World Wide Fund for Nature (Wwf) Essay

World Wide Fund for Nature (Wwf) Essay.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

This project paper was assigned to our group by our beloved lecturer of Principles of Marketing, Sir Shamsul Izwan Saharani. The topic assigned is the Marketing in Not-For-Profit Organizations and the organization that our group chose is World Wide Fund for Nature-Malaysia (WWF-Malaysia). Our group had conducted a research through internet and latest annual report for information on the marketing strategies used by WWF-Malaysia. Furthermore, an interview with representative from WWF-Malaysia, Mr. Brandon Liu was conducted to find out more details and information about the not-for-profit organization and to have more understanding about it.

The findings were used as resource to complete this project paper report. The accuracy of information is important to expose and explain to the undergraduates of taking the subject Principles of Marketing on the way of marketing for not-for-profit organization and how they can survive in the business industry. In short, a lot of new knowledge was gained from the method of marketing by not-for-profit organization, which is different from other corporate companies including the government agencies.

This report is done with the hope that the completion of this project paper can benefits other undergraduates by widen their knowledge. Last but not least, we would like to thank our group members who are willing to give their full support, co-operation and commitment throughout the process of completing this project paper. Next, we would like to extend our appreciation and gratitude to our beloved tutor, Sir Shamsul Izwan Saharani for much of his help and support in assisting us in preparing this project paper. Not to forget, Mr. Brandon Liu, the Communications Unit Manager of WWF-Malaysia for his time and co-operation in responding to our interview.

2.0 BACKGROUND HISTORY OF THE COMPANY

History

World Wide Fund for Nature-Malaysia (WWF-Malaysia) was established as a national conservation trust on 13 January 1972. According to official website of WWF-Malaysia, the organization began as a humble two person-organisation. However, today, WWF-Malaysia has around 180 employees working at the offices from Langkawi to Sabah. The organization is also known as Tabung Alam Malaysia, as they are governed by a Board of Trustees. The early work of WWF-Malaysia was focused on scientific research of wildlife and important natural habitats. This work later expanded to the management of protected areas.

Background

WWF-Malaysia is a Malaysian organisation affiliated with WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature), the international conservation organisation which founded in 1961 in the small town of Morges, Switzerland. WWF is a global network in more than 100 countries, including Malaysia (the 17th WWF organisation) and has more than 5 million supporters worldwide. WWF is now one of the most experienced environmental organisations in the world.

The headquarters of WWF-Malaysia is in Petaling Jaya, Selangor, and programme offices in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah and Kuching, Sarawak as well as site offices in Fraser’s Hill, Langkawi, Malacca, Jeli and Stong in Kelantan, Ma’ Daerah and Setiu in Terengganu. Today, WWF-Malaysia’s work covers the broader issues of the natural environment, incorporating such aspects as policy work, environmental education, public awareness and campaigns. WWF-Malaysia currently runs more than 75 projects, including:

* Scientific field research
* Policy work with the government
* Environment education
* Public awareness programme
* Working with local communities to improve livelihoods and protect the environment
* Training and supporting other conservation organisations in Malaysia

Mission Statement and Guiding Principles

“For the Trustees, staff and supporters of WWF in Malaysia and the rest of the world, conservation is not just a job; it is a mission to save the planet.”

Mission Statement

WWF’s Mission is to stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by: conserving the world’s biological diversity ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption

Guiding Principles

As part of the WWF Network, WWF-Malaysia’s activities are guided by the following principles: be global, independent, multicultural and non party political use the best available scientific information to address issues and critically evaluate all its endeavours seek dialogue and avoid unnecessary confrontation

build concrete conservation solutions through a combination of field based projects, policy initiatives, capacity building and education work involve local communities and indigenous peoples in the planning and execution of its field programmes, respecting their cultural as well as economic needs strive to build partnerships with other organisations, governments, business and local communities to enhance WWF’s effectiveness run its operations in a cost effective manner and apply donors’ funds according to the highest standards of accountability “The battles we fight are not in the trenches but at conferences, forums, on the streets and out in the field. Facing up to charging elephants or enduring long journeys just to get to the project site are part of the job.”

3.0 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

4.0 CURRENT MARKETING ISSUES

4.1 Product

A product can be defined as anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a want or need. Products include more than just tangible goods. Services are a form of product that consists of activities, benefits or satisfactions offered for sale that are essentially intangible and do not result in the ownership of anything. However, WWF-Malaysia’s product is intangible goods, it is project and service that are provided to their save environmental purpose. WWF-Malaysia is a national conservation trust that currently runs more than 75 projects covering a diverse range of environmental protection and nature conservation work in Malaysia.

Since 1972, WWF-Malaysia has worked on important conservation projects, from saving endangered species such as tigers and turtles, to protecting our highland forests, rivers and seas. WWF-Malaysia’s nature conservation effort include The Borneo Species Programme, The Environmental Education Programme, The Kinabatangan – Corridor of Life Programme, The Peninsular Malaysia Forests Programme, The Peninsular Malaysia Seas Programme, The Policy Programme, The Global Forest and Trade Network, The Heart of Borneo Programme. Issues they work on species, forests, freshwater, marine, environmental education, and policy.

Species

Though WWF-Malaysia does not work exclusively on species-focused projects, these do represent a major component of our work. With such projects taking place throughout Malaysia (from the Northern forests of Peninsular Malaysia to the coastal waters of the South China Sea and over to the valleys of Sabah) they work towards the protection and management of six different species; the tiger, Borneon Pygmy elephant, Sumatran rhinoceros and orang-utan in the forests and both the hawksbill and the green turtles in the seas and on the beaches.

Within the WWF network, all of these species are considered to be “flagships” – that is, as ambassadors for conservation in Malaysia. WWF-Malaysia works together with TRAFFIC-SEA and the Department of Wildlife and National Parks to try and combat a secret army of poachers working in Malaysia.

Conservation efforts are needed for threatened species whose survival cannot be guaranteed by conserving their habitat alone. The conservation effort includes The Borneo Species Programme which aims to conserve the critically endangered Sumatran rhino, the iconic orang-utan and the Bornean pygmy elephant.

Forests

Human are using nearly 30% more natural resources than the Earth can replenish and our activities are drastically changing the planet’s climate. As a result the life support system is starting to break down. Millions of people are already feeling the consequences. And things will get much worse if we keep going the same way.WWF has been involved in conservation of forests since its launch 50 years ago. Today work is focused on preserving remaining forests and working in partnership to promote sustainable forestry. WWF-Malaysia’s Forest for Life Programme aims to increase the coverage of forest protected areas, improve the management of production forests for the supply of sustainable timber, and restore degraded areas especially where there is need to maintain critical forest linkages.

There are several conservation efforts include The Peninsular Malaysia Forests Programme, The Kinabatangan – Corridor of Life Programme, The Global Forest and Trade Network and The Heart of Borneo Programme. The Kinabatangan – Corridor of Life Programme aims to establish a forest corridor along both sides of the Kinabatangan River that connects isolated forest reserves, enabling wildlife, local communities and economic development to thrive and support each other there. Whereas, The Peninsular Malaysia Forests Programme aims to protect the natural resources within a contiguous forested area to provide environmental, social and economic benefits to the nation.

This encompasses sustainable forestry, protected area management and tiger conservation efforts. WWF-Malaysia also participates in the following international conservation programmes.

The Global Forest and Trade Network is a worldwide partnership between forest and trade companies committed to eliminate illegal logging as well as improve the management of threatened and valuable forests. The Heart of Borneo Programme is a conservation initiative involving Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia that encompasses 31% or 240,000 square kilometres of land in the centre of the island, creating an opportunity to conserve pristine tropical rainforests on a large scale.

Freshwater

Recognising this, WWF-Malaysia promotes the conservation, integrated management and sustainable use of freshwater ecosystems. To achieve this, WWF-Malaysia advocates for integrated policies and approaches, field projects, improving information database, and information dissemination to increase awareness. These are encapsulated within WWF- Malaysia’s Freshwater Programme comprising the following three areas:

1. Conserving river basins
2. Sustainable water use
3. Conserving freshwater habitats

Policy

WWF-Malaysia creates a program to promote the conservation; the program is The Policy Programme. The Policy Programme WWF-Malaysia advocates for effective environmental policy in the areas of land use, environmental legislation, sustainable conservation financing, institutional frameworks and environmental governance.

Marine

These warm tropical waters are also home to one of the world’s largest populations of endangered green sea turtles and other endangered marine species such as hawksbill turtles, dugongs, whale sharks, and humphead wrasse. The battles they fight are not in the trenches but at conferences, forums, on the streets and out in the field. Facing up to charging elephants or enduring long journeys just to get to the project site are part of the job.

WWF-Malaysia is working hard to help protect the country’s natural environment through several conservation programmes such as the Peninsular Malaysia Seas Programme. The Peninsular Malaysia Seas Programme aims to have, by the year 2020, sustainable fisheries as well as a healthy marine and coastal environment that supports local communities. This includes turtle conservation work in Melaka and Terengganu.

Environmental education

To protecting our highland forests, rivers and seas, WWF-Malaysia currently runs more than 75 projects including Environmental education. WWF-Malaysia uses Community education and awareness approaches in carrying out conservation efforts such as the environmental education programme that encourages society to participate in environmental conservation and encompasses WWF-Malaysia’s work towards developing an Environmental Education policy within the National Curriculum.

