Truss Bridge Project Report Essay

Truss Bridge Project Report Essay.

In this project, I had to design build and test a 16 inch long truss bridge. The goal of this project was to teach you how bridges are designed and built, and show the process of how bridges are designed and made in the real world by professional engineers. Bridges are used all over the world and it is a very important skill to know and understand how the physics of bridges work and why bridges are made how they are made, and that’s what this project is for.

First, I had to come up with a possible design for the shape of the trusses for the bridge.

Then I created my bridge design on WestPoint Bridge Builder and tested its ability to hold a truck, and created the design on MD Solids to see the forces acting on the bridge. Next, I built a model of the bridge using popsicle sticks and glued all the pieces together. After the bridge was complete, I tested the bridges strength and ability to hold things and recorded the results.

The point of this project was to learn how to design, test, and build bridges sufficiently. Design Designs and ideas for possible designs are the first step of building a bridge.

First, Preliminary sketches were made in an engineer’s notebook of four possible designs for a truss bridge. This is a screenshot of those sketches: Then one of the preliminary sketches was selected to be the design for the final product. Next, the bridge design had to be made on WestPoint Bridge Designer. The design was then made on the program and the bridge was to be made as inexpensive as possible while still supporting a truck. The design was finished and screenshots were taken of the bridge. These are some screenshots from WestPoint Bridge Designer:

Last, the bridge design was made on MD Solids to show the forces that would be acting on the bridge. This is a screenshot from MD Solids: Construction Next, the bridge had to be made from popsicle sticks. First, the side outline of the bridge design was measured out and drawn on paper and the paper was glued to a square of cardboard. Then popsicle sticks were cut with shears to the length they needed to be to be glued together. The cut popsicle sticks were then glued together and taped down to the cardboard in place for the glue to dry.

Once all the glue was dry, the side was finished. The process for the side of the bridge was repeated to make the other side. Once both sides were completed, the two sides were glued to a wooden rectangle that would be the road of the bridge. Then, cross supports made out of popsicle sticks were glued along the top of the bridge. After all the glue was dry, the construction was complete. This is what the bridge looked like when it was completed: Measurement Once the bridge was complete, the bridge needed to be tested.

The bridge was measured to be 16 inches long and 2 inches tall. The bridge was also weighed out to be 85. 0 grams. Next, the bridge was to be tested on how much force it can take with the Structural Stress Analysis machine. First, the bridge was put into the machine and screwed in to the place it needed to be. The case was then closed on the machine and the test was started. The machine pulled down on the bridge until it broke, measuring how much force the bridge can withstand without breaking.

The machine recorded the data collected and made a graph to show how the bridge performed under stress. The bridge at it’s best held up 44 pounds of force. Here is a screenshot of the graph that the machine produced: Analysis Overall, I did very well on this project. I created a design for the truss bridge that allowed the bridge to be strong and hold a lot of force. On Westpoint Bridge Designer, I was very close to making my bridge design cost under 200,000 dollars and still holding up the truck.

My bridge on westpoint costed 204,389 dollars and it held up the weight of the truck. My bridge that I constructed out of popsicle sticks also was very good. It held up to 44 pounds of force, according to the Structural Stress Analyser, and my bridge was one of the strongest in the class. This project taught me what the process is to design bridges, What types of truss bridges are the strongest, and how real bridges are constructed and tested. This project was pretty fun for me and it taught me a lot about truss bridges.

Truss Bridge Project Report Essay

Conformed Dimension Essay

Conformed Dimension Essay.

Conformed dimensions are a crucial component of the successful dimensional design. With the right dimension design and content, it is possible to compare facts from different fact tables, both within a subject area and across the enterprise. They can do more than enable drilling across; they serve as the focus for planning enterprise analytic capability. Dimensional design is usually implemented in parts. Regardless of the style, it is impractical to organize a single project that will encompass the entire enterprise.

A realistic project scope is achieved by subdividing the enterprise into subject areas and areas into projects.

