Case Study: System Development Essay

Case Study: System Development Essay.

System development is a process in which programmers with organization contribution write codes to solve a problem that face the organization system or automate a procedure. There are three major systems development techniques that been used to solve systems’ problems. The system development techniques are SDLC (Systems Development Life Cycle), JAD (Joint Application Development), and RAD (Rapid Application Development). SDLC provides tools for controlling details within large development projects that solve structured problems. JAD enables the identification, definition, and implementation of information infrastructures.

RAD supports the iteration and flexibility necessary for building robust business process support(Osborn, 1995). In this case study, the manager been asked to design, develop, and install a Patient Management Information System for a medical clinic in which three physicians practice general medicine.

This system has to be operational in 6 months. There is one individual in the clinic staff who is reasonably well informed about information technology. Thus, the manager needs to determine which system development methodologies will use to solve this problem.

To choose the appropriate development system, the manager need to use a process which consists of s (1) defining requirements, (2) designing an information system to fit those requirements, (3) building the code to deliver that system, and (4) testing to see whether the code works and the system does the job it was intended to do(Osborn, 1995). The requirement for this case study is to design and develop and install a Management Information System for a medical clinic that has three physicians within 6 months.

Based on that, this process will take longer if we use the SDLC which is the traditional method that need narrative descriptions, data definitions, and sample screens. Moreover, producing a thorough, often multi-volume description of system requirements can become such a time-consuming task that it begins to extend the expected life of a development project. On the other hand, JAD tends to rely on data models to provide requirements definition and prototypes to capture final design details. The data modeling can produce thorough system specifications more quickly than SDLC narratives, especially through the use of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools.

The RAD relies on a series of iterative prototypes to specify and document requirements. The technique reverses the scheduling emphasis normally found in SDLC projects by setting a rolling series of release dates and dynamically adjusting system features to fit. Iterating prototypes gives requirements the opportunity to evolve and the flexibility to change if needed(Osborn, 1995). Since the project is for small clinic, which mean that the budget is limited. SDLC to the use of expensive mainframes to understand transactions, JAD to the need for managing data distribution following the advent of minicomputers, and RAD to the development of business process support based on networked client/server workstations. SDLC provides tools for controlling details within large development projects that solve structured problems.

JAD enables the identification, definition, and implementation of information infrastructures. RAD supports the iteration and flexibility necessary to building robust business process support. Thus, based on the information that discussed earlier, I recommend using the RAD method because the clinic is small one which needs inexpensive system and the system will need support especially that there is only one person who informed about using information technology. In addition, the time limits that clinic has will fit also the RAD method. Literature showed that RAD proves most useful for systems support of unstructured business processes. This not means that this system will limit the business because when the business grows up the system can move for more structure system(Osborn, 1995).

Glandon, G., Smaltz, D. & Slovensky, D. (2012). Information Systems for Healthcare Management. Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press. Osborn, C. (1995). SDLC, JAD, and RAD: Finding the Right Hammer. Center for Information Management Studies, Working Paper 95-07.

Case Study: System Development Essay

Theories of Cognitive Development by Piaget and Vygotsky Essay

Theories of Cognitive Development by Piaget and Vygotsky Essay.

Jean Piaget’s and Lev Semionovich Vygotsky’s theories on cognitive development both play a significant role in addressing the intellectual growth of children (Lain, 2006). Psychologists and educators alike, rely on these theories in constructing the standards by which children are being brought up and taught today. Essentially, cognitive development is the process by which our intellectual ability grows and progresses. Slavin (2003), maintains that cognitive development, “is the gradual and orderly changes that occur making ones mental process more complex and sophisticated” (as cited in Lain, 2006, Cognitive Development section, para.

1). As the children’s learning process is crucial to the development of their learning ability and critical thought process, educators must have a good grasp of these theories to fully address the children’s individual learning needs. Jean Piaget’s theory is marked by several developmental stages that define the child’s corresponding cognitive level. On the other hand, Lev Vygotsky developed the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) based on the assumption that children learn more quickly under the guidance of a more experienced adult (Maccarelli, 2006).

Considered as constructivists, both renowned theorists believed that children learn by formulating new ideas by combining old ones. The Hawai’i Department of Education E-School also claims that, “constructivists believe that learning is affected by the context in which an idea is taught as well as by students’ beliefs and attitudes” (as cited in Davison, 2006, Piaget vs Vygotsky: The Cognitive Development Theory section, para. 1). As society determines the amount of knowledge a child gains, it also sets the limit to the students’ cognitive development.

However, the principal ideas between the two theorists vary greatly. Piaget strongly believed that learning occurs after development. He indicated that a child will start the learning process after the child has reached a certain developmental stage. Contrarily, Vygotsky claimed that the child develops as a result of learning. Furthermore, Vygotsky placed a large amount of emphasis on the importance of outside influence to the child’s overall cognitive development, where as Piaget barely acknowledged the significance of outside influence on the child’s development in his theorems.

Moreover, while Piaget’s theory has four distinct and set standards of development, Vygotsky’s theory does not support predetermined stages at all. Instead, he stressed the importance of private speech and ZPD on the child’s development. Living in a society that is an integration of multiple cultures, classified by age, race, gender, ethnicity, religion, and economic status, each of us is a product of our social interactions to these various cultures.

If we examine Vygotsky’s theory, a large part of a child’s development is placed on the input of others, it is therefore reasonable to assume that a multicultural society places a great deal of input on the child’s development. However, since a child’s development is limited to his or her surroundings, and his thoughts and ideas mainly influenced by that of his early caregivers, sometimes the child is not exposed to different cultures other than his own. This gives rise to multicultural issues that we see nowadays.

And as the study of multicultural psychology is greatly concerned with exploring, understanding, and appreciating the differences in culture, based on Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theory, these multicultural issues could be avoided if children are exposed or introduced to diverse cultures early in life. References Davison, B. (2006). Piaget vs Vygotsky: The Cognitive Development Theory. Associated Content. Retrieved on January 01, 2009, from http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/94974/piaget_vs_vygotsky_the_cognitive_development. html? cat=4 Lain, (2006). Cognitive Development: A Comparison Between the Work of Piaget, Bruner, and Vygotsky.