4.2 Price

Marketing mix consists of price, product, place and promotion. WWF-Malaysia is a non-profit organization, their main activity aren’t selling products or services. They are differing from the other profit based organizations which are using the marketing mix strategies to maximize their profit and customer equity by delivering high customer value and satisfaction. Conversely, WWF-Malaysia obtain fund from public to run their projects and activities towards environmental conservation. They have a lot of strategies and efforts to get and manage the fund. The marketing department are told about the projects, and the department have to raise the fund to make sure the projects can run on time.

When people donate their money to WWF, they can verify whether their donation being allocated in an appropriate pattern viewing the financial report, annual review and WWF’s website to know how WWF allocated their donation. The website stated clearly that how much they needed for the different projects and the amount that has been collected in current period. WWF provided credible, accountable and transparent financial report for the public. The annual review explained all the income and expenditure of the year. WWF-Malaysia gets their fund from public individuals and organizations. They set up the donation boxes at public places and opened certain accounts for the online donators.

They tell the public about their recent projects through the promotions and how much they needed for the projects on WWF-Malaysia’s website. For the corporation part, WWF-Malaysia has a “corporate relation team” to meet the corporate people face-to-face to persuade the corporations to donate some money to WWF-Malaysia. The corporate relation team will send the proposal about WWF-Malaysia yearly plan and projects to get the financial support from the organizations. Some companies donated money to WWF-Malaysia as their social community responsibilities.

WWF-Malaysia shows their appreciation towards the donors by listed out all the donors’ name in their annual review and newsletter and the amount donated. For corporation who donates a very huge amount, WWF-Malaysia offered them the opportunities to advertise their products in their newsletter and annual view.

WWF-Malaysia gets their income from donations from corporations, donations from Trusts & Foundations, donations / legacies from individuals, government/ aid agencies grants, WWF network grants, sale of goods/ services / royalties, promotions & events and others. Most of the network grants are contributed by WWF-Netherlands and WWF-Germany, both of these countries people are richer and willing to donate. As these countries don’t have much problem with their biodiversity, they give the fund to other networks such as WWF-Malaysia. The example of royalties is greeting cards royalties, some company want to use the WWF-Malaysia brand name and print it on the greeting cards to encourage higher sales and revenue, so WWF sells their royalties to the public as an extra income.

Total income: RM 30,960,276

WWF-Malaysia’s expenditure consists of conservation expenditure, cost of generating funds & awareness and operating expenditure. Projects expenditure included the salary of full time staff such as professional researchers; WWF-Malaysia hired them to facilitate WWF-Malaysia to make better and professional conservations. Meanwhile, cost of generating funds & awareness are those costs that involved in campaigns, advertisement fees, booths in shopping malls and colleges. Operating expenditures means office expenditure like electricity, rentals of offices, and so on. The following shows the percentage of different expenditures in WWF-Malaysia and allocations of funds under projects expenditure (until financial year of 2010):

WWF-Malaysia’s Expenditure:
-Conservation Expenditure77.3%
-Cost of Generating Funds & Awareness13.8%
-Operating Expenditure8.9%
Total ExpenditureRM28, 697,108
Total Conservation Expenditure RM 20,953, 321

4.3 Place

WWF-Malaysia based on scientific and economic analysis had incorporated their deep knowledge of global and local market forces that influence and challenge wild natural world. WWF Malaysia is transforming the common considerable forces that terrorize people and nature.

Corporations can work with WWF-Malaysia in many ways. Such as project sponsorship, event sponsorship and donation in kind. According to 2006 survey by the Nielsen Company, it shows that 88% of Malaysians who participate in this survey are agree to the importance for the corporations for being responsible to social and environment. Also it shows that 72% would switch to the product that is not at the same price or quality for a good cause such as WWF-Malaysia and it have been increased by 9% compare to the same survey undertaken in 2003. In addition, 85% agreed to the importance of supporting the environmental protection organizations like WWF-Malaysia by corporations and it shows 7% increase compare to 2003 survey.

Regarding to above survey, organizations like WWF-Malaysia public advices are so effective to the Malaysians consumer’s shopping decisions. As the result, WWF-Malaysia partnership can be a great idea for corporate marketing planning. By having WWF-Malaysia as partner corporations, they are not only practicing their responsibility to the nature, but also hitting the new customer requirements and it means satisfaction for current customers and targeting the new customers who care about environment.

WWF-Malaysia partners are leaders of various industries such as automotive, plantation, property developers and telecommunication. These strong partnerships are accelerating WWF-Malaysia’s projects to the great succeed. WWF-Malaysia’s work is not limited to Malaysia boarders only, it also participating in regional projects with the neighbour countries to protect the wild nature. In other word, WWF-Malaysia is the leader of Malaysia robust green market place.

WWF-Malaysia has been involved in so many projects since 1972 and almost more than 75 helpful projects toward protecting environment have been done by them. They employ over hundred-registered employees all across the country. This organization is part of the big family of global WWF, one of the world largest and most powerful international organizations around the world. WWF has nearly 5 million supporters and a global active in 100 countries.

WWF-Malaysia work include all over Malaysia. Beside their headquarters in Petaling Jaya Selangor, they also have program offices in Kota Kinabalu Sabah and Kuching Sarawak that is pointed to support the Borneo projects. WWF-Malaysia also has project sites offices all over the nation. In 2007 and
2008, WWF Malaysia has been finished few projects such as Peninsular Malaysia Seas Programme, The Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion Programme Apex of the Coral Triangle Kinabatangan, Corridor of Life Programme, Peninsular Malaysia Forests Programme and Environmental Education Programme.

The Peninsular Malaysia Seas Programme aims to be available by the year 2020, which is a sustainable fisheries as well as a healthy marine and coastal environment that also supports local businesses. Turtle conservation work in Melaka and Terengganu is also included in this project. The long term succeed of any project is based on local community participation. In Terengganu, for the turtle awareness there were more than 1,200 participants attended the events organized by WWF-Malaysia.

Terengganu State Department of Fisheries and corporate sponsors were a local community concern group for turtle protection “Persatuan Khazanah Rakyat Ma’Daerah (MEKAR)” which was recognized by WWF-Malaysia. Moreover this successful hard work was to raise awareness of the consequence of turtle conservation. Another achievement is the 81% booming mark rate in the Ma’Daerah hatchery over the past years (hatch rate is considered successful at 70%).

The Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion Programme Apex of the Coral Triangle is based in the world’s epicentre of marine biodiversity. This project is a multi nation project between Malaysia, Philippines and also Indonesia. WWF-Malaysia works with WWF-Indonesia and WWF-Philippines at this juncture to conserve a marine ecoregion that remains a highly prolific, globally unique centre of biodiversity able to offer for local business requests.

In Kudat and Semporna, ecosystem-based administration of coastal fisheries is being implemented. The ground teams have surveyed around 100 villages to expand about into the socioeconomic profile of coastal communities, current resource use patterns, relationships that exist between resource users and resources, and their willingness to direct these marine resources. Rapid reef assessments of over 30 reefs were performed to determine baseline data of the health of the reefs and point future decision-making.

All activities were aimed at steering the people (including local community members and leaders, traditional and commercial fishermen, and government agencies such as Sabah Parks and Department of Fisheries Sabah) towards collaborative management of marine resources. This includes trainings on wildlife conservation enforcement and reef monitoring workshops to identify zones such as leisure zones and no fishing zones within the planned multiple-use Tun Mustapha Park in Kudat, and a Workshop Consequential in the Formation of a Vision for Semporna.

Heart of Borneo Programme is a forest restoration work in North Ulu Segama, Sabah within the Heart of Borneo and it boosted up when British retailer Marks & Spencer finance the project. Accumulation work there and decided to work with WWF-Malaysia for help to negotiate about palm oil and timber industries to make them responsible and sustainable practices, while ensuring that the British retailer’s own supply chains are sustainable.

When Adessium Foundation from Netherlands agreed the support for orang-utan conservation and also forest rehabilitation work in the state of Sabah at east Malaysia within the heart of Borneo for three years beginning in July 2008, the international scale and appeal of WWF conservation work was underline in 2007. The adessium foundation is one of many family foundations across Europe that is premium foundation that has a close relationship with other environment concern organization such as WWF. In addition, the family foundations are more common in United State of America and mentioned foundation is part of the new wave in Europe.

Peninsular Malaysia Forests Programme is another project by WWF Malaysia. WWF Malaysia following its close collaboration with the Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment (NRE) in the preparation and administration of protected areas. WWF-Malaysia and NRE organized the “Master List of Protected Areas in Malaysia” workshop with support from DANIDA in April 2008. The workshop been significant as it is the first time an initiative has been made to collect an official list of any terrestrial and marine protect are in Malaysia. The main list of these protected areas to be released will be an elemental tool for conservation planning and administration.

WWF-Malaysia’s Gunung Stong State Park project in Kelantan organized more than 10 capacity building courses for local groups there during the last financial year, including basic entrepreneurship, basic guiding, bird watching and wilderness first aid. These courses will enhance local communities’ livelihoods by motivating their works in sustainable eco-tourism. 150 people from various groups have participated in these courses.

