learned behaviour. For example, a child who grew up with clinically depressed parents could learn to deal with their problems by not getting out of bed, the way their parents did. (Fagnani, 2011) Some researchers believe that a difficult childhood can play a role in an early onset of depression.

One theory suggests that children who go through a hard time while growing up have a more difficult time adjusting to changes in their. (Clouthier, 2007) Another theory is that these children may not have the proper emotional development, making them vulnerable to becoming depressed. Environmental factors often play a role in the development of depression. One specific cause of depression has never been found. Many scientists believe that it is actually a mix of genetics and environmental factors that lead to one developing a mood disorder. Research conducted by Abshalom Caspi shows that genetics and life events come together to produce depression. Everyone has a gene that regulates the brain’s level of serotonin, which regulates emotion. Every person gets two copies of this gene, one from each parent.

They can end up with one of three combinations: short/short, short/long, or long/long. It was discovered that those with the short/short combination are predisposed to depression, but only when they experience a traumatic life event. If those with the short/short gene have a peaceful life, then they are no more likely to develop depression that those with the long/long gene. However, if they have many difficult experiences, then they are twice as likely to become depressed. (Hampton, 2011) A mix of genes and environmental influences is often to blame for the development of depression. By 2020, depression is expected to be the 2nd leading cause of disability in the world. (Hogan, 2008)

While the discussion of nature versus nurture in terms of depression has being going on for a long time and there still is no definitive answer. Some people become depressed for no reason, and some people become depressed after a traumatic event, or a period of high stress. For many people, they need to have a bad life experience to trigger the chemicals in their brain that control emotion. No one really knows one reason for why or how mood disorders are developed. Depression can come from genetics, inheritance and genes, from one’s environmental influences, or from a mixture of both.

Nature vs Nurture – Depression Essay

Creativity Reflection Essay

Creativity Reflection Essay.

Creativity is the specific process of using the mind to produce new concepts and ideas to do certain things. The concepts and ideas should be highly suitable to its purpose and original in its form to be considered creative. Creativity is the force that drives individuals to generate something innovative, formulate thoughts, and to try theories which were never done before (Creativity 2006).

Creativity mainly comes from the person’s faculty.  And every person’s mind is different from each other. This signifies that the level creativity varies greatly among individuals.

Some people are naturally more creative than others. Currently, a method of measuring creativity is being developed. To know one’s creative level, individuals are subjected to the creativity quotient checking program, which works same the way when a person’s intelligence quotient is measured. A person’s creativity is quantified according to his fluency, originality, elaboration, and flexibility.

Creativity is innate and can be further enhanced by the person’s environment, upbringing, preferences, and experiences.

Everybody is born with different seeds of creativity. Several researches had shown that creativity can be inherited. People, who are inclined to the arts and the music, for instance tend to pass their talents to their children, who more often than not, do excel that field in their own way and capacity (Creativity 2006).

Although creativity is assumed to be hereditary, it is further enhanced by a person’s environment. A person who exists in a place where music is a way of life, there are higher chances that he will grow up with the inherent desire to learn the craft. And that desire, coupled with his parents, as well as other people’s influence, will mold him to do extremely well in it; hence, he will undoubtedly be more creative in it.

Creativity can also be brought about by frustration, as well as emotional tension. The very people that failed one time or another in their personal conquest of love, fame, and fortune, are more likely to adapt creative ways to hoist themselves into the particular stature that they were not able to achieve right on. And for as long as they posses the same amount of desire, they will keep on trying and will keep on looking for other ways to be closer to their goal. By doing that their creativity is enhanced (Creativity 2006).

Criticisms are actually helpful in boosting creativity. In fact, it is helpful in other things and not just creativity alone. The term constructive criticism is very applicable here. Criticisms can further push people to be creative. The act of criticism, either by an expert or a contemporary, is one form of interaction between people. And this interaction will work positively to somebody with an open mind. Criticism dished out to a person who can’t accept it for the purpose of improving his work and his ideas, is useless for he is not capable of improvement. His creativity, as well as his point of view, will remain stagnant and will not thrive. Only a person open to change can accept criticisms. And change is the whole idea of creativity.

In line with this, all criticisms should be delivered in the right way. It should be given out in a positive manner. Criticisms are not meant to put a person down. Excessive criticisms are never helpful to a person, for his creativity or otherwise.

