Criminal Recidivism Essay

Criminal Recidivism Essay.

Prisons today are overcrowded and are a growing problem in today’s society. “In 2008, the Pew Center on the States reported that incarceration levels had risen to a point where one in 100 American adults was behind bars. A second Pew study, the following year, added another disturbing dimension to the picture, revealing that one in 31 adults in the United States was either incarcerated or on probation or parole” (Pew Center on the States, 2011). It is very costly for the states to maintain the prisoners behind bars.

It has been estimated that the cost of state spending on corrections is 52 billion dollars.

Recidivism is a term used by law enforcement agencies that describes the tendency to relapse into criminal behavior. It involves a person being re-incarcerated or re-offending. “Inmates returning to state prisons within three years of release has remained steady for more than a decade; this is a strong indicator that prison systems are failing to deter criminals from re-offending. Using data from 41 states for prisoners released, “a study done by the Pew Center on the States found that slightly more than 4 in 10 offenders return to prison within three years” (Johnson, 2011).

What has caused this rise in recidivism can be due to more studies being done, tracking recidivism more closely, and failure of prison systems/probation programs to rehabilitate inmates. “Prisons serve multiple purposes, including exacting retribution for breaking the law, separating offenders from society so they cannot commit more crimes, deterring the general population from committing crimes and discouraging incarcerated offenders from committing new crimes once they are released” (Pew Center on the States, 2011).

One priority of prisons is to deter criminal activity through incarceration and rehabilitation of its criminals. One way to track rehabilitation of the criminals is by tracking the recidivism rates. This study includes data of prisoners released in 1999 and prisoners released in 2004. Thirty-one states offered data for 1999 and 41 states offered data for 2004. “The Pew/ASCA survey found the three-year return-to-prison rate for inmates released in 1999 to be 45. 4 percent, and 43. percent for those released in 2004” (2011).

This study began its study by sending out surveys to all 50 states. “A self-selected survey or voluntary response survey is one in which people decide for themselves whether to be included in the survey” (Bennett, Briggs, & Triola, 2009, p. 37). Each prison facility decided whether they would be included in the study and they submitted information to the Pew Center of the States. Qualitative data was used to put values on the measurements.

The process of binning was used to categorize the prisoners into three groups, which consisted of first release, all releases, return for new convictions, and return for violation of probation. “The relative frequency of any category is the proportion or percentage of the data values that fall in that category” (Bennett, et. al. , 2009, p. 94). They set up relative frequency tables to determine how many times the prisoners fell under the categories or bins. They used mean, median, and mode to get averages of prisoners released and re-offending.

There were some outliers in the studies. Outliers are defined as “a value that is much higher or much lower than almost all other values” (Bennett, et. al. , 2009, p. 149). “State departments of correction reported on people who returned to one of their facilities, which would not count a former offender who was incarcerated in another state or depending on proximity to high-crime areas in neighboring states or major interstate drug corridors” (Johnson, 2011). The Pew Center of the States analyzed the data and concluded that by 2002, more than 45% in the first wave of releases returned to prison and in 2007, about 43% of the second group returned” (Johnson, 2011).

They came up with these percentiles by looking at the total number of inmates released from each prison for each state and how many were re-incarcerated for new crimes or violation of probation. “One can approximate the percentile of any data value with the following formula: percentile of data value =number of values less than this data value/total number of values in data set” (Bennet, t. al. , 2009, p. 170). “At least 95 percent of inmates in America ultimately will be released and returned to the community. Keeping them crime and drug-free is no easy assignment. Many offenders lacked education, work experience, family support and a stable living situation before they were incarcerated, and many suffer from mental illness or a history of addiction” (The Pews Center of the states, 2011).

Many also have the stigma that comes with having a criminal record and are unable to find work, so they resort back to robbery or stealing. Many times the released prisoners go back to hanging out with their old friends and then it is not long before they fall back into their old habits. In addition, the probation/parole divisions that are supposed to supervise the former inmates are overworked, have large caseloads, and limited technology to keep up with the former inmates.

Criminal Recidivism Essay

Crime scene Essay

Crime scene Essay.

Review Questions

1. What is physical evidence? Provide at least three examples in your answer. Physical evidence is anything that can establish a crime that has happened and anything that links the crime and the criminal. Physical evidence might include objects like weapons, fibers and hair.

2. Describe three ways that a crime scene can be recorded. What is a benefit of each? Photography can show crime scenes at wide angles and can be taken at different vantage points. Drawings can show the location of evidence and contain accurate accounts of the distances.

Notes contain description of the crime scene and location of evidence.

3. What is a chain of custody? Why is it important? Chain of custody is a list of persons who had possession of the evidence during the crime investigation. Chain of custody is important because it shows who has access to the evidence and indicates that it has been in the possession of law enforcement.

4. What three types of photographs are taken at crime scenes? Describe each type? Overview Photographs are taken at different points to show any entries and exits to the crime scene.

Intermediate Photographs helps to show the evidence in relation to other objects in the room. Close up Photographs are taken to help record specific details that may not b picked up by photographs taken from longer ranges.