Associated Content. Retrieved on January 01, 2009, from http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/41531/cognitive_development. html? cat=4 Maccarelli, S. (2006). Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development: The Socio-Cultural Perspective. Associated Content. Retrieved on January 01, 2009, from http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/29997/vygotskys_theory_of_cognitive_development. html? cat=4 Uncgrad, (2006). Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development. Associated Content. Retrieved on January 01, 2009, from http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/452881/piagets_stages_of_cognitive_development. html? cat=4

Theories of Cognitive Development by Piaget and Vygotsky Essay

The New Nepal: Path to Development and Success Essay

The New Nepal: Path to Development and Success Essay.

Nepal was declared Federal Democratic Republic country on 15th Jestha, 2065 B. S. After the mass movement II, the autocratic monarchy has been removed from Nepal. The new concept of new Nepal is to divide the country into different autonomous states with their own power and to be controlled by the central government. Everyone believes that this system will lead Nepal towards the path of development and success. This division of state will encourage decentralization of power and facility. The power will be equally divided to the state government.

By this, a state government can conduct needed development activities by using the local resources and the budget distributed by the central government. In the federal system, the local development activities will be more efficient. There will be equal and proportionate development, there will be equal and proportionate development, there will be healthy competition between the states, decentralization of power will be practiced, and people will be more engaged and enthusiastic to participate in development activities if the country is divided in to several states.

People believe that New Nepal will run according to mandate of the mass movement II. All the wants demanded in the revolution will be fulfilled in New Nepal. Free education, free primary health services and many other helps will be provided by the government. Right to security of life, right to freedom, right towards own identity will be guaranteed in New Nepal. In New Nepal, people expect that all social evils will be abolished. There would be no discrimination on the basis of sex, caste, religion, class, etc.

All people would equal rights and facilities. But, it has been 4 years that Nepal has been declared federal democratic republic country, and, till now the main objective of the mass movement II to make the constitution, has not been fulfilled. Recently, the constitutional council has been dismissed. Due to various reasons, Nepal has not been able to establish federal system. Nepal has been undergoing a very critical political crisis. Leaders don’t seem to be devoted for the nation.

They are led by party carders and they speak only for their own favor. Corruptions, unstable government, monopoly for power, different ideologies of different political parties are some of the causes for the failure to establish federal system. In order to solve these problems, we the citizen should take steps as soon as possible. More organizations like CIAA (Commission for Investigation for Abuse of Authority) should be established to abolish corruption.

Election should be held and we should choose the right leaders for the smooth running of government. This will solve the problem of unstable government and monopoly for power. Development of New Nepal is only possible if there is establishment of federal system and political stability in the country. The government should run according to the mandate of the Jana Andolan II. We, the citizen, should pressurize the government to function properly. The problems like corruption, unstable government, etc. must be solved as soon as possible.

The New Nepal: Path to Development and Success Essay

Development of Nude Photography Essay

Development of Nude Photography Essay.

The paper attempts to critically examine, albeit briefly, the impacts of socio-cultural structures in the development of nude photography as an art form. It highlights the broad comparison of Asian and Western nude photography by showcasing some leading photographers specializing in nudist photographs. The workings of the social norms and societal structures, including conservative state apparatuses in some cultures, will also be briefly illustrated as far as they affect the form and content of works of the respective artist-photographers. A. Development of nude photography across cultural divide and time

Nude photography is a distinct branch of art photography using humans in still position as subjects.

Majority of art critics hold the dominant view that nude photography studies the human body and not the person. The latter pertains to portrait photography, which is a significantly different form. As will be illustrated later, this dominant view is being continually challenged, notably Araki Nobuyoshi, a controversial and highly prolific Japanese photographer. Nude photography is dissimilar from erotic photography, which is actually suggestive of erotic and sexual contents.

Although there are established criteria in differentiating one from the other, an evaluation of whether a photograph is a valid nudist photo or a pornographic material remains largely with the viewer. More liberal and aggressive photo styles and techniques blur further the already thin dividing line between art and pornography. Nude photography did not develop as one single movement. It began as separate changes in individual preferences of various notable photographers, particularly in the early 20th century.

Nudity, however, has been a favorite subject of paintings and sculpture, famously beginning with classical Greek sculptures and Renaissance paintings. Admittedly, artist-photographers in Western countries were the first to explore the use of nude women as subject, owing largely to more liberal atmosphere compared to their Asian counterparts. Some of the leading initiators of the new photography art form were Felix-Jacques Moulin, Edward Weston, Ruth Bernhard and Jerry Avenaim. Asian nude photography developed albeit later than its Western counterparts did.

Conservative mores and restrictive culture impeded smoother and faster evolution of nudity as both an art form and content. Societies that were largely dictated by highly formal familial structure did not provide the ideal environment for the rapid development of nude photography. Such situation can be viewed differently, however. On the one hand, the restrictive atmosphere discouraged many promising professional photographers in exploring the use of nude subjects, fearful of being rejected by the society and ostracized in the art community.

Since most of the photos were featured in local photo exhibits, they took the limited form of publication, allowing the government to exercise prior restraint measures, such as censorship. The case of Nobuyoshi is particularly interesting, because no less than the literal physical might of the Japanese government, supposedly as a repository of public interest and welfare, prohibited the exhibition and publication of some of his relatively controversial art works.

On the other hand, the earlier social restrictions on nudist art photography unwittingly provided also a good breeding ground for defiance, with varying outcomes. Nobuyoshi, aside from being a highly prolific photographer, emerged as a controversial public figure because of his experimentation of nudist photos, sometimes including sado-masochistic contents and strong visual imagery of the human genitalia. Extending the limits of the society is still a powerful weapon of the oppressed. Economic development also came much later among countries in Asia.

Most of these countries experienced socio-political upheavals as they strived to free themselves from colonial bondage. They also struggled in eventually demolishing whatever remaining post-colonial structures controlled by local elites who replaced their previous colonial masters. Art, in general, was just one of the tools used by those who wanted to reform their societies. Photography, along with other visual arts, is a powerful medium that could effectively increase the potency of the message reformists want to embed in the public psyche.

One study conducted by Willem van Schendel of the University of Amsterdam and International Institute of Social History is particularly enlightening. The study involved a minority indigenous group in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, a district in Bangladesh. The study reveals how photography was utilized as a potent tool against the localized colonial onslaught by more economically dominant Bangladeshi districts and cities—a grim reminder of the country’s colonial history. It also showcases the adverse impacts of what Schendel calls as “enforced nudity”.