Creativity should be express in all available avenues and places. Children are highly encouraged to express it in schools. Schools are learning institutions, and it would greatly help them in enhancing the creativity they had discovered within themselves. Creativity should be brought forth at an early age. Doing so will give that person a longer time to hone it so as to fruitfully use of it in his chosen career and industry. People with high levels of creativity are seen to be more successful than those who do not possess it much. Students, who perfected their creative instincts while still young, will make them a victory in whatever field they choose.

Creativity is essential in a person’s everyday life. In fact, several bestselling self-help books are focused in enhancing this important trait. And that’s because without creativity, the probability of the things and instances around changing for the better is close to nil.


Creativity. (2006). Wikipedia. Retrieved September 8, 2006 from wiki/Creativity#Measuring_creativity

Creativity Reflection Essay

Remote Associates Test Essay

Remote Associates Test Essay.

Creativity is a level of creative endowments, ability for creation, which compose relatively stable characteristic of person. During last years this term became very popular, and people almost forgot the word “creative ability”. These terms seem to be identical, but it is better understand creativity not only as creative ability or a number of such abilities, but also as ability for creation; and these concepts are not identical, although they are very close one to the other.

Creative components of intellectual processes were of great interest to many scientists during the whole time of development of psychological science.

We can just remember names of Alfred Bitnet, Frederic Bartlett, and works of Max Wertgamer, Wolfgang Keller, Charles Dunker and many other interesting researches. Still, these works actually didn’t take into consideration individual differences in creative abilities, although they confessed that different people have different creative abilities.

Interest to individual differences in creative abilities appeared in connection with evident achievements in the field of testometrical researches of intellect and with no less than evident omissions in this field.

Till the beginning of 60-ies scientists already had large scale of intellect testing, and this fact presented new problems and questions.

Particularly, they found out that professional and life success is not connected directly with intellect level, calculated with the help of IQ testing. The experience have shown that people with not so high IQ coefficient are able for great achievements, and many others, which IQ is much higher, are very often left behind (Hamilton, M. A). Scientists supposed that the decisive role play here some other features of mind, which were not seized by traditional testing.

Inasmuch as comparison of successful decision of problem situations with traditional testing of intellect in majority of cases have shown absence of connections between them, some psychologists came to conclusion that effectiveness of solving problems depends not of knowledge and experience, which can be measured by intellect tests, but of special ability “to use information given in tasks by different ways and in high tempo”. Such ability was called ‘creativity’.

The main way of creativity diagnostics became Remote Associates Test (RAT), with help of which they measure peculiarities and “quickness of transference of attention at some symbolic level in limits of big volume of information” (Mednick, S.A., The associative basis of the creative process).

RAT test has a little bit other conception in its basis. Mednick considers that creativity process consists of convergent and divergent parts, to tell more distinctly, division of cognitive act for these parts shows it discrepancy. Mednick thinks that when you take problems from more remote areas, the more creative is process of solving this problem. In this way, divergence is replaced by actualization of remote zones of sense space (Mednick, S. A. (1968). The Remote Associates Test. Journal of Creative Behavior).

But, at the same time, synthesis of elements can be non-creative and stereotype, for example, combination of features of horse and man actualizes image of centaur, but not the image of a person with horse head. Creative solving of problems differs from stereotype: the essence of creativity, in accordance with Mednick, is not in peculiarities of operations, but in ability to overcome stereotypes at the final stage of thought process, and as we’ve told before, in wideness of association field.

There are following assumptions in the basis of RAT test (Mednick, S.A., & Mednick, M.T. (1967). Examiner’s manual: Remote Associates Test):

  1. Native speakers are used to use words in definitely associative connection with other words. In every culture and every epoch these habits are unique.
  2. Creative thought process is formation of new associations by sense.
  3. Value of associations’ remoteness from stereotypes for probationer measures his creativity.
  4. Every culture has its own stereotypes, so stereotyped and original answers are determined for every sample.
  5. Originality of test RAT usage is determined by associative fluency (it is measured by number of associations for stimulus), organization of individual associations (it is measured by number of associative answers), and peculiarities of selective process (selection of original associations from total quantity of connections). Fluency of hypothesis generation and verbal fluency play also very important role.
  6. Mechanism of test RAT usage is analogical to solving of any other thought tasks. The problem of increasing prognostic value of psycho-pedagogical tests is traditionally solved by means of increasing their validity and reliability (for example, usage of “chain” tests instead of separate sub-tests), usage of complex evaluative procedures, including also other methods of diagnostic inspection: analysis of effectiveness (for example, how children master in development programs of studying); expert evaluation of students by teachers, educators, parents; evaluation of activity products and results of contests and competitions.