4.4 Promotion

From high up in the mountaintops to down low at the bottom of the sea, WWF-Malaysia is working hard to help protect the country’s natural environment through several conservation programmes. WWF-Malaysia focuses its conservation work on large-scale priority areas that encompass a broad range of wildlife and ecological systems. The ultimate goal is to achieve long-term and sustainable conservation impact in the country by conserving, restoring, and protecting a diversity of species, forests, marine, coastal, and freshwater environments.

For a living planet, for us, for our children and the generations to come as well as Marketing Department of WWF-Malaysia’s main goal is to raise funds from individual donors, through limited merchandise sales as well as through corporations and events like ‘ Art for Nature ‘ that successfully raised RM 121, 407.80 in 2010. Furthermore, the target is not only to raise funds, but also wants to create and promote public awareness about the environment.

Based on WWF-Malaysia’s 2010 Annual Review, the income mostly generated from donations or legacies from individuals and WWF Network Grants with 48.5% and 39.8% from the total income respectively, while the income generated from promotions and events is only 0.2%. This amount was slightly decreased compared to the year before. On the other hand, they managed to raise more funds from donations of individuals to cover the reduction amount of promotion and events income because they put more expenditure on generating funds and awareness. This helps WWF-Malaysia to develop conscious public about contribution of WWF-Malaysia.

There are several ways of how WWF-Malaysia developed conscious public about contribution of WWF-Malaysia. One of them is through media. Their supporters and volunteers helped them to distribute the printed flyers, pamphlets, direct marketing inserts in leading newspapers and information about WWF-Malaysia’s projects to let people know what WWF-Malaysia is doing. WWF-Malaysia also broadcasting the campaign on the television and radio about the projects they involved in for example, The Earth Hour Campaign. They also responsible to give information about WWF-Malaysia to public through the Internet which people can access to their official websites. They also have linked with other organizations’ websites which work together with them in certain projects.

For people who digital illiteracy or doesn’t have any Internet access at their home, they do not need the Internet access to know about WWF-Malaysia. Through on the ground events and educational booths in high traffic areas in urban centres and educational institutions helps WWF-Malaysia communicates face-to-face effectively with the public. For example, the educational booths will be set up in the mall or shopping centres which are crowded with people. WWF-Malaysia’s staffs will be there to give explanation in brief. For example, such as ‘Malaysiaku Street Festival’ programme which held at Bankung Row, Bukit Bandaraya. There is WWF-Malaysia’s booth and visitors can come to learn more about WWF-Malaysia’s conservation work.

In addition, WWF-Malaysia also works with student councils and university clubs in order to persuade and encourage them to become volunteers and supporters to help WWF-Malaysia raise environmental awareness among their peers. For example, WWF-Malaysia worked with students councils in several universities across Malaysia in the ‘Egg=Life Campaign ‘ which they managed to get thousands of signatures as the symbol of students supporting the effort of saving the turtle eggs.

Moreover, WWF-Malaysia also continually sends the monthly e-newsletters and quarterly newsletters of Green Heart for the supporters all over Malaysia to inform them about the latest news of events and projects that have been done by WWF-Malaysia. With these e-newsletters and newsletters, supporters will also be informed about the upcoming events that may attract them to join and participate to become volunteers in such events.

Building good relations with other companies or government also important for WWF-Malaysia as they can give strong support for the conservation work that WWF-Malaysia doing. For instance, ‘The Environmental Educational Programme’. This programme encourages society to participate in environmental conservation and encompasses WWF-Malaysia’s work towards developing an Environmental Education policy within the National Curriculum. When they work with Government, individuals, and corporations, they will have meetings and build partnerships. In future, they will cooperate and collaborate again in such events or projects. WWF-Malaysia also can receive some sponsorship or new media partner in order to evolve their projects.

WWF-Malaysia targets the market in every level of ages and every place they lived. But how they classified and persuaded them is different from each other. For example, WWF-Malaysia may ask colleges to support our signature campaign but does not ask students to support them with money. In urban areas, they reach out to professionals through direct marketing inserts in leading newspapers. In rural areas, they would reach out to supporters via on ground events such as a ‘beach clean-up gotong-royong’. The corporation also can contribute by donation of money for the project expenditures or event sponsorship and work as a partner. The key thing is they know how to target the audience, what to ask from each audience is, and then customize their channel and content to optimize chances of getting them to respond positively to their needs.

While most corporations’ activities are affected by which products or services will generate the most profit, WWF-Malaysia’s objectives are to conserve our natural resources, so they undertake nature conservation work wherever the conservation need is most urgent, such as in high value conservation forests. The marketing strategy does not influence their activities; rather the marketing strategy is determined by what needs to be done for conservation. This shows that their activities and projects actually influenced on how the marketing strategy will be set up and planned in the future in order to gain public awareness regarding the environmental issues.

4.5 Challenges

Challenges that WWF-Malaysia encounters recently is the lack of awareness and interest among public. WWF-Malaysia is facing problem when trying to organize programmes to create awareness on the environmental problems due to human causes among public. The reaction from public are much unconcerned than expected.

For the generation before 20 centuries in Malaysia, they are less exposed to the idea of conservation to save the planet. Hence, the problems that the environment facing such as pollution and extinction of flora fauna are seem to be not important to them. They tempt to continue their daily activities and works even there are complaints claim that the works that they doing will produce pollution to the environment. For those people, income for family are more important than the welfare of the society because they never be taught about and exposed to the long term effects of the problems.

However, although the new generation is educated about the environmental issues, they seem to be not concern to the issues due to personal attitude such as selfishness, coldblooded, etc. Besides, they are also influenced by their elders that we discussed above. Some of them even give up on taking action because they think that the damage to the environment is too serious that no solution could be done to cure it.

The above challenge results in inadequate of man power in WWF-Malaysia because less people are willing to work for WWF-Malaysia. Due to their attitude to the issue, people think that the effort of WWF-Malaysia is useless and rejected to help. Moreover, since the organization is not-for-profit organization, some of the youth today who are materialistic refuse to work with WWF-Malaysia with the thought that they would not earn high income if thy chosen that job.

The challenges consequently lead to another challenge that is public lack of knowledge about WWF-Malaysia. This is because of the insufficient marketing strategies done due to inadequate man power. Furthermore, the public seldom do research and try to understand WWF-Malaysia due to the attitude of the public of being unconcerned.

In short, WWF-Malaysia mainly faces problems of the attitude of the public.

5.0 Conclusion

WWF-Malaysia has been involved in policy and advocacy work for over 40 years. We have adopted various approaches and effective partnerships to promote policies, plans, programmes, and legislation that integrate environmental concerns for sustainable development. This includes engaging with various government ministries and departments at the federal, state, and local levels. A search for information and interview was conducted to find out more details and information about the not-for-profit organization and to have more understanding about it.

A lot of new knowledge was gained from preparing this research on the methods of marketing of not-for-profit organization. One of the most important elements in environmental conservation is perhaps also one of the most overlooked one of all: Education. People have the power to either protect or destroy the environment, depending on how they choose to live their lives. These choices dictated by their level of awareness on their natural world, their knowledge on the impact they have on it and most importantly, their ability to actually do something about it.

The task of conserving the environment through education begins in the formative stages of our lives, which ultimately determines our attitude and behavior towards the environment and how these are eventually passed on to succeeding generations.

WWF-Malaysia employs a strategy of collaborative partnerships, consultations, and participation with government agencies, universities, other environmental NGOs, and specific community groups to be agents of conservation.

References

http://www.wwwf.org.my
Interviewed with Mr. Brandon Liu

Interview

Date: 17th December 2011
Time: 2.30pm – 4.30pm
Venue: WWF-Malaysia, Petaling Jaya
Person interviewed: Mr. Brandon Liu

Us: What is the main aspect of WWF’s Marketing Department?
Suan: WWF-Malaysia’s Marketing Dept raises funds from individual donors, through limited merchandise sales as well as through corporations and events like Art for Nature.

Us: How do WWF objectives and its marketing mix strategy affect its future decision?
Suan: While most corporations’ activities are affected by which products or services will generate the most profit, WWF-Malaysia’s objectives are to conserve our natural resources, so we undertake nature conservation work wherever the conservation need is most urgent, such as in high value conservation forests. The marketing strategy does not influence our activities; rather the marketing strategy is determined by what needs to be done for conservation.

Us: What is the major macro environmental factor that affects WWF marketing process?
Suan: Like all organisations, we are affected by income levels. When income levels drop due to economic recession, our donations drop too, with corporate giving being the most elastic.

Us: How you all come out with all the projects and how to achieve it outcome?
Suan: Our scientists and conservation experts will identify which areas need our most urgent attention and set conservation goals.

Us: How you all decide whether want do which campaign on particular worth?
Suan: Depending on the conservation need. For example, this year marine turtles needed our urgent attention as laws should be passed to ban the sale and consumption of turtle eggs.

Us: Different places need different approaches in handling the marketing strategies.
Suan: Can u describe in a brief how WWF-Malaysia faces this situation.
WWF-Malaysia’s team understands the Malaysian market well, and we also get to compare notes from marketers in different countries via the WWF global network. We are careful to customise our channels and our content according to the supporter audience, and what we would like to ask them to do: donate, sign a signature drive campaign or participate in an event etc. For example, we may ask colleges to support our signature campaign but we do not ask students to support us with money.