5. Why is it important to record the crime scene? It is important to record crime scenes because it helps to create a chain of custody showing what is present at the scene and its location as well as over all location.

Critical Thinking Questions

1. Why is it important to secure the crime scene? What do you think would be the most difficult part of doing this? The main reason is that has the potential for contaminating or destroying evidence even if they don’t mean to do so. The most difficult part about this is reporters, civilians and family getting in the way.

2. What type of recording do you think would be the most useful to crime investigators? Why? Videography would be a useful recording tool in a investigation because of recording and the visual elements of the scene.

3. What do you think would be the best method of submitting evidence to a crime lab? Why? 4. What type of evidence do you think would be most difficult to collect? Why? Trace evidence would be difficult to find because its small ad not easily seen.

5. What does the Fourth Amendment protect against? Do you agree with these restrictions on collecting evidence? Why or why not? The fourth Amendment protects individuals from unreasonable searches & seizures agree with the restrictions because it has to be in plane site or have probable cause.

Crime scene Essay

Knife Crime Essay Essay

Knife Crime Essay Essay.

Hi. Today i am going to be talking to you about knife crime and how it affects our society. Lately in the news Jay Whiston a 17 year old boy was fatally stabbed innocently outside a house party. Such a waste of a life for a young boy that had his whole future ahead of him. Knife crime has increased over the past couple of years due to the amount of gang violence going on. While the large majority of young people follow the law a small number of people do find themselves getting involved in knife crime.

The few reasons that teenagers may get involved with knife crime are because of family problems, at school where they are influenced by someone who is involved in gangs. Some teenagers just want to fit in, so they join gangs and hang around with trouble makers, and some teenagers think that by killing someone and having a knife gives them power. However carrying a knife is illegal in the UK and the courts will take firm action if you are found with one.

Some people may say they carry a knife around for different reasons such as:

Protection
* Self defence
* Fear
* Peer pressure
* To gain respect , power or control

As you may know not all people who carry weapons intend to use them. But if you are carrying a weapon and get into an argument, the situation is more likely to get out of hand and you are more likely to be provoked/stupid enough to use it. You could seriously injure someone or someone could use your weapon to seriously injure you. Police have the power to stop you and search you if they believe that you are carrying a weapon. So this is your choice whether you plan to use it or not, you could end up in a lot of trouble and the consequences would be serious.

Knife crime can affect anyone, not just people in gangs. This could affect: * Innocent people that get caught in the middle of other people’s rows/arguments and could suffer with serious injuries or worse. * Police officers that could be trying to sort a situation out. * The community because they wouldn’t want to leave their houses knowing that there is knife crime going on and they could get stabbed. * Children that are growing up, as they may be influenced by older people and may think it is cool. Remember that an injury may look small, but any inside damage can kill.

The law is it is illegal for a shop to sell any kind of knife to anyone who is under 18. You will be committing an offence if you buy any of these items. Did you know that owning a knife even if it is yours or not is illegal and can end in a prison sentence? Some knives are illegal even for adults to buy. They are completely banned: * Flick knives(where the blade is hidden inside the handle and shoots out when a button is pressed) * Butterfly knives (where the blade is hidden inside a handle that splits in two around it, like wings; the handles swing around the blade to open or close it) * Disguised knives (where the blade is hidden inside a belt buckle or fake mobile phone)

* gravity knives
* sword-sticks
* hand or foot-claws
* push daggers

Carrying a weapon in school does not mean that the school is only involved; the police will also be involved. These are some of the consequences for anyone who is found carrying a knife:

•It is illegal to carry a knife or a gun, even a fake one. •If you are caught with a knife or a gun whether you say it was for your own protection or you were carrying it for someone else, you will be arrested there and then. •Control of a knife can carry a prison sentence of up to 4 years even if it’s not used. •If you stab somebody and they die, you will face a life sentence and you will be in prison for minimum prison sentence of 25 years.

Remember that the law is clear. If you choose to carry a weapon, you are putting your future in danger. If you don’t take it with you, it won’t be used.

You may also be interested in the following: teenage crime essay

Knife Crime Essay Essay

Victimization: Crime and Youth Essay

Victimization: Crime and Youth Essay.

Victimization, what is it? Victimization is when someone does something to make someone else a victim. Millions of people each year fall to victimization. These individuals don’t ask to become victims; it is forced upon them without choice. Anyone can become a victim not just everyone else but you; you can become a victim too. Just because someone says they are protected; they have pepper spray, a gun, they pay attention to their surroundings, and/or other things to protect themselves.

Nothing or no amount of things can always protect someone completely to falling to victimization.

Any crime against someone can make them a victim. It is an endless list of crimes out there that makes people victims every day. In this paper I will be writing about victims, rates of victimization, victimization trauma, coping with victimization, victims’ rights, impact statements, victim advocates, and actions the community can take to help victimizations. Not only adults fall victim to victimization but adolescents do too.

