Database Essay

Database Essay.

Database, it is a place use to store lots of data. It can be seen as a filing cabinet. And database management system (DBMS) is software that specificity designs for managing the data in database such as create, update or delete them. General is including security, retrieval and backup features. User also allows using the data to create a report or share data with multi-user.

MS Access is a database management system design by Microsoft. It offers user four important objects they are:

* Table A Table is where you are organised and store data so you have to create the table before store any data.

By creating table, you need to define few things, Fields name, Data type, and the Description.

* Fields Name Fields name is the heading of column e.g. first name, last name and phone number.

* Data Type Data type is the type of content and it decides the content can be input and the file size.

* Description Description is use for explain what content should input to the user.

* Queries A query is use for searching some specific record. It allow user to set conditions and then search the record which match the conditions. User also is able to make the search mix up with other table and sort the order of the result.

* Report A Report is a summary of record. Everything you plain to print should put inside. Its purpose is for user to view information quickly and easily so display the result simply and efficiently is the main point.

* Form Form is used for collect and edits information and transfers them to table. It is similar to application forms that allow user to fill in or delete their data easily and it also able to let user design own user interface. User can insert as much control as they like to build the user interface beautifully.

Database Features Every database management system should have these feature to protect and ensure the data is safe and accuracy.

* Entities * Primary Keys Primary Keys is use to make a unique data. It will make sure user cannot enter the same text or number again. This is often use on ID or account number. But primary key is only able to use once in a table.

* Foreign Keys Foreign key is a column in a table where it is use as primary keys in another table. For example, a column calls “Order ID” and it is a primary keys in table 1, and in table 2 we have the same column “Order ID”. But in table 2 “Order ID” is not the primary keys any more, we will call it to foreign keys. It is use to build a relationships between tables.

* Referential Integrity It is used to prevent data inconsistencies. It is like a relationship between primary keys and foreign keys. If we insert, edit, or delete a data in primary keys but without change anything in foreign keys, it will affect the integrity of the data. So referential integrity can prevent you delete or change related data accidently.

* Auto incremented Keys Auto increment keys will automatic increase the value in the next field at the same column and the value must be a whole number. For example the last record you enter is 10, and then the new record you insert will auto increase to 11. This feature often use in ID numbers.

* Field Attributes * Data Types It decide what data user can enter. The available data types have Text, Number, Data and Time, Yes/No and etc. By using a correct data type can resize the database effectively.

* Size Field size is use to limit the length of the characters that user can enter. The reason to doing this is because database will reserve 255 spaces for a field and not matter how many spaces user actually use but this will cause the database larger than it need to be. By modify the size user can make the database smaller and to increase more record.

* Validation Rules Validation rules is to limit the action which user will do to the field. This rule will run when user enter data into the field and prevent enter a bad data. It is only allow user to enter the set text or value.

* Data Redundancy – Relationships General a database has a lot of tables and some tables are related to each other so relationship is use to make the connection between two or more tables. It is a method to avoid excessive data and to ensure the data integrity. There have three types of relationships:

* One to One For example, one employee only has one ID and one ID only for one employee. In many case, “One to One” relationship is for reduce the time to searching data.

* One to Many Simply, “One to Many” means one thing or one person has many relations with other. For example, one department can have many employees.

* Many to Many “Many to Many” is different with other two. To build “Many to Many” relationship you need to have at least three tables. It is because “Many to Many” cannot make the connection directly. For example, a student can choose many course but a course can have many student too so you cannot actually link them together. To link them, you will need a table to transfer data so the relationship will become “Many to One” and “One to Many”.

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Database Essay

BEC Case Essay

BEC Case Essay.

1.In this questions associated with the BEC case at the end of Chapter 9, you were asked to modify the entity-relationships diagram drawn by the Stillwater student team to include any other entities and entities and attributes you identified form the BEC cases. Review your answers to these questions and modify the relations in BEC figure 10-2. To include your changes? 2.Study your answer to Question 1. Verify that the relations you say represent the MyBroadway database are in third normal form. If they are not, change them so that they are? 3.

The E-R diagram you developed in questions in the BEC case at the end of Chapter 9 should have shown minimum cardinalities on both ends of each relationship. Are minimum cardinalities represented in some way in the relations in your answer question 2?