In urban areas, we reach out to professionals via New Media and through direct marketing inserts in leading newspapers. In rural areas, we would reach out to supporters via on-ground events such as a ‘beach clean-up gotong-royong’. The key thing is to know your target audience, what your ask to each audience is, and then customise your channel and content to optimise chances of getting them to respond positively to your ask.

World Wide Fund for Nature (Wwf) Essay

Ecological Systems Theory Essay

Ecological Systems Theory Essay.

As I was growing up, I always heard of the expression that “people are a product of their environment”. I never gave this expression much thought until I got older and became more aware of my surroundings and my own environment. Personally, I feel that there is some truth to this statement. A person’s environment is very influential to their development. A famous psychologist that studied child development, Dr. Urie Bronfenbrenner, developed the ecological systems theory to show how a child’s development can be influenced by their environment.

Dr. Bronfenbrenner felt that “a person’s development is the product of a constellation of forces-cultural, social, economic, political- and not merely psychological ones” (Fox, 2005, para 6). According to an article by Nancy Darling of Oberlin College, “Ecological Systems Theory is presented as a theory of human development in which everything is seen as interrelated and our knowledge of development is bounded by context, culture, and history” (Darling, 2007, p. 204).

The Ecological Systems Theory consists of five levels of the environment that are influential to a child’s development.

These five levels are the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and the chronosystem. These five levels each contribute significantly and helps to mold an individual which can affect their personality, the way they think, and who they are as a person overall.

The first level, the microsystem, consists of the immediate environment that the child is in on a daily basis (Oswalt, 2008). The microsystem would include a child’s immediate family, teachers, neighbors, daycare, school, and peers or anyone who a child or individual interacts with directly on a daily basis. The microsystem is important to a child’s development because if the environment they are around on a daily basis is stable, nurturing, and caring, then that child will likely model the same behavior. However, if the child is in an environment where they are neglected and abused or see violence, this can have an influence on their behavior and cause them to become affected by this negative environment.

For example, if a child is surrounded by a family who is violent and does not pay much attention to their needs, neighbors that use profanity, and aggressive peers, then this child is exposed to more negative than positive behaviors. This can cause the child to model what they are exposed to, which is negativity. However, if the same child is in an environment where the family is nurturing, the teachers are welcoming and encourage learning, and its’ peers display positive social skills, then the child is exposed to positive behavior and is more likely to display positive behavior than negative. This level is closest to the child and is the most influential level of the ecological system (Paquette & Ryan, 2001).

The next level of the ecological systems theory is the mesosystem. The mesosystem consists of how the people in the child’s microsystem interact with each other. The mesosystem is the connection, or the relationship, between the parents and the teachers or the child and their peers, to name a few. For example, if the child’s parents have a good relationship with his or her teacher and are involved with their education, this can help encourage learning and promote good behavior and good grades at school. If the parents are not involved at school and do not interact with the child’s teacher regularly, the child may feel as if education is not important and may display poor behavior and grades at school, which affects their learning.

The ecological systems theory also includes the exosystem. The exosystem consists of people that the child may not interact with on a daily basis but still has an influence on that child such as their neighbors, a coach, a preacher. The exosystem could also consist of situations that may happen to the parents that indirectly affects the child such as promotions or layoffs at work. A promotion or layoff at work determines how the child will be taken care of and impacts their physical needs (Oswalt, 2008). This type of situation can be either negative or positive for the child. A preacher or a coach can be looked upon as a role model or mentor to the child and can be very influential to a child and their development.

The last two levels of the ecological systems theory are the macrosystem and the chronosystem. The macrosystem consists of cultures, values, and laws. The macrosystem “describes the culture in which individuals live” (Santrock, 2007). The macrosystem has much to do with what is going on in society and how it affects the child. For example, a recession, a war, how society views gender roles, and the child’s family values, can all greatly affect the development of a child. This can influence how a child feels about the government, its views on war, or what the child grows up to value. The chronosystem is life events that can alter or change how the child feels about certain things or situations. For example, any transition such as a death of a parent, a birth of another child, or a divorce can change the views of a child.

Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory of development has helped to shape my development because as I was a young child, my parents were affectionate and nurturing towards myself and my siblings, we were raised in a positive, stable, and structured environment, and my parents supported a good education and were involved with our teachers in school. The way my parents raised me has helped me to become a great mother to my son. I try to make sure that the people in his microsystem that he deals with directly are positive in order to help him develop and grow into a positive individual. I consider myself to be nurturing and supportive towards my son. We have a good relationship and I try to raise him a positive environment as well. I instill in him, the values that my parents instilled in me. Since my levels in the ecological system were positive as I was growing up, I feel that it has influenced me to become a well-rounded individual. It has helped me to have morals, values, and self-respect.

The levels in my ecological system have influenced me to value education and to want to pursue an education on the graduate level. Because I take my role as a mother seriously, I want to offer my son the best life possible. This means that I have to be a great provider for him, which includes having a stable job that pays well and working in a career that I enjoy. I have always enjoyed learning about child development and I currently work with children in the mental health field. Obtaining a master’s degree will help me to be able to develop and grow personally and more professionally so that I can be a better provider for my family as well as get a job in the field that I wish to pursue. My career goals include working with children and adolescents either in the school system, as a child psychologist or social worker, or in the juvenile justice field. In the future, I hope to continue working with children directly, as a part of their microsystem, in order to make a difference and be a positive influence to them, as individuals in my microsystem were to me.

So, is it safe to say that “people are a product of their environment?” I think Dr. Urie Bronfenbrenner did a good job of showing that this can be true by developing the ecological systems theory. However, we still have to be aware of the fact that although a child’s environment is very influential to their development, they have the power to change, or transition, their thoughts and beliefs. We must remember that a person’s beliefs systems can also be affected by experiences and situations that they encounter throughout life. So, yes our environment is very influential to our development, but we do not have to be a product of our environment since we are able to make changes within ourselves to become who we want to be.

References

Darling, N. (2007). Ecological Systems Theory: The Person in the Center of the Circles. p. 204. Retrieved December 20, 2012 from http://www.uamont.edu/facultyweb/brown/PSY4683/Darling(2007).pdf Fox, M. (2005). Urie Bronfenbrenner; renowned authority on child development. New York Times News Service. Retrieved December 20, 2012 from http://www.utsandiego.com/uniontrib/20051002/news_mz1j2urie.html Oswalt, A. (2008). Urie Bronfenbrenner and Child Development. Retrieved December 21, 2012 from http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=7930&cn=28 Paquette, D. & Ryan, J. (2001). Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory. Retrieved December 20, 2012 from http://people.usd.edu/~mremund/bronfa.pdf Santrock, J. (2007). Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory. Retrieved December 20, 2012
from http://impactofspecialneeds.weebly.com/bronfenbrennerrsquos-ecological-systems-theory.html

Ecological Systems Theory Essay

Case: Gas or Grouse? Essay

Case: Gas or Grouse? Essay.

1. Systemic issues: Questar is a company and it knows that every mining activities in Mesa will affect the ecological environment. But BLM did nothing since Questar had damaged the local environment. And we know many gas companies have special relationship with governments. Corporate issues: Questar has destroyed the environment when the mining operation was begun. Individual issues: The people who live in Pinedale Mesa believe the drilling activity bring numerous benefits, including jobs, revenues, and local economy. So they welcome the gas companies go to there.

2. Maintain their natural habitat. Protect the existing population, prevent from extinction, facilitate them to breed. If Questar have high awareness for Concerning with environment impacts, this value can be balanced against the economic interests. For the principles, the environmentalist said that technological improvements should not come at the sacrifice of important safeguards for Wyoming’s wildlife heritage. And we have protection law of wildlife also.

3. This is the dilemma between energy source and environment responsibility.

I think Questar should not stop exploit gas but it can stop continually drilling operations. And I also think if Questar’s operations damage too much to the environment, the government will prohibited the operations forcibly to protect the environments.

4. They should follow the requirement of governments, use the new technology aim the drilling operations and damage the environments as little as possible.

5. From the ethical point of view, #4 option is the best, because we cannot stop developing the economy, and we have to find the best way to balance the benefits and moralities. And #4 option include both of them.

6. Yes, they are. Because they are endangered species, we have to protect them, and in order to protect them, we have to decrease for the damage of environment, which is reduce the pollution. The loss of species can be evaluated an external cost, because An external costs occurs when producing or consuming a good or service imposes a cost upon a third party, and for protect the loss of species, we should spend more money on technology or transportation. This is the external cost.

Case: Gas or Grouse? Essay

Deep Ecology and Its Relation to the Third World-Guha Essay

Deep Ecology and Its Relation to the Third World-Guha Essay.

This paper will begin with an exposition of the article, “Radical Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation: A Third World Critique” written by Ramachendra Guha, a sociologist and historian involved in ecological conflict in the East and the West. In this article, he refers to American environmentalism as “deep ecology”, a modern theory founded by Arne Naess. Guha’s argues that based on a comparison of the concepts of deep ecology and other cultural environmentalisms, deep ecology is strictly rooted in American culture and thus, leads to negative social consequences when it is applied to the Third World.

This argument will be achieved by first defining deep ecology and its principles.

Next I will offer Guha’s critique of deep ecology which consists of four points and then, I will identify the factors that differentiate it from other social and political goals belonging to other cultural environmental ethics. After this, I refer to David M. John’s “The Relevance of Deep Ecology to the Third World: Some Preliminary Comments,” to object to Guha’s critique as an accurate description of deep ecology.