The main procedure of RAT test is that person is proposed three words, taken from maximum remote areas, and he has to give the fourth word, which will “connect” them in one whole in some way. The peculiarity of test is that words-stimulus’ are chosen in such a way that each of them corresponds to stereotype association (Taft, R., & Rossiter, J. R). Originality of answer is estimated by fact, how it is far from stereotype.

 So, theoretical considerations and experimental data allow making conclusion that that creativity and intellect are orthogonal factors; it means they are independent one from the other. Besides, they are operationally opposite: situations which are favorable for intellect demonstration are opposite by their characteristics to situations which demonstrate creativity.

Although RAT test is not reliable for 100%, but still it is the most reliable creativity test for present time. RAT is good test for creativity, according to numerous experiments and numbers of testing which allowed comparing these situations which leads to differences between intellect and creativity usage. The differences which we can see in experiments, connected with differences in correlations between intellect and creativity, depend of type of methodic, used for diagnostics of these features. Still, the scientists need to develop mechanisms of creativity determination for perfection of their prognostic value.

Works Cited:

  1. Mednick, S.A. (1962). The associative basis of the creative process. Psychological Review, 69, 220-232.
  2. Mednick, S.A., & Mednick, M.T. (1967). Examiner’s manual: Remote Associates Test. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  3. Taft, R., & Rossiter, J. R. (1966). The Remote Associates Test: divergent or convergent thinking. Psychological Reports, 19, 1313-1314.
  4. Mednick, S. A. (1968). The Remote Associates Test. Journal of Creative Behavior, 2(3), 213-214.
  5. Hamilton, M. A. (1982). “Jamaicanizing” the Mednick Remote Associates Test of Creativity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 55(Aug.), 321-322.


Remote Associates Test Essay

Divergent Thinking Essay

Divergent Thinking Essay.

Divergent thinking is a process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions. Learning through play, creative projects and imaginary are ways that encourage divergent thinking. Teaching methods for divergent thinking involve offering schools many ideas and solutions for problem as well as encouraging children to find creative ways to learn. Divergent thinking encourages children to take risks, learn how to be flexible and use their imagination. Without imagination, no one will be able to stand out from the crowd and go a bit further into the solution, coming up with fresh, new ideas.

Starting with a single idea, the divergent thinker allows his or her mind to wander in many different directions, gathering numerous thoughts and ideas which relate to the concept. Divergent thinking can be used as a method of brainstorming in a wide variety of settings, ranging from the research and development department of a major company to the class room.

Divergent thinkers tend to throw the rules out the window.

They are artistic and always find ways to express themselves. Impressive 5 year olds scored 98% at the genius level in such a test of divergent thinking. Test takers age 10 however, saw their number drop to 32%, on the other hand the high school level was only 10%. It seems that as student mature through the educational system they have some of these creative instincts driven out or socialized out of them. It is often said that school teaches us to stop thinking creatively, how to conform, to come up the correct idea or answer: Convergent thinking. But as children grow older, they will be expected to come up with new ideas, projects, and innovations to make them stand out in the job market and on the career level. For too long, “divergent thinking” has taken a backseat to its more well-recognized and well-respected cousin, “critical thinking.” I think that building your divergent and creative thinking muscles is crucial, not just for success in the new economy, but in weaving a vibrant and fulfilling life that draws upon the best of who you are.

As a child, art class is the main home of divergent and creative thinking. Yet once we reach middle school and become conditioned in societal norms, “divergent thinking” becomes a domain saved only for “weirdoes,” poor artists, and creative geniuses who we could never understand anyway. Our lack of emphasis on creative thinking does us all a disservice, because divergent thinking brings powerful and transformativebenefits to life and work. The person skilled in the art of divergent and creative thinking can look at a blank piece of paper and see possibilities. They can look at a roadblock and see solutions. Not just one solution but many of them. They can create things that you think were impossible. In this sense, divergent thinkers are magicians. They can break out of the idea that there’s a right way to have a career. They can turn the rules of life completely upside down and create unbelievable lives for themselves because they see possibilities, solutions, and options everywhere. In sum, divergent, creative thinking is the master skill for breaking out of your conventional, patterned, routine ways of living and trying something new. It can help you become a magician able to weave a life that you love.

Divergent Thinking Essay

Famous Thinkers Essay

Famous Thinkers Essay.

