Review and Critical Thinking Questions Essay

Review and Critical Thinking Questions Essay.

What is a family? What is family composition? Family is a group of people tied together by blood, co-residence, or affection. Family composition is the makeup of the family including the numbers of members, their ages, and their relationship with each other What is cultural bias? What is an example of this?

Cultural bias is the interpretation or judgement of practices by the standards of ones own culture. Looking at a different culture wrong because its not the way we deal with a particular concern in our nature.

What are stereotypes? How are they different from prejudice? Stereotypes are assumed beliefs of a group of people. The difference between prejudice and stereotypes is is that stereotypes are based off of a a characteristic of a person from some members in the group and prejudice is an assumption before getting to know people. What is the difference between a nuclear family and an extended family? A nuclear family will be just the two parents and their children living in one home, as to an extended family is a family where the grandparents or maybe grand kids are living in the home too.

Critical Thinking Questions

How can families assimilate to a new culture? They can do things like learn the language, they can try to join the culture by eating their foods, listening to their music. What are some of the problems with stereotypes or cultural bias when looking at families? Sometimes your assumptions are wrong or you close your thoughts up to other people because they aren’t like you. And you should always be open to new people or new things because not everyone in the world is like you. Adversity affects today’s family, just as Black Death affected families from earlier times. What kinds of adverse challenges do today’s families face and how can they manage the situations? Families today face adverse challenges like financial, emotional, and health. The easiest way to deal with any family challenges is to talk as a family and find ways to better or eliminate the situation.

Review and Critical Thinking Questions Essay

English Class Reflection Paper Essay

English Class Reflection Paper Essay.

It’s hard to believe that my amazing journey in English 104 is coming to an end. The journey has been so much more enjoyable than I initially expected. I have tried to avoid taking English 104 numerous times because reading and writing have not been my strong points. Each time I attempted to take this course, I dropped it due to a particular instructor style, or a boring set of literary materials. This time around was different, as I set my goal to obtain my bachelor degree in Business Administration by the end of this summer.

Therefore, I was determined to force my way through this class no matter what challenges I had to endure.

To my pleasant surprise, this class was much better than the others. I felt the information and learning come much easier. I enjoyed the class materials and the professor did a very good job responding in earnest to my submissions. Because of the much better experience, I truly believe I have become a better writer and a better critical thinker.

Through the discussion board and the professor‘s guidance of our writing assignments, I have improved my analytical skills as well as developed a greater organizational skills.

The discussion board was an important tool in developing my understanding of different aspects of the literature reviewed in this course. This new discussion format allowed me to read other students contributions on the same topic, as well as Professor Duclos-Yourdon’s direct and prompts for a deeper analysis. For example, in week five discussion three, we discussed Sister James‘ character, as I said “Father Flynn offers reasonable explanation about the situation and his involvement with Donald and Sister James’ doubt is appeased. This shows that Sister James is easily persuaded and has no eager to actively seek the truth on her own”(Vickery DB)

Following my thread, Kimberly raised a very interesting question by adding, “who is the real criminal in this play Is it Father Flynn with what reported or is it Sister Aloysius as she manipulates Sister James for her own benefit?”(Voss DB) Through engaging discussion with students on a regular basis, I was able to develop a more detailed understanding of literature work. Additionally, alternative views helped me to incorporate logic and critical thought into my arguments. As a result, I am better equipped to gather necessary information to begin writing my assignments.

Professor Duclos-Yourdon’s guidance was crucial in helping me develop my critical thinking skills. Our first literary analysis essay was the most difficult one for me in this course as I had not written an academic paper in nearly ten years. I decided to write my first paper on “The Yellow Wallpaper” and wanted to submit my rough draft for initial feedback. For fear of not achieving the minimum 1000 word requirement, I began to construct random ideas in my paper, as the professor commented, “Your argument should stay focused on the story. These larger implications can be raised in the conclusion if they come naturally from your argument.”(Dulcos Essay1)

Later, she suggested, “To develop this argument, you could first write a paragraph establishing the wallpaper as a symbol for entrapment (as you have done). Move from there to the narrator’s loss of individuality, and finally explore the narrator’s transformation into this shadow woman.”(Duclos Essay1) These comments resonated with me and gave me great ideas on the direction I wanted to take the paper. I began to interpret the evidence in a deeper way and rethought my thesis statement to be more focused. Moreover, I deleted the unnecessary paragraphs, reorganized my ideas and supported with factual evidence. As a result, the comments I received from Professor Duclos-Yourdon were so insightful it helped not only develop confidence, but also resulted in a perfect grade.