In fact they are most likely to be victimized. (National Institute of Justice, 2010) Children and young adults ages 12-24 are victims to violent crime more than any age group in the United States. When a Youth Is Victimized, n. d. )

Youth victims have many different reactions to victimization, not any one child is going to have the same reaction as another. Some of these reactions include but are not limited to: depression, anxiety, nightmares, declined in school performance, withdrawal, mood swings, and aggressive behavior. It is important to talk to youth if these changes are seen in them, they may not be as likely to come forward and say that they have been victimized due to being scared or what not. (When a Youth Is Victimized, n. d. ) It can be hard to talk to youth about being a victim.

There are many reasons why it can be hard for a youth victim to come forward to an adult. A child may feel ashamed about what has happened to them. They feel that others will look down on them and make them feel as though it was their fault that they were victimized. Fear of consequences is a reason youth will not speak up about being victimized. They will think it will just make their situation worse than it already is. Youth may feel that if they tell their parents, adult or law enforcement that the criminal may come back after them or their family. Another reason is the youth may have a need for independence.

Youth like to feel like they can handle problems on their own, they like to feel accomplished by solving a problem on their own. (When a Youth Is Victimized, n. d. ) So, they may decide not to tell and just try to solve the problem on their own, not realizing that in the end many times it will just make things worse, not solve the problem and not fix the mental side effects that come from victimization. These are just a few of the reason why youth may decide not to tell and make it hard on the adults to find out if they were victimized or not. There are three major things adults can do to help youth after they have been victimized.

Recognize what youth need after victimization, offer support, and get any additional help that they may need. (When a Youth Is Victimized, n. d. ) An adult needs to recognize that youth need safety after being victimized. Youth need to feel safe, especially after being victimized to help protect them from further victimization. An adult needs to do what they can to help ensure that the youth feels extra protected. Youth need support knowing that they are not alone, that there are others out there that have been in similar situations they can talk to.

Adult need to provide an environment that does not pressure the youth to tell things that they are not ready to disclose and come forward about. Many things are going to be a gradual process for the youth and the adult needs to support and understand that. Hope is something that youth need to have in order to feel comfortable and supported and like there will be a light at the end of the tunnel. It is an adult’s job to provide this support and make sure that the youth feel like there is hope that they will get through what they are going through and always make them feel as though that light at the end of the tunnel is near.

Support is a must for anyone to get through victimization especially for youth. Youth depend on adults to get this support from. If you see that the youth is trying to tell you something stop what you are doing and listen and be there for them. If they feel like you don’t care or are not interested in what they are trying to say they are no longer going to come to you; that is likely going to cause them to bottle it up and not speak and handle it on their own. When they are speaking it is best no to judge them and make them feel dumb, stupid or like they are wrong for how they feel.

Just listen and be there for them in their time of need. If additional help is needed it is the job of an adult to get the help, don’t make the youth go about this on their own. Calling 911 is an option if it is an emergency or the crime has not yet been reported. But if the crime has been reported and the youth still needs help there are victims’ advocates out there for them to talk about that I will talk about in more detail further in the paper. (When a Youth Is Victimized, n. d. ) The rates of victimization are on the rise. The numbers are astounding.

In 2006, there were 16 million criminal victimizations that happened to individuals over the age of 12, this is according to the National Crime Victimization Survey. (National Institute of Justice, 2010) Of these victimizations 76 percent were involved property and 23 percent were violent leaving 1 percent being purse snatching and pocket picking. The likelihood of males and females being victimized by someone they knew were equally the same. (National Institute of Justice, 2010) In 2011, there were 22. 9 million criminal victimizations that happened to individuals over the age of 12. That is a 43. percent increase of the 16 million in 2006. That is a huge jump in victimizations. 5. 8 million Of the 22. 9 million were violent victimizations and 17. 1 million property victimizations. (Victims and Victimization, n. d. )

Between the year 2010 and 2011, the victimization rate of violent crimes rose by 17 percent. That means per 1,000 people 12 years of age and older between 19. 3 to 22. 5 people became victims. The property crime rate grew by 11 percent between 2010 and 2011. In 2011 males fell to victimization more than females. Only 49 percent of violent victimizations were reported to police in 2011. In 2010, 25. of every 1,000 black non-Hispanics were victims to violent crime, while white non-Hispanics were at 18. 3 of every 1,000. (Victims and Victimization, n. d. )

The rate of victimization is increasing every year with it seeming like it is not going to change any time soon. With only 49 percent of violent victimizations being reported, there is no telling exactly how high many more are added to the millions that are already happening. The only other thing there is to go by is the National Crime Victimization Survey and with it being a survey you have to go by what is put on the survey which is not always truthful.

How victims react to trauma is going to be different and be based on the individual. There is no certain time frame the person will continue to go through trauma. It can last hours up to years. There are two types of trauma: physical and emotional. Physical trauma could be serious injury or shock to the body. There could be external injuries as cuts, bruises or broken bones. A person could also have internal injuries like internal bleeding or injury to organs. Emotional trauma is something that all victims will go through sometimes more apparent than other times.

