Redevelopment of Manila City Jail Essay

Redevelopment of Manila City Jail Essay.

Manila, Philippines—Filinvest Land Inc. has bagged a deal to redevelop a 1. 2-hectare property owned by the government that was the site of the old Cebu City jail on Salinas Drive in Lahug to turn it into a business process outsourcing complex. In a disclosure to the Philippine Stock Exchange on Tuesday, the property developer announced that it had submitted the winning build-transfer-operate proposal and complied with the requirements contained in the notice of award from the Economic Enterprise Council under the Office of the Governor of the Province of Cebu.

The lot used to be occupied by the Bagong Buhay Rehabilitation Center and the Cebu City Treatment and Rehabilitation Center. “FLI remains bullish on the BPO sector and is rapidly expanding its office portfolio to meet the needs of the industry,” the disclosure said. “FLI believes that Cebu, in particular, has good potential for this business. ” This represents an expansion of FLI’s interest in Cebu. It is currently developing the 50.

6-hectare Citta di Mare in the South Road Properties.

Two mid-rise building projects, Amalfi Oasis and San Remo Oasis, are also currently being constructed under a joint venture with the Cebu City Government. Land development works on the Il Corso lifestyle strip are likewise ongoing. Other ongoing projects of FLI include One Oasis Cebu, a 3. 7 hectare mid-rise development with a total of 10 buildings adjacent to the Cebu Golf and Country Club. Two buildings have been completed and a third is targeted for completion by year-end.

Finally, FLI’s Grand Cenia Hotel and Residences condotel has recently started operations as Quest Hotel and Conference Center, a three-star hotel complete with business and conference facilities. The Cebu project also scales up FLI’s BPO portfolio. As of the end of 2011, it had over 170,000 square meters of gross leasable area (GLA) from 12 buildings in Northgate Cyberzone in Filinvest Corporate City in Muntinlupa City and PBCom Tower in Makati City.

At Northgate Cyberzone, another building is currently under construction and will add close to 20,000 square meters of GLA in the first half of 2013, while a 14th building is targeted to break ground within the year with a GLA of 13,000 square meters. Vector Two, which was completed in the fourth quarter of 2011, is fully taken-up and has been turned over for tenant fit-outs, the disclosure said. Meanwhile, FLI is constructing a five-storey building along EDSA across the Asian Development Bank building which is expected to be completed within 2012.

Redevelopment of Manila City Jail Essay

Vocational Development Essay

Vocational Development Essay.

Adolescents must consider their own evolving interests, needs and abilities in vocational choice. Obviously, making an early, realistic and lasting decision is not easy. It is no wonder that many adolescents change their vocational choices several times before setting on one. Vocational decision making begins in childhood and continues throughout life.

Ginzerberg (1972) proposed that people pass through three sequential periods of vocational decisions making;
* The Fantasy Period
* The Tentative Period
* The Realistic Period

Fantasy Period:

The vocational choices of children reflect their ignorance of adult work roles and their reliance on fantasy sources.

Children may say that they want to be a police-woman, reflect the exciting and glamorous stereotypes which they pick up from friends, schools books and television programs. Their decisions are highly unstable. Children give relatively little consideration to their personal abilities or personal matters like training requirements, job opportunities and safety hazards.

Tentative Period:

Tentative period lasting from age eleven to seventeen. The vocational thinking of youth becomes increasingly complex and realistic as cognitive skills improve and their knowledge of the work world becomes more complete.

At first, their decisions are based mostly around their abilities and attempt to relate them to personal interests in forming career preferences. At around ages fifteen and sixteen, adolescents begins to incorporate their own personal values, satisfaction or money the career may bring.

Realistic Period:

Realistic period starts at the end of high school, youths engage in more active and extensive exploration. They search for more accurate knowledge of personal motives, abilities and qualification. They test themselves in academic courses, training programs and on the job. Gradually they accommodate to their view of reality and narrow their range of career choices while trying to optimize personal satisfaction.

To avoid making a poor vocational choice, young people need organized, relevant and valid information about themselves and the work world.

Vocational Development Essay

A Compare and Contrast of the New Product Development Model Essay

A Compare and Contrast of the New Product Development Model Essay.

New product developments are one of the main sources of competitive advantage for companies today. Companies need new product to keep up with its’ competitors. New product development can be considered as activities that aim to bring new products to market. The objective of NPD is to minimize the risk of failure. As NPD absorbs both financial and human resources from a company, it is therefore necessary to develop and implement a methodology for assisting in the introduction of new products.

NPD models can help to identify problems at an early stage and assist in directing the NPD effort in the right direction. It can be used as a roadmap and provides an indication of magnitude of the project required in order to develop and launch a new product. It also helps to reduce risk and uncertainty at every stage by giving guidance regarding what information is required. An example of well known model is Booz, Allen, and Hamilton Model (1982). It has been argued that pass-the-parcel approach to NPD might extend the overall development time.

However in more recent models, focus has been given to parallel-processing. The next section mentions about three model of NPD. Cooper’s stage-gate model A stage-gate model (Cooper, 1988) is improved from BAH model. The stage-gate model attempts to overcome pass-the-parcel issues which do not suitable for communicating the horizontal dimension of the NPD process. The stage-gate model uses parallel-processing to acknowledge the iterations between and within stages. The idea of parallel processing advises that major functions should be involved from the early stages of the NPD process to its conclusion.

This allows problems to be detected and solved much earlier than in the classic models. The idea of dividing the new product development process into distinct phases or stages is the same as BAH model, but in the stage gate model the phases are more clearly separated from each other with management decision gates. In addition to the discovery gate, the model consists of five action stage: scoping, build business case, development, testing and validation, and launch. Stages are cross functional and each activity is undertaken in parallel to enhance speed to market.

To manage risk, the parallel activities in a certain stage must be designed to gather vital information – technical, market, financial, operations – in order to drive down the technical and business risk. Each successive stage is also more costly than previous stage. The idea is to allow an increase in spending on the development of projects as the uncertainty goes down. Preceding each stage is a decision point or gate which serves as a go/kill and prioritization decision point.

The advantages of the stage-gate are following: Well organized innovation can be a source of competitive advantage. -Accelerated product development. Necessary because of shortening product life cycles. -Increased success chance of new products. Prevents poor projects early and helps to redirect them -Integrated market orientation. Multiple convergent model The multiple convergent model (Baker and Hart, 1994) follows parallel processing – like the stage-gate model – which allows iterations among participants within stages. However, there are two problems with parallel processing.

First, it ignores the important inputs to NPD that are provided by customers and suppliers. Second, if functions are to work in parallel then when do the processes take decisions and move on to the next stage? The multiple convergent model overcomes the issue by using convergent point, where is defined as “to move or cause to move towards the same point” or to “tend towards as common conclusion or result”. The model takes account of the functionally distinct tasks which must be carried out simultaneously at specific points throughout the NPD process and that the results must converge.