If not, how are minimum cardinalities enforced in the database? 4.You have probably noticed that the Stillwater students chose to include a time stamp field as part of the primary key for all of the relations except PRODUCT.

Explain why you think they decided to include this field in each relation and why it is part of the primary key. Are there other alternatives to a time stamp field for creating primary key of these relations? 5.This BEC case indicated the all data types chosen for only a few of the fields of the database. Using your answer to Question 2. Select data types and lengths for each attributes of each relation. Use the data types and formats supported by Microsoft Access. What data type should be used for the non-intelligent primary keys? Do you agree with the use of memo for description and Member Comment attributes?

6.This BEC case also mentioned that the students will consider if any fields should be coded. Are any fields’ good candidates for coding? If so, suggest a coding scheme for each coding candidate field. How would you implement field coding in Microsoft Access? 7.Complete all tab le and field definition for the MyBroadway database using Microsoft Access besides the decision you have made in answers to the other case questions, fill in all the field definition parameters for each field of each table? 8.The one decision for a relational database that usually influences efficiency the most is index definition besides the primary key indexes the students have chosen, what other secondary key indexes do you recommend for this database? Justify your selection of each secondary key index?

BEC Case Essay

Database Users and User Interfaces Essay

Database Users and User Interfaces Essay.

There are four different types of database-system users, differentiated by the way they expect to interact with the system. Different types of user interfaces have been designed for the different types of users.

Naive users are unsophisticated users who interact with the system by invoking one of the application programs that have been written previously. For example, a bank teller who needs to transfer $50 from account A to account B invokes a program called transfer. This program asks the teller for the amount of money to be transferred, the account from which the money is to be transferred,and the account to which the money is to be transferred.

As another example, consider a user who wishes to find her account balance over the World Wide Web. Such a user may access a form, where she enters her account number. An application program at the Web server then retrieves the account balance, using the given account number, and passes this information back to the user.

The typical user interface for naive users is a forms interface, where the user can fill in appropriate fields of the form. Naive users may also simply read reports generated from the database

Application programmers are computer professionals who write application programs. Application programmers can choose from many tools to develop user interfaces. Rapid application development (RAD) tools are tools that enable an application programmer to construct forms and reports without writing a program. There are also special types of programming languages that combine imperative control structures (for example, for loops, while loops and if-then-else statements) with statements of the data manipulation language.

These languages, sometimes called fourth-generation languages, often include special features to facilitate the generation of forms and the display of data on the screen. Most major commercial database systems include a fourthgeneration language. Sophisticated users interact with the system without writing programs. Instead,they form their requests in a database query language. They submit each such query to a query processor, whose function is to break down DML statements into instructions that the storage manager understands. Analysts who submit queries to explore data in the database fall in this category.

Online analytical processing (OLAP) tools simplify analysts’ tasks by letting them view summaries of data in different ways. For instance, an analyst can see total sales by region (for example, North, South, East, andWest), or by product, or by a combination of region and product (that is, total sales of each product in each region). The tools also permit the analyst to select specific regions, look at data in more detail (for example, sales by city within a region) or look at the data in less detail (for example, aggregate products together by category).

Another class of tools for analysts is data mining tools, which help them find certain kinds of patterns in data.

Specialized users are sophisticated users who write specialized database applications that do not fit into the traditional data-processing framework. Among these applications are computer-aided design systems, knowledge base and expert systems, systems that store data with complex data types (for example, graphics data and audio data), and environment-modeling systems.

Database Users and User Interfaces Essay

Sample Only Essay

Sample Only Essay.

The Baranggay clearance and cedula are important documents issued by the government that are commonly used for employment, business, or travel purposes. Both are primary forms of identification. Information System has become the most commonly used source of information now a days. It is a great help to developed and improved information through improvement of Barangay services. The proponent proposed an online Barangay information system that will help the Barangay as well as the workers and the people of the place.

The proposed system will reduced the hard and long time procedure of releasing Barangay clearance and cedula. It will also help the busy residence who doesn’t have enough time to visit Barangay hall by using online appointment.

General Problem:

How to design, develop and implement an Online Barangay Canlubang Information System with appointment for Barangay clearance and cedula services?

Specific Problems:

1. How to develop and integrate a system that will collect and store all the Barangay records that is needed? 2.

How to create a system that will bring effortless in barangay officials in issuing barangay clearance and cedula? 3. How to produce a website with appointment or scheduling for the residents who doesn’t have enough time to visit Barangay Hall to process their clearance or cedulla? 4. How to generate a system that will maintain and update the records?