With the additional practice of literary analysis in this course, I conclude that writing is a lot like mathematic. Like mathematics, where there is a specific formula to follow to get a result, so there is also a formula in literary analysis to construct an organized essay. I learn in my previous English class that an essay consists of some very basic elements, for example, an introduction, three body paragraphs, and conclusion. It all sounds really easy, but without following some formula, the result wanders and is difficult to follow.

What helped me in this course was learning to break paragraph down into more detail. For example, the topic sentence should clearly tell the reader what the paragraph will explore. Then, simple lead in sentences should be followed by evidence from the literature work. Finally, I complete the prograph with my own interpretation of the evidence. It’s a pretty straight forward method and I can relate to it more as I love formulas. So every time I got baffled, I think of my paper as this giant math equation to solve. Taking these baby steps has helped me in completing all my assignments without feeling defeated.

Finally, I realize the importance of taking English classes during the first two years of one’s college career because it prepares a person to communicate well in written words as well as spoken. Although I waited till the final year of college to take this course, the analytical, writing, and organizational skills I learned will benefit me for many years to come. I am looking forward to utilizing these newfound skills in my next career opportunity as well as graduate school.

Work Cited
Duclos-Yourdon, Melissa. Vickery_ Essay# 1. May 13, 2012
Vickery, Susie. Discussion# 3 Sister James. May. 29, 2012
Voss, Kimberly. Discussion# 3 Sister James. May 31, 2012

English Class Reflection Paper Essay

Oprah Winfrey Eulogy for Rosa Parks Essay

Oprah Winfrey Eulogy for Rosa Parks Essay.

This paper will evaluate the Oprah Winfrey Eulogy for Rosa Parks “…God uses good people to do great things.” The purpose of this speech to evaluate Oprah Winfrey speech utilizing the critical thinking skills that have been acquired during term. The paper explains the purpose of the speech as well as answers questions to why words or phases were selected.

Given the General Education Assignment in my Critical Thinking class was to evaluate the famous eulogy that Oprah Winfrey had spoken on October 31, 2005 at Metropolitan AME Church in Washington, D.

C. for Rosa Parks. This speech was given in front of Reverend Braxton, family, friend, admirers, and the amazing choir. The purpose of this speech was for people to understand young Oprah’s Winfrey appreciation of Rosa Parks and what she did Oprah’s speech is about the effect that Rosa Parks had on her as a child growing up in the South, during height of the Civil Rights Movement. Oprah remembered as a child, how her father explained to her about this colored woman (Rosa Parks) who had refused to give up her seat and in her mind, she thought “she must be really big.

Oprah imagined that Rosa Parks must be at least 100 feet tall and must be a stalwart, strong, and carrying a shield to hold back all the white folks. This is especially significant, considering that unlike the few black public figures of the time who were ministers, athletes, and entertainers. Rosa Parks was a regular person, a house keeper who rode the bus like young Oprah herself. Oprah Winfrey began to state how it was an honor for her as a “colored person” to be able to present a speech for a well known African American female hero. I personally found it interesting that Oprah used the term “colored” to describe African American people considering it’s been deemed inappropriate for the better part of the last forty years or so. This term “colored” is offset by a set of quotations which relates back to Fundamentals of Critical Thinking by Burton Porter in Chapter 2, where he states that in the process of communication we usually employ words to convey some meaning, but occasionally we refer only to the words themselves and not to what they convey.

We know that in this case Oprah was using this word because it had a particular meaning which grouped all African American people. Oprah intentionally used this term that was looked at as negative at the time to exalt Rosa Park’s and her accomplishments This relates to how oppressed people has used terms to denigrate them and turn them around as terms of endearment or pride. Oprah’s speech went on to describe how Rosa’s sacrifices inspired her to become the woman that she became today. “Without that inspiration, after being raped at age 9 and having a baby at age 14, she may not have been able to work on the radio while still in high school or co-anchored the local evening news at age 19.” www.Oprah.com Oprah Winfrey was headed towards to the life of being a regular person just as Rosa Parks, living a normal life as many other African Americans, fighting for equal rights.

Oprah also thanked Rosa for herself, and for every colored girl, and colored boy, who didn’t have heroes who were celebrated. Referring back to Porter in Chapter 10, this was an inductive generalization of Rosa Park’s impact on Oprah and the world in general. Inductive generalization tends to get us in trouble as if did for Oprah in this speech because there was only a few sample statements based on one or two instances where a conclusion was drawn. Porter quotes George Hegel “An idea is always a generalization, and generalization is a property of thinking; to generalize means to think.” I would personally say this speech was very informal as it didn’t give specific examples of how Rosa actions impacted Oprah’s trajectory.