Victims can go through shock or numbness. When going through this it can be hard for a victim to live day to day, they will feel like they are just there not as though they are actually living life. Denial, disbelief, and anger are traumas that victims can go through. They may deny that this has happened to them, they can’t yet face the painful things that happened so they tend to go into denial mode. A person could become very angry about what has happened and feel a need of revenge against the individual who committed the crime against them.

A victim could have Acute Stress Disorder. This is a disorder similar to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder commonly known as PTSD. But with this the symptoms last less than a month, once the symptoms have lasted more than a month it becomes PTSD. Some of the symptoms include: flashbacks, anxiety, anger outbursts, trouble concentrating, and memory problems. (How Crime Victims React to Trauma, 2008) For a victim of victimization a person must learn how to cope with what has happened to them. The FBI has some good tips for a victim to use to help cope with the trauma.

It is always good to have someone close to you that you trust to talk to when you need. Allow yourself to feel the pain to help you get past and work through the trauma. Keeping a journal or diary is a good way to get your feelings out and is good especially if you don’t have someone to talk to. Try not to spend a lot of time alone, that gives you time to dwell on the trauma and can make someone feel down and depressed. (FBI, n. d. ) The FBI also gave some tips on what not to do while trying to cope with a trauma. It is not a good idea to use alcohol or drugs during the coping process.

Drugs and alcohol will not fix the problems, in the long run it will make the problems worse and the coping process much harder to get through. Do not bottle up your emotions, bottling them up will only make you want to explode later because the emotions will keep building and building until you can’t hold them in anymore. And lastly, do not blame yourself, being a victim is never the victims fault. A victim does not ask to be victimized so they shouldn’t take the blame for it. (FBI, n. d. ) Where do victims turn to get support after being victimized?

Victim Advocates are available to help and support a victim. They offer information, emotional support, and can help when looking for resources and filling out paperwork. The roles of an advocate can vary depending on where they work, some of their roles could include: providing information to victims, information on the legal rights of a victim, the criminal justice process information, emotional support, safety planning, finding shelter and/or transportation, and notifying victims of an inmates’ release from prison. (What Is a Victim Advocate? , 2008)

During the criminal justice process victims are given the right to give a victim impact statement. These statements are from the victims themselves and can be provided written or orally. Basically the impact statement consists of the victim describing how the crime has personally affected him or her. The purpose of the statement is to give the victim an opportunity that normally would not have been afforded to them.

Victims are not normally called to testify in court. Making this statements tend to make the victim feel better about the criminal justice process. Victim Impact Statements. 2008) Victims’ rights are laws that have been established by all the states and the federal government. These laws allow victims have certain rights such as: information, protection, and will be able to play a role in the criminal justice process. Some basic rights include: the right to be treated with dignity and respect, the right to be informed, the right to have proper protection, the right to apply for compensation, the right to restitution, the right to return of personal property, right to a speedy trial, and the righto enforce those victim rights. Victims’ Rights, n. d. )

There are things that the community can do to help with victimization. A community can also become victims to a crime and want to do things to reach out and help to stop these crimes from happening within the community. There are many things a community can do, but it depends on the crime that has taken place that makes the community decide what course of action to take. The community must come up with a meeting place, come up with financial support, and training the volunteers.

There are many actions the community can take such as: booths and displays, marches, petition drives, and speak-out meetings. (Community Action, 2012) It is good for the community to get involved when there is an outburst of crimes within the community. It helps to get awareness of the problem out there and let the community know that it has to stop and can no longer go on. Victimization is a big problem in the United States. With tens of millions of people getting victimized each year, we as a United States need to stand up and find a way to fight crime and make the victimization rate go down.

Victims go through a lot after being victimized and there is so much help out there for victims to use but I don’t think victims are aware of all the resources out there. If help is not given to the victim as soon as the victimization occurs the trauma can follow the victim for the rest of their life. In this paper I have written about youth victimization, rates of victimization, how victims react to trauma, coping with victimization, victim advocates, victim impact statements, victims’ rights, and community action.

With all these things I have written about, I feel I have learned a lot about what victimization is what victims go through, and how to help a victim after they have been victimized. A victim could one day be a close family member or my best friend and now I have a better understanding of things I could do to help someone close to me get through victimization. With everything I have read I now have resources and tips to help myself get through victimization if I am victimized one day.

Victimization: Crime and Youth Essay

Stephanie Crowe Murder Case Essay

Stephanie Crowe Murder Case Essay.

January 21, 1998 was the beginning of one of the most appalling police coercion cases, involving the murder of 12-year-old Stephanie Crowe, and the main suspect: her 14-year old brother, Michael. In the morning when Stephanie’s body was found and police called, they interviewed each and every family member, but focused on Michael and two of his closest friends. According to a 2003 New York Times Upfront article, Michael “was questioned for 27 hours over a three day period” (Bell, n. d. ).

Due to the police believing that Michael and his friends were the ones who committed this crime against his own sister, he wasn’t able to go to her funeral; instead he was being interrogated by authorities and preparing for trial.