Famous Thinkers Sandra Faye PHL/458/ Creative Minds and Critical Thinking April 22, 2010 Famous Thinkers By this time, 2013, the world has been blessed with a good handful of creative thinkers who have greatly contributed to their communities, thus, to the world. Nelson Mandela and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr are to excellent examples of outside the box thinkers who strove relentlessly to make a difference in the way society was thinking, and acting The purpose of this paper is to give information about these two thinkers’ contribution to society.

To examine their personal, social, and political environments, and to illustrate how these factors contributed to their individual creativity. To analyze the different problems or issues they sought to solve, and how they used their creative ideas to implement a solution to the problem. Throughout this body of work, I hope to achieve a detailed explanation of their personal journeys to greatness, and how their creative thinking helped pave the way society acts today.

According to Ruggiero (2009) “For the creative, thinking is an adventure.

Because they are relatively free of preconceived notions and prejudiced views, creative people are less inclined to accept prevailing views, less narrow in their perspectives, and less likely to conform with the thinking of those around them. They are bold in their conceptions, willing to entertain unpopular ideas and seemingly unlikely possibilities. They are willing to face unpleasant experiences, apply their curiosity, and learn from those experiences. ” Nelson Mandela was born in Mvezo, South Africa in July 18,1918.

He was named Rolihlahla at birth by his father who was the principal counselor to the acting king of the Thembu people, Jongintaba. After his father’s death, he became the ward of the Jongintaba. He was raised in a relatively traditional African tribal culture, and was told by the elders the stories of his ancestors during the war of resistance. “ He dreamed also of making his own contribution to the freedom struggle of his people” (“Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory” 2013). After graduation from secondary school, he attended the University College of Fort Hare for his Bachelor’ of Arts.

However he was expelled from the university for joining a student protest. He went to the University of South Africa where he completed his BA. He started studying for an LLB, which is the equivalent of a bachelor degree in law, but never completed school. At the beginning of the 1960’s, apartheid became stricter, and the struggle against it became more intense. Mandela’s belief in protesting without violence started to diminish, and he participated in organizing an arm struggle. After this period, he was on the run from the police for a long period of time.

He was arrested in 1962 and sentenced to five years in prison. He received a life sentence while incarcerated for treason in 1964 at the famous Rivonia Trials. This series of events helped him begin the creative process of stopping Racism in South Africa. While in prison he obtained an LLB through the University of South Africa. Likewise, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. had a series of life events alter his way of thinking. But it was more or Dr. King’s upbringing that did so. Dr. King was born on January 15, 1929 into segregation.

He graduated from public school at about 15year’s old and attended Morehouse College where he earned his diploma in Sociology. Dr. King continued in footstep of his father and grandfather and became a pastor where he began to instill his beliefs to the African American community. People looked up to him and listened to his voice so he used his words in order to get people to follow his movement. Respectively, both Mandela and Dr. King effectively pave the way to the beginning of desegregation in their countries. From a personal standpoint, neither was particularly happy with the way men and women of color were treated.

Unlike most people however, they decided to do something about it. “Because they are relatively free of preconceived notions and prejudiced views, creative people are less inclined to accept prevailing views, less narrow in their perspectives, and less likely to conform with the thinking of those around them. They are bold in their conceptions, willing to entertain unpopular ideas and seemingly unlikely possibilities”  (Ruggiero, 2009, Chapter5). Mandela joined the African National Congress in 1944 and formed the youth league.

He rose through the rank of both organizations, which fought for equal conditions for the different peoples of South Africa. He spent 27 years in prison and became a somewhat an icon against the oppression of the white dominated demographic. While in prison for nearly three decades, he became the face of the apartheid movement both within South Africa and internationally. The day he was released from prison he said according to The “Nelson Mandela Centre Of Memory ” (2013) website Today the majority of South Africans, black and white, recognize that apartheid has no future.

It has to be ended by our own decisive mass action in order to build peace and security. The mass campaign of defiance and other actions of our organization [referring to the African National Congress] and people can only culminate in the establishment of democracy. I have fought against white domination and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. He became the leader of the ANC once again and participated in the eradication of apartheid.

He used the popularity he gained by standing for his strong beliefs to become the first black president of South Africa. His self-control and wisdom were very much the contributing factors that have facilitated the revolution of South Africa in a more civil manner. Dr. King used a more direct approach. While Nelson was political, Dr. King used a social advantage to push his creative ideas. Dr. King is noted for having organized bus boycotts; sit in and marches, peacefully. He was able to do this because of his words.