And, due to iterations in the processes, this convergence is likely to happen several times. As the process moves from one step to another, the information gathered becomes more precise and reliable and the decisions are made with greater certainty. This model is therefore advantageous over the stage-gate in that the framework can easily accommodate third parties, provides mechanisms for real integration throughout the process among different functions set in the convergent points and fit into the most appropriate NPD structures for the company.

Network model The multiple convergent model fails to highlight the importance of “inter-organizational collaboration” in a firm’s network. Networks in NPD could and should be considered at two different levels: external and internal level. And it should be realized that the functioning of the internal networks directly influences the efficiency and efficacy of the external network. According to the network model (Trott, 1998), the development and management of knowledge is one of the most important traits of the new product development.

It represents the process of accumulation of knowledge crossing continuously over different internal functions, through which both internal and external knowledge is integrated in the process. Four different internal functions are related to new product development: marketing and sales, finance, engineering and manufacturing, and research and development. Different external inputs such as competitors, suppliers, partners, customers, university departments and so on are also presented.

Conclusion NPD is a process of transforming business opportunity into tangible products. In order to reduce risks of failure associated with developing a new product, many models have been developed to assist in NPD activities. These models have evolved from the simple linear models to the more complex network models. And, in order for developers of new products to be successful, they must take into consideration the critical success factors in NPD.

A Compare and Contrast of the New Product Development Model Essay

Environmental Problems in Prenatal Development Essay

Environmental Problems in Prenatal Development Essay.


For my research topic, I chose environmental problems in prenatal development. I chose this topic because I have a great interest in prenatal development and the care the mother provides that will negatively affect the fetus while it is still developing. Learning about the problems that occur will be an enormous advantage with my future career in nursing. Throughout my research, I hope to discover what the symptoms, of environmental influences, a fetus can contract during development.

During prenatal development there are so many problems that you cannot even count them.

There are two types of problems in development, genetic and environmental. The environmental problems are caused by the care the mother provides for her unborn child. Whatever the mother puts her body through, she puts her child through. Teratogens are drugs or other substances that are capable of restricting the development of a fetus, causing birth defects. Although the embryo is sensitive during all stages, there are more critical time periods when the fetus is more susceptible to the defects.

During these critical periods, there are three major environmental problems that affect the fetus, which can cause birth defects, by the mother’s use of drugs, diseases, and mental and physical health. There are three major teratogens that affect the fetus in development; one is by the mother’s use of drugs. There are many mothers throughout the world use and abuse prescription, legal and illegal drugs.

The use of prescription drugs can be just as dangerous as illegal drugs. Some mothers need to take prescribed drugs for their own health problems. Women who have seizures must take anticonvulsants to stop the seizures from occurring. The seizures the pregnant mother has can cause just as much damage than the drugs they are taking (Boyd and Bee, 2009, p. 72). Pregnant women taking Trimethadione for their seizures can cause the fetus to obtain many progressive defects such as eyebrows shaped like a V, cleft lip, cleft palate, and having delays in their development (Slater and Lewis, 2006, p. 9). Another drug pregnant mothers might be prescribed for would be blood thinners, because of possible blood clots, to prevent heart attacks or strokes (DirectGov, 2010).

An expecting mother who has been taking Warfarin to slow down blood clots should assume that her child can be born with mental retardation and an unusually small head, known as microcephaly (Slater and Lewis, 2006, p. 9). Certain infants with microcephaly develop normally and have the intellect as an ordinary child. Typically, infants with microcephaly possibly can have facial distortions, mental retardation, deferred motor skills, hyperactivity, dwarfism, seizures, difficulty with balancing and coordination, and other neurological irregularities (DirectGov, 2010). Every mother experiences fatigue and nausea. Decades ago, doctors would prescribe Thalidomide, a sedative, to treat the fatigue and nausea.

After these mothers gave birth, doctors have detected that the Thalidomide has many defects on the fetus. Infants were born with only half developed or absent arms or legs (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010 p. 1). Antibiotics are normally safe to take when consulted with a doctor. Pregnant women take antibiotics for certain types of infections. One often prescribed antibiotic to pregnant women is Tetracycline which can cause damage to the infant such as yellowing or graying of the teeth. It also can be passed through breast milk and if the child infant drinks the milk, there will be a chance they might affect the growth of bones and teeth (Cerner Multum, 2009).

Despite the abuse of prescription drugs, there is also the use of legal drugs. There are many women who are pregnant and smoking. The use of nicotine during pregnancy will cause a few deficiencies in the infant’s development. Nicotine users may have the chance to have an ectopic pregnancy, where the baby connects to the fallopian tubes instead of the uterus. This could result in a miscarriage. Mothers who smoke, throughout the entire pregnancy, can give birth to a stillborn or child with low birth weight (Bucher, 2010). The long term effects on children, whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, could develop attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Boyd & Bee, 2009, p. 74).

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that causes absent- mindedness and spontaneity (ADAM, 2011). Another illegal drug that is very highly abused in pregnancy is alcohol. Mothers who are heavy drinkers or alcoholics are highly likely to give birth to infants with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Fetal alcohol syndrome is a problem with mental and physical growth that occurs when the mother abuses alcohol during pregnancy. Infants with fetal alcohol syndrome have many symptoms.

They include stunted growth before and after birth, reduced muscle usage and dexterity, deferred mental and physical development, possible mental retardation and heart weaknesses including ventricular septal defect and atrial septal defect (Adam, 2011). These children will also have very distinctive facials features that stand out. Infants will typically have smaller heads, a flattened nose with a big space between the nose and mouth, narrow eyes and small upper jaw Depending on the period in pregnancy, alcohol might cause a miscarriage and premature birth (Boyd & Bee, 2009, p.74).

Along with prescription and legal drugs, illegal drugs are especially dangerous during the course of pregnancy. So many people become addicted to drugs and have a hard time getting clean. Expecting mothers who are hooked on any type of illegal drug can be incredibly damaging to the infant. Marijuana is the most common manipulated illegal drug. Infants born to mothers that are marijuana users have more trouble concentrating, problems sleeping, and a short term memory (Boyd & Bee, 2009, p. 73). Additional drugs that are mistreated are heroin and methadone. Mothers addicted to these two drugs will have babies addicted to them as well and are at possible risk of miscarriage, premature birth and preterm death (Boyd & Bee, 2009, p. 73).