Finally, I will respond to this objection using Guha’s “Deep Ecology Revisited,” arguing that Guha’s critique concerning that deep ecology leads to negative social consequences on the Third World is accurate.

First, according to Naess, deep ecology is the second of two ecological movements, the first being “shallow ecology”. This concerns a fight against pollution and resource depletion in order to protect the health and wealth of society. In view of this, shallow ecology only values the environment in so far as its destruction has an effect on human welfare. Hence, humans are extrinsic and superior to nature and nature is only of instrumental value to us. However, this ecology exclusively concerns developed countries. In contrast, deep ecology is a branch of ecological philosophy that questions how anthropocentric attitudes such as our need for consumerism and materialism negatively impact the environment. Accordingly, it preaches that the environment should be intrinsically valued. This notion originates from biocentrism; the belief that the non human world is of equal importance because of its intrinsic relation to humans.

In other words, since humans are not extrinsic to the non human world and thus, since we are a part of this intrinsic relation which defines the beings within this relationship, to eliminate it would lead to a change in the beings as such. This is because by not acknowledging our existence as part of this intrinsic relationship we are alienating ourselves. And so, to encourage such a relationship deep ecology integrates Eastern religious traditions with the goal of communicating human’s mystical connection with nature. Having established this, I next provide Guha’s analysis of deep ecology. In order to present a fair argument of deep ecology Guha critiques it as a partisan of the environmental ethic of India due to its similar ecological diversity. Guha’s criticism is founded on the current American ecological and social issues which he states are preventing deep ecology to succeed. His critique consists of four points: the first states that the two fundamental ecological problems are not related to the distinction between anthropomorphism and biocentrism, deep ecology’s fundamental point.

Guha states that deep ecology’s misguided motivation to preserve biotic integrity over the preservation of human life does not address first, the overconsumption by industrialized world, including the small wealth population in the Third World and second, the growing militarization. The second states that the emphasis on wilderness encouraged by deep ecology causes negative effects on the Third world. Guha states that because the majority of the population in India is involved in agriculture and thus, find it necessary to have a balanced relationship with nature, the actions taken by deep ecology to preserver wilderness areas is leading to the natural resources of the agricultural population to be lost to the rich and thus unattainable by the poor. Guha identifies that the American method of wilderness preservation means to displace entire agricultural villages, without their consent. This is done in order to transform the wilderness into touristic areas to generating profit from the higher classes. In other words, in Roderick Nash’s opinion, wilderness preservation benefits the rich, the urban and the sophisticated.

Also, this transformation of wilderness areas is achieved through financial battles between funding institutions, technology and political strategy. For this reason, whatever negatively affects the agricultural class is dismissed. According to this, Guha argues that issues like the one previously mentioned originate and are supported by the preoccupation of wilderness preservation’s aspect of deep ecology. Third, this American movement integrates Eastern religious traditions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Taoism yet only uses what it needs from these traditions in order to make deep ecology a universalistic philosophy. Thus, Guha states that the Eastern traditions are used to communicate a Western ideology. Mainly, to communicate human’s spiritual dependence with nature through a deep ecological consciousness. Finally, deep ecology is limited since it does not thoroughly address the variety of environmental issues.

Rather, according to Guha, it seems to be a branch of the wilderness preservation movement instead of it own environmental protection movement. This is because, like one of the characteristics of the wilderness movement, deep ecology aims at providing modern society with an escape from the hectic societal environment and to integrate this into American culture. This type of exposure to wilderness is merely an extension of the many desires that are inherent in the American culture to which society is dependent. In other words, wilderness has become part of the consumer society, the same society that deep ecology claims to aim to reconceive. Guha refers to this as a consequence of economic and political dominance. This dominance leads to wilderness being a manifestation of American nationalism. Admittedly, the American national park system is one of America’s defining characteristics.

Hence, Guha states that Western civilization is the ideal medium for both wilderness and civilization to live in conjunction yet this medium dismisses its economical and social consequences. In contrast, Guha compares deep ecology to the German environmental movement known as the Green program. He states that the Green has realised that the American economy has a direct negative effect on the Third World. This is due to the industrialization, militarization and the American history of subordination beginning with colonization. This has lead to a distorted distribution of resources in the world and as a result has increased the lower class population. The Green responds to this issue with the theory of a “no growth economy” through a re-evaluation of the consumerist ethic concerning self-limitation. However, this is not an easy change since it requires a new political and economical system which will still be fundamentally grounded in cultural values.

For example, both German and Indian environmental movements greatly value social justice concerning social and ecological concerns involving work, lifestyle and most importantly, do not emphasis wilderness preservation. Therefore, from this Guha concludes that two differentiating features from the German and Indian environmental movement is: one, environmental change is for the aim of survival rather than an improvement in quality of life. That is to say, that it is a necessary treatment instead of a superfluous enhancement. Two, as a result of this needed treatment there is an eqyal emphasis on economic and political distribution. And so, the notion of deep ecology that believes wilderness preservation is more important than an all encompassing environmental preservation movement, originates from a Western worldview, more specifically from American culture.

Thus, the pursuit of colonialism and capitalism, which leads to social and economic inequalities, as demonstrated previously, must be revaluated if deep ecology is to succeed in thoroughly addressing environmental issues beyond wilderness preservation. Next, in reference to David M. Johns, even though he agrees with some points raise by Guha he argues that deep ecology is in fact its own movement and it does not strictly focus on wilderness protection. This being the case, deep ecology has the right approach for an environmental protection movement. Furthermore, unlike Guha, Johns argues that deep ecology’s distinction between anthropomorphism and biocentrism is relevant concerning the world’s two fundamental ecological issues: the overconsumption of the industrialized world as well as growing militarization. Johns begins by stating that wilderness is a good place for deep ecology to starts making changes as an environmental movement.

He supports this by listing two points that justify wilderness preservation. The first claims that since the Earth can support a limited amount of biomass-the living matter per unit-we must ensure that not all of it consists of humans, thus leaving room for nonhuman life. The second claims that as humans we do not have the right to alter nature’s ecosystems in so far as our actions lead to its destruction or alteration of its natural balance. However with that being said, all human societies with the exception of small groups pose a threat to the natural environment therefore, wilderness preservation is necessary; otherwise, an unhealthy environment has a direct effect on its inhabitants, human and nonhuman.

Furthermore, this notion correlates with deep ecology’s belief that nature must be intrinsically valued therefore, its preservation is required, especially when many ecosystems are in need to reparation. Moreover, Johns asserts that it is deep ecology’s priority to achieve a coexistence of humans and nature in an ecosystem. However, as Guha argued, it is also necessary to change our lifestyles for this to be possible; nevertheless, we must first begin with repairing the damage done on the environment. Next, according to Johns, the irrelevance of the distinction between anthropomorphism and biocentrism is not entirely true. In so far as humans approach nature from a biocentric attitude their actions towards nature will reflect this. The same applies for an anthropocentric attitude towards nature. Based on this notion, Johns argues that a biocentric world view will thus positively affect one’s choice in lifestyle and actions which in turn will limit human consumption and militarization.

However, as mentioned by Guha, such a change can only be accomplished through a collective biocentric world view and not achieved by individuals who choose this world view. Hence, a restructuring of the American economic and political systems is necessary. Seeing as limit in consumption depends on a biocentric view, the human species will limit its consumption based on its intrinsic value for the nonhuman world. In contrast, an anthropocentric worldview would encourage the value of one’s own human species. According to the Western culture, quality of life is determined by consumption. If we propose that everyone aims at living the best possible quality of life, this leads to everyone to consuming excessively. This is due to the economic and political dominance present in Western capitalism which functions on this notion. Capitalism cannot grasp the understanding of overconsumption as seen from the biocentric view since a maximising in consumption is what it consist of.

The same logic applies to limiting militarization. A biocentric world view will affect the decision concerning if war is a solution and thus will determine if natural resources and financial funding for such action are needed. Here we are limiting the funding of war which can be applied to the treatment of ecosystems. We are also preventing further damage to the nonhuman world by preventing the extraction of natural ressources. Once again, this is only possible because from a biocentric view, it is important to consider the non human world’s relation to our actions. In short, Johns agrees with Guha’s claim that an emphasis on wilderness preservation which leads to a dismissal of other environmental issues will be an unsuccessful environmental movement however; a biocentric worldview will naturally lead to a collective economical and political change such as a limitation in consumption and militarization. Nevertheless, Johns does not directly address the negative social consequences that deep ecology’s emphasis on wilderness preservation has on the Third World.

With reference to Guha’s “Deep Ecology Revisited” I argue that his critique concerning this is accurate. In Guha’s “Radical Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation: A Third World Critique,” he states that the preoccupation with wilderness preservation is in a large part due to biologists. In “Deep Ecology Revisited” Guha states that the because of a Westernized, developed background, the biologist believes that he has the authority to tell a native from the Third World that it is justifiable to displace one from one’s land in order to preserve it and claim that such authority also entitles the biologist to declare it as Western territory. Guha follows with an example from Raymond Bonner’s ”At the Handof Man” which talks about the imperialist manifesto of Westerners such as, some biologist who have done this in Africa.