General Objective

The study aimed to develop an online information system with services for barangay clearance and cedula, It also includes the appointment services for those residence who doesn’t have enough time to visit the barangay hall for their applications. It designed to develop the SDLC methodology with PHP as scripting language and XAMMP as database platform.

Specific Objectives:

1. To gather data and analyze system requirements using different fact-finding techniques which are interviews, document analyses and actual observation of the existing systems.

2. To develop a system that will reduce consumption of time in processing and releasing of Barangay Clearace and cedula.

3. To develop and create the proposed system using PHP as a programming language with Macromedia Dreamweaver 8 as IDE and XAMMP as an open source database management system, with other software tools like Internet Explorer as web browser, Adobe Photoshop as image editing tool to enhance the proposed system

4. To develop system that user friendly.


Figure 1.1
Paradigm of the Need to Develop the System

Figure 1 represents the Paradigm of the Conceptual Framework of the Information Technology Project. Currently, the residents go to the Barangay office to process their cedula and Barangay clearance. They are required to have their Cedula and Certificate of Residency (COR) before manually filling up a form given by the Barangay Secretary. It includes your personal information, and a 1×1 picture attached on it .After filling up, the applicant will submit it to the Barangay administration. If the applicant has no any bad record in the barangay then the administrator will approve their Barangay clearance. Lastly the applicant will pay P26.50 for cedula and only donation for Barangay clearance.

Once the system has been developed, the residents can go online for their reservation of time and date for cedula and Barangay clearance services, instead of doing the old walk-in system. They need first to register and then they are going to fill up the computerized form of Barangay clearance and cedula. If the residents have no any bad record in the Barangay he/she will be approved by the Barangay administrator through online. After having their appointment they will just go to the Barangay Hall on the specific date of their appointment to get their Barangay clearance and cedula. The payment process will be done in Barangay hall. All the important information of the applicants can be view in database.

Significance of the Study

The study is needed towards process improvement in the Barangay Hall. The Barangay Hall is one of the departments that support the needs of the residents in the barangay. The research in this area is also needed to solve some problems in releasing Barangay clearance and cedula.

In this study, the target beneficiaries were as follows:

Barangay Officials. The proposed system will be beneficial to the barangay officials as it will help them to provide good services to the residents. It will also help them to lessen time consuming in releasing barangay clearance and cedula.

Local Government – This study will contribute to the development for other barangay services which are more reliable and applicable in all barangay levels. In this study, they will be able to implement a system which is more appropriate for the needs of Barangay.

Local Residents – They could easily inquire and get necessary information and documents they wanted at a time.

Future Researcher – this study would serve as an additional piece to the library on research literature on public administrator and to the local government officials. Scope and Delimitations

This study is focused on five major areas namely: (1) online information System; (2) Online Services of the Barangay; (3) online approval or disapproval for the application of Barangay Clearance and Cedula; (4) Online Appointment; and (5) Maintenance of the System. The first area is the online information system of the Barangay Canlubang. It includes all the important information about Barangay Canlubang, barangay officials and their services. The second area is the Online Services of the Barangay hall in terms of releasing Barangay clearance and cedula .The third area is the online approval or disapproval for the application of Barangay clearance and cedulla.

Barangay officials can view if the applicant has any bad record or blater in the Barangay .They can approve or reject the application of Barangay clearance and cedula. The fourth are is Online Appointment for the residents who doesn’t have enough time to visit Barangay Hall for their clearance or cedulla. Finally, the fifth area is the maintenance of the system by the systems administrator. The system administrator is authorized to give access rights to different levels of users, manage maintenance of the system by adding, updating and deleting records. However, this is limited only to the Barangay development process on the Barangay Canlubang Calamba City. Since the study cover only the Barangay Canlubang. Payment is not included in our system.

Definition of Terms:

Browser. is an application program that provides a way to look at and interact with all the information on the World Wide Web. Database. Is an application data that manages data and allows fast storage and that retrieval of data. Application. is a program designed to perform a specific function directly for the user or, in some cases, for another application program.