At a logical level, when a series of stars share a set of common dimensions, the dimensions are referred to as conformed dimensions. Identical dimensions ensure conformance, but can take several other forms as well. Fact tables and conformed dimensions can be planned and documented in matrix format and serve as the blueprint for incremental implementation. Dimensions tables can conform in several ways.

Shared dimensions, degenerate dimension and conformed rollups are three ways.

A fourth style of conformance is less commonly accepted; it allows for overlapping dimensions. Tables that can conform when the dimension attributes of one are a subset of another are known up as a rollup dimension and a base dimension. They will not share a common surrogate key, but the common attributes must possess the same structure and consent. Degenerate dimensions can serve as the basis for conformance. The corresponding columns should consistent in the structure and content.

But it is not required that every fact table share the same set of instance combinations, as to do would force violation od sparsity. Overlapping dimensions can also conform. Some designers prefer to avoid this situation, since it requires that multiple processes load equivalent dimensions columns in the same way. Conformed dimensions are the key to enterprise scope, serving as the infrastructure that integrates subject areas. This means that the dimensional design, including a conformance plan must be conducted as a strategic, upfront process.

The conforming dimensions are best illustrated through matrices since the number of criss-crossing relationships can easily clutter a table diagram. The matrices can describe conformance within a data mart or across the data marts. They are a central feature of dimensional data warehouse architecture, produced as part of strategic design effort. It allows individual implementation to proceed individually, ensuring they will fit together as each comes online. In a Corporate Information Factory, information is extracted from the enterprise data warehouse and organized for departmental use in data marts.

Because the data marts of the Corporate Information Factory draw their information from an integrated repository, the challenges of maintaining conformance are reduced, at least from the perspective of the dimensional modelers. The burden of bringing together disparate source is still present, nut it falls to the designers of the enterprise data warehouse. Designers of the dimensional data marts need only concern themselves with a single view of information: that provide by the enterprise data warehouse.

Conformance is still a necessity with the data mart and conformance across data marts can help avoid the need for additional data marts to cross subject areas. Stand-alone data mart lacks an enterprise context. They do not conform and the associated risk can partially mitigated by planning for conformance of a few key dimensions. The stand-alone data may exhibit conformance internally, it is likely to be incompatible with other data marts. Stand- alone data marts may be retrofitted to work with existing conformed dimensions, but this process is not trivial.

Conformed Dimension Essay

Web Design Essay

Web Design Essay.

Web design encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of websites. The different areas of web design include web graphic design; interface design; authoring, including standardised code and proprietary software; user experience design; and search engine optimization. Often many individuals will work in teams covering different aspects of the design process, although some designers will cover them all. The term web design is normally used to describe the design process relating to the front-end (client side) design of a websiteincluding writing mark up.

Web design partially overlaps web engineering in the broader scope of web development. Web designers are expected to have an awareness of usability and if their role involves creating mark up then they are also expected to be up to date with web accessibility guidelines.

Tools and technologies Web designers use a variety of different tools depending on what part of the production process they are involved in. These tools are updated over time by newer standards and software but the principles behind them remain the same.

Web graphic designers use vector and raster graphics packages for creating web formatted imagery or design prototypes. Technologies used for creating websites include standardised mark-up, which could be hand-coded or generated by WYSIWYG editing software. Search engine optimisation tools may be used to check search engine ranking and suggest improvements.

Skills and techniques Marketing and communication design Marketing and communication design on a website may identify what works for its target market. This can be an age group or particular strand of culture; thus the designer may understand the trends of its audience. Designers may also understand the type of website they are designing, meaning, for example, that (B2B) business-to-business website design considerations might differ greatly from a consumer targeted website such as a retail or entertainment website. User experience design and interactive design

Users understanding the content of a website often depends on users understanding how the website works. This is part of the user experience design. User experience is related to layout, clear instructions and labeling on a website. How well a user understands how they can interact on a site may also depend on the interactive design of the site. Page layout

Part of the user interface design is affected by the quality of the page layout. For example, a designer may consider if the sites page layout should remain consistent on different pages when designing the layout. Page pixel width may also be considered vital for aligning objects in the layout design.