Bonner writes that Africans have been manipulated, ignored and dominated by white Westerners. He states that the Westerners are creating parks that benefit other white people such as tourists which Africans, although they are not interested in the parks, are directly affected from the removal of their land. They are also affected by the indirect economic cost-government revenues from the park’s construction. Based on this example, Guha is right to claim that the wilderness protection movement is directly the cause of drastic consequences, such as poverty in Third world countries. What justifies these actions is not only deep ecology’s interest in preservation but also, an opportunity for economical growth for the American economy. The construction of an American park in other countries such as in Africa, imposes American culture on the African people.

Thus, the people have not only lost their land and homes, but their right as the people of the land has been removed. In conclusion, Guha is right to argue that deep ecology, being culturally rooted in American culture, does claim to be a universal environmental movement yet, when it is applied to other countries such as the Third World it does provide a solution to environmental issues. Rather, it emphasises wilderness preservation which economically benefits the American economy while negatively damaging a country through the harm of its people and its people’s culture.

Bibliography

Guha, Ramachandra, “Deep Ecology Revisited”, In The Great new Wilderness Debate, (Athens, Georgia: Georgia Press), 1998. pp.271-279. Guha, Ramachandra, “Radical Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation: A Third World Critique”, In Environmental Ethics: Readings in Theory and Application, Sixth Edition, Pojman, Louis P., and Paul Pojman, Towson University: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2012. Johns, David M., “The Relevance of Deep Ecology”, In The Great new Wilderness Debate, (Athens, Georgia: Georgia Press), 1990. pp. 246-270.

Naess, Arne, “The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecological Movement”, In Environmental Ethics: Readings in Theory and Application, Sixth Edition, Pojman, Louis P., and Paul Pojman, Towson University: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2012.

Deep Ecology and Its Relation to the Third World-Guha Essay

General Principles of Ecology Essay

General Principles of Ecology Essay.

The term ecology refers to the study of abundance and distribution of living organism in an ecosystem, together with the interaction that exists between them and the natural environment. The distribution of organisms is usually influenced by the adaptation of a certain organism to the environment. An adaptation refers to an organism’s ability to exist successfully in a given environment. Therefore, organisms can only exist in environments that they are adapted to. When a given species of animal or plant is adapted in a given natural environment, then it becomes distributed in that environment densely and in high numbers.

Those that lack the ability to adapt well are poorly distributed, since they cannot cope with the pressures or stress that emanate from the environmental conditions. Different species of plants can be adapted to low and high –nutrient environments. Plants always try to adapt to the environments in several ways. The plants that inhabit low –nutrient areas grow at a slow rate, as an adaptation to the scarcity of nutrients.

These plants also have the ability to recycle nutrients internally. Those in high nutrient areas on the other hand grow fast. They have the ability to control the absorption of nutrients at minimum levels.

The breakdown of dead organic matter in the soil undergoes several processes. The first process of breakdown involves the alteration of the organic matter chemical components. This is then followed by another process, whereby the chemical components are split or fragmented. After undergoing these two processes, the organic matter mineral nutrients are then released into the soil and they are then converted into simpler components that can be absorbed by the plants. The day length influences the seasonal activity of plants and animals, because the length of the day length triggers certain changes.

These changes include the climatic patterns in an area. Both plants and animals synchronize their behavioral and physiological activities with the seasonal changes. By doing this, they are able to carry out certain activities based on the season of the year. For example, the migration in animals is sometimes synchronized with the seasonal changes. Plants on the other hand, synchronize activities such as pollination with seasons when the activity can be easily facilitated by the pollinators. Temperature conditions in a given natural ecosystem affect the response of both the homeotherms and the poikilotherms.

While the homeotherms have the ability to maintain their internal environment temperature at a stable level, the poikilotherms on the other hand cannot regulate their internal environment temperature. Changes in temperature triggers behavioral changes in poikilotherms as they try to regulate their body temperature depending on the external temperature. For example, some poikilotherms may bask out in the sun so as to regulate body temperature by warming their bodies. The homeotherms try to regulate their body temperature using feedback mechanisms in their body systems.

For instance, their blood vessels may undergo dilatation or constriction as their bodies try to conserve heat. Climatic changes may trigger an inactive state in animals, especially during the cold season or winter. Hibernation and torpor are two examples behavioral adaptations in animals to very low temperatures. In both, animals go into a state of inactivity and they lower their body metabolism as a strategy of conserving energy . However, there is one major difference between the two. In hibernation, the animals’ body temperature at a significant level. Animals that hibernate become inactive for a long period of time.

Torpor on the other hand is whereby animals lower their body temperature but at minimal levels as compared to that in hibernators. Animals that undergo torpor may be inactive but usually wake up several times. The Black Bear is not considered as a true hibernator because its body temperature does not reduce significantly as that of a true hibernator . Furthermore, the bear remains alert and active during the period of “hibernation”.

References

Odum, E. P. (1971) . General Principles of Ecology, Third Edition W. B. Suanders Company. Smith, T. M. , and Smith, R. L. (2005). Elements of Ecology. (6th Edition). Benjamin Cummings Publishers

General Principles of Ecology Essay

Ecology Report of Brighami Rockii Essay

Ecology Report of Brighami Rockii Essay.

Any region with significant level of biodiversity exposed to threat of destruction can have severe deforestation and other forms of agricultural clearing like logging, charcoal-making, etc. Due to this degradation of its ecological habitats, such region may become a home for critically endangered endemic species. Researchers have it that the less rainforest a given region has, the greater the proportion of endangered species it hosts. In Hawaii, two native plants were identified as the most critically endangered species.

Brighamia rockii & Brighamia insignis are endemic to the region.

Both of these species are similar to each other except their respective colors. Both of them also have succulent stems that function as water storage allowing them to sustain amidst drought season. B. rockii though is different in color. It is a native plant with purple trunks that develops in its early stage, while B. insignis does not change its color at all. B. Rockii can grow spectacularly as a branched plant 1 to 5 meters tall along with its thick succulent stems that narrows from the base.

It has elliptical leaves that forms and looks like the head of a cabbage. B. Rockii produces fragrant flowers that have corollas in white and anthers which are grouped in three to eight in its axils. Few of the associated species of B. rockii are Metrosideros polymorpha (ohia), Canthium odoratum (alahee), Diospyros sandwicensis (lama), Osteomeles anthyllidifolia (ulei), and Scaevola gaudichaudii (naupaka). B. Rockii is an endemic native plant that belongs to the family of bellflowers known as Campanulaceae. Its common names are alula, ‘olulu, pu aupaka and pua ‘ala.

B. Rockii is also tagged with taxonomic synonyms namely, Brighamia remyi, Brighamia rockii fa. and Longiloba Known to have been extinct, this plant is only found on sea cliffs in the island of Moloka (Hannon 2002; Wagner 1999) i. Its natural habitats, however, are coastal dry forests, moist shrub lands above sea level up to 470 meters elevation. B. rockii is common to Molokai and extends to the northern part of the island – Kalaupapa to Halawa. However, just recently, it has been found out that it has become an almost died out specie in Lanai and Maui.

Hand pollination for cultivated plants allows its seed production to increase because its native pollinator are also extinct. Similarly, for the Brighamia to be hand pollinated, the use of a small paint brush is needed to transfer the pollen grains. When the flowers of B. Rockii are yet a few days old, the pollen will begin to drop. The paint brush can then be used to pick up the pollens that fell onto the flower tube and place it over to another flower’s stigma. This stigma is good to receive the pollen when it appears sticky and glossy.

Researchers found out that the seeds of Brighamia need the presence of light to produce and sprinkle the seeds onto the surface of a damp medium. These seeds can also be stored in a refrigerator from 2 to 3 years but its capability depreciates after 10 to 12 months. It was also found out from NTBG report ((Ragone 1993) that came out on 1993 that the seeds of Brighamia were no longer viable after it has been stored in an area with a temperature of 80 degrees F and humidity of 25 % for 1 year and 5 months (Hannon 2002; Koob 2000; NTBG 1992; Ragone 1993; Wagner 1999).

The plant was believed to be extinct but was rediscovered in 1996. From its discovery, only few remained and became part of the current population estimated to run at most 5 in numbers. “No bird, butterfly, flower, tree or animal disappears alone. When they slip into extinction, they disappear with their unique genes – the building blocks of life (Dr. Norman Meyer of Oxford University). ” These species, rare finds and threatened, may cease to exist even without being given a name. Yet again, Brighamia rockii is just one of the most critically endangered.

There are more that are susceptible to extinction too. Still, some remained unnoticed. Perhaps, extinction is natural but if we, humans alike are hastening the process, then probably our race comes with the extinction as well. “Man has lost the capacity to foresee and forestall. He will end by destroying earth (Schweitzer 2004). ”

References

Hannon, Dylan P. and Steve Perlman. 2002. The Genus Brighamia. Cactus and Succulent Journal 74 (2):67-76. Johnson, Margaret. 1986. Brighamia citrina var. napaliensis.

Kew Magazine 3 (2):68-72. Koob, Gregory A. 2000. Cabbage on a baseball bat. Hawai’i Horticulture 3 (6):9-11. National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG). 1992. Alula. In Native Hawaiian plant information sheets. Lawai, Kauai: Hawaii Plant Conservation Center. National Tropical Botanical Garden. Unpublished internal papers. Ragone, Diane, (Program Coordinator). 1993. Hawaii Plant Conservation Center – Collection & Propagation Project: Progress Report (USFWS Grant 14-48-0001-92581). Lawai, Hawaii: National Tropical Botanical Garden.