Macromedia Dream weaver 8. is a proprietary web development application originally created by Macromedia, and is now developed by Adobe Systems. Internet Explorer. is the most widely used World Wide Web browser. It is bundled with the Microsoft Windows operating system and can also be downloaded from Microsoft’s Web site. System. Is a Collection of elements that work together to achieve a common goal. Photoshop. Image editing software and considered as one of the leaders in photo editing software. Flash. is a multimedia platform used to add animation, video, and interactivity to web pages.

Non Technical.

Barangay Officials. is someone who holds an office in an organization, government and participates in the exercise of authority. Cedula. served as income tax and personal identification for the natives. Clearance. Activities required or undertaken to conserve as nearly, and as long, as possible the original condition of an asset or resource while compensating for normal wear and tear. Appointment. an arrangement for a meeting

Maintenance. Knowing, or perceiving, by intuition; capable of knowing without deduction or reasoning. Intuitive. Received, reached, obtained, or perceived, by intuition; as, intuitive judgment or knowledge.


XAMPP. solution stack package, consisting mainly of the Apache HTTP Server,MySQL database, and interpreters for scripts written in the PHP and Perlprogramming languages HTML. Hyper Text Mark-up Language

RAD. Rapid Application Development
DBMS. Database Management Software
IDE. Integrated Development Environment
DBMS. Database Management System
COR. Certificate of Residency

Chapter II


The proponent has found existing software products which are related to her proposed system namely: DFA Passport Appointment System. DFA Passport Appointment System, is web-based system for your passport application, you can now enjoy the convenience of getting an appointed date, time, and option for passport delivery. Requesting for new passport or passport renewal is now made accessible, all you have to do is provide your personal info online and choose an available date and time convenient for you. Applying for a Philippine passport is now efficient and world class. Applicants may set a passport appointment by going online through its dedicated website by calling the DFA Appointment Hotline 737-1000. In summary, DFA Online Appointment System aims to bring the passport application for passport renewal and new passport processing service at par with world class consular services. The service also comes with an option for passport delivery. * Web-based interface with intuitive navigation.

* Eliminate long line formed with the old walk-in system. * Convenience of getting an appointed date, time, and option for passport delivery. * Applying for passport is efficient.

Sample Only Essay

Multidimensional Data Model Essay

Multidimensional Data Model Essay.

What is a data cube?

A data cube allows data to be modeled and viewed in multiple dimensions. It is defined by dimensions and facts. In general terms, dimensions are the perspectives or entities with respect to which an organization wants to keep records. Each dimension may have a table associated with it, called a dimension table, which further describes the dimension. Facts are numerical measures. The fact table contains the names of the facts, or measures, as well as keys to each of the related dimension tables.


2-D representation, the sales for Vancouver are shown with respect to the time dimension (organized in quarters) and the item dimension (organized according to the types of items sold). The fact, or measure displayed is dollars sold.

Now, suppose that we would like to view the sales data with a third dimension. For instance, suppose we would like to view the data according to time, item, as well as location.  The above tables show the data at different degrees of summarization.

In the data warehousing research literature, a data cube such as each of the above is referred to as a cuboid. Given a set of dimensions, we can construct a lattice of cuboids, each showing the data at a different level of summarization, or group by (i.e., summarized by a different subset of the dimensions). The lattice of cuboids is then referred to as a data cube. The following figure shows a lattice of cuboids forming a data cube for the dimensions time, item, location, and supplier.

The cuboid which holds the lowest level of summarization is called the base cuboid. The 0-D cuboid which holds the highest level of summarization is called the apex cuboid. The apex cuboid is typically denoted by all.


The entity-relationship data model is commonly used in the design of relational databases, where a database schema consists of a set of entities or objects, and the relationships between them. Such a data model is appropriate for on-line transaction processing. Data warehouses, however, require a concise, subject-oriented schema which facilitates on-line data analysis. The most popular data model for data warehouses is a multidimensional model. This model can exist in the form of a star schema, a snow flake schema, or a fact constellation schema.

Star schema:

The star schema is a modeling paradigm in which the data warehouse contains (1) a large central table (fact table), and  (2) a set of smaller attendant tables (dimension tables), one for each dimension. The schema graph resembles a starburst, with the dimension tables displayed in a radial pattern around the central fact table.

In Star Schema, each dimension is represented by only one table, and each table contains a set of attributes. For example, the location dimension table contains the attribute set { location_key, city, state, country} This constraint may introduce some redundancy.