The symptoms of the heroin addicted infants are underprivileged growth, premature birth and stillbirth (March of Dimes Foundation, 2011). After birth, these addicted babies go into withdrawal and suffer from bad temper, intense shuddering, vomiting, seizures and sleep complications (Boyd & Bee, 2009, p.73). Babies who are addicted to methadone have almost similar symptoms to those addicted to heroin. The difference is that methadone addicted infants have a higher birth weight compared to infants addicted to heroin. Methadone babies are comforted more easily then heroin babies (March of Dime Foundation, 2011). A drug also abused by expectant mothers is cocaine. Cocaine can be in two formations, both powder form or crack; they equally have the same effects on babies.

Many problems of cocaine use during pregnancy are exceedingly threatening. These problems include placenta problems, such as, placental abruption which is when the placenta pulls away from the uterus prior labor starts. When this happens, there could be an exceeding amount of bleeding; the baby may be deprived of oxygen and a proper blood flow. The symptoms after birth can be harsh for the infants, for instance, they experience jumpiness, irritability, and are very easily frightened. These infants cry often because they have trouble finding comfort with their mothers or caregivers. Luckily for these babies, they usually do not experience these symptoms through their entire life, normally just first month of life (March of Dimes, 2011).

Besides the issues that are caused by pregnant mothers drug use, there are many complications with the mother’s diseases. There are three different types of infections that could be passed down from mother to child, congenital infections, perinatal infections, and postnatal infections. Congenital infections are passed through the placenta and infect embryo. These infections include toxoplasmosis, syphilis, hepatitis B, Coxsackie virus, Epstein virus, chickenpox virus, human parvovirus, Rubella, Herpes virus, and Cytomegalovirus (Koo, 2009). Rubella is also known as the German measles and expecting mothers can pass this down to her infant in utero. Symptoms the fetus may develop are cataracts, hearing loss, and heart defects. CMV, also known as Cytomegalovirus, is a sexually transmitted disease and is a type of herpes virus. Having this disease while pregnant can be severe to the fetus’ life and cause eye, ear and brain defects in the early stages of prenatal development (Boyd & Bee, 2009, p. 74).

Infants who developed CMV after birth are less likely to have harsh symptoms then those developed in utero. Those symptoms are vision and hearing loss and possible cognitive learning disabilities (Koo, 2009). Herpes is another congenital infection that can be extremely harmful in the development of the fetus. Mothers infected with herpes can pass down to her child many unpleasant symptoms. The significant symptoms include eye diseases, callous brain damage and skin lacerations (Koo, 2009). Substantial symptoms of herpes include seizures, neurological complications, microcephaly and microophthalmia. Microophthalmia is an eye abnormality that occurs before birth. This condition makes both eyes smaller than an average child and in some individuals their eyes may be nonexistent connected with blindness (Slater & Lewis, 2006, p. 9).

The perinatal infections, also known as the infection that happens in labor and delivery, take place in the birth canal while the baby is in the process of being born. Many of these infections are sexually transmitted diseases such as CMV, gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes, HPV (genital warts), and group B streptococci. Mothers with gonorrhea giving birth to their child will distribute the infection to her child. The main symptom the infant could experience is difficulties with the eyes and possibly goes blind. The mother can encounter complications including miscarriage, early labor and likelihood of obtaining HIV (Baby Center Advisory Board, 2007, p. 1). Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. Mothers with this disease are capable of passing the disease to her child through delivery.

When delivering the child vaginally, the infant could contract serious eye infections. Infants exposed to chlamydia also have the possibility of acquiring pneumonia. Fortunately, if treated properly children will usually do well and have a suitable recovery. If mothers receive treatment before delivery there would be a greater chance of the infant not obtaining the infection altogether (Baby Center Advisory Board, 2012). Expecting mothers with HPV do not really transfer the infection to their infants but if it is transferred, the baby’s system will normally disperse it from their bodies. However, women with genital warts may transfer this virus to their child and can be extremely life- threatening. These infants infected with genital warts form warts in their throat causing respiratory papillomatosis. The children with respiratory papillomatosis must receive laser treatment to stop the warts from multiplying and obstructing the child’s airway.

Doctors say that the women with HPV can deliver their children safely with little or no complications (WebMD, 2012, p. 1-2). Along with congenital and perinatal infections, postnatal infections are also particularly hazardous. Postnatal infections are caused after birth and are usually spread through breastfeeding. These infections include CMV, HIV, and group B streptococci. HIV can also be transmitted congenital and perinatal but HIV can be transferred postnatal via breastfeeding (Stewart, 2012). Babies who obtain this virus normally become sick within the first two years of their life. This illness will decline the infant’s immune system which makes them easily susceptible to getting other virus than the average baby (Boyd & Bee, 2009, p. 74-75). Another illness that infants attain after birth is group B streptococci (GBS).

Group B strep is bacteria found in a woman’s vagina. GBS is transferred to infants after birth with symptoms of issues with the respiratory system, and erratic cardio problems. These babies may also have severe digestive tract problems. Along with these issues, the most familiar complications involve sepsis, an increasing amount of bacteria in the bloodstream, pneumonia, and meningitis, a bacterial infection of membranes concealing the brain and spinal cord. Group B streptococci usually will occur earlier than later after the delivery and have fewer problems if it appears later (American Pregnancy Association, 2011). There are many problems affecting the fetus that arise from the mother’s mental and physical health throughout her pregnancy. The age of the mother can make an immense difference in child birth.

Mothers over the age of thirty five can have many complications to her health and child’s health. Women who push back pregnancy to later in life have the risks of developing gestational diabetes, infertility, possible miscarriage, early labor and extensive bleeding during labor. High blood pressure and chronic illnesses are also potential threats in older mothers (Baby Center Medical Advisory Board, 2012). These infants have a chance of developing chromosomal defects, cardiac abnormalities and growth retardation (Boyd & Bee, 2009). On the other hand, teenage pregnancy has just as many risks as women over thirty five. Teenage girls who are pregnant sometimes do not receive proper prenatal care, which can lead to issues in the fetus’ development. Pregnant teens can also experience high blood pressure which could result in preterm labor. Preterm labor may cause infants to have cognitive, respiratory and other physical complications.

Teens that go into preterm have a chance of low birth weight infants that might not be fully developed. Teenagers are highly likely to obtain STD’s and pass them to their infants during delivery which can be vital in their growth and development. Young mothers are potential victims for postpartum depression, making them feel alone, isolated and feeling like no one is there for them (Nihira, 2010, p.1-2). Along with age, other maternal influences affect the fetus such as emotions and ill mothers who go through radiation for medical purposes. Pregnancy can mess with women’s emotions tremendously. Mothers who are really stressed or have anxiety might have troubles eating properly and may be prone to viruses which can cause the infant to be born with low birth weight.

Children born to really distraught mothers will usually develop slower than the average child (Boyd & Bee, 2009, p. 77). Pregnant women with an inconsistent metabolism could have heavier infants and are more likely to have problems early in development (Slater & Lewis, 2006, p. 9). Women with certain medical problems may need to go for radiation although they are pregnant. Radiation while pregnant can affect the fetus by killing the cells in its body, injuring the chromosomes, and retarding the mental and physical growth (Brent, 2011).