B. Edward Weston and other leading Western nude photographers Edward Weston was an American photographer born towards the end of the 19th century. He was born at the time when the artist community started reviving the Renaissance cultural legacy and reached the zenith of his career as an artist-photographer at the time when the so-called “Sexual Revolution” was slowly beginning to invade the United States. Weston started exploring photography as an adolescent using a camera given to him by his father.

Although born of a family with a relatively strong intellectual tradition, he dismissed the virtue of completing formal education and began concentrating on photography and exploring various techniques that eventually led him to fame. When Weston was already embarking on his photography career, the prevailing art genre was pictorialism. Pictorialist photography is characterized by the suppression of finer details through photo manipulation. Some people called it as the abstract painting version of photography.

Photography then was not considered strictly as an art form, unlike the typical paintings and sculptures. Pioneering artist-photographers wanted to emulate the painting as a legitimate art form, hence the manipulation of the photo outputs to mimic abstract paintings. Pictorialism was essentially used as a critical vehicle in the eventual acceptance of photography as a valid art. The leading figure in the said art movement was Alfred Stieglitz, notably starting with his Camera Work publication from 1913-1917. Weston eventually abandoned Pictorialism in favor of straight photography.

Together with other notable colleagues, such as Ansel Adams and William Van Dyke, Weston founded the Group f/64, then initially composed of seven 20th century-photographers based in San Francisco, US. The group wanted to offer an alternative paradigm, employing unadulterated and purist version of photos, with subjects usually confined to those naturally existing objects. Western nude photographers were relatively not adversely affected by socio-political upheavals experienced then in less developed societies around the world.

They enjoyed more liberal atmosphere, allowing them wider breadth to explore unusual and more controversial subjects. One specific issue, however, hounded Weston, in particular. At the time when he was slowly building his budding career, he was relatively located apart from his fellow photographers, mostly living and exhibiting in New York and other areas in the east coast. At that time, Weston was living in California. Photo reproduction was then still a developing technology, mostly relying on photo templates that required greater task in reproducing them.

The state of technology and his physical location provided the fertile ground for the development of his unique ideas on photography. To a certain extent, Weston is considered by art historians as the primary precursor of purist nude photography in the United States. C. Araki Nobuyoshi briefly showcased Nobuyoshi is a leading and highly controversial Japanese photographer born in 1940 in Tokyo. He started his passion in photography when he was employed by Dentsu, Inc. , an advertising company.

Soon, he embarked on a more independent career path, submitting majority of his works to leading magazines and other publications in Japan. Nobuyoshi is a seemingly interesting case. Despite living in a much-developed country compared to Japan’s neighboring countries in Asia, he was not exempted from the restrictive government regulating arms, largely influenced by the dominant socio-cultural and moral tenets. In fact, as recent as 1992, police officers raided a photo gallery where his famous book by Nobuyoshi, entitled “Erotos”, was being sold.

Police personnel arrested various people behind the event on obscenity grounds. A year earlier, he was slapped with a 300,000-yen fine because of erotic photos in a photo exhibit titled “Photo-maniac Diary”. In stark contrast to the repressive state censorship of his works in Japan, “Erotos” was widely acclaimed in Western countries, with the book’s Austrian publisher expressing shock and utter disappointment. Weston and Nobuyoshi share one specific photo style.

Unlike most other nude photographers who remain focused on the body shape and not the person as the dominant subject, Weston and Nobuyoshi took many photos depicting even clearly showing the human face. It was a substantial departure from the prevalent and more careful technique that gives lesser emphasis on the human face, cognizant of the blurry line dividing nude photography and pornography. Nobuyoshi went even further by taking countless photos of the human genitalia, explaining largely why he is both loved and hated by art critics in his own country.

Conclusion As elucidated earlier, the evolution of nude photography as another legitimate art form did not come about as a sudden explosion of defiance against the dominant genre in photography. The state of technology in photo reproduction and existing socio-cultural tenets dictated the pace of development of nude photography as an alternative art form. Western countries, with better equipment and more liberal atmosphere, were responsible in the initial appearance of nudist photos as distinctly different from erotic and pornographic materials.

Photos of nude women gained wider and smoother acceptance among the literati in these countries. Asian nude photographers have an entirely different experience. As indicated in the case of Nobuyoshi, they were struggling against repressive social structures that were consequently translated into literal censorship of their works by government authorities. Despite the economic boon Japan was experiencing as late as the 1990s, oppressive and conservative structures and mindset had then yet to be demolished and replaced.

Bibliography Hirsch, Robert, “Seizing the Light: A History of Photography. ” NY: McGraw-Hill, 2000 “Nude Photography. ” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Nude_photography “Pictorialism. ” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pictorialism van Schendel, William. “A Politics of Nudity: Photography of the ‘Naked Mru’ of Bangladesh. ” Cambridge Journals. http://journals. cambridge. org/action/displayAbstract? fromPage=online&aid=100313

Development of Nude Photography Essay

Dependency Theory Essay

Dependency Theory Essay.

Modernization theory is a theory used to explain the process of Modernization within societies. The theory looks at the internal factors of a country while assuming that with assistance “traditional countries can be brought to development in the same manner more developed countries have. This theory of modernization however failed because it can be argued that it was too Eurocentric in its methodologies. That is to say its centered focus was on Europe or European peoples. The theory never considered the Caribbean region or other third world when explaining its concepts.

This resulted in a paradigm shift from Modernization to Dependency.

The Dependency theory was established to provide the scholarly community with a different way of understanding the circumstances of the non-industrial countries of the world. According to Osvaldo Sunkel, dependency theory can be sociologically defined as an explanation of the economic development of a state in terms of the external influences, political, economic and cultural on national development policies. Therefore this essay would take seek to explain the advantages and limitations of the central new insight that is provided about development by the Dependency theory.

One advantage of the Dependency theory is that the theory arose around 1960 as a reaction to some earlier theories of development which held that all societies progress through similar stages of development, that today’s underdeveloped areas are thus in a similar situation to that of today’s developed areas at some time in the past, and that therefore the task in helping the underdeveloped areas out of poverty is to accelerate them along this supposed common path of development, by various means such as investment, technology transfers, and closer integration into the world market. Dependency theory rejected this view, arguing that underdeveloped countries are not merely primitive versions of developed countries, but have unique features and structures of their own; and, importantly, are in the situation of being the weaker members in a world market economy, whereas the developed nations were never in an analogous position; they never had to exist in relation to a bloc of more powerful countries than themselves.