Ecology Report of Brighami Rockii Essay

Eutrophication Essay

Eutrophication Essay.

Generally, eutrophication occurs when the rate of nutrient accumulation is greater than the rate of nutrient removal (Heggie, 2006). Because of unnecessary high nutrient content of the soil, plants experience stunted growth, (as indicated in some of its salient features) fishes die in rapid succession, and a general deterioration of water quality. Nitrogen and phosphorus are generally the nutrients which cause these problems, but in estuaries located in temperate regions nitrogen is effective in maintaining plant growth.

An estuary has an opening to a body of water, a sea or lake, and as such all nutrients accumulated in the estuary will be transferred to the lake or sea.

This process is called eutrophication. Simply, it is defined as the process by which bodies of water age and becomes productive (http://www. umanitoba. ca/institutes/fisheries/eutro. html). Because nutrients from estuaries are accumulated to these bodies of water, they become nutrient sufficient, resulting in pollution. Algal and bacterial growth in the bodies of water becomes prominent.

This causes a general depletion of oxygen in the shallower parts of these bodies of water.

The next step is decomposition. When nutrients settle to the bottom of a body of water, bacteria growth is expected. Because oxygen is needed in the decomposition process, it will deplete the oxygen content of the deeper section of a body of water. Fish kills would be prominent. Pollution would result if the rate of nutrient accumulation becomes unstoppable. Because nutrients are passing from the drainage area (catchment), this will help oxidize some of the other complement nutrients in the area (Chen et. al. , 2007). When this happens, the body of water becomes an avenue of toxic wastes from chemical reactions.

The rate of productivity of the lake or part of the sea becomes a part of its deterioration process. This is further aggravated by the increased activities of humans in areas close to estuaries. The wastes and chemicals dumped by humans in lakes or bodies of water cause a general decline of nutrient fulgurations. The estuary however unlike the eutrophication process that occurs in the lakes and seas attached to it experiences, in the short-run, a net downward rate of nutrient accumulation (the rate of nutrient accumulation is less than the rate of nutrient removal).

This depletes the soil of the necessary nutrients to maintain plant growth. However because of the added pollution from the farms (which passes from the catchment), the estuary also suffers from toxic wastes sip into the soil. The relative acidity and toxicity of the soil (around the estuary) stunts plant growth, and possibly a long-term drying of the surrounding land. In the long-run, because the toxicity level of the estuary is balanced with the toxicity level of the lake, the rate of nutrient accumulation becomes almost similar from that of the rate of removal.

This constancy in the eutrophication equation becomes irreversible, since it would involve structuring the whole body of water attached to the estuary The effects of eutrophication on the estuary are as follows: 1) diversity of species generally decreases, 2) biomass increases, 3) there is an increase of turbidity, 4) the rate of sedimentation increases, 5) development of anoxic conditions (General effects of eutrophication, http://www. lenntech. com/eutrophication-water-bodies/eutrophication-effects. htm).

Because of certain types of species cannot withstand the increased toxicity of the water, they move to other environments. Species that depend on them for food also leave the place. Plant and animal biomass also becomes apparent. When plant and animal biomass dies, decomposition results in the general depletion of the estuary’s supply of oxygen (http://www. jamstec. go. jp/jamstec-e/tech/tech_3g/eutroE. html) Turbidity (measure of the loss of water’s transparency) also becomes a permanent feature of the estuary.

Eutrophication Essay

Human ecology Essay

Human ecology Essay.

As it is evident that the earth is in the verge of being overwhelmed by pollution and destruction and the only way to alleviate this is for humanity to “go green” or be more earth friendly. If I were given the money to do so, I would practice “go green” living. For starters, the car I would purchase would be a Honda Civic Hybrid. Hybrid cars are the alternative to cars that consume fossil fuels – main contributors to global warming and pollution.

With the Honda Civic Hybrid, one does not have to give up style and luxury in order to give way to be more earth-friendly as the fuel it uses is hybrid or a combination of natural gas, gasoline electric hybrid and natural gasoline. On the other hand, I want to build a house in a dune as this does not need cooling, hence, there would be no need for air conditioning. It should also be facing south, towards the sun in order to utilize the sun and its heat.

The house must also have a cistern that will capture rainwater which will be used for flushing toilets and watering the lawns.

Furthermore, it must be built with pine or from wood coming from sustainable forests – trees that grow quick. Since the house is facing south and utilizing the sun’s heat, it is good to add solar panels on a recycled rubber roof to provide heating through coils in the floor. The sun’s solar power can also be used to power the appliances inside. It is still possible to splurge on appliances; although in order to save electricity, the appliances inside the house must be energy efficient especially the air conditioner, water heater, furnace and refrigerator. For entertainment, cable television will do and a CD player for some music.

Human ecology Essay

Ecological Succession Essay

Ecological Succession Essay.

As long as the earth has existed, changes have occurred in the natural landscape. Ecology, a term created in the 19th century from the Greek “ oikos” (household) and “logos” (study), is the study of nature as an orderly system of interaction between plants and animals with their environments. (Allen, 4).

     These changes in the ecological system are called ecological succession. They are usually orderly changes in the composition or structure of an ecological community, and are the foundational concept of ecology.

      An ecosystem undergoes change as time (in tens and hundreds of years) passes.

The thrust of ecological change can be inferred by site conditions, by interactions of the species that are present, and by more stochastic factors, such as availability of seeds and colonists, weather conditions, and the time of disturbance. (Ecological Succession, 1).

Ecological change is a transformation that takes communities to a situation of dynamic equilibrium with the earth. Ecological  succession happens because each species deals with the problem of colonization over time as to abiotic or nonliving factors; (weather, light and soil characteristics) and biotic or living factors: (abundance of natural enemies and competitive abilities of other species).

The integration of biotic and abiotic interaction is an important part of healthy ecology. These components change equilibrium. For example rain, temperature, and the difference in soil affect different types of plant and animals that can live in each place; eg; a  desert has cacti because of little rain.

      The colonization process of landscapes occurs because of invasive organisms. It typically happens that communities in early succession will be dominated by fast growing, well dispersed species (fugitive, opportunistic, R selected life histories species). Yet as succession progresses, these species will be replaced by more competitive or k selected species (“Ecological Succession,” 1).

      Ecosystems tend to change with time until a stable system forms. The type of succession which occurs depends upon climate and other characteristics of a given geologic occurrence. First come pioneer organisms such as grasses from a plowed field or lichen on rock. They modify the environment until creating conditions less favorable for themselves, but establishing conditions under which more advanced organisms can live. Over time the succession takes place in a series of plant stages which lead to a stable final community  which originally existed. This final stable community is called a climax community.

    Although this concept was popularized by Fredrick Clements who believed that the successional sequence of communities were highly predictable and ended in a climatically determined stable climax, with all nature in an orderly and well regulation system of interaction, the idea was abandoned by modern ecology in favor of nonequilibrium concepts of how ecological systems function.

Most natural ecosystems experience disturbance at a rate that makes a climax community unattainable. Climate change often hinders the occurrence of a climax state. Also, available species pools through range expansions and introductions can also reshape communities. Climax communities are typically seen as the ultimate development of the ecosystem.

    There are two types of succession: primary and secondary. Primary succession is the colonization of a section which previously never supported an ecosystem (sand  dunes, new ponds, volcanoes). Secondary succession has previously supported ecosystems whose progression to a steady state has been prevented by inhibiting factors such as grazing or fire.

The sequence of the community during succession is called sere. The type of sere depends upon the environment being colonized. The individual community of each succession are seral stage. They tend to merge into one another as the succession progresses. The product of an ecosystem undergoing succession increases as the succession progresses toward the final goal.

    Secondary succession takes place after the   clearance of ag land, spores , seeds, and vegetable organisms are viable, and there is an influx of animal and plants.According to Naturlink (p1):

     Given a certain set of controlling factors:                        Results in a certain configu-

                                                                                              ration of basic ecosystem

                                                                                              Alterations:

            Time                                                                          Soil                                                      Climate                                                                    Vegetation

            Initial organisms                                                        Consumers

            Relief (topography)                                                  Decomposers

           Parent material                                                         Microclimate

            Chance events

    These factors demonstrate that the development of an ecological system over time (ecological succession) occurs similarly with many other factors and changes to product given the set of ecosystem attributes.

References

Allen, T. (1988). Ecology. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Cunha, Rui.(2006). “Ecological Succession,”in Naturlink.pt. Retrieved 17

    August, 2006. http://www. Naturlink.pt//

“Ecological Succession.” (2006). Wikipedia. Retrieved 18 August 2006.

     http://www.wikipedia.org/ecologicalsuccession//

Ecological Succession Essay

Conservation of natural resources Essay

Conservation of natural resources Essay.

The term “resource” means anything that we use from our environment to achieve our objective. For example, we require bricks, cement, iron, wood etc. to construct a building. All these items are called the resources for construction of building. Are source can be defined as „any natural or artificial substance, energy or organism, which is used by human being for its welfare. These resources are of two types: 1.Natural resources

2.Artificial resources
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES the human population is continuously growing the consumption of natural resources is also increasing.