Web designers may choose to limit the variety of website typefaces to only a few which are of a similar style, instead of using a wide range of typefaces or type styles. Most browsers recognize a specific number of safe fonts, which designers mainly use in order to avoid complications.

Motion graphics

The page layout and user interface may also be affected by the use of motion graphics. The choice of whether or not to use motion graphics may depend on the target market for the website. Motion graphics may be expected or at least better received with an entertainment-oriented website.

Occupations There are two primary jobs involved in creating a website: the web designer and web developer, who often work closely together on a website. The web designers are responsible for the visual aspect, which includes the layout, coloring and typography of a web page. Web designers will also have a working knowledge of using a variety of languages such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP and Flash to create a site, although the extent of their knowledge will differ from one web designer to another.

Web Design Essay

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Cad Essay

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Cad Essay.

* Can be more accurate than hand-drawn designs – it reduces human error. * You can save and edit ideas, which makes it easier and cheaper to modify your design as you go along. * You can modify existing ideas, which saves time.

* The software itself can be expensive so initial costs are high. There are free software packages though. * Staff need to be trained how to use the software, which also adds to costs. * Requires a PC.

A few advantages of 2D CAD:
Reduced design timescales.
Reuse of designs.
Drawing errors can be corrected easily.
Drawings can be sent/received via email in seconds.

Time & cost of implementing the CAD system
Time & cost of training people to use the CAD.
Time & cost of migrating legacy drawings into CAD format

If you compare the use of 3D CAD against drawing borard draughting. the list of disadvantages pretty much stays the same, whilst the list of advantages grows further.

Advantages of 3D CAD:

More stylish /complex products can be designed using 3D surfacing.

Parametric modelling allows many design itterations to be generated & evaluated quickly. Designs can be analysed and optimised virtually using finite element analysis. Clearance/inteference checks can be mase easily

3D CAD data can be imported directly in to CAM software, futher reducing timescales and mistakes from interpretation of 2D drawings.


Software Flexibility

* Using CAD software enables design changes to be made rapidly. Before CAD, a particular design change would have required a draftsperson to completely redraw the design to the new specification. CAD software allows designers to tinker with designs and make small changes on the fly. It can also be used to simulate the behavior of the design in software. For example, CAD software can be used to simulate the airflow around an engine. This allows for greater flexibility in the software design process.

Advantage: Automatic Specification Checking

* Using CAD software enables the designer to automatically check if the design is within specification. CAD software also enables clients to view designs at an earlier stage in the design process than is usually the case. CAM also enables clients to check the progress of functional and semi-functional prototypes at a much earlier stage than is possible in the traditional design process.

Disadvantage: Processing Power Limitations and Cost

* CAD software often consumes large amounts of computer processing power. This requires high-quality computer hardware that can be costly. CAM requires advanced manufacturing devices that are also very expensive. The cost of hardware is a significant disadvantage of CAD.CAM and a major barrier to the wider uptake of CAD.CAM technologies

. Disadvantage: Software Complexity

* As CAD software advances, it becomes more flexible and adaptable. However, this comes at the cost of making the software more complex. This complexity makes it more difficult for first-time users to learn the software. Combined with the cost of training personnel in CAD.CAM technologies, this complexity represents another disadvantage of CAD.CAM.


Many advantages and disadvantages. It takes more time to set up a project, and to set up all the components you want to place in a building. Revit is much better at 3 dimensional modeling. It also does some basic design stuff.

Ms office:

Advantages :

• Widely used, and accepted in business world, so compatibiity

• Supported by major corporation, so little chance of it becoming obsolete

• Wide variety of features, allowing you to do most anything


• Made by Microsoft.

• Too many features, creates an extremely high learning curve

• Very expensive.

The advantages are that you need only enter a formula for the spreadsheet to continually update totals whenever data is entered rather than having to continually re calculate.

The disadvantage, if there is any, is that other than simple calculations you do need a good deal of training to get the best out of it.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Cad Essay

My Cozy Room Essay

My Cozy Room Essay.