Despite all of these developmental problems each infant goes through, the illness and defects can be somewhat prevented if treated early in the pregnancy. Each woman should think twice about what they put through their bodies when expecting a baby. Environmental problems are life threatening and women need to consult with their doctors immediately to lessen the risk of their child developing any symptoms. There are critical periods when the fetus is the most vulnerable to these environmental influences. Even though there are critical periods, the mother’s use of drugs, diseases, and mental and physical health are very serious through the entire pregnancy.


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Environmental Problems in Prenatal Development Essay

Cognitive Development of an Infant and Toddler Essay

Cognitive Development of an Infant and Toddler Essay.

Piaget based the sensorimotor stage on his observations of his own children The Circular Reaction:

a. Circular reactions are the means by which infants explore the environment and build schemes by trying to repeat chance events caused by their own motor activity. b. These reactions are first centered on the infant’s own body. Subsequently, they change to manipulating objects and then to producing novel effects in the environment.

Substage 1: Reflexive Schemes – a. Piaget regarded newborn reflexes as the building blocks of sensorimotor intelligence.

b. At first, babies suck, grasp, and look in much the same way, no matter what the circumstances.

Substage 2: Primary Circular Reactions-The First Learned Adaptations – a. Infants develop simple motor skills and change their behavior in response to environmental demands. b. The first circular reactions are primary in that they are oriented towards the infants’ own bodies and motivated by basic needs.

Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions-Making Interesting Sights Last – a. Circular reactions of this substage are secondary in that the infants repeat actions that affect the environment.

b. Infants can imitate actions that they have practiced many times.

Substage 4: Coordination of Secondary Circular Reaction – a. Intentional, or goal directed, behavior is the combination of schemes to solve problems. b. Piaget regarded meansend action sequences as the first sign that babies appreciate physical causality. c. Object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight; it is not yet complete in this substage. d. AB search errors are committed by infants in this substage. Infants 8- to 12-months-old only look for an object in hiding place A after the object is moved from A to hiding place B.

Substage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions-Discovering New Means through Active

Experimentation – a. Circular reactions in this substage are tertiary in that the infant repeats actions with variation-exploring the environment and bringing about new outcomes. b. Experimentation leads to a more advanced understanding of object permanence. Toddlers no longer make the AB search error.

Substage 6: Mental Representation-Inventing New Means Through Mental Combinations – a. mental representations are internal images of absent objects and past events. b. The toddler can now solve problems through symbolic means instead of trial-and-error. c. Representation allows deferred imitation-the ability to copy the behavior of models that are not immediately present. d. Functional play is motor activity with or without objects during the first year and a half in which sensorimotor schemes are practiced. e. At the end of the second year, representation permits toddlers to engage in make-believe play.

Cognitive Development of an Infant and Toddler Essay

Women in Development and Gender and Development Essay

Women in Development and Gender and Development Essay.


a)Compare and contrast WID and Gad approaches to involvement of women in development.{12} b)Which of the two approaches have contributed more to the involvement of women in development activities?{8} a)According to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,Women in development (WID) is an approach to development projects that emerged in the 1970s ,calling for treatment of women’s issues in development projects. Later ,the Gender and Development (GAD) approach proposed more emphasis on gender relations rather than seeing women’s issues in isolation.

Reeves,H. and Baden,S.(2000:33) stated that the WID approach calls for greater attention to women in development policy and practice ,and the need to integrate them into the development process. The approach was a reaction to women being seen as passive beneficiaries of development. It marked an important corrective, highlighting the fact that women need to be integrated into the development process as active agents if efficient and effective development is to be achieved. Women‘s significant productive contribution was made visible, although their reproductive role was downplayed.

Women‘s subordination was seen in terms of their exclusion from the market sphere, and limited access to and control over resources. Programmes informed by a WID approach addressed women’s practical needs by, for example, creating employment and income-generating opportunities, improving access to credit and to education. The main features of the WID approach according to Mawere,D.(p39) are as follows: * WID views women’s lack of participation as the main problem. Women‘s subordination is, therefore, is seen in terms of their exclusion from the market sphere, and limited access to and control over resources. * Integration of women into existing structures of development is viewed as the solution to the problem. The approach seeks to integrate women into economic development through legal and administrative support.

* WID advances a number of strategies aimed at addressing the problem under focus. Through WID, projects such as transfer of technology, extension services, credit facilities, and other interventions that have a welfare orientation especially projects on hygiene, literacy or childcare are implemented. * WID also focuses on advocacy strategies for more equal participation of women in education, employment and other spheres of society. * The other strategy is to increase women’s ability to manage the household (family planning). * All these strategies are aimed at increasing women’s productivity and income. * The approach also examines the sexual division of labour and the differential impact of gender in development. Furthermore it recognizes that women and men’s experience of development and societal changes are different.

Mawere,D.(P39-40) cited the achievements and limitations of the WID approach as follows:


* The WID approach has enhanced people’s understanding of women’s development needs, particularly the need to improve statistical measures of women’s work and to provide women with more opportunities for education and employment (Overholt, et al. 1984). The approach has provided a checklist for ensuring women’s status in societies, a checklist that is helpful and accessible to development technocrats. * Programmes informed by the WID approach address women’s practical needs by creating wage employment, income-generating opportunities, and improving access to credit and to education. * Its presence at the UN helped to push for social legislation that enhanced women’s civil and political rights in some countries.

* It has also been successful in helping secure a prominent place for women’s issues at the United Nations (UN). * The UN declared 1975 to 1985, the Decade for Women. A major achievement of the decade has been the establishment of women in development structures. * WID has helped to mainstream gender issues in many development agencies and policies as well as increase women’s visibility. * WID highlights the fact that women need to be integrated into development processes as active agents if efficient and effective development is to be achieved. It has also encouraged research and debate on women issues.


* The benefits of ‘modernization’ do not, in fact, trickle down automatically or equally. Furthermore the approach focuses on integration of women into ongoing development strategies. This often entails the acceptance of existing social structures that perpetuate inequalities. * The approach tends to focus heavily on the productive aspects of women’s work, overlooking the burden of social and reproductive functions. It should also be noted that women’s issues tend to be increasingly relegated to marginal programmes and isolated projects (Gender! A Partnership of Equals, 2000). * The approach does not challenge gender relations and assumes that these will change, as women become economic partners in development.

* WID views women as being outside the mainstream of development and yet women are already playing a crucial part in development, for example, in the domestic and agriculture spheres. Boserup ,E.(1970:1) brought greater attention to the importance of women’s role in agricultural economies and the lack of alignment of development projects with this reality. In the preface to her book, Boserup wrote that “in the vast and ever-growing literature on economic development, reflections on the particular problems of women are few and far between”. She showed that women often did more than half the agricultural work, in one case as much as 80%, and that they also played an important role in trade.