Michael Crowe, and his 2 friends, Josh Treadway and Aaron Hauser, spent six months in jail before the charges were finally dropped. Apparently throughout the investigation, including the morning of the crime, a man named Richard Tuite had been a possible suspect as well.

The Crowe family all believed from the start that “Tuite – a drifter, felon, and diagnosed schizophrenic – stabbed Stephanie nine times in her bed after sneaking into their house” (Leung, 2009). Tuite’s clothing had been taken the morning of the scene investigation, but the police had said there was no incriminating evidence contained in it and no reason to hold him in custody. As trial got closer for Michael and his friends, “they recanted their story and said they made it all up – under intense pressure from the police” (Leung, 2009).

Josh Treadway had the most detailed confession, but his public defender, Mary Ellen Attridge, believed they were set up by police. She planned to turn the court’s attention back to Tuite, and while reviewing evidence, she discovered that his sweatshirt hadn’t been tested for DNA, but there were stains on it. The testing done on this one article of clothing revealed three drops of Stephanie’s blood, causing the charges to be dropped and eventually, after a year of reluctance without an arrest, the trial attention moved to Richard Tuite, who eventually was convicted and sentenced to a maximum of 13 years in prison.

It was the work of Vic Caloca, a senior investigator with the San Diego Sheriff’s Department, who “was in charge of the new investigation, he quickly focused in on the interrogation tapes… He noted that the boys had no lawyers with them and were isolated from their parents for extended periods” (Leung, 2009). Caloca’s review of the tapes proved to him the boys’ innocence “because their stories simply did not fit the facts of the crime” (Leung, 2009). ?

Stephanie Crowe Murder Case Essay

Sociology – Crime in Trinidad and Tobago Essay

Sociology – Crime in Trinidad and Tobago Essay.

In Trinidad and Tobago, crime has always been a major topic of public and political debate. It is often seen as a sign of underlying problems in society which is related to inequality, social deprivation, social class, gender and age. Although Durkheim (1938, first published in 1895) argued that crime is an inevitable and normal aspect of life, people continue to perceive the Caribbean as a place that is growing increasingly dangerous, and these fears can have devastating consequences on citizens regardless of age or sex.

Over the past few decades, crime has continued to increase in every category including murders, rapes, assaults, robberies, burglaries and thefts. These crime rates in the Caribbean have been found to be higher than in any other region of the world, and are significantly above the world average. The media is one of the main sources of mass communication which provides us with information. Advances in technology and globalization have brought the world to one’s fingertips with easy access to the internet and other forms of mass communication.

However, this rise in the development of the media has coincided with the rise in popularity of ‘criminal’ television programs, access to cable, electronic games and the internet. As such, individuals are connected to more violence and this increases fear among people based on what they have observed via the media. This is supported by O’Keefe (1987), who indicated that greater attention to televised news was related to subsequent increased fear, concern and avoidance behavior.

In this situation, the public’s perceptions of behaviors or groups of persons are tainted as the media coverage greatly exaggerates their potential for harm to the larger society. This generates further anxiety and fear of crime among the population and may result in people altering their ways of life. Fear of crime is defined as an emotional reaction characterized by a sense of danger and anxiety produced by the threat of physical harm.

Reed (1998) emphasizes that it is a serious individual and community level problem, influencing people’s ability to move freely from place to place on a regular basis. Generally, for a person to experience fear of crime, that individual had to be a victim of crime. However, one can also encounter fear of crime if one’s spouse, family members, friends, colleagues or neighbors had experiences of criminal victimization, as the opinions of ‘significant others’ are important in shaping an individual’s lifestyle (Moriarty 1988).

Stafford (2007) argues that fear of crime impacts the quality of life of the individual and results in a restriction of one’s lifestyle. This poor quality of life causes people to alter their routine or the way they live their daily lives. Hence, persons may limit how many times they leave their home, the places which they visit and the time when they go about their business. As such, individuals who experience a greater fear of crime tend to adopt a constrained lifestyle in an effort to reduce their probability of being victimized.

As a result of avoidance and restriction in response to fear of crime, people also tend to limit their physical activity, take less exercise and limit their social activities (Stafford 2007). Therefore, they are less likely to engage in outdoor activities such as walking and cycling and this ultimately reduces the number of opportunities for them to form social ties within the community.

Furthermore, the inactivity that results when persons change their lifestyle in respond to crime, impacts their physical and mental health increasing their risk of cardiovascular disease, and their overall psychological well-being and mental functioning. Crime in a community can affect the economic growth of society and can prevent both domestic and foreign investments to the economy. Within a community, employers who fear crime may close their businesses earlier to ensure the safety of both themselves and their customers and people may restrict entertainment at night for the same reason.

Since the curfew has been implemented for a specific time period in Trinidad and Tobago,many businesses in the heart of Port-of-Spain like night clubs and food outlets have had a great lost of income. This have causes businesses to lose out on sales and their profits will be reduced. Crime also results in great costs to the public resulting in stolen goods, loss of lives, security spending, pain and suffering. As such, fear of crime motivates people to invest time and money in defensive measures to reduce their vulnerability.