Dependency theorists argued, in opposition to free market economists, that underdeveloped countries needed to reduce their connectedness with the world market so that they can pursue a path more in keeping with their own needs, less dictated by external pressures. Prebisch, an Argentine economist at the United Nations Commission for Latin America (UNCLA), went on to conclude that the underdeveloped nations must employ some degree of protectionism in trade if they were to enter a self-sustaining development path.

Another advantage the Dependency theory provided about development is that it explains the reasons why the lesser developed countries are the way they are. The lack of development within the third world rest within the first world. Advocates of the Dependency theory agree that only substantial reform of the world capitalist system and a distribution of assets will free third world countries from poverty cycles and enable development to occur. Measures that the third countries could take would include the elimination of world debt and the introduction of global taxes such as the Tobin Tax. This tax on foreign exchange transactions, named after its proponent, the American Economist, James Tobin, would generate large revenues that could be used to pay off debt or fund development projects.

Also these third world countries could try to eliminate themselves from world debt by trying to stop depending on the financial institutions for loans. These third world countries believe that they are benefiting the country by taking loans from these institutions to support themselves economically. However, what these third world countries don’t realise is that these institutions are developed to make them take loans and go into more debt where they would have no other alternative but to depend on the first world for assistance, thus, leading to dependency and by extension further underdevelopment. For instance, Dominant first world countries have such a technological and industrial advantage that they can ensure the global economic system works in their own self-interest. Organisations such as the World Bank, the IMF and the WTO have agendas that benefit the firms, and consumers of primarily the first world.

Freeing up world trade, one of the main aims of the WTO, benefits the wealthy nations that are most involved in world trade. Creating a level playing field for all countries assumes that all countries have the necessary equipment to be able to play. For the world’s poor this is often not the case. The third-world debt crisis of the 1980s and continued stagnation in Africa and Latin America in the 1990s caused some doubt as to the feasibility or desirability of “dependent development”.

Vernengo (2004) has suggested that the sine qua non of the dependency relationship is not the difference in technological sophistication, as traditional dependency theorists believe, but rather the difference in financial strength between core and peripheral countries – particularly the inability of peripheral countries to borrow in their own currency. He believes that the hegemonic position of the United States is very strong because of the importance of its financial markets and because it controls the international reserve currency – the US dollar. He believes that the end of the Bretton Woods international financial agreements in the early 1970s considerably strengthened the United States’ position because it removed some constraints on their financial actions.

Although there are various advantages of the new central insight that is provided for the explanation of development, there are also some limitations. One of these limitations is that, the Dependency theory is a way of explaining economic underdevelopment outside of such industrially advanced parts of the world as North America and Europe. According to dependency theory, the politico-economic advantages of more technologically advanced countries are based on the disadvantages to countries that are and remain less developed. Critics of the theory claim that such an outlook is fatalistic, historically inaccurate, and simplistic. For example, parts of Africa, Asia, and South America are considered disadvantaged and underdeveloped. Yet all three areas previously were the locations of ancient civilizations of great cultural, economic, philosophical, political and social achievements. Dependency theory doesn’t come up with convincing arguments to account for how these areas fell by the wayside, and why areas in Europe and North America took the lead.

The Dependency theory explains how the countries are the way they are but they did not explain why and how they got that way. The theory just labelled these three countries as less developed because of their relationship with the more developed countries, it did not explain why is it that Europe and North America was able to develop and why is it Africa, Asia and South America wasn’t able to develop and how they lost their cultural, economic, philosophical, political and social achievements while North America was able to keep theirs and be considered first world countries. Another disadvantage of the Dependency theory is that doesn’t have all of its convincing points in order to relate to the theory’s implied invulnerability of development and simultaneous vulnerability of underdevelopment.

In other words, it emphasizes the importance of external forces on underdeveloped countries and minimizes the role of internal motivations within those very same countries. In most instances it is because of these third world countries internal forces they are underdeveloped. The reason for this because of the country’s small size it causes them to be vulnerable towards the first world dependence. Along with this, it can also be seen that most third world countries contain a high level of corruption which causes them to be in the situation that they are presently in. Advanced democracies like the UK, USA, Canada and Australia have virile electorates, media and criminal justice systems to combat corruption.

But Third World political and civil institutions are weaker, and in effect license corruption with impunity, thus allowing corruption within these countries to become effortlessly available. Along with this the Dependency theory likewise locks countries into a hierarchy of world leaders in which once an underdeveloped country, always an underdeveloped country. And the previous faults quickly become glaring when the dependency theorist tries to account for politico-economic changes within the Russian Federation, certain Middle Eastern countries, India, and China, to name a few.

In the final analysis, it can be seen that there was a paradigm shift from the Modernisation theory to the Dependency theory in explaining development. The Development theory provided the scholarly community with a different way of understanding the circumstances of the non-industrial countries of the world. Dependency Theory is in large part a theory of development in the third world, it seek to provide explanations for third world development and explanations that the Modernisation theory failed to give.

Like any other theory, the Dependency theory has its advantages and limitations. One of its strengths is its recognition that from the beginning, capitalism developed as a multinational system. Dependency Theory therefore spends its time on the question, “how can we have a development in the periphery that more resembles that at the core?” Or a more charitable account, if the core-periphery link is broken, can we have development in the periphery that has some or all of the elements that we identified as desirable in the core?


Amin, S. “Accumulation and Development: a Theoretical Model” Review of African Political Economy HC501 R46.

Gunder Frank, A. Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America. HC165 F828 C1 1969.

The Latin American Periphery in the Global System of Capitalism”, 1981, UNCLA Review

Prebisch, R. Change and Development. 1976 t. HC125 P922 C4.

R. H. Chilcote Development Theory and Practice: Latin American Perspectives, Lanham, Rowman and Littlefield, 2003

Sunkel O. (1966), ‘The Structural Background of Development Problems in Latin America’ Weltwirtschaftliches.

Vernengo M. “Technology, Finance and Dependency: Latin American Radical Political Economy in Retrospect”, Working Paper No: 2004-06, University of Utah Dept. of Economics, 2004, p 5; retrieved July 2009.

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Dependency Theory Essay

The Arguments Against Foreign Aid Essay

The Arguments Against Foreign Aid Essay.