My favorite place is my bedroom because it’s the more comfortable place in my house when I’m tired and not feeling the best or maybe even need to relieve stress, I can go to my room and lay down and relax. My room is very spacious, quiet, relaxing, and cozy, I admire my room a lot because I can use my imagination while I just lay down in bed and close my eyes and think about things that are exciting.

My room speaks a peaceful haven to me, my walls are light pink with matching boarder around the walls, with matching hello kitty comfortable set which make my room stand out a lot along with my pink pillows that my grandmother made for me years ago before she died in 2006 that I just cherish the most and won’t trade my pillows for anything in the world.

My room is a common bedroom with a bed, TV, DVD player, stereo, laptop, and a fish tank, and a bookshelf with a lot of lovely books and magazine that I love to read.

My room has a calming color along with a clean strawberry scent that I have always loved to vaporize my room with a wonderful scent, because the smell of the scent helps me to stay focus with whatever I’m doing and to just relax peacefully without any concern. My room gives a sense of security in a way that I can control who goes in and out my room, because my room holds all of my personal belongings which is very important to me, because I have things that can benefit me now and in the future, and my kids will probably benefit from some of my personal belongings in the near future.

I can also go to my bedroom when I need to study for a quiz or submitted an assignment before midnight for school. I also can go to my room if I just want privacy by shutting my door and locking it, and telling others to do not disturb. I love the view that I have from my bedroom, because my window faces he water feature in my apartment complex hat makes it so beautiful to look out the window day or night and to be able to stand on the balcony and view he freeway is just wonderful to see the traffic in the morning with people and their cars bumper to bumper going and coming from work.

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My Cozy Room Essay

Vera Wang Essay

Vera Wang Essay.

When a girl is getting married what is one of the most important tasks to attend to first? Why the dress of course! Oscar de la Renta, Dior, and Vivienne Westwood all create beautiful bridal. However, the designer that comes to all brides’ minds first is Wang. Vera Wang that is. Vera Wang is with out a doubt the most desirable designer for wedding dresses than any other designer in the world. Getting her start in the fashion world as an editor, Vera Wang has transformed the idea of Bridal from conventional and habitual to innovative and fresh.

New York City born and raised, Vera Wang grew up as a figure skater. After being the senior fashion editor at Vogue for over 15 years she began working with Ralph Lauren. Vera Wang made this drastic move after not receiving the promotion she had hoped for to editor in chief to the publication, the position was given to Anna Wintour. At Ralph Lauren Wang was the design director of Women’s Accessories.

Then Vera got proposed to, and this changed her career path completely. Vera Wang also accredits her love of fashion to her mother. She also says that her mother is her prime influence in design.

After getting engaged Vera had decided she wanted to design her own wedding gown. She was extremely frustrated with the lack of couture gowns on the market. With the help from her mother this happened. After enjoying the experience more than she ever imagined, Vera’s father saw a pioneering investment arise. Couture Bridal. This had never been done, of course designers had designed wedding gowns in the past but there was no one designer who solely designed couture-wedding gowns in the market. In 1990, with financial backing from her father, Vera Wang opened her own luxury bridal salon.

The salon was located at the esteemed Carlyle Hotel in New York City. When the salon first opened Vera sold her own personal gowns along with couture gowns from designers such as Carolina Herrera, Christian Dior, and Arnold Scaasi. After a few years of owning the salon Vera Wang launched her own signature collection of bridal couture. Although Vera Wang was widely known and accredited by socialites, celebrities, and the fashion world. She did not receive her international public recognition until 1994. In that year she designed a hand-beaded ensemble for figure skater Nancy Kerrigan.

I believe that Vera Wang really captured the zeitgeist of the era with that design. The zeitgeist of America as a country is patriotism, and what’s not more patriotic then designing for and American figure skater. The design is also very bright, modern, active, and youthful, just like the United States in the 1990’s. Vera Wang has said that this design is one of her favorites because it took figure skater, Nancy Kerrigan, out of her comfort zone as a sophisticate. Vera Wang has a significant impact on contemporary fashion.