* By exclusively targeting women, WID creates tension, suspicion and hostility. * The approach tends to perpetuate gender inequalities as it focuses on practical needs to the exclusion of strategic gender needs. * The approach calls for women’s inclusion in development but it does not call for changes in the social, cultural and legal structures that give rise to inequalities in society. * Because the approach relies heavily on modernization theory, it generally assumes that western institutions hold most of the answers and it often ignores the possible contribution of indigenous knowledge.

In contrast ,the GAD approach to development policy and practice focuses on the socially constructed basis of differences between men and women and emphasises the need to challenge existing gender roles and relations.According to Reeves,H. and Baden,S.(2000:33) GAD emerged from a frustration with the lack of progress of WID policy, in changing women’s lives and in influencing the broader development agenda. GAD challenged the WID focus on women in isolation, seeing women’s ‘real’ problem as the imbalance of power between women and men. There are different interpretations of GAD, some of which focus primarily on the gender division of labour and gender roles focus on gender as a relation of power embedded in institutions. GAD approaches generally aim to meet both women’s practical gender needs and more strategic gender needs by challenging existing divisions of labour or power relations. Mawere, D.(P45) stated the following as the achievements of the GAD approach:


* The biggest contribution of GAD is the inclusion of men into the approach. * It does not exclusively emphasize the solidarity of women. * The approach acknowledges that women spend a lot of time; – bearing, raising children, cooking, washing, and fetching water, caring for the sick and elderly, attending to the fields and small stock. * It also observes that women have no control over their fertility and over productive resources. * The GAD approach has also helped us to understand that the gender division of labour gives triple roles (reproductive, productive and community) to women in society. * It goes beyond seeing development as mainly economic well being but also that the social and mental well being of a person is important. * Arising from the GAD analysis is the need for women to organize themselves into a more effective political voice in order to strengthen their legal right and increase the number of women in decision making.

b)The GAD approach contributed more to the involment of women in development activities.This is supported by the following reasons: * Due to the involvement of men


Mawere,D.Historical Development of Gender

Reeves H & Baden S,(2000) Bridge (development-gender)

Boserup E,(1970) Women’s Role in Economic Development

Connelly, M.P., Murray, L.T., Macdonald, M. and Parpart, J.L. Feminism and Development: Theoretical Perspectives, International Development Research
Centre. (Accessed online 2005.)

Gender! A Partnership of Equals, (2000) International Labour Office

Moyoyeta L, (2004) Women, Gender and Development. Lusaka; Women for Change.

Overholt, C., Anderson, M., Cloud, K., and Austin, J., Eds. (1984) Gender roles in development. on 5 February 2013 at 1:58pm)

Women in Development and Gender and Development Essay

Explain How Folding Impacts on Landscape Development Essay

Explain How Folding Impacts on Landscape Development Essay.

Plate tectonics help us to explain the process of folding. According to the theory of plate tectonics, the earth’s crust is broken up into sections called plates. These plates float on the semi-molten mantle. Thermal convection currents in the mantle drag these plates in different directions resulting in tectonic activity.

Folding occurs when rock layers that were originally horizontal are bent into a series of wave-like folds. As a result of this collision of the earth’s tectonic plates, the rocks are folded and uplifted and fold mountains are created.

This process is known as orogeny. There have been three major periods of fold mountain building, the Caledonian, Armorican and Alpine periods.

The Caledonian period of folding took place about 400 million years ago when the Eurasian plate and the American plate collided. The in-between ocean floor was subducted under both continents and the seafloor sediments were buckled up to form the sedimentary rocks of the Caledonian Fold Mountains.

The Appalachian mountains in North America, the mountains of Norway, Sweden and Scotland, and in Ireland the Dublin-Wicklow mountains and the mountains of the West and North-west were formed as a result of this collision.

The Armorican period of folding occurred about 250 million years ago when plate tectonics resulted in a collision between the Eurasian and African plates. Examples of Armorican fold mountains include the Vosges mountains in France and the Black Forest mountains in Germany. These mountains have an East-West trend as the compression came from the South. The ridge and valley landscape of Munster is a result of Armorican folding. During the Armorican foldings sedimentary rocks in Munster were folded to form ridges of sandstone and valleys of limestone. The limestone was easily eroded from the fold anticlines and they are seen today as sandstone mountain ridges such as the Mac Gillycuddy Reeks.

Plate movement is also responsible for the formation of the Himalayan mountains in Asia, the Alps in Europe, the Andes in South America and the Rocky mountains in North America. These fold mountains were formed as the African plate collided with the Eurasian plate. These are the youngest fold mountains, formed 60 million years ago. They are known as Alpine fold mountains. The Himalayan mountains are still increasing in size and volcanic and earthquake activity in the region shows that these tectonic plates are still colliding.

Explain How Folding Impacts on Landscape Development Essay

Erik Erikson Stages of Human Development Essay

Erik Erikson Stages of Human Development Essay.

Erik Erikson stages of human development with a particular approach of the Identity crisis of adolescence and implications for youth policy and practice.

Erik Erikson`s developmental stages: The Adolescence Identity Crisis approach.

“They say is human to experience a long childhood, but is also civilised to have an even longer childhood as it leads the person to achieve more technical and mental abilities known as virtuoso; at the same time it can also leave a long residue of immaturity and emotional confusion” (Erikson, 1994- Erik Hamburger Erikson, 1902-1994).

In the collected works there was a researcher who spent a lot of time studying about human development and his name was Erik Erikson; most of Erikson`s work is based on real life situations such as the war and human depression which could influence the behaviour of one person, the author believed that the culture one individual lives in is also influencing their behaviour as an example of such arguments is Erikson`s study Sioux Indians investigated in a reservation.

Erikson argued that the human behaviour is influenced by the body interactions, by the human mind and the overall cultural influences (Marcia, 1966). Erikson developed a theory which states that there are eight major stages in the human development dividing the adulthood developmental stages into young adults, middle age adults and older adults experience.

The first stage Erikson described is the Infancy starting from birth up to 18 months also called the Oral Sensory stage and the main concept of the stage is emphasising the importance of love and care given to an infant by their mother as well as the visual contact and touch as the forms of communication and emotional exchange; this stage is also known as “Trust versus Mistrust” which stands for the infant`s basic needs accomplishment as when the infant`s needs are fulfilled by the mother as the role model the child will form trust and confidence where as if the basic needs such as visual contact are not offered by the mother it can lead the infant to develop mistrust in the closest person due to the lack of positive communication (Oswalt, 1995-2012).