This essay will discuss about foreign aid to the developing world countries. Nowadays, there are still many countries at different continent in this world still need some help from the other countries that already developed. For example, most of the countries in Africa really need assistance while they are still developing. But, is it really help? Or is it just makes the developing country be worst? These two questions are what we are going to discuss.

A lot of people arguing about foreign aid to the developing countries, and most of them are disagrees with the help that gotten by foreign country.

Some resources saying that Foreign Aid is not give any positive effect; it is just give some of negative effects. For example, a country name Zambia at Africa has been a recipient of considerable foreign aid over the years. As aid to this country grown, this country is actually become poorer than before. From this example, there are many arguments come from different philosophical to against this foreign aid that give to developing world countries (Riddell 2007).

The political right agrees with statement that say foreign aid just give a number of negative effects. There are several points to discuss about the negative effects from the foreign aid. Firstly, most of the time, foreign aid is not successful because of corrupt that affect this project. Secondly, Aid money is often misspent, even there is no corrupt there.

By looking solutions from the outside, the money may be use for a bigger project that makes the government get an advantage. For example, government use the money for generates large number of jobs that providing few long term benefits for the government. The third one is transfers of low interest concessionary finance will interfere in the market of interest rates and exchange rates. Not just the statement above, the political right also says that foreign aid will create problems. They say that flow of aid is sometimes not dependable, because the government is manipulates it with political reasons. The other problem is aid make the people at a less developed countries not discipline, this is one of the reason why people in Africa are disagree with aid because partly they feel like their silence or support just been bought with aid money.

Not all of people disagree with foreign aid for a developing country, because if we thinking positively, there are some benefits from aid and there are three reasons why they want accept the aid from the foreign country, the reasons are economic reason, political reason, and moral reason. Firstly, economic reason, simply it is the most important reason why a country want to be helped by another country. For example a country called Zambia accept the aid because a economic reason which have 3 purposes, improve the investment, enable payment on foreign doubt, and enable the infrastructure such as roads. Secondly is political reason, in some developing country politic is very important in order to maintain power. This type of aid is different with the most of aid, this aid is mean to be help a country that less power which mean the aid is helps for the military that provides more power to a developing country.

For example Israel, it was a recipient of the Official Development Assistance in 2003, they accept the ODA for a political reason, for build more power for their government. And know Israel is one of the most powerful army in the world. The last reason is moral reason, many people think that developed country have a moral responsibility to helping the poorer countries or the less developed countries. This reason may be because of humanitarian reasons to redistribute the poorer countries. For example, Zambia was occupied by UK several years ago, and now UK feel like they have a responsibility to rebuild Zambia. These are the three reasons are the main reason that why sometimes a developing country need a help from a more developed country (Bized 2001).

For the last section, this essay will discuss about the conclusion for all the statements above, Does the aid make a developing country to be poorer and worst, or does the aid make the developing country to be a more develop country? Actually, all the foreign aid is trying to make a developing country to be a better country and all the foreign who want to help always have a good purpose. But why most of foreign aid is useless?

It is be useless because the almost all the government in the developing country do some corrupt or if it is not, usually the aid is fail to help because the people at the country itself do not want to be helped. They want to be discipline and make some money by themselves. There are a lot of developing countries that not accept the aid from foreign countries, because the reason above. They want to develop by themselves, and even the developing is not work so well, they say that they still get a pride because they are not helped by anyone (Carol 2007).


Bized, 2001. The Benefits of Receiving Aid
Bized, 2001. The Arguments Against Foreign Aid
Riddell, Roger C. 2007. “Does Foreign Aid Really Work?” New York: Oxford University Press Inc. Lancaster, Carol. 2007. “Foreign Aid Diplomacy, Development, Domestic Politics” Chicago: The University of Chicago.

The Arguments Against Foreign Aid Essay

The sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years Essay

The sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years Essay.

The sequence of development of a child and young person is divided into five different aspects. They include: Physical, social, communication, intellectual and cognitive, emotional and behavioural and moral development. Since every child develops at a different rate compared to one another, this is a rough guide to a child’s development and gives general information mainly about the sequence of development.

Physical development:

The physical aspect mainly consists of the development of the motor skills. Physical growth and development follows the sequence from head to toe and from simple to complex.

The gross motor skills develop before the fine motor skills. 0-3 years: In the first three years the physical growth and development is usually very fast. From birth the baby has several reflexes that cause the muscles to move. The baby will grasp an object that touches the hand, turn its head, sucks and swallows, makes stepping moves when held upright over a flat surface. Development of locomotion in the first three years: the first thing a baby will try is to raise its shoulders and head.

The baby can move its head and limps from birth.

From around 4 months the child will start rolling over and from 6/7 months it will be able to sit up and play with the hands. From 7-11 months the baby may have started to crawl and attempt to stand and walk by himself. The child has more control over its body. Between the age of 1 and 2 the walking will begin and it will push and pull toys while walking. This develops into running and jumping. Around the age of three most children are able to walk around easily and start hopping, jumping and climbing the stairs. Some children are able to ride a tricycle. The fine motor skills will have developed as well.

By the age of three most children are able to draw circles and dots using a pen or pencils and will start drawing faces. They can feed themselves using a spoon and can thread large beads and undo buttons. Usually toilet training will be successful between the age of 2 and 3. 3-7 years: From the age of three children will gain more independence. They move with more confidence than toddlers and are able to run, bike and climb. The fine motor skills have developed so they are able to hold crayons with their fingers and put together simple puzzles. This develops into being able to write words and sentences. At the age of 7 children enjoy ballgames as they are able to hit a ball, jump, run, skip and swing. Children start losing their baby teeth and some molars break through.

7-12 years: Children in their middle years will grow taller and thinner. The muscular coordination can be clumsy and uncoordinated which can lead to frustration. During these years the children loose the rest of their baby teeth and the molars will finish growing in. Girls might start showing the early signs of puberty.

12-16 years: A lot of physical changes take place during these years. For girls it means they will start having their periods, the breasts will start growing and the hips grow wider. Hair growth will develop on their bikini line and under their arms. Boys will have start growing into physical maturity which involves the enlarging of the penis, having wet dreams, become musclier and have hair growth on face, chest, underarms and round by the penis. 16-19 years: Usually by the time a child reaches 19 it will have developed into a full mature body, though some boys might take into their 20’s before they have reached maturity.