As a designer Vera has expanded the fashion in the worlds of both bridal and figure skating. After Vera launched her own collection of solely wedding gowns many designers followed in her footsteps. Before she has done this most designers would only design and produce wedding gowns made to order. Bridal fashion would certainly be different without Vera Wang. She created a whole other sector of bridal; she created ready to wear bridal couture in a sense. She made avant-garde attainable to other members of society who normally did not have access to that art.

This was something never done before so it was definitely profitable. Designers became aware of this and decided to get in on the new sector of bridal. I have attended Teen Vogue Fashion University the past two years. Last year I had the pleasure of attending a seminar put on by Vera Wang. During the seminar the designer gave her life story and discussed how she came about in the business. I learned that she has designed for tons of celebrities and royalty. Some including Jennifer Lopez, The Kardashians, Sharon Stone, and Uma Therman.

What I find most interesting about Vera Wang is how she sought out a market and created a product for it. I think that is exactly what makes individuals in this industry successful. Her story and launch of her company was very logical and almost made my dreams seem more attainable. In conclusion through Vera Wang, and other designer’s, biographies we can learn how styles evolve. Learning about how a designer decides on a specific style or design is very similar to how style and fashions have altered over history. Many designers in the past have used utility as well as aesthetic appeal as a reason to create new fashion.

In today’s time most designers create new things for aesthetic appeal and they would like to create something new and cutting edge. Vera Wang started creating couture gowns because that was her passion. She then expanded into Ready to wear and fragrance. This is a clear indicator that designers today are driven for more of a profit then those in history. Through the study of historic costume we not only learn about garments, but we also learn about history itself. From a specific garment students may be able to identify if the garment was produced during a ration of a certain fabric.

Studying historic fashion may also identify what was going on in the world at the time a specific garment was worn. Different needs throughout the generations can also be identified through the types of fashions that are displayed. I also observed that, like in history, Vera Wang builds on previous ideas from other designers. Throughout the study of historic costume it is sound to say that many of the fashions are repeated but yet improved, this mirrors fashion today exactly. History is constantly in cycle, as is fashion.

Vera Wang Essay

What is SSADM? Essay

What is SSADM? Essay.

According to, 2013, structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM) is a systems approach to the analysis and design of information systems. SSADM was produced for a UK government office concerned with the use of technology in government, from 1980 onwards. The names “Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method” and “SSADM” are now Registered Trade Marks of the Office of Government Commerce (OGC), which is an Office of the United Kingdom’s Treasury.


System design methods are a discipline within the software development industry which seek to provide a framework for activity and the capture, storage, transformation and dissemination of information so as to enable the economic development of computer systems that are fit for purpose.

SSADM is a waterfall method by which an Information System design can be arrived at; SSADM can be thought to represent a pinnacle of the rigorous document-led approach to system design, and contrasts with more contemporary Rapid Application Development methods such as DSDM. SSADM is one particular implementation and builds on the work of different schools of development methods, some of the key members of which included:

Stage 0 – Feasibility study

In order to determine whether or not a given project is feasible, there must be some form of investigation into the goals and implications of the project.

For very small scale projects this may not be necessary at all as the scope of the project is easily understood. In larger projects, the feasibility may be done but in an informal sense, either because there is not time for a formal study or because the project is a “must-have” and will have to be done one way or the other. When a feasibility study is carried out, there are four main areas of consideration: Technical – is the project technically possible?

Financial – can the business afford to carry out the project? Organizational – will the new system be compatible with existing practices? Ethical – is the impact of the new system socially acceptable? To answer these questions, the feasibility study is effectively a condensed version of a fully blown systems analysis and design. The requirements and users are analyzed to some extent, some business options are drawn up and even some details of the technical implementation. The product of this stage is a formal feasibility study document. SSADM specifies the sections that the study should contain including any preliminary models that have been constructed and also details of rejected options and the reasons for their rejection.