There is no definitive evidence that what Rosa Parks did impacted Oprah going on to become the most successful talk show host in the history of broadcasting. Don’t tell that to Oprah because she stated herself that she would not be where she is today if it had not been for Rosa Parks.

Overall, I believe that although this was an inductive speech, it highlighted Rosa Park’s impact on Oprah Winfrey and the Country in general. The language and terminology used in this speech does relate closely to the understanding of today’s literature. This speech was presented in a very straight forward way. The fact that Rosa Park’s did not give up her seat on the bus, to a white male, has made history for the Equal Rights Movement.

Reference

1. www.Oprah.com
2.The Fundaments of Critical Thinking. Burton F. Porter Copyright 2002.

Oprah Winfrey Eulogy for Rosa Parks Essay

What is Confirmation Bias? Essay

What is Confirmation Bias? Essay.

Confirmation bias is a tendency of people to prefer information that reinforces a thought or believe that they have. People demonstrate this bias when they retain information selectively, or when they interpret it in a biased way. The effect is stronger for emotional issues and for deeply rooted beliefs. (Science Daily)

Examples of Confirmation Bias

There are many everyday examples of people using confirmation bias behavior. A student doing research on only one side to an argument for a paper to confirm their thesis may fail to fully search the topic for information that is inconsistent with what they are writing about.

Also a reporter who is writing an article on an important issue may only interview experts that support his or her view on the issue. Confirmation bias is also very common when consumers make a purchase. (Raymond, 1998)

Confirmation Bias in Retail

Personally, I have seen consumers with a confirmation bias plenty of times. Since I was sixteen, I have been working in retail.

This has given me plenty of opportunities to observe confirmation bias in a consumer’s behavior. Recently, I had to deal with a customer who had strong beliefs about her knowledge on clothing quality. A few months ago at my job, The Children’s Place in the North Shore Mall, I had a customer asking for a particular brand for children’s workout apparel. After I told her we did not carry the brand she was looking for, she was very upset. She was convinced that this brand had quality worth the extra money she spent, which was a lot. I offered her the option to just look at the clothing we offered, but it was not up to par with what she was used to getting.

In the end, she bought the clothing from The Children’s Place because she desperately needed gym clothes for her daughter the following day. After finishing the transaction, I was satisfied that I finalized the purchase and changed her biased view of only purchasing from this expensive brand. Not even a week later, the same woman came in to return everything she had bought. When I asked why she was making the return she simply said quality. She then pointed at the stitching on the yoga pants and said the threading was loose, when in fact it was perfectly fine; we never have complaints on how the yoga pants are made. Her daughter loved the fit, color, and style, but I could tell the woman was over examining the product to justify her reasoning for buying this expensive brand.

Effects of Confirmation Bias

There are many effects of confirmation bias. Primarily with this example, the woman was losing a lot of money. She was creating a fictional experience where clothing did not live up to the quality she expected. A pair of yoga pants at The Children’s Place is $12 while the other brand is around $30. Every time she makes a purchase, she spends double the amount of money than she would have. Within a year, that adds up to be a lot of extra spending. Personally, I see confirmation bias the most within a person who has a brand loyalty. Even if the alternative is exactly the same and cheaper, consumers will pay to have that brand name stitched on their clothing because of their perceived benefits.

In another aspect, an effect could be the opposite of brand loyalty where customers buy the cheapest alternative of a product. An issue with this would be that the customer may not get the quality they should get because they are always looking for the best deal. When making a purchase, there are certain items that should be purchased at top dollar instead of a bargain. An example of these products would be a car, a house, computers, or any electronics. The confirmation bias also affected her perspective of The Children’s Place. She created a belief on false premises making claims that were not true. She created a vague hypothesis in her mind and because of her actions it was enough evidence to prove her hypothesis to be true.

Reducing Confirmation Bias

When it comes to making a purchase, there are some ways to reduce a confirmation bias. For starters, a person can try their best to set equal standards for all evidence regardless of whether or not it supports or challenges their current view. A person should always be open to changing their mind. On a personal level, a person can reduce a bias by slowing their thinking process down. Instead of going with their gut feeling to buy a product right away, they can take the chance to shop around. It can make a person more moderate and can have them start doubting their initial beliefs and start seeing the other side of the argument. People can make an effort to overcome the confirmation bias by deliberately seeking evidence that contradicts their own viewpoints.