In general the boys will be taller than girls in this stage. Several children and young people who use my workplace services deviate from this pattern of development. This could be because they are in a wheelchair, are not able to walk unsupported or have a delay in their growth. Most of them will experience the physical changes described from 12-19 years, but will not necessarily have full locomotion development or the fine motor skills have not developed in relation to the physical growth. Health professionals are more involved in the assessment of the child’s development, these include health visitors, GP and specialist nurses. Some young people use wheelchairs and splints to aid their mobility.

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The sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years Essay

Laboratory Equipment Borrowing System of Lorma Colleges Skills Development Institute Essay

Laboratory Equipment Borrowing System of Lorma Colleges Skills Development Institute Essay.

Nowadays, most people tend to search or find things that are easy to work on. We tend to be clingy, trendy, and work things automatically. So, we design you these “Laboratory Equipment Borrowing System”. It is an automated borrowing system. This offers equipment which you can be borrow or use temporarily ranging from different various equipment or whole laboratory equipment set-up as desire, creating easier process to make life more convenient and efficient. This system project contains all of the current information about the equipment, listed alphabetically by name.

The borrowers information records, contact number and its location are installed in these system. The aim of the project is to work out a generic approach of providing a borrowing history and easy access of every equipment items of laboratory. We know that we also deserve an opportunity to understand and need to learn to try new set of things. Therefore, we help to develop and invent such a technological automated system.

We will lend the most various tools and laboratory equipment items from our collection.

Maintain its services and accessibility that are consistent with the entire school and the entire organization. Laboratory Equipment borrowing system is provided to students and faculties to show them how important are computers and other technologies in teaching and learning processes. One of the main purposes of this study is to help students to become wise and resourceful in terms of project making and other learning methods that are relevant to them. In short “Technology makes the work easy”. This documentation will only concentrate in the computer laboratory of Equipment borrowing system.

Particularly the Organizational Set up and Operation, Machine set up Configuration and Structure, and the Layout of Facilities and configuration. And this study aimed to design laboratory management software to effectively manage equipment maintenance, borrowing and returning, failure analysis, inventory, scheduling, and flexible report generation process. The development strategies used in the project analysis, design and development include a thorough analysis and evaluation of both the existing and the first prototype of the proposed system.

The software is also very acceptable in gaining real time visibility in equipment inventory, maintenance and borrowing and returning, and that it is also very acceptable in providing reports at the same time provide history recording of the different processes available. Laboratory Equipment borrowing system are instrument used in laboratory where the students conducted their experiment. The Laboratory Equipment borrowing system placed in a storage room intended for Laboratory Equipment borrowing system only which is organize and manage by the authorized personnel.

The staffs in this room are responsible for taking care of the Equipment; they are obliged to pay it when something is missing. In order to avoid this obligation they are careful and wise enough to have a list of all apparatus in the storage. This list is their references on how many Equipment they have. The staffs also are responsible to take in charge of the Equipment that was borrowed by the students. The students can lend Equipment for their academic purposes provided with their instructor consents. The students also are responsible to take care of it and return it on time. Failure to do the condition will be given a sanction.

This system designed and developed to solve the problem associated with the handling of laboratory equipment. The study is targeted to develop an effective and efficient system that will aid the company. The system is called Laboratory Equipment Borrowing System, which is basically monitors the equipment that have been taken out of the department and was use by borrower, provides a complete list of equipment that are available inside the Laboratory, creates a daily, weekly, monthly, semesterly and yearly report of personnel who borrows the equipment, creates an interface or form for the users/borrowers and admins to work on with.

For what we have observed in the past years, most of the institution still uses the manual documentation, inventory, and request. Where the borrower will have to write all the items to be borrow on a logbook, while the custodian verifies and validates the items borrowed, by this kind of method, it might cause a lot of mistakes and it consumes a lot of time, while with an electronic type of logging in and validation of borrowed items, makes the borrowing more easy and quick, it benefits the custodian and the borrower.

Checking of available items, will be more easy not like the manual, where the custodian will have to look at first the equipment and validate if its reserved for future event or if it’s not available for that day, while the electronic type of borrowing system, makes it more faster, because the custodian will just have to check on the computer it will show immediately if its available and how many are there available on the laboratory.

When it comes to end of the month there will be a monthly report of the laboratory, where the custodian will have to compile every records of the borrowed equipment of the previous month, this will cost the custodian a great time, manually checks, compile and validate the records and he/she will have to encode and print a report, while if the custodian will use a Borrowing system he will just click a button, validate the equipment and print the report and he’s done, effective and efficient.

In the United States of America, there is one university which we may call it reference of our study and system. The Case Western Reserve University, in Cleveland, where there is a completely student-run group devoted to promoting musical theater and they are named Footlighters, and they have the “S. L. E. B. S. ” namely Sound and Light Equipment Borrowing System.

The Footlighters have sound and lighting equipment that is available for CWRU USG, recognized student organizations to borrow for on-campus events, they have established their own policies, procedures and even a online borrowing form for the request of the equipment, and they can even request thru their website. Their procedure on borrowing equipment first is the equipment may only be borrowed by a properly trained individual on behalf of CWRU USG-recognized student organization of which he or she is a current active member.

The equipment is available on a first-come, first-served basis. While the Footlighters will make every attempt to keep the reservations calendar current, no request is guaranteed until the Footlighters send a notification that the reservation has been confirmed. The requests for use of the equipment must be submitted at least 10 days in advance of the event, to allow sufficient time processing. They also have their own sanctions and can implement their own penalties on borrowers who made some violations on their borrowing rules.

Here in Philippines, there is one particular school that offers the same concept like what we are currently studying, in Damarinas, Cavites, and the name of the school is De La Salle University-Dasmarinas. They have also their own guidelines in reservation of equipment and procedures to follow on borrowing and returning laboratory equipment. Their method is semi manual and automated, because students and faculties can have the form thru their own website and the half of that will be processed upon arriving in the laboratory.

They also offer various equipment like, Laptop, Multimedia Projector, Projection Screen, Television, DVD Player ,etc. Their own system also manifest its own limitation, such as like schedule of borrowing, quicker checking of availability of equipment and complete documentation. Despite of the limitations on their system of borrow it still functioning state. As a student, one of our requirements in our course is to develop and study a system and be able to defend at the end of the school year.