Stage 1:

Investigate the current environment
Draw a Data Flow Diagram (DFD) and Entity-Relationship Diagrams (ERDs) to show the current system.
Stage 2:
Business Systems Options (BSOs)
Describe possible new systems in terms of functionality and implementation issues. Use text and skeletal DFDs and LDMs.
Stage 3:
Requirements Specification
After choosing a BSO, refine DFDs and LDMs. To model how the system will respond to events (entity behavior modeling), draw an entity life history (ELH) diagram, an effect correspondence diagram (ECD), and enquiry access paths (EAP).
Stage 4:

Technical System Options (TSOs)
Describe the costs, benefits, and constraints of implementing the specification.

Stage 5:
Logical Design
Define how data is processed by the system and describe user dialogs. Update the entity life history diagrams with state indicators and draw an updated processing model (UPM).
Stage 6:
Physical Design
Develop user interface structures and implement logical processes. (, 2013)
Techniques, 2013 claims that the 3 most important techniques that are used in SSADM are: * Logical Data Modeling
* This is the process of identifying, modeling and documenting the data requirements of the system being designed. The data are separated into entities (things about which a business needs to record information) and relationships (the associations between the entities).
* Data Flow Modeling

* This is the process of identifying, modeling and documenting how data moves around an information system. Data Flow Modeling examines processes (activities that transform data from one form to another), data stores (the holding areas for data), external entities (what sends data into a system or receives data from a system), and data flows (routes by which data can flow).
* Entity Behavior Modeling

This is the process of identifying, modeling and documenting the events that affect each entity and the sequence in which these events occur. In this assignment, we decided to use SSADM as our methodology after comparing with the others two, the SDLC and OOAD. This is because we found that SSADM is more suitable for our case study which is building a system for monitoring aftercare program. We need the steps and stages to successfully found out the aim of our system and hence building it step by step. By using SSADM, we will use class diagram to show out every steps that we will take to build the system including the role and use of every person using the system.

What is SSADM? Essay

Descriptive Essay on A Place: Charlie’s Cabin Essay

Descriptive Essay on A Place: Charlie’s Cabin Essay.

The newly cut wood sends bits and pieces of red hot coals in all directions, but are blocked down quickly by the charcoaled black cast iron wood burner. The unexplainable scent of the surroundings crawls into your nose and give you the constant reminder that you are in Charlies Bear Valley cabin.

As you first drive into the small, but promising valley, you know that within minutes you will be in the cabin that makes dreams come true. As you pull into the long driveway, you cannot wait for the car to be thrown into park so you can run up the creaky wooden stairs and throw open the door and enter the good old cabin.

When you enter the cabin, a feeling of hospitality that you have never felt comes over you. A scent that you have never smelled begins to enter your lungs. Its a sort of smell that you smell when you enter your grandmothers house, but modified.

It has a heavier more personal taste to it. As you take in this scent, you know its one that will not be forgotten any time soon, its so distinct that you can only find it in the cabin.

After you have absorbed the smell to its fullest, you begin to look around and see how this wooden cabin is furnished. The furniture, carpet, curtains, and tile give of such a retro feeling, like you have entered the Brady Bunchs home. With a huge ball of happiness building up in your stomach, you begin to open all the doors in the cabin, revealing what each room has to offer. The layout of the cabin seems very confusing, you cant open certain doors unless the one next to it is closed, and there are two bathrooms right next to each other.

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As you continue to explore the wondrous cabin, you come across a small kitchen that has food left behind from pervious visits. The whole feel of the kitchen is not like the one you have at your house, it has a much more friendly feel to it, as if its begging to be used. It blends in with the tone of the rest of the cabin, sort of very used, but stuffed with a gargantuan amount of character. The whole house just has a certain feel to it that welcomes you kick back and relax in.

The more and more you look around the cabin the more you find. Just about when you think you have seen the whole cabin you open up one last door, which reveals a staircase. You quickly run up the stairs and see a whole other story to the house. Upstairs consists of many more doors and rooms to explore. One of these rooms has a big window, which lets the warm mountain sun in for you to bask in. When you lay there in the sun, you can do nothing to keep yourself from falling asleep. This is the best room in the cabin to snooze in.