Knowing this, he authored one of the most famous speeches ever in the history of the United States that is most commonly named the “I have a dream” speech. In which “he condemned the realities of segregation and racism, and simultaneously expressed his determination to overcome them. His powerful voice still echoes, transcending time and distance (King, 2003). His ability to convince people to ride with him made his creativity relevant. Mohandas “Mahatma” Gandhi, the spiritual leader of India’s, inspired his philosophy of non-violence.

Gandhi through non-violence protest had forced the British out of India. Dr. king studies some of his strategies and tailored in the American Civil Rights Movement. He also adopted this philosophy form the Bible and his faith in God to inspire people to standup and fight against injustice that were done against the people of color in the United States. Although Mandela and king lived in two different parts of the world, both faced the same challenge, equality for all members of society. Such a change in society requires a new way of thinking.

The solution may seem simple, but it requires gradual changes Therefore, it is not unusual for both men to face adversity, punishment, or cruelty. Mandela spent more than a quarter of a century in jail. Martin Luther King was assassinated. The result in both cases is the eventual outlaw of segregation that created the conditions for men of color to become president of the United States, as well as president of the Republic of South Africa. Nevertheless, racial prejudices still exist in both countries. It takes a long time to change the deep culture in any society.

Conclusion Personally I feel like a lot could have been done differently in terms of the way things were handled in the case of Mandela. I feel that 27 years in prison was too much of a punishment. It is speculated that Mandela could have negotiated his release earlier, but he choose not to in order to prove a point, which in turn earned him respect amongst his peers, and eventually lead to his presidency. He retired from politics in 1999, but remained a supporter for peace and human justice and an ardent advocate for a variety of social and human right organizations.

In the case of King, I believe that he handled his challenge with great efficiency. His organization was flawless, and his message reached the world. Both men faced the same challenge but different environments. Both paid a price for wanting to be equal. Both contributed to the world and their ideas are still alive today. References Ruggiero, Vincent R. (2009). The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought (9th ed. ). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database King, M. L. (1992, January).

This Is Not Just’: A Revolution Of Values on the Jericho Road: [CITY Edition]. Newsday, Combined editions, (), 58. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com. ezproxy. apollolibrary. com/docview/278452035? accountid=35812 King, M. L. (2003, August). I have a dream. The Commercial Appeal, (), E. 3. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com. ezproxy. apollolibrary. com/docview/394023549? accountid=35812 Morris, L. M. (2013). Innovation Management. se. Retrieved from http://ww. InnovationManagement. se Nelson Mandela Centre of memory. (2013). Retrieved from http://www. nelsonmandela. org/

Famous Thinkers Essay

Business Model of H&M vs Lacoste Essay

Business Model of H&M vs Lacoste Essay.

Customers eat dishes which aren’t prepare at that moment, prepare is based on a long period of time. Eating is an essential need of a human being, but some people give so much importance to it which are maybe called as niche market. These customers won’t be satisfied in a long term if they see the same dishes in a restaurant’s menu. They always want something more and something different. ElBulli as a professional organization aims to fulfill of this endless needs of customers with their ongoing creativity on their value chain.

Eventually their customers are satisfied every time.

Language; Cooking is a desire for Ferran Adria and his team, he taught that it can not be limited by the taste. A dish must have a harmony with both temprature, texture, shape, smell. They want to bring to their customer satisfaction in all respects. In order to bring these feelings to customer, Ferran Adria and his team prepare their dishes in a different way.

He taught that this is a way of externalize their feelings; like a language. It’s a kind of art while preparing dishes they enjoy the freedom. They show happiness, beauty, poetry, complexity, magic, humor, culture and so on..

They feel that they can be more creative than ever while they are cooking and trying to find new recipes. Customers can feel the externalization of the feelings from their dishes. Hereby they experience not an ordinary dish, they can perceive special feelings with all five senses. Passion; The way that Ferran Adria and his team members are follow is observing, creating, reacting and serving. While they follow this path there are some hidden things that you can not see visually. As well as high quality of ingredients, they add their passion for cooking as a secret and special ingredient.