Here in Lorma Colleges, in the class of CPRO215 – System Development I a group of 4 is assigned to develop a system namely Laboratory Equipment Borrowing System – Skills Development Institute. The system will be a GUI based system, with user registration and Log-in system, inventory system, reservation system, monthly report features and printing functions. We are in cooperation of SDI and main prospect in making our system. Their Computer Laboratory will be our base location of innovation to develop improvements in their way of lending equipment to faculties and students of Lorma Colleges.

Laboratory Equipment Borrowing System of Lorma Colleges Skills Development Institute Essay

The ICT Development Plan Essay

The ICT Development Plan Essay.

A development plan sits alongside the school’s policy for ICT. It explains in detail the parallel developments that will need to take place in order to achieve the vision together with the intended timeframe.

The ICT development plan will need to define the key interrelated areas of development necessary to achieve a successful ICT strategy.

These key areas are likely to include the development of resources (infrastructure and digital content), professional development (ICT use and pedagogy), and curriculum development (ICT capability and ICT use in subjects).

The development use of ICT for administration is a separate consideration. Ofsted describes good ICT development plans as ones which “take a strategic view of developments in staff expertise, resources and curriculum and seek to align these.”

The ICT development plan should address:

1. Where are we now? An audit of curriculum, standards of achievement, assessment, resources, Staff development, and teacher expertise and an analysis of the current situation. The Supported School Self Evaluation (SSSE) process will help to identify strengths and weaknesses in ICT.

2. Where are we going? The vision of what ICT will look like in your school in 4 years time.

3. How are we going to get there? Targets and outcomes, which are consistent with the National Grid for Learning, and the school’s development plan.

The ICT Curriculum Support Team can also assist schools in carrying out reviews of IT provision and writing development plans, policies and schemes of work

DfES Standards Fund NGfL guidance (as described by Becta) sets out the areas to be covered in schools’ ICT development plans. These are: • how the
school will use ICT to help raise educational standards by enhancing the delivery of the National Curriculum • in primary schools: the plan should demonstrate how ICT will contribute to the achievement of targets set by the school for improvements in the number of children achieving level four and above in mathematics and English and what use will be made of guidance from the National Numeracy and Literacy Strategy on using ICT to teach more effectively • in secondary schools: the plan should indicate how the schools will use ICT to support developments under the Key Stage 3 Strategy for ICT including the enhancing the school capacity to use ICT for teaching and assessment

• how investment in ICT will be coordinated with meeting the professional development needs of its teachers, including through the take up of training opportunities funded by the New Opportunities Fund (NOF) • how the school will integrate the use of ICT for school management and administration purposes by adopting the standards set out in the DfES Information Management Strategy (IMS) • how the school’s ICT facilities will be made available for use out of normal school hours by pupils and for community purposes

• how ICT will be used to promote inclusion, for example by supporting pupils with special educational needs and by developing home-school links (including the development of a school web site) • setting out the school’s policy for the acceptable use of ICT, including secure access to the Internet • an audit of levels of equipping, network use and teacher development currently being undertaken • setting out the school’s policy for managing, developing and sustaining its ICT provision, including accommodation/access issues • arrangements for technical support • the safe and environmentally friendly disposal of equipment.

Becta identifies four elements to an ICT development plan

• the ICT audit
• aims and objectives
• the implementation plan
• evaluation

Plans should be devised as a result of auditing current practice in ICT and identifying priorities for development. Plans should have clear, agreed aims and objectives that describe the school’s vision for ICT. The plan should have a timescale, be costed, show responsibilities and be evaluated. Targets should be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timed (SMART).

A Sample Development Plan is shown in the document:
Bucks Sample School Development Plan for ICT

Procedures for how the day to day organisation of the plan will function are best separated from the policy. It is common for a school ICT policy to have the main messages swamped by rules and procedural issues. Procedures, guidance, rules and other operational matters should be placed in a handbook

The checklist shown below can be useful in helping to formulate your development plan and could also be used during the annual School Improvement plan review process:

ICT Development Plan Review – Checklist

The ICT Development Plan Essay

Development of Anna Fitzgerald Character Essay

Development of Anna Fitzgerald Character Essay.

Adolescence development relies upon many factors. In order to accurately examine its growth, it is useful to look at some developmental theories. Anna Fitzgerald is thirteen years old; however, she is not like any other teenager with some ordinary problems. Anna was born for a specific purpose she was born to save her sister’s life and to serve as a matched tissue donor. When Anna was born, her umbilical cord was collected and since then she was constantly donating blood, stem cells or bone marrow.

That resulted in her undergoing more serious and risky procedures.

But when she reaches the age 13, she is being told to donate one of her kidneys. Aware of the fact that she was conceived to be a perfect match and ongoing donor for her sister, she wants to have the chance of living her own life. This is when Anna decides to hire a lawyer and to sue her parents to be “medically emancipated” from her family.

Because she loves her sister unconditionally, Anna struggles with her decision. Developmental theories of Piaget, Ericson, Marcia and Freud are very useful, in order to examine the development of Anna Fitzgerald, the character from “My Sister’s Keeper”.

Nature vs. nurture is the first theory that can be applied to Anna’s life. Nature refers to the human biological inheritance and nurture to the environmental experience (Santrock, MacKenzie-Rivers, Malcomson & Leung, 2011). Since she was born for a specific purpose, her parents had already planned her future. To some point of her life, Anna felt it was normal to be a donor and to be in the hospital three to four days a week. Whenever her sister had an emergency, Anna had to be present. The environment Anna lives in is unusual for a teenager. Anna thinks of herself as a total freak. As it is common for teenagers to complain about her look, she states that God must have had some sort of a moody day on her birthday. She sees a big picture of her household. She knows that the environment which she was born in, did not allow her to be a kid. She had to mature fast and act as an adult.

It is clear that Anna is going through identity crisis of moratorium. Moratorium stage according to James Marcia is defined by individual exploring different possibilities, yet not being ready to make a commitment to one. In Anna’s case she had plenty of ideas who she would like to be. When asked by her lawyer, where she sees herself in ten years period, she responds: “There was a time when, like Kate, I’d wanted to be a ballerina. But since then I’ve gone through a thousand different stages: I wanted to be an astronaut. I wanted to be a paleontologist. I wanted to be a backup singer for Aretha Franklin, a member of the Cabinet, a Yellowstone National Park ranger. Now, based on the day, I sometimes want to be a microsurgeon, a poet, a ghost hunter” (Picoult, 2004, p. 412). What strikes the most in her young, yet mature personality is that in ten years period, she would like to be Kate’s sister.