Conclusion

In all, I believe every person is a perpetrator at some point when it comes to using a confirmation bias. We all second guess ourselves and try to convince ourselves that we made the best decision possible in our actions. It is a bias that we are all guilty of, but it is important to be aware of one’s biases instead of becoming ignorant.

Works Cited

Nickerson, R. (1998). Confirmation Bias: A Ubiquitous Phenomenon in Many Guises. Review of General Psychology, 2, 175-220. Retrieved February 6, 2013 Science Daily. Confirmation Bias. Science Daily: News & Articles in Science, Health, ]Environment & Technology. Retrieved February 8, 2013, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/c/confirmation_bias.htm

What is Confirmation Bias? Essay

The critical thinking Essay

The critical thinking Essay.

With the intention to test the critical thinking ability of the people, the focus will be to ensure that everybody who took part in the test understood it. This allows all respondents to answer the questions based on how they are able to interpret what they have read. Nelson’s use of a write up gives an opportunity for each respondent to analyze the passage, understand it and respond to it. This supports Facione, Facione and Giancarlo’s measurement of reliability by the use of paper and pencil method to conduct the test (2000).

Also, the use of elementary vocabulary gives a large number of people the opportunity to participate in this test at the same time. A content-related validity clearly shows in its result. According to Facione et al, there are no restrictions to the content on which the test can be based, (2000), the focus therefore, will be on the items that are used in the test. In this test, Nelson was able to develop thirty two (32) items with which he conducted the test.

Based on the fact that Nelson wanted a wide range of people to understand the test and also respond appropriately, he used basic vocabularies. This, in essence, made it possible for people to be tested, not according to their language skills but according to their critical thinking ability. Hence, the criterion-related validity is established. In the use of a 32 multi-choice questions wherein there are more than one correct answers, Nelson gave respondents the opportunity to think outside the norm. The implication of this is that each respondent has to be certain about the answers.

The comparison of different tests does not have a direct correlation with the content of the test because the items in consideration were not detailed. Detailed information of the items in consideration could have given the test comparison a more valid result.

REFERENCES

Facione, Peter A. , Santa Clara University; Facione, Noreen C. , University of California San Francisco; Giancarlo, Carol A. , Santa Clara University. (2000). The Disposition Toward Critical Thinking: Its Character, Measurement, and Relationship to Critical Thinking Skill. Informal Logic, 20(1), 61-84

The critical thinking Essay

Summary and Response in the Face of Imperialism Essay

Summary and Response in the Face of Imperialism Essay.

In the subtitle “Orthodoxy as ‘Objectivity” of “Thinking About Empire” Michael Parenti argues that all opinions are not of the same value, and the more entrenched the orthodox view becomes, the more irrelevant evidence will be. Firstly, the functions of the heterodox view is to contest the prevailing orthodoxy, to broaden the boundaries of debate, to wake people up and unearth suppressed data. However, the function of orthodox is just the opposite. As we all know, people’s self-protection will be motivated by meeting something they never think about or even never met before.

They will fall back when they are in this kind of situation. Secondly, some inflammatory topics like the legitimacy of the 2004 presidential election in the United State, Shangri-La image of Tibet before the Chinese invasion and so on raise issues.

They break the traditional ideas, deny rational discourse and make an assertion. This process creates the dominant paradigms. However, whether they will be created all depends on their intellectual reputation or even their careers.

In the subtitle “The Myth of Innocent Empires” of the article Michael Parenti argues that empires seem to be innocent unintentional accretions sometimes, however, they actually are not innocent, absent-minded, accidental accretions. Empires have been welcomed and glorified by people by being given empires laudatory names. They are seen as innocent without plans and reasons occasionally like the example of the United State invaded Iraq. Nevertheless, empires are not innocent, because rulers would like to plunder other lands and people by using them such as the British aggression of India and the Americans armed intervention against Iraq.

I agree with Michael Parenti’s idea which is “When the orthodox view becomes so entrenched, evidence becomes irrelevant”. He use one sentence for a paragraph independently, which I think is very important. I think in this way. The orthodox view have been existed for a while, and people always think it’s right, and never question it. When it faces challenges, people’s first reaction is challenges are wrong even there are some evidence. Believe it or not, some ideological cognition and perspectives about something have already been existed in our mind. Before we judge it, we have already had a answer, unless something we never know. When it comes to whether empires are innocent. I also agree with him. Empires are not innocent. There are a lot aggressions cause by empires in history. They took lives from innocent people, destroy the nature, and so on. Although empires once make people get together, makes them apart as well.

