Describe how bias, confounders, and interaction can influence the results of a study

Getting Started

Analytic epidemiology studies seek to identify the risk factors for various adverse health outcomes or to test the effectiveness of interventions to improve health status. Analytic epidemiology examines cause and effect relationships. These study designs allow researchers to test hypothesized relationships between exposure, treatment, or intervention (cause) and an outcome (effect) or the impact of risk factors. Analytic studies focus on the how and the why rather than the descriptive studies’ who, where, and when (Zeni, 2021). There are two types of analytic epidemiology studies: observational (cohort and cross-sectional) and experimental (randomized control trial [RCT] and quasi-experimental).

Upon successful completion of this discussion, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish the difference between observational and experimental studies in epidemiology.
  • Describe how bias, confounders, and interaction can influence the results of a study.

Instructions

  1. Review the rubric to ensure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.
  2. Read from your textbook Chapters 7 and 8.
  3. Review the Chapter 7 PowerPoint(PowerPoint presentation) file and the Chapter 8 PowerPoint(PowerPoint presentation) file.
  4. Watch the following videos:
    1. 6 Steps to Formulate a Strong Hypothesis(new tab)
       
    2. Variables(new tab)
       
  5. Search OCLS for either an observational study (prospective cohort study, retrospective cohort study, case-control study) or an experimental study (randomized control trial, clinical trial, intervention study, quasi-experimental) on a topic in nursing that interests you.
  6. Write an initial response to the following prompts:
    1. Summarize the study’s purpose, research design, methods used to collect and analyze data, and the results.
    2. What were the study’s hypotheses or research questions?
    3. What were the independent and dependent variables?
    4. Describe how bias can influence the results of a study.
  7. Post a link to your article.
  8. Support your initial discussion post with references that are relevant, scholarly, peer-reviewed sources, or authoritative professional organizations. You can utilize IWU Online Campus Library Services (new tab) to help locate these sources.

Rubic

Criteria

Excellent

 

Competent

 

Needs Improvement

 

Inadequate/Failing

 

Criterion Score

 

Quality of Initial Post

16 points

(13-16 points)

Thoroughly addresses the prompt(s). Post is well developed, refers to relevant course concepts (with citations and references), and provides clear evidence of critical thinking.

12 points

(9-12 points)

Adequately addresses the prompt(s).
Post refers to relevant course concepts (with citations and references) and provides clear evidence of critical thinking.

8 points

(5-8 points)

Post addresses the prompt(s) but is limited in referring to relevant course concepts (with citations and references) and providing clear evidence of critical thinking.

4 points

(0-4 points)

Post does not address the prompt(s), refer to relevant course concepts (with citations and references), and/or provide evidence of critical thinking.

Score of Quality of Initial Post,

/ 16

Timeliness

3 points

Initial posting to the question or topic assigned in the workshop activity is made by day five of the workshop.

2 points

Initial posting to the question or topic assigned in the workshop activity is made by day six of the workshop.

1 point

Initial posting to the question or topic assigned in the workshop activity is made by day seven of the workshop.

0 points

No initial posting by day seven of the workshop.

Score of Timeliness,

/ 3

Interaction

8 points

(7-8 points)

Demonstrates critical thinking through quality interaction with at least two classmates by directly commenting on their ideas and making connections to relevant content.

Advances the discussion by introducing new ideas, asking clarifying questions, and synthesizing concepts.

Responds to faculty follow-up questions.

6 points

(5-6 points)

Demonstrates critical thinking through quality interaction with at least two classmates by directly commenting on their ideas and making connections to relevant content.

Responds to faculty follow-up questions directed to you.

4 points

(1-4 points)

Interaction is incomplete (only one quality response) or lacking in quality in both responses.

May or may not respond to faculty follow-up questions directed to you.

0 points

No interaction with classmates.

Score of Interaction,

/ 8

Written Communication

3 points

Written communication is easy to read and understand. Communicates clearly through the effective control of grammar and spelling.

Appropriately uses APA for citations and references.

2 points

Written communication is readable. Communicates clearly through the control of grammar and spelling, with only minimal errors.

Appropriately uses APA for citations and references.

1 point

Written communication is not as clear due to a few issues with the effective control of grammar and spelling.

Attempts to use APA for citations and references, but errors are present.

0 points

No communication or written communication is not as clear due to many issues with the effective control of grammar and spelling.

No attempt to use APA appropriately.

Score of Written Communication,

/ 3

Total

Score of Discussion (30 Points),

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