The second stage starts at 2 and continues up to 4 years old is also known as the “Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt” which stands for the fact that the child is actually asking if their person is ok and accepted by the others due to the fact that he starts to explore the close environment and gains motor abilities; at this stage the children are developing their first interests and the parents still play a fundamental role in encouraging and supporting the child`s autonomy and independency skills (Erikson, 1970).

The third stage is also known as the Preschool stage “Initiative versus Guilt” starting at 4 until the child reaches 5 years old and although is a short stage the child development is significant as they start to master the nearest environment by achieving basic learning skills of life for instance the child learns that the things are falling down and not up. At this stage the child develops a certain level of independency and courage but at the same time they can develop some negative behaviour such as frustration, rudeness or aggressive intentions (Erikson, 1993).

Between 5 and 12 years old is the stage of “Industry versus Inferiority” when the child is asking if they have a place in the world and becomes more aware of the fact that they are individuals, become more responsible, start to share more and to cooperate better in certain situations as they understand the meaning and sense of life to a deeper extend, at the same time the child discovers new talents and interests (Erikson, 1980). The fifth stage is the Adolescence starting at 13 up to 19 years old also known as “Identity versus Role Confusion” which stands for the crisis the teenager might experience when identifying their own personality; it is the most critical period as it could influence the person` s life as it is characterised by confusion in most cases, it will be critically appreciated in the last part of the essay.

The sixth stage is the young adulthood starting at 20 up to 40 years old also called “Intimacy versus Isolation”, period governed by the conflict of love. Although, at this stage the identity crisis is coming to an end, the young adult can isolate because of the intimacy need and the fear of being rejected by the groups, overall the stage refers to the person`s need of finding the right partner for life (Erikson, 1990).

The middle adulthood starts at 40 up to 64 years and is also known as “Generativity versus Stagnation” and is characterised by the adult intention and concern of helping and guiding the younger generation so the main focus of the adult is to contribute towards society development by offering support to the new generation (Erikson, 1980).

The last stage described by Erikson is called the late adulthood starting at 65 till death also known as the “Ego Integrity versus Despair” when the adult is meditating upon their life events and what they have achieved throughout the life, if they realise that their life has been successfully will form integrity if not it can lead to despair and the feeling of failure (Erikson, 1980). One of the Erikson`s most talked stages of human development is the Adolescence which main focus is the teenager`s concern about how they look, how they are interpreted and accepted by their peers, friends and groups (Marcia, 1976).

Erikson claims that in the late stage of adolescence the teenager develops a sexual identity which will define them as a person for their future life; the teenager makes a transition from the child to adult life which will actually mark their future roles in the society. The first stage of the transition is marked by the confusion of who the teenager wants to become, who they are at the moment and how will they be accepted by the society as an example of such uncertainty is the teenager`s preoccupation to fit into small jobs, they will try different roles such as babysitting or catering assistants until they will decide what they want to become in the future.

Erikson claimed that eventually the teenager achieves a sense of identity but before that there is a crisis and a confusion stage which influences the teenager`s future decisions and interests; the period is critic as it can lead the teenager into bad groups, drugs, violence and other dangers since they are really confused and easy influenced so the parents must support and guide them towards the right path (Marcia, 1980).

Erikson believes the transition is marked by the identity crisis which makes the stage unique as it becomes a synthesis of earlier stages and a kind of anticipation for the adulthood life as the youth stage is a bridge between child and adult experience (Fletcher and Branen, 2009).

The stage is a radical change in terms of puberty, ability to search and find own life directions, awareness development of the society meanings and roles; the teenager is challenged to establish boundaries for themselves and this is when their identity crisis becomes hard to deal with, but Erikson believes the society will help and guide the adolescent to find their own way by offering different experiences which will impact the teenager`s interests and will define who they want to become as adults(Erikson, 1980).

The theorist claims the identity crisis might be prolonged for some individuals due to the society and because it takes time to achieve certain life skills, personal interests and form a clear overview of the adult life, so there is no exact deadline for the teenager to create a life strategy, but Erikson thinks that by the age of 18 to 20 the adolescent must know their own interests and head to a certain direction in life gaining a psychological and social stability (Fletcher and Branen, 2009).

Finally, Erikson thinks that the major impact and influence on a teenager identity crisis is the sociological environment the person lives in and the youth culture existing in that specific society, although the youth culture might be particular from a country to another or from a race to another, overall the youth policy needs to be SMART which stands for systematic, measurable, achievable, reliable and time related so that it will help the teenager to establish their own direction more clearly and investigate the opportunities they might have within the adult world (Kail and Cavanaugh, 2004).The way a teenager experiences the transition period impacts the future psychological, sociological and youth developmental skills, so Erikson believes it is fundamental what kind of “tools” the society and mostly the youth environment offers to the adolescent so they can choose from and establish their future path in terms of career opportunities, personality definition and overall place in the society (Oswalt, 1995-2012).

As the essay showed, Erikson made a comprehensive induction in the human developmental stages emphasising the meaning and role of each stage; the infancy is governed by the love and care offered by the mother to the child, as the child grows up they become more independent and, have bigger autonomy but yet they are uncertain about their place in the world as the second stage described, at the age of preschool the child learns the basic skills and define their ego in order to become more responsible with own interests and talents towards the fourth stage.

The fifth stage is governed by confusion as is the adolescence identity crisis when the teenager decides their future path, as a young adult the person will be interested in making a family and ensure they are loved; the middle age adult will be concerned in offering guidance, support and advice to the new generation of children but towards the late adult stage we saw that the retired person is concerned about their life events and motivated to meditate upon their life cycle.

Elkind, D. (2004). Erik Erikson`s Eight Ages of Men. Module III Teaching Supplemental Handouts. Erikson, E. (1970). Reflections on the dissent of contemporary youth. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 51 (11-12). Erikson, E. (1980). Identity and Life Cycle. New York: WW Norton and Company. Erikson, E. (1993). Childhood and Society. New York: WW Norton and Company, 242. Erikson, E. (1994). Biography: Lecture Notes and Ego Psychologists. PSY (345). Kail, R. and Cavanaugh, J. C. (2004). Human Development: a life span view (3rd Edition). Belmont CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 16. Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and validation of ego identity statuses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 3 (551-558). Marcia, J. E. (1976). Identity six years after: a follow-up study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 5 (145-160). Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in Adolescence. Handbook of Adolescent Psychology. New York: Wiley. Oswalt, A. (1995-2012). Erik Erikson and self identity. Edited by Zupanick Psychology Department MSW.

Erik Erikson Stages of Human Development Essay

Hurdles Impeding Development of Pakistan Essay

Hurdles Impeding Development of Pakistan Essay.