Based on Piaget operational stage theory, Anna is clearly capable of using abstract thought. Abstract thought is an adolescence possibility to think outside of the box and see likely outcomes and consequences. Anna knew exactly that by starting the lawsuit, she has a chance of wining the right to decide for her own. Deep inside her, she still wants to help her sister, but knowing the fact that she cannot make her own decisions, made her to go to the extreme and sue her own parents. She is aware of the fact that her decision may have a huge impact on her sister’s life. Perhaps, she will die; however, she is looking at the long term goal. How is the transplant going to affect her life? Is she going to be able to function normally? What if something goes wrong? All this questions were building up inside of her head and did not want to stop. This process of thoughts indicated her ability to think logically by looking at cons and pros of her situation.

Based on Ericson psychosocial developmental theory, Anna is going through identity vs. role confusion stage. She is confused of her role in the family. Often reflecting of who she is, and what is the purpose of her life, besides being a perfect match for her sick sister. Anna once said: “I used to pretend that I was just passing through this family on my way to my real one” (Picoult, 2004, p. 49). This shows how confused she is in terms of her life. Furthermore, this identity confusion grows into her even more upon receiving a long awaited letter of acceptance, into a two weeks hockey summer camp. She is not allowed to go because of her sister’s condition. There is a big chance of Kate going into some health crisis while Anna is gone. It is a difficult time for a thirteen year old girl who is full of energy and is not being able to be just an ordinary adolescence.

One can also relate Freud’s theory of development to Anna. The id is one of the structures of human personality. It operates on principles of pleasure and immediate satisfaction regardless of societal rules or other surrounding context (Santrock, MacKenzie-Rivers, Malcomson & Leung, 2011). Anna’s id arises from her frustration to all medical treatments which are done in order to save her older sister, Kate. Frustration is added by her mother who pushes her to donate the kidney for Kate. Yet, from the start of the novel Anna knows the reality which she refuses to face, as result of her inner id: “On other hand, I was born for specific purpose… I was born because a scientist managed to hook up my mother’s eggs and my father’s sperm to create a specific combination of precious genetic material… specifically, because I could save my sister, Kate“(Picoult, 2004, p. 7-8).

This inner id, pushes her to rebel against her parents wishes, and results in Anna seeing a lawyer to help her end the suffering and release her from the heavy responsibility towards her sister. This unconscious part of her personality resurfaced, in her reply to the lawyer, when she says: “Because, she says simply, it never stops” (Picoult, 2004, p. 22). Some may find this very selfish, with total neglect for her sister’s future well being. It results in confrontation with her mother, who tries to make her realize “You went to a lawyer and made him think is all about you – and it’s not. It’s about us. All of us –“(Picoult, 2004, p. 54). Thus, her id rises up and does not care if it destroys other people – parents, brother and her sister.

In Anna’s case her id prevails over ego. The ego is supposed to negotiate a compromise between her id, current reality and constraints. Anna feels some guilt, as her ego makes her think over and ask herself about her decision regarding kidney. “I started thinking about this. Would I have to be in the hospital? Would it hurt? Could people live with just one kidney? What if I wound up with kidney failure when I was, like, seventy? Where would I get my spare?”(Picoult, 2004, p.377). Anna’s superego, is supposed to be her moral guide, conscience to do the right thing. It rises up, specifically, when Anna looks at Kate who is becoming weaker and sicker than before and worries about her future and a possibility of her dying. “What do you think is the best way to die? I don’t want to talk about this, I said. Why? I’m dying. You’re dying. When I frowned, she said, Well, you are. The she grinned. I just happen to be more gifted at it than you are…

…You know, normal people don’t sit around thinking about dying. Liar. Everyone thinks about dying. Everyone thinks about you dying I said. The room went so still… Then a twitchy smile crossed her face. Well, Kate said, at least now you’re telling the truth” (Picoult, 2004, p. 134-135). From this quote it is clear than Anna has difficulty hearing things from Kate, and that her superego is present and possibly regretting the lawsuit action. Perhaps, this is what prompted Anna, to write in her diary that in case of her death, she wants all of her organs to be donated to Kate. In the end, Anna has a car accident and dies, the lawyer who has won the case and got power of attorney, decides to honor Anna’s last wishes: “I have power of attorney for Anna, he explains, not her parents. And there is a girl upstairs who needs the kidney” (Picoult, 2004, p. 416). Anna’s life ends up tragically. One can assume that she fulfilled her purpose in her short life, she saved her sister.

Since Anna was born, she was a regular donor to her sister. One can observe it as continuity vs. discontinuity development. “The first time I gave something to my sister, it was a cord blood, and I was a newborn… The next time she relapsed, I was five and I had lymphocytes drawn from me, three times over, because the doctors never seemed to get enough of them the first time around. When that stopped working, they took bone marrow for a transplant. When Kate got infections, I had to donate granulocytes.

When she relapsed again, I had to donate peripheral stem cells” (Picoult, 2004, p. 21). One can explain continuity as a process involving a gradual accumulation of behavior or knowledge. Anna, throughout her short life was exposed to medical procedure, terms and responsibilities from the moment of her birth. She was growing up among those circumstances and she never got a chance to be a kid. She had to mature faster. Even her vocabulary was unusual for a thirteen years old girl. In his mind, her lawyer thought “This girl’s medical vocabulary would put some of my paid experts to shame” (Picoult, 2004, p. 21).

Discontinuity is defined as a passing through life stages in a qualitative way. Since Anna’s character is presented just as she is thirteen years old, one can assume that for her to be able to think abstractly, indeed she was at concrete thinking stage in her earlier age. Anna would go through many different stages, perhaps having her case won; she would still donate her kidney. Anna’s life ends abruptly in a car accident. The logical sequence of life is death but to Anna it was way too early.

In conclusion, Piaget, Ericson, Marcia and Freud theories were helpful to examine Anna development by using the appropriate key issues. Based on their theories, it is clear to observe Anna’s life and struggles that she is going through. The young age was not an obstacle to deal with some serious adult problems to which Anna was exposed to from an early age. Throughout the story she has dilemmas concerning her sister’s life. By combining the work of these theorists, it was possible to analyze her life from psychological perspective.

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development. (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.

Development of Anna Fitzgerald Character Essay