When you are doing your job with passion you will always improve what you are doing. Because working with passion means, you have desires to move up your work every time. Therewithal you are caring about your customers and their needs. Team members of ElBulli can be a perfect example for combining work and passion and having satisfied customers eventually. How does Ferran Adria instill creativity in the organization? What are the main actions, processes, rules that Ferran Adria and his team carry out to be creative? (? 400-500 words) Ferran Adria is a genius and desired entrepreneur, these charactersitics of him is come from born.

The thing that makes him such successful is he know how to convert his charactersitics to an achievement. He seriously accentuate on one of the most important point of an entrepreneur “desire of innovation”. He instill this feelings to his team members, leads them and showed them a way to open their minds in a creative way. When he joined the ElBulli team he has just few experiences of cullinary, at that period ElBulli is closed for two months. During the closing period they went to French to visit successful chefs and to train with some of them. At that period Ferran had a chance to work with Georges Blanc, Jacques Pic.

They way that he followed was watching and learning the technique; it is quite different from copying. After he had became the chef of ElBulli he had an indelible sentence which explain the way he cook; creativity means not copying. This sentence opened a new edge for team members. They took a decision to decrease the usage of cooking books as much as possible. They put creativity as one of their driving forces. Moreover they need time in order to create new dishes, so they closed the restaurant for five months. During that period they worked with Pierre Gagnaire and Michel Bras.

They summed up the experience that they got from Gagnaire with “Everything is possible” . That sentence refers a different angle to look at creativity and expands the meaning of creativity. In 1990 Ferran and Juli bought the restaurant from the owner of ElBulli. This step gave them the exact freedom, from then on they were able to design the future of restaurant in a free way. They focused on technic –concept creativity, which means cooking the dishes in a different way in order to create difference and they made a list of this technical creations with the name; ElBulli style.

In the following years Ferran worked with a sculptor friend of him; while sculptor making sculptures, Ferran was creating dishes. They were making conversations about art and innovations at the same time. Hereby Ferran discovered another important point of being creative which is related with brainstorming. Therefore the team members started to come together after and before the restaurants opening in order to huddle gather all new ideas. A few yers later they decided to convert these spare time to workshop hours, they totally separted workshop from restaurant.

While they were working and just preparing their existing recipies in restaurants, they were creating new dishes during the workshop hours. They wrote down all their new creations for cooking at the following season. Identify different dimensions of innovation in elBulli case. What elements are innovative in this restaurant? (? 300 words) ElBulli is restaurant that you can not define only as a restaurant. Ferrran Adria and the other team members take their job seriously. They don’t look only at kitchen perspective, they look in a helicopter sight to decide what to do?

That means they try to see the whole business rather than just cooking. The most significant difference of them from their competitors is their addiction to creativity and innovation. They mainly give weight to cook in a different way as well as serving, and also converting their experiments to success in other areas . After their achievements of success with their dishes they want to create new innovations in different dimensions. They published a book different from the other cooking books; actually it doesn’t includes recipes. It is a way of them for preventing heir techniques from plagiarism. After their first book they published several books about different kind of plates. Another innovation of ElBulli is on the service sector. They started to serve as consultant to some of the huge companies in food sector. They had collaborations with NH hotel in order to act in two concepts; Nhube and Fast Good. Nhube is an all-in-one restaurant which includes; restaurant, reading room, lounge and cafe-bar. The other concept Food Good brings to Hotel a new perspective of fast food in a healthier way with famous brands.

Over the years ElBulli continue to make innovations and they have their own businesses in two sectors. One is ElBullicatering, which is a catering firm and the other one is ElBullibooks which is a publish house to publish their own books. Most important thing that they considered while expanding on different sectors they are continuing their strict the creativity of restaurant. What is the role of teamwork in the creativity process at elBulli? (? 200 words) Ferran Adria believes that, for staying at top you must have a great team.

Difference from other restaurants starts when the good relation can be obtained between team members. He instill this idea to the whole organization and he defines his team as a big family which means they are not only colleagues but also has respect, affection and harmony between them. The relationship between two owners (Ferran and Juli) is lasts in a harmony, they bought decide the financial issues. Adria’s responsibility continues in the kitchen, he leads the team members by giving them the freedom, everyone can define himself in his own way by reacting on the dishes.

Sometimes they spend 24 hours together in order to create new ideas. Workshops were open to maintain more creative recipes, they can share ideas and cook freely at the same time. It is their way of spending free time that brings innovations to the restaurant fort he following semester. They don’t feel the stress of timing there they just have to work in a team and increase creativity. Working in a team is many times more useful than working alone to the restaurant’s future success.

Business Model of H&M vs Lacoste Essay