Summary and Response in the Face of Imperialism Essay

A Deviant Act That Is Not Criminal in Nature Essay

A Deviant Act That Is Not Criminal in Nature Essay.

The text gave an example of a deviant act that is not criminal in nature. What other types of deviant acts can you think of that do not violate criminal laws?

Many deviant acts are acts that depart from are social norms. Every society has its basic social norms; it may vary a bit, because of so many different multi-cultural societies. Even so I can safely say that most societies have the same universal belief when it comes to social norms.

Social norms are very serious if an individual commits a deviant act, the community will automatically demand punishment. In some cases the individual will be punished by the society but will not face a criminal charge by the government. Many deviant acts do not violate written laws; therefore individual cannot be charge with a criminal violation. There are so many different perspectives to social norms that makes the United State vary in what is legal and what is not. A great example is polygamy, this act is outside of our social norms, but in Nevada there is no criminal charge for plural marriage even though it is not legal in most states.

Another example would be cross-dressing it is considered to be a deviant act in most parts of the world not because it is criminal in nature; but because of the act itself is outside the boundaries of our social norms. Homosexuality is also another big controversy in regards to our social norms today, it is considered to be a deviant act nevertheless it is not a criminal violation. There are many act that I would consider to be deviant acts but are not punishable by law. A disowning of a child, giving up a child up for adoption, or simply not taking responsibility for a child, that can be and should be considered deviant act with criminal punishment; unfortunately, it is not a criminal violation.

Divorce can also be looked at as a deviant act in some societies because when one joins in marriage it is for the rest of their lives, there is no petitioning for a divorce; that would just be departing from our social norms. In many cases there are little things that can be considered outside the social norms like: A male with long hair, a female with no hair on her head, or a child taking a small amount of money from parents purse or wallet without his/her permission is a bad act but is not punishable by law. Here I wrote many examples I could think of that can be considered a deviant acts but them actually becoming a criminal violation is not near. Our society today is leaning away from our social norms to the point that we the people are ignoring what we were thought by our elders of what the basic social norms should be.

A Deviant Act That Is Not Criminal in Nature Essay

Dialogue About the Problem of Overpopulation Essay

Dialogue About the Problem of Overpopulation Essay.

Marija: So, Martin, what do you think about the problem with overpopulation in the world? You think it is a serious problem? Martin: Well, Marija, yes, basically I do think overpopulation is a serious problem, maybe not in Macedonia, but in some other countries in the world, like China, it is one of the major state issues. I’ve read that there are laws which limit the number of kids for one family to have. And what is your opinion? Marija: I disagree.

I don’t think overpopulation is such a serious issue, as long as there is a solution for it.

And I don’t think that kind of laws should be allowed, one reason is that they are not humane. Maybe they should have come up with some other idea how to get over it. Martin: You’re right about this. I’m thinking about a world without borders, so anyone can live where he wants, and then, the issue of overpopulation will be dealed with.

There won’t be limitations where people can live, so I believe there won’t be overcrowded cities, or… Marija: I believe it will be… That’s the real reason why there is overpopulation.

Everyone wants to live in the big cities, so they would definitely become overcrowded. Maybe, the government should promote the rural communities, with giving benefits, such as low-price houses, available jobs with good salary.. Martin: Well that is a good idea. That way many people will take the chance, and move to the countryside, and with that lower the overpopulation in the industrial cities. Plus, they can enjoy the unpolutioned air and earth. Marija: Finally, we came to mutual understanding how to get rid of this problem. Now we just have to recommend this option to the authorities.

Dialogue About the Problem of Overpopulation Essay

The Politics of Staring Essay

The Politics of Staring Essay.

In the “Politics of Staring” by Rosemarie Garland Thompson, the belief that photography has essentially aided in staring is stressed. Staring is a sort of expression that evokes emotions from fascination to scorn, but the action itself portrays difference. People make a statement by staring, and this allows criticism to occur. Disabilities have always been “normal” because of its prevalence, but Thompson states that society has made the “familiar seem strange” via staring. (Critical Encounters With Texts, p.156)

Photography is described as a gateway to staring, as it authorizes it.