Sociology – Crime in Trinidad and Tobago Essay

Forensics as a Crime Scene Investigator Essay

Forensics as a Crime Scene Investigator Essay.

Thesis Statement

Forensic is a field of that deals with psychology and the law. Forensic is defined as the intersection of psychology and the law. Forensics is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. For example, forensic pathology is the study of the human body to determine cause and manner of death.

Introductory Paragraph

Forensics will be my area of study where I will have to determine the cause and manner of death. As a Crime Scene Investigator, I will be scouring a crime scene for evidence.

This is a science, and a field that has a growing in importance. Michigan State University has the nation’s oldest and largest forensic science program. As a Crime Scene Investigator you have to collect, analyze, walk through a virtual crime scene where a murder has occurred, and estimate when the victim was murdered. Then construct a report dealing what I have uncovered and offer an estimated time of death.

After I graduate from EVC University I will pursue a career as a Crime Scene Investigator. I will be in charge of investigating Crimes scenes, collecting and analyzing evidence and testifying in court in when needed. I will have to go through law enforcements organizations that have been trained or gone through special certification courses. As a CSI investigator I will be specializing in areas of forensic science. Crime Scene Investigators have to be able to collect and analyze evidence. CSI have to be able to work in a stressful environment hazardous work conditions. You must be available at all times no matter what time of the day.

CSI have to perform technical forensic analysis. I will have to be thorough and accurate to document a crime scene including evidence that I have collected so that officers and attorneys can use that evidence for solving and prosecuting crimes. CSI has to work regular hours sometimes they have to work longer hours if not overnight to solve a crime scene. (Hineman, 2011) Crime Scene Investigators annual salary $55,040 which means they make $26.46 hour. Some agencies offer bonuses which mean that another $5,000 can be added to your salary. Some agencies require a four year degree but not all. CSI requires educational requirements in chemistry, and anatomy, and criminal law. (Hineman, 2011)

References
Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary with Thesaurus. (n.d.). Zane . Zane Publishing. Google. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.wikipedia.com
Hineman, G. (2011, July 10). MSN. Retrieved from ehow.com: http://www.ehow.com/info_8715626_forensic_scene investigator-job description

Forensics as a Crime Scene Investigator Essay

The Latent Traint Theory and Violent Crime Essay

The Latent Traint Theory and Violent Crime Essay.

Developmental theories, such as the Latent Trait Theory explain criminal behavior through life-course fundamentals. Violent crimes, such as murder and battery are accordingly the result of behavior that has been shaped starting in one’s childhood. This paper explains violent behavior and it’s causes through the Latent Trait theory and gives insight into the theory’s origin, as well as highlights how criminal behavior can be rehabilitated. The Latent Trait Theory and Violent Crime The Latent Trait Theory is a developmental theory, which explains violent crime from a developmental perspective.

This paper gives insight into the Latent Trait Theory, which states certain personality types and traits are the cause of criminal behavior. Personality traits, which lead to violent crime are inherited and acquired early in life through childhood experiences. In addition, this paper explains the origins of the Latent Trait Theory, and it suggests rehabilitation methods for criminal offenders. The Origins of the Latent Trait Theory According to Siegel (2011), David Rowe, D.

Wayne Osgood, and W. Alan Nicewander presented the Latent Trait Theory in 1990.

The Latent Trait Theory suggests that criminals are born with certain personality traits that make them prone to criminality. For those not born with those traits, it is also possible to acquire them early in life. These latent traits include impulsiveness, defective intelligence, genetic abnormalities, imbalances of the physical-chemical functioning of the brain caused by drugs, chemicals, and injuries, as well as axis II personality disorders as listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Siegel, 2011).

The Latent Trait Theory suggests that humans are controlled by a fundamental ain trait, which controls one’ behavior. Some supporters of the Latent Trait theory believe that this main trait can change over the course of one’s lifetime. Others suggest that this main trait remains stable and inflexible over the course of one’s life. Further, one’s environment can influence how this trait takes shape during the course of a lifetime. If opportunity to commit crime presents itself, then individuals, who are already prone to criminality due to the presence of a major latent trait, will most likely turn to crime.

According to the Latent Trait Theory, criminal behavior is determined by the presence of a major latent personality trait, which again is determined by external forces, such as interpersonal relationships, and criminal opportunity (Siegel, 2011). Violent Crime According to the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR), an estimated 1,246, 248 violent crime occurred in our nation in 2010. This is a decrease in violent crime by 6 percent from the previous year. Yet it still means that 403. 6 violent crimes occur per 100, 000 inhabitants.

Of these, aggravated assaults account for the highest number among violent crime, followed by robbery, forcible rape, and murder. Most violent crimes are committed with the use of firearms (FBI, 2011). Victims of violent crime and their families often experience immense physical distress, in addition to negative psychological consequences, such as for example behavioral, and social consequences like depression, substance abuse, fearfulness, and post-traumatic stress disorder (Simon, Kresnow, & Bossarte, 2008). In addition, violent crime that occurs within the privacy of one’s home often does not get reported.