Scarred from birth, Pakistan’s quest for survival has been as compelling as it has been uncertain. Pakistan cycled through a number of phases of development through its beginning Political, Social and Economic crises. The politicians were corrupt, interested in maintaining their political power and securing the interests of the elite, so to have them as the representative authority did not provide much hope of a democratic state that provided socio-economic justice and fair administration to all Pakistani citizens.

Ranging controversies over the issue of the national language, the role of Islam, provincial representation, and the distribution of power between the center and the provinces delayed constitution making and postponed general elections, thus putting Pakistan into a certain situation of uncertainty right from the start.

Poverty Poverty remains a serious concern in Pakistan. A large segment of the population lives in poverty. According to the rebased GDP numbers, the per capita income comes to US$720.

Poverty rates, which had fallen substantially in the 1980s and early 1990s, started to rise again toward the end of the decade.

More importantly, differences in income per capita across regions have persisted or widened. At the time of independence Pakistan suffered an unjust wealth distribution which marked its development or a long time. Pakistan has grown much more than other lowincome countries, but has failed to achieve social progress commensurate with its economic growth. The educated and well-off urban population lives not so differently from their counterparts in other countries of similar income range.

However, the poor and rural inhabitants of Pakistan are being left behind. For example, access to sanitation in Pakistan in rural areas is 30% lower than in other countries with similar income. Solution & suggestions to this issue is • Alternate means of energy production, like solar lights, neculer energy other minerals • Small loans and small business (e. g Greaming bank in Bangladesh who give small loans start from a small village and now its owner got noble price for his ideas and polices in micro economics)

• More evelopment projects from government specially focus on their maintains & consistence. India – A constant threat Pakistan has also been burdened by full-scale wars with India, a strategically exposed northwestern frontier, and series of economic crises. It has difficulty allocating its scarce economic and natural resources in an equitable manner. All of Pakistan’s struggles underpin the dilemma they face in reconciling the goal of national integration with the imperatives of national security. Peace in this region of the world is sorely needed; but he process is easier said than done. Many obstacles internal and external continue to impede the progress of peace. Solution & suggestions to this issue is

• Encourage peace and peace talks with India • Break the ideology of HINDU’S are like this and that (BANIYA etc ) Sad State of Judiciary Under the leadership of General Pervez Musharraf, the military has claimed its central position in Pakistan’s state structure and political scene. Similar to the present situation Judiciary has never been free to operate in Pakistan.

The judiciary of Pakistan has abdicated their duty to protect the laws as well as the citizens of the country. The concept of a totally controlled judiciary was achieved by the rulers or ruling parties. Several judgments by the High Courts and Supreme Courts have shown how well the objective has been achieved. Even the Supreme courts are not independent. For example, Governor of Sindh, Mr. Isharat ul Ibad was behind the bars few days before he took the oath, all cases vaporized in air. The accountability cases against Nawaz Sharif and Benazir are also ridicule to the system. Culture Differences

The ruins of ancient civilizations at Mohenjodaro and at Harappa in the southern Indus Valley testify to the existence of an advanced urban civilization that flourished in what is now Pakistan in the second half of the third millennium BC during the same period as the major riverain civilizations in Mesopotamia and Persia. This area has on the course of time seen almost every sort of government from democracy to monarchy, has been invaded a number of times, settled and resettle. Solution & suggestions to this issue is • Should be according to local and domestic values, norms and practices

Language Issues Despite the shared religion of its overwhelmingly Muslim population, Pakistan has been engaged in a precarious struggle to define a national identity and evolve a politico economic system for its linguistically diverse population. Pakistan is known to have over twenty languages and over 300 distinct dialects, Urdu and English are the official languages but Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtu, Baluchi and Seraiki are considered main languages. This diversity has caused chronic regional tensions and successive failures in forming a constitution, laws and finally a mutually shared mode of living.

Although Urdu was nominated as Pakistan’s National Language yet the number of people speaking URDU as a mother tongue was very low. This generated a huge gap between the common people of the country and its systems. It is an irony that a vast majority of Pakistan’s population can’t understand it own National Anthem, by viewing this, its easy to view the barriers which every person in Paksitan has faced in order to form a link with its systems and structures thus contributing little to the development.

Solution & suggestions to this issue is • Focus on regional language , should be taught at least till primary level Tribal and Provincial Issues The government’s perceived bias towards Punjab, the country’s most affluent province, has caused disgruntlement amongst the underdeveloped yet resource rich provinces. This bias has contributed to an escalating rebellion by tribal militias in Baluchistan. Militias have been engaged in guerrilla warfare with the Pakistani army, whose resources are already stretched between counter-terrorism activities and Kashmir.

Tribal militias have been sabotaging strategic infrastructure, such as natural gas lines. Muslim extremism and sectarian violence are fundamental threats to Pakistan’s political stability. Sunni-Shi’a violence along with frequent anti-western street protests and violence are common, particularly in Karachi. Pakistani forces have also been largely unable to defeat Taliban militants who operate with impunity in the areas bordering Afghanistan. FATA is such a great example of military failure, an area with in the country but out of the reach from the countrymen even the military.

The militants have such a strong hold that they can every handled on their own terms, they are well equipped as well as informed, as seen in latest events, it seems as if Bugti tribe was as equipped as the Army itself. Religion and Sectarian issues Pakistan’s political instability over time has been matched by a fierce ideological debate about the form of government it should adopt, Islamic or secular. In the absence of any nationally based political party, Pakistan has long had to rely on the civil service and the army to maintain the continuities of government.

It was a daunting task to build a nationstate whose peoples had only one uniting factors—their abiding faith in Islam. Other than that, there was nothing to bind them together as a nation. Subsequent political developments in Pakistan clearly showed that even the “abiding faith in Islam was merely a mirage,” not a solid factor of integration and development as there is a list of sectarian Issues Pakistanis are suffering from. Geographical issues Following a military defeat at the hands of India the breakaway of its eastern territory, which India divides it from, caused the establishment of Bangladesh in 1971.

This situation epitomizes the most dramatic manifestation of Pakistan’s dilemma as a decentralized nation. All forms of developments in Pakistan continue to be marred by provincial jealousies and, in particular, by the deep resentments in the smaller provinces of Sind, Baluchistan, and the North-West Frontier Province against what is seen to be a monopoly by the Punjabi majority of the benefits of power, profit, and patronage.

Constitution Discrimination & Minorities Rights Pakistan is perhaps the most notorious political enigma in the second half of he 20th century. Perhaps, the most lamentable feature of our existence as a nation is that we do not know what we are. National identity is not primarily definable in terms of a people occupying a sovereign geographical territory. Existentially, identity is premised on ideology and social values. Both are noticeably in abeyance in Pakistan. This is a state without ideological ballast, without a lodestar. The people who are being called minorities, how we can expect loyalty from them after the treatment they are given?