Visuals of the disabled allow people to elicit different emotions and act in certain ways. To prove this, Thompson writes about four primary visual rhetorics, which are wondrous, sentimental, exotic, and realistic. Though each are quite self explanatory, each of them contribute to different ideas and thoughts. The rhetoric of wonder for example, introduces not the ordinary, but the extraordinary. People are in essence intrigued or amazed by such pictures.

A sentimental rhetoric conjures up feelings of sympathy for the viewers, doing the opposite of a wondrous rhetoric.

In contrast, the exotic rhetoric displays the disabled as alien, incorrect, and amusing. It touches upon satire whilst emphasizing the impairment for commercial purposes. Lastly, the realistic rhetoric has the effect of evading distinction and looks at the normal aspects of disabilities. It embraces the disabilities in such a way that it moderates its unfamiliarity to the public.

Society ultimately has made progress with its views, though the views are still prurient majority of the time. Photographs of the disabled can be repellent yet amazing at the same time, and Thompson explores the logistics of why and how this occurs.

The Politics of Staring Essay

Reflective Critique Essay

Reflective Critique Essay.

“As important as methods may be, the most practical thing we can achieve in any kind of work is insight into what is happening inside us as we do it. The more familiar we are with our inner terrain, the more sure footed our [work] – and living- becomes.” P. J. Palmer (cited in Skovholt, T. M., 2001). The pursuit for self-awareness or self-understanding is a chief factor of valuable reflective practice. Counsellors need not only to be conscious of their abilities, facts and presentation as professionals, but also wary of any private aspects that may mess with or obstruct their capability to supply an efficient and objective service.

Counselling professionals in their everyday practice encounter unique and difficult circumstances which may be impossible to resolve by only scientific rationale approaches. Any counsellor employing the technique of reflective practice knows that this is as an approach which promotes deeper understanding and elicits critical thinking skills that spawns opportunities for further personal development. This course of Professional Development is one means of developing reflective practice, linking the internal and external worlds of the practitioner.

II.The Model of Reflective Practice:

With the preceding information in mind, I have come to realize that reflective practice can be a very beneficial process in my own professional development as an educator, because both teaching and learning processes requires special knowledge, skills and experiences. Reflective practice is a professional development process that is believed to be highly effective in achieving behavioral change. In the profession of counselling, reflective practice is referred to mindful practice in that reflective counsellors possess certain qualities; they are aware of their own strengths and inadequacies, they carry out counselling with purpose and intention, and they examine their own levels of stress and are wary of personal matters that may interfere with their performance. Though I may have the aforementioned underlying qualities and drive to become an efficient professional, I have discovered that reflective counsellors take the time to assess and process their performance after each counselling session and are obligated to ongoing personal growth and professional development.

Therefore acting in the capacity as a counsellor, and depending on fair self-assessment I cannot satisfactorily state at present that my reflective practice is resonant of same because there are areas where I see weaknesses rather than strengths and I attribute this flaw to my lack of experience in the field. I believe at this point in my training I will function better under the watchful eye of a counselling supervisor. This course lent focus to a host of different models associated with reflective practice which was necessary to demonstrate proper counselling professionalism. One such model in particular refers to the work of David Schön who was very instrumental in developing concepts of self-awareness in relation to the aspect of reflective practice. Schön (1987 in Sharpy, 2005) identified two types of reflection that focused on the practitioner; reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action. According to him the first, reflection-in-action, occurs when the professional reflects on their own behaviour as it occurs, which enhances their following actions immediately.

Compared with reflection-on-action which is essentially reflection after the event, where the professional counsellor reviews, describes analyses and/or evaluates the situation, to gain insights for improved practice in the future. Using this model in my reflective practice as a counsellor was intended to elicit skills, knowledge and performance acquired from the previously related course. It was expected that I incorporated my capacity to reflect in counselling, use attending, empathy, reframing and active questioning to name a few in making the client see things differently whilst getting her closer to making the appropriate adjustments in the situation. This also meant that I had to think quickly, process information and pose questions that will bring possible solutions as I worked or as Schön would say it was mastering the art of being able to “think on your feet”.

My main challenge whilst using this model is that I feel I am unable to reach interventions at once and may need time to assess situations as I would not want to cause the client ambiguity in judgments due to spur of the moment solutions; so I believe my modus operandi for reframing will be stronger after I have reflected and in reference to the model I can be stronger as a practitioner who uses “reflection-on-action” rather than “reflection-in-action”. I noticed too, that my strengths are mainly in the areas of empathy, questioning, listening and attending; and that even though I may have to ponder a bit on situations I know I have the competence to identify problems and assist in arriving at potential solutions.

Reflective Critique Essay