Violence and violent crime that occurs in relationships are not uncommon, and often the victims do not report the crime because they are intimidated, or fearful (Simon, Kresnow, & Bossarte, 2008). Latent Traits and Violent Crime Impulsivity is one of the major latent personality traits that make individuals prone to criminality, and according to Wilson and Hernstein (1985), impulsivity is the actual main trait of offending (as cited in Zimerman, 2010). Sensation seeking, and low self-control have been linked to impulsivity, and are latent traits of criminal offenders’ personalities (Zimmerman, 2010).

Depending on an individual’s environment these latent traits were already present at birth or were acquired very early in life and developed into criminal and violent behavior. Violent crime is often the result of impulsive actions. In many cases crime itself is planned to some degree, but when the plan gets interrupted, sudden violence might result (Zimmerman, 2010). Impulsive behavior is often the reason for crime to become violent; many murderers do not plan to murder another individual, but depending on the situation, they act upon what triggers them impulsively and in a way that they did not plan (Zimmerman, 2010).

Latent traits that are not present at birth, but are acquired during childhood and adolescence are often the result of exposure to violence. According to Cohn and Crim (2008), youth that grow up in violent a neighborhood and are exposed to violence, or have violent parents, are more likely to commit violent crime in adolescence and adulthood (p. 1). Statistics show that over 60% of American youth are exposed to violence, at some point in their teenage years, whether it is perpetration or victimization.

In addition, parental and peer relationships become increasingly more important for youth as they grow up. These interpersonal relationships, when violence is modeled, influence youth to acquire the same latent traits for violence themselves. Fighting is considered perpetration, and those who fight tend to have the same characteristics as those who commit violent crime; they tend to be male, they have a tendency to impulsivity and sensation seeking, and they tend to engage in alcohol and substance abuse (Farb Feldman, Grunden, Matjasko, & Needham, 2010).

Research on violence has proven that youth who do engage in violent behavior are prone to violent behavior, and they are impulsive or have difficulty controlling their temperament. Those latent traits are more likely to be found in certain ethnicities, such as African Americans, and Hispanics, but are much less common among Caucasian Americans, or Asian Americans. Therefore the Latent Trait Theory suggests that traits, such as impulsivity, low self-control, difficult temperaments, and sensation seeking re more likely be present in minorities (Farb Feldman, Grunden, Matjasko, & Needham, 2010).

Another reason for latent traits that lead to criminal behavior are personality disorders, such as axis II disorders as they are specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV TR 2000). Disorders, such as narcissistic personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder have in common that according to the Latent Trait Theory these individuals are likely to develop criminal behavior.

The Latent Traint Theory and Violent Crime Essay

The CSI Effect Essay

The CSI Effect Essay.

Many T. V shows come on and influence the public that the things that take place on these shows are real. There is Law in Order SVU, 24, Bones and our favorite CSI that make people think that countless cases are open and close do to outrageous finding of D&A traces. The CSI Effect is a theory that criminals are getting smarter. These shows give out numerous tactics on how many cases are cracked and suspects are arrested. The CSI Effect also results in various hang juries and miss trials due to lack of evidence.

The jury is starting to need more evidence, because the influence they have from watching these television shows. I have seen a show on television called CSI Miami. On this particular show, there was a murder-taking place with no clue at all, on who committed the crime. They had recovered some D&A, but there were no past data to make a match on a suspect.

The detectives had someone in question on who it might be but no evidence to hold him to the crime.

Out of nowhere, one of the detectives on the case was talking to the man in question and somehow saw up his nose a dot of blood no bigger than the period at the end of this sentence. He then grabbed a q-tip and told the man to stand steal while he dug up his nose to retrieve the D&A. The D&A sample was too small to test, so they sent it out to the FBI who has a glucose blood enhancer to stretch the D&A enough to run the match. Of course, the D&A was a match. The show then goes off and another bad person offs the street. This story is what is changing the minds of criminals and way of thinking.

Criminals are starting to clean their tracks. Detectives are closing in on criminal and finding that they are cleaning the whole crime scene. Once entering a house the place is washed down in bleach to cover all traces of D&A. Some rapist are wearing condoms and making their victims take baths to clean off all traces of the criminal’s D&A. Criminals are also taking extra measures to wear gloves and masks so they cannot be seen or leave any fingerprints. They are taking more precaution on having an alibi stating they were never around when the crime took place.

The theory is that criminals are watching these shows and learning on how to maintain a criminal life style without being locked up. These shows are making the police jobs much harder to apprehend suspects. Another default with this CSI Effect is that it is making the courts harder the sentence criminals. Juries are starting to want more evidence from prosecutors and D&A matches to prove the defendant’s guilt. There was a case with two detectives shot and killed in an undercover gun deal.