In history we see Hindus were under Muslim rule for so long yet the first chance they got they joined British, the reason was only that they had no loyalty to the state. If in Pakistan the minorities would keep receiving such treatment there is not much less hope of any loyalty to the state either. Human Rights Pakistan remains heavily dependent on the United States for economic and military aid. The U. S. has notably failed to press for human rights-related legal reform in the country, in exchange for Pakistan’s support in the U. S. led “war on terror. “

For its part, the government of Pakistan has excused its failure to uphold human rights and the rule of law by citing domestic political pressure from hard-line religious groups and militant organizations. Pakistan’s record of ratifying principal international human rights treaties remains poor. To date, it is signatory to only five international conventions, and has signed neither the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights nor the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

Hurdles Impeding Development of Pakistan Essay

Development of Complex Societies Essay

Development of Complex Societies Essay.

In the early stages of the development of complex societies, many different factors had a powerful impact on the way the societies developed. In some areas of the world, religion was the primary force that led to the creation of organized societies. Other areas developed on trade routes that made it necessary to develop complex societies to incorporate the growth of different economic classes and the wealth they generated into the structure of the government. In each part of the world where complex societies emerged, the communities were responding to different types of challenges and the complexities each society created forced them to confront new challenges which then led to the great, complex societies of history.

The urban society of Mesopotamia developed because of the engineering discoveries that allowed residents of the area between the Tigris and Euphrates to increase food production, while the predictability of the Nile River allowed the Egyptians and Nubians to build large, complex societies around their commercial and religious activities.

Many simple early societies were based around farming. Through cultivating crops and the land, people learned they could settle down in one place instead of being nomads and support a larger population of people. These villages needed a social structure, but their sizes were limited by the amount of food they could produce. In Mesopotamia, especially Sumeria and Babylon, there is not much rainfall, but farmers learned they could artificially irrigate their crops using the fresh water in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers[1]. The large-scale engineering projects required greater social organization than the simple farming communities that came before, but they also resulted in increased food production that allowed them to build cities. The urban centers that resulted required more sophisticated organization to make sure that the population was productive: that building projects could be completed, that resources were distributed fairly, and that the city could continue to grow[2].

The division of labor also created different economic classes, which resulted in various social classes as well. Some merchants grew wealthy catering to customers who came to the city from other places, and community building projects required supervision, organization, and funding[3]. Such a large society could not exist as small farmers trading with one another. Political authority was needed to maintain order between the citizens and protect the interests of the entire community, especially the cropland that existed outside the city walls.

An example of the way that authority influenced society is the codification of laws by Hammurabi, especially as they related to family relationships and how husbands could treat their wives. Upper-class people whose marriages represented political and economic alliances were subject to the same law, so that even if a husband had a right to punish his wife for a suspected affair, he could not do anything to her unless he caught her in the act. If he did act out on his jealousy, he would be punished. Hammurabi’s laws treated women like the property of their husbands and fathers, but they also described certain standards of behavior that citizens should be expected to follow for the sake of stability and to reign in people’s behavior[4].

The innovation of urban development also led to the Sumerian creation of military power, as each city-state had to protect its farmland and irrigation projects from one another and from outside invaders. Once the city-states had organized themselves into relatively peaceful social organizations united under a single government, their growing populations often led them to go out and try to conquer other city-states or areas with more resources to increase their wealth[5]. In Mesopotamia, the social organization created in the first cities led to the establishment of the first empires.

Along the Nile River in northern Africa, small city states also emerged due to the increased production of food that agriculture made possible. Agriculture first developed in Sudan, where people first cultivated wheat crops and domesticated animals that roamed the grassland. The growing populations made these cities into cultural and commercial centers, as well, and they also required political authority to keep the peace and maintain the functioning of all of the complex institutions of a city: dividing up resources, keeping the peace, and protecting their resources from other city-states[6]. These cities were often ruled over by Kings who were not only thought of as political authority but were also considered to be divine themselves, so they also held a great deal of religious authority[7].

Over time, the grasslands became desert and agricultural activity centered along the floodplains of the Nile River in Egypt and Nubia. Egypt, particularly, had a very wide and predictable floodplain which attracted immigrants and allowed the population to grow. United under one ruler, who was also considered to be divine, Egyptian society became increasingly complex. Massive amounts of resources, especially wheat from the fertile harvests, had to be dealt with, marketplaces had to be managed, and armies had to be raised to protect the fertile land from invaders. The main organizing force in Egyptian society was its strong religious component.

The Pharaoh was considered a god as well as a king, and the religious power he held was just as important as the political power. The colossal building projects that the Egyptians embarked on, such as the pyramids and temples, required a very complex society and highly skilled workers and engineers[8]. They developed a very complex writing system not only to keep commercial records, but also to record their spiritual beliefs and the history of their empire. Harkhuf used it to document his exploration of Nubia and opening of trade routes there, showing the high levels of complexity that each of those societies had risen to[9].

Both the African and Mesopotamian civilizations developed out of small farming communities who practiced small-scale agriculture. In both areas, advances in agriculture led to increased populations living in densely-populated cities, which allowed the people to divide labor and specialize in different things. The division of labor led to advancement in almost every area: from engineering and agriculture to art and, especially, the political organizations that organized the whole society and made all of those things possible. Both civilizations developed writing systems, originally developed to keep records, but soon used to express imaginations, beliefs, and to write down the histories of their nations.

While Mesopotamian cultures were organized around the complex building projects needed to irrigate their fields, societies in the Nile River had other pressures. Their cropland was regularly fertilized and irrigated, so their complexity developed out of a need to organize the wealth of the city-state and the empire that came as a result. Without the pressure of constantly trying to keep their crops irrigated, the Egyptians organized around religious beliefs, which they expressed in their greatest building projects and influenced almost everything they did.

The pressures that led smaller societies to develop more complex structures were different in each case, but they both resulted in the building of the first great cities which are necessary for the political, social, and technological innovations of complex society. Although the places they lived were very different, the Sumerians and the Egyptians both developed writing to record their progress, political innovations to maintain control of growing populations, and laid the foundations for great building projects and the great civilizations that would come after them.


Bentley, Jerry H. and Ziegler, Herbert F., Traditions and Encounters Vol. 1 from The Beginning to 1500, 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010 ———————–
[1] Jerry H. Bentley and Herbert F. Ziegler, Traditions and Encounters Vol. 1 from The Beginning to 1500, 5th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010), 25 [2] Bentley and Ziegel, Traditions, 27
[3] Bentley and Ziegler, Traditions, 33
[4] Bentley and Ziegler, Traditions, 36
[5] Bentley and Ziegler, Traditions, 29
[6] Bentley and Ziegel, Traditions, 50-51
[7] Bentley and Ziegel, Traditions, 52
[8] Bentley and Ziegel, Traditions, 53
[9] Bentley and Ziegel, Traditions, 56

Development of Complex Societies Essay