Example: Chennai, Madurai is both cities in the TamilNadu state in India.

Snow Flake schema:

The Snow Flake schema is a variant of the star schema model, where some dimension tables are normalized, thereby further splitting the data into additional tables. The resulting schema graph forms a shape similar to a snow flake.

Snowflake schema of a data warehouse for sales
The major difference between the snowflake and star schema models is that the dimension tables of the snowflake model may be kept in normalized form to reduce redundancies. Such a table is easy to maintain and also saves storage space

The Snowflake schema needs more joins will be needed to execute a query, so it is not popular as the Star Schema in Data Warehouse Design. A compromise between the star schema and the snowflake schema is to adopt a mixed schema where only the very large dimension tables are normalized.

Fact constellation:
Sophisticated applications may require multiple fact tables to share dimension tables. This kind of schema can be viewed as a collection of stars, and hence is called a galaxy schema or a fact constellation.

Fact constellation schema of a data warehouse for sales and shipping

This schema species two fact tables, sales and shipping. The sales table definition is identical to that of the star schema. A fact constellation schema allows dimension tables to be shared between fact tables. In data warehousing, there is a distinction between a data warehouse and a data mart. A data warehouse collects information about subjects that span the entire organization, such as customers, items, sales, assets, and personnel, and thus its scope is enterprise-wide.

For data warehouses, the fact constellation schema are commonly used since it can model multiple, interrelated subjects. A data mart, on the other hand, is a department subset of the data warehouse that focuses on selected subjects, and thus its scope is department-wide. For data marts, the star or snowflake schemas are popular since each are geared towards modeling single subjects. Examples for defining star, snowflake, and fact constellation schemas In DMQL, The following are the syntax to define the Star, Snowflake, and Fact constellation Schemas:


A measure value is computed for a given point by aggregating the data corresponding to the respective dimension-value pairs defining the given point. Measures can be organized into three categories:

1.Distributive Measure
2.Algebraic Measure
3.Holistic Measure
Based on the kind of aggregate functions are used.

1. Distributive Measure

An aggregate function is distributive if it can be computed in a distributed manner as follows: Suppose the data is partitioned into n sets. The computation of the function on each partition derives one aggregate value. If the result derived by applying the function to the n aggregate values is the same as that derived by applying the function on all the data without partitioning, the function can be computed in a distributed manner. For example, count( ) can be computed for a data cube by first partitioning the cube into a set of subcubes, computing count( ) for each subcube, and then summing up the counts obtained for each subcube. Hence count() is a distributive aggregate function. For the same reason, sum( ), min( ), and max( ) are distributive aggregate functions. A measure is distributive if it is obtained by applying a distributive aggregate function.

Multidimensional Data Model Essay

Ashford Library Essay

Ashford Library Essay.

Ashford Library has great value while conducting college level research. The Ashford Library, in my opinion, is a trove of valuable information. While searching for information in the library, you will find that Ashford is proprietary database, which is only accessible to someone who pays or belongs to an institution who pays. “The Ashford Library is not just one main database, but actually contains several” (Bowles, 2013). We will soon cover the variety of databases and their benefit, but first lets look at the difference between a scholarly resource and a popular resource.

A scholarly resource is a source of information that has been properly vetted by a scholar and/or and expert in that particular field. There has to be some sort of analysis and evaluation of the actual events or ideas, which make them credible. Most scholarly resources are coveted and carefully cared for, which is why the information is only accessible with payment or subscription. A popular resource is one that usually covers general interest, primarily to inform and entertain the public.

Its more focused on the culture and society, filled with popular opinions and beliefs (A few examples of this would be: Newsweek, Sports Illustrated, ESPN). Of the several databases included in the Ashford Library, I would like to focus on EBSCOHost. EBSCO is one of the world’s leading search tools for electronic journals and books (p. 162). There are over 4,200 journals in here with over 3,900 being peer-reviewed (or properly vetted), which make this a great asset when conducting quality research.

While in this database or any of the databases within the library, try to remember different techniques of Boolean searching. This will allow you to narrow the scope of your search. At work we use databases to conduct research and this is a very helpful tool, as it allows it to limit our searches to specifics. The most common, for us, is listing a keep word with quotation marks to find an exact phrase or term. In conclusion, with the quality resources available to me in the Ashford Library, I am able to perfect and hone my college level research and writing skills.

Ashford Library Essay