On the evening of March 10, 2003, two New York Police Department detectives, James V. Nemorin and Rodney J. Andrews, were shot and killed in an unmarked police car while attempting an undercover purchase of a Tec-9 assault pistol on Staten Island. The case was significant not just because two officers had died but because the man who was eventually charged with the murders, Ronell Wilson, faced the possibility of becoming the first person in more than fifty years to be executed for a crime in New York State. The government’s theory was that Wilson, who was with an accomplice in the back seat of the car, shot the detectives during a robbery attempt.

Among the evidence retrieved from the crime scene were hundreds of hairs and fibres, and prosecutors enlisted Lisa Faber, a criminalist and the supervisor of the N. Y. P. D. crime lab’s hair-and-fibre unit, to testify at Wilson’s trial, last winter. Under questioning in Brooklyn federal court, Faber said that she had compared samples of fabric from the detectives’ car with fibres found on gloves, jeans, and a baseball cap that Wilson had allegedly been wearing on the night of the crime. The prosecutor asked Faber to describe the methods and equipment she had used to make her analysis.

Then she asked Faber what she had found. “My conclusion is that all of those questioned fibres could have originated from the interior of the Nissan Maxima, from the seats, and/or the backrests,” Faber said. She added that in her field “the strongest association you can say is that ‘it could have come from’ ” the source in question. Faber’s testimony was careful and responsible—and not very significant. She could not say how common the automobile fabric that she had examined is, or how many models and brands use it.

Nor could she say how likely it was that the fabric from the car would show up on Wilson’s clothes. Faber used no statistics, because there was no way to establish with any precision the probability that the fibres came from the detectives’ car. DNA tests had proved that blood from one of the detectives was on Wilson’s clothes, and based on this fact, as well as on testimony from his accomplice and from Faber, Wilson was convicted and sentenced to death. “Given how much evidence they had in the case, I wasn’t crucial,” Faber told me. The prosecutors liked the idea of fibre evidence in addition to everything else. Maybe they thought the jury would like it because it was more ‘CSI’-esque. ”(thecsieffect) The fibres could have come from a different car and was not enough proof to prove the case, but due to the television show like CSI and others. The jury thought of the evidence as an open and shut case. Later on there was a survey taking asking were the decision that the jury gave influence by CSI and most of the jury said yes. This was a case were the prosecutors took a gamble and won. Most cases do not end like this.

Most case there is not enough evidence to back up the case. The CSI Effect is only a theory, which means there are not enough facts to back up this case but enough intelligence for some facts to stand. For every sentence that is handed out because of evidence pointing in the direction of guilty, another case is a not guilty verdict due to lack of evidence. Some may say that television hit show CSI is the cause, but some may say that it is not the case. I say, with great detective work and as much evidence that one can gather, this CSI theory would not even be up for debate.

The CSI Effect Essay

A Crime of Compassion Essay

A Crime of Compassion Essay.

This woman is not a murderer. Barbara Huttmann is a long time nurse who gave a man named Mac his wish to just die and not continue to suffer. Mac had terminal cancer, was on loads of pain medication that wasn’t working and at a hospital where the policy was to resuscitate any patient that stopped breathing. But he begged her to stop them from resuscitating him and so she did. What Huttmann did was not wrong. Mac had the right to die with dignity and not suffer any longer.

The team would rush in after the code button is pushed, get the patient breathing again, and leave the nurse to clean the patient up. He would moan in pain and beg Huttmann to stop them every time. Huttmann begged and pleaded with the Doctor put a no code order on Mac but refused due his beliefs and hospital policies. “We resuscitated him fifty-two times in one month.” (Huttmann 344) Huttmann had been his nurse for six months which was long enough for her to know Mac, a well-respected police officer and his wife Maura well.

“It was also long enough to watch Maura’s transformation from a young woman to a haggard, beaten old lady.” (Huttmann 344) Maura has had enough too. Maura sat there for six months and watched her husband battle this horrible disease and then had to sit there and watch him suffer as the hospital team continued to save him numerous times. All of this is occurring regardless of what the family said. This is not what Mac and Maura wanted for him.

Regardless of Mac and Maura’s wishes they continued to resuscitate him everytime. Until Huttmann finally decided to do as the patient wished. “Nothing I have done in my 47 years has taken so much effort as it took not to press that code button.” (Huttmann 345) She did it, Huttmann waited until she knew for certain Mac could not be resuscitated again, and then she pushed that button. Just then Maura walked in and begged “No…don’t let them do this to him…..for God’s sake…please no more.” (Huttmann 346) That is when Huttmann took Maura in her arms and comforted her the best she could.

That is when some people decided that Huttmann was a murderer. Of course she was not a murderer. She was finally doing as Mac and his family wished would be done. Mac and Maura begged her enough to just let him go and be put out of the misery and pain he and his family were going through. Of course Huttmann has to listen to people say these things to her. She did what was right, she granted Mac’s one last wish and did not push that code button. Mac will no longer suffer because Huttmann decided to stop worrying about the policies of the hospital and focus more on what the patient and his family wanted.

A Crime of Compassion Essay