After you have finished exploring the retro cabin, and finish unpacking your entire luggage, you begin to find fun activities to do with your friends, or whoever if present with you at the cabin. The cabin has a magical power that automatically bonds whoever is in the cabin into one. You learn things about people that you never would of guessed and get close to whoever may be with you. The conversations may vary from humorous and joking to deep and very meaningful. Excitement builds throughout the night and everything seems perfect and happy. The cabin works as a therapist.

Charlies cabin is a place that can be compared to nowhere else. It gives you an ultimate feeling of nirvana when you are in it. When you are staying there you forget about any worry you may have in the real world, and just live in the moment. The wooden giant has so many unique aspects to it that make it what it is. The cabin is the place that I will always look back upon and smile when I think about all the fun times I have had there with my friends and what the future of it has to offer.

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Descriptive Essay on A Place: Charlie’s Cabin Essay

Facility Design in the Hospitality Sector Essay

Facility Design in the Hospitality Sector Essay.

However this stage does not only involve the budget for finance but also time budget is an important aspect to be considered in which a time schedule is set and judged whether it’s appropriate or not. According to the project and development manager of Holiday Inn Harare all these stages have to be conglomerated in harmony to ensure sound facility designing.

Also the area must be located in such a way that it will be easy to clean. It can be a container a wire cage, for papers one can have a cage bin but is it a bin for a food it should be a container which need to be closed since some food may contain liquids.

More so containers help to protect the spread of diseases by preventing the rodents from entering the bin and then spread the diseases afterwards. For example in Meikles Hotel the use containers for storing their food waste in order for health reasons.

Facility Design in the Hospitality Sector Essay

Design of Simple Integrated Rectenna Essay

Design of Simple Integrated Rectenna Essay.

It is intended for a rectenna which is used to harvest electric energy from bountiful the unused microwave RF signals into DC output power. The design of the fractal patch is based on the conventional structure of square patch antenna. It is designed on a low loss substrate of GIL GML 1034 with relative permittivity of 3. 38 and dielectric thickness of 0. 508 mm. Simulations of the rectenna have been performed with several antenna structures using CST Microwave Office 2010 and AWR Microwave Office. The optimum configuration is then fabrication and measured.

It is found that he characteristic of Koch fractal patch has reduced the size of the conventional square patch to 43 % and maintains the radiation pattern when its iteration factor is 0. 25. The rectifier has also been successfully developed. These count for the successful development of the integrated rectenna. ix ABSTRAK Bilangan peralatan komunikasi mudah alih mempunyai permintaan yang semakin tinggi pada masa kini. Oleh itu, rekabentuk peralatan yang kecil dan berprofil rendah amat diperlukan. Saiz antena boleh direka dengan pelbagai teknik peminiaturan.

Tesis ini membentangkan rekabentuk fraktal antena mikrostrip dan penerus.

Antena itu adalah berdasarkan rekaan tampal antena lelaran pertama bentuk fraktal Koch beroperasi pada frekuensi 2. 45 GHz (pada jalur frekuensi Industrial-Sciency and Medical – Wifi, RFID, Bluetooth dll). Antena itu digunakan untuk pembangunan rektena yang boleh menukarkan isyarat gelombang mikro tak digunakan yang banyak terdapat di udara kepada kuasa arus terus. Rekabentuk tampal fraktal ini adalah berdasarkan struktur antena tampal segi empat konvensional pada substratum berkehilangan rendah GIL GML 1034 020 yang mempunyai pemalar dielektrik 3. 38 dan ketebalan 0. 08 mm. Kerja simulasi struktur antena dijalankan dengan menggunakan perisian CST Microwave Studio 2010 dan AWR Microwave Office. Konfigurasi optimum kemudiannya difabrikasi dan diuji. Hasil pengujian membuktikan bahawa saiz tampal antena bentuk Koch fraktal adalah 43 % lebih kecil daripada antenna tampal segi empat konvensional tetapi dapat mengekalkan ciri yang sama dengan antena konvensional yang mempunyai faktor lelaran 0. 25. Peranti penerus juga telah berjaya dibangunkan. Dengan ini, objektif utama projek iaitu pembangunan rektena turut dihasilkan dengan baik.

Design of Simple Integrated Rectenna Essay