With the increasing industrialization and urbanization of the modern human society, the use of all the resources is rising. If they are not properly used and well managed, a serious scarcity will result. Therefore we need to conserve the natural resources. This will also upset the ecological balance. Conservation is the proper management of a natural resource to prevent its exploitation, destruction or degradation.

Conservation is the sum total of activities, which canderive benefits from natural resources but at the same time prevents excessive use leading to destruction or degradation. Need for Conservation of Natural Resources We know that nature provides us all our basic needs but we tend to overexploit it. If we go on exploiting the nature, there will be no more resources available in future.

There is an urgent need to conserve the nature. Some of the needs are: to maintain ecological balance for supporting life.To preserve different kinds of species (biodiversity).To make the resources available for present and future generation.To ensure the survival of human race. Conservation of Natural Resources and Traditions of India. The need for conservation of natural resources was felt by our predecessors and in India; there was a tradition of respecting and preserving the nature and natural resources. Natural resources were conserved in the form of sacred groves/forests, sacred pools and lakes, sacred species etc. In our country the conservation of natural forests is known from the time of Lord Asoka. Sacred forests are forest patches of different dimensions dedicated by the tribal to their deities and ancestral spirits. Cutting down trees, hunting and other human interferences were strictly prohibited in these forests.

This practice is wide spread particularly in peninsular, central and eastern India and has resulted in the protection of a large number of plants and animals and. Similarly, several water bodies, e.g., Khecheopalri Lake in Sikkim was declared sacred by people, thus, protecting aquatic flora and fauna. Worshipping certain plants like banyan, peepal, tulsi etc. has not only preserved them but also encouraged us for their plantation. History recalls numerous instances where people have laid down their lives in protecting the trees. Recent Chipko movement in India is one of the best examples. This movement was started by the women in Gopeshwar village in Garhwal in the Himalayas. They stopped the felling of trees by hugging them when the lumbermen arrived to cut them. This saved about 12000 square kilometers of the sensitive water catchment Conservation of Soil In the previous section we learnt about the various causes of soil erosion. Soil loses its fertility due to erosion.

So we need to conserve the soil. Soil conservation means checking soil erosion and improving soil fertility by adopting various methods. Let us know some of thesemethods.1. Maintenance of soil fertility: The fertility can be maintained by adding manure and fertilizers regularly as well as by rotation of crop.2. Control on grazing: Grazing should be allowed only on the areas meant for it and not on agricultural land.3. Reforestation: Planting of trees and vegetation reduces soil erosion by both water and wind.4. Terracing: Dividing a slope into several flat fields to control rapid runoff water. It is practiced mostly in hilly areas.5. Contour ploughing: Ploughing at right angles to the slope allows the furrows to trap water and check soil erosion by rain water. Conservation of Water Conservation and management of water are essential for the survival of mankind, plants and animals.

This can be achieved adopting the following methods: 1. Growing vegetation in the catchment areas, which will hold water in the soil and allow it to percolate into deeper layers and contribute to formation of ground water.2. Constructing dams and reservoirs to regulate supply of water to the fields, as well as to enable generating hydroelectricity.3. Sewage should be treated and only the clear water should be released into the rivers.4. Industrial wastes (effluents) should be treated to prevent chemical and thermal pollution of fresh water.5. Judicious use of water in our day-to-day life. Rainwater harvesting should be done by storing rainwater and recharging groundwater. Conservation of Biodiversity Now you have an idea of the importance of biodiversity for our survival and how it is destroyed. Let us know how to protect the biodiversity. There are two basic strategies for conservation of biodiversity:(i) In-situ conservation(ii) Ex-situ conservation(i) In-situ (on site) conservation includes the protection of plants and animals within their natural habitats or in protected areas. Protected areas are areas of land or sea dedicated to protection and maintenance of biodiversity.

For example: e.g., National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Biosphere Reserves, etc. (ii) Ex-situ (off site) conservation is the conservation of plants and animals outside their natural habitats. These include Botanical Gardens, Zoo, Gene Banks, DNA Banks, Seed Banks, Pollen Banks, Seedling and Tissue Culture etc. Conservation of Forests is an important part of the environment, because trees clean the air and keep the atmosphere cool. We cannot live without plants, because the oxygen need for breathing is produced by plants. Trees absorb sunlight and reduce the heat. Plants provide fodder for animals, firewood, timber, medicines, honey, wax, gum, lac and food for us. Tree roots penetrate deep into the soil and from cavities in the ground. The dry leaves which fall on ground cover the soil and absorb more rain water, which slowly percolates through the soil. Thus, a large portion of the rain water can be retained in the field, by planting more trees.

Flooding or rivers can be prevented by protecting trees in the forest. For the conservation of forests, following methods can be taken: (a) Conservation of forest is a national problem so it must be tackled with perfect coordination between forest department and other departments. (b) Peoples participation in the conservation of forests is of vital importance. So, we must get them involved in this national task.(c) The cutting of trees in the forests must be stopped at all costs.(d) Afforestation or special programmes like Van Mahotsava should be launched on grand scale.(e) Celebrations of all functions, festivals should precede with tree-plantation.(f) Cutting of timber and other forest produce should be restricted.(g) Grasslands should be regenerated.(h) Forest conservation Act 1980 should be strictly implemented to check deforestation.(i) Several centers of excellence have been setup and awards should be instituted. LEGISLATION FOR CONSERVATION various acts and laws have been passed in Indian constitution for conservation of natural resources. Some of them are:

Environment Protection Act, 1986
Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 National Forest Policy, 1988
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and amended in 1991 13.

What is Environment? Our Environment is our surrounding. This includes living and non-living things around us. The non-living components of environment are land, water and air. The living components are germs, plants, animals and people. All plants and animals adjust to the environment in which they are born and live. A charge in any component of the environment may cause discomfort and affect normal life. Any unfavorable change or degeneration in the environment is known as ‘Environmental Pollution. We need to protect our environment to live happily. 14. How to Maintain a Good Environment? For better environment, all its components should be protected from pollution and the surroundings should be clean.

We need to take good care of our land, water resources, forests and atmosphere. It is also necessary to ensure a balance between these resources and living creatures, to meet our needs. 15. What Role can Children Play in Preventing Environment Pollution? Children in rural and urban areas can play an important role in preventing environment pollution very effectively there is great satisfaction in doing it ourselves. 16. What Can Rural Children do?

Children in village can persuade their parents to:
Use smokeless chulhas or install biogas plants;
Provide smoke outlets and ventilation in the kitchen;
Tie livestock outside the house and reduce their number
Feed livestock in their sheds without letting them out for grazing;
Plant trees around the house, on field bunds and along roadsides; – Develop filed bunds across the slope the retain more water and prevent the soil being washed away. Plough the field across the slope;
Keep tanks, canals and other water sources clean;
Use the sewage water for growing trees;
Keep the surroundings of the house and well clean;
Prepare compost by using garbage, dung and other wastes;
Select a suitable site for the toilet, away from water sources and houses. It can also be connected to the biogas plant; Use agro-chemicals carefully and try to avoid them. Plant products may be preferred wherever effective to protect crops;
protect wildlife like frogs, snakes, mongoose, birds, etc. 17. What Can Urban Children do? Urban children can do a lot to reduce environment pollution.

Plant tress in school and home premises. Even if you are staying in a flat, plants and creepers can be raises in pots and wooden boxes, in the balcony;
Protect the trees planted along roadsides;
Keep public areas clean and avoid littering;
Plant trees along roadsides, near bus stops, around playgrounds, and in parks to provide shade;
Avoid dumping garbage on the street. Dispose them in a garbage dump; you can also make a compost pit to convert garbage into manure;
Waste paper, plastic, glass and metal pieces can be recycled this would reduce the pollution and conserve our resources;
Avoid using plastic materials such as plates and carry bags which cannot be used again. Moreover, when plastic is thrown away, it does not degrade but remains in the soil, polluting the surroundings;
Do not make noise in public places; every likes quiet surroundings;
Request your family members to use automobiles only when necessary; walking or cycling can be a pleasure when the distance is short;
If someone is causing pollution in your area, inform the authorities through your teachers or parents. 18. We can protect our environment in many ways. Let us act now and persuade others to join us. This will ensure safety for our future generations.

Nature has provided bountiful resources surrounding us for sustenance of a better life. Thus, any part of our natural environment such as land, water, air, minerals, forest, grassland, wildlife, fish or even human population that man can utilize to promote his welfare, may be considered as Natural Resources. These resources, along with human resources and capital, play a crucial role for expansion to national output which ultimately drives towards economic development. Hence, the existence or the absence of favorable natural resources can facilitate or retard the process of economic development. Natural resources include land, forests, wildlife resources, fisheries, water resources, energy resources, marine resources, and mineral resources.

These resources are usually known to man. But nature possesses more in its bosom which is still undiscovered. For example, the vast resources of solar, wind, tidal and geothermal energy are yet to be fully discovered and utilized. Man is required to develop scientific techniques for their proper utilization. Out of all those natural resources, some are exhaustible or nonrenewable type such as minerals and oils which can be used only one time. Once exhausted, they are depleted completely. But some others, like land, water, fisheries and forests are renewable or non-exhaustible in nature. If proper care is taken, they can be utilized endlessly. Hence for sustainable development, careful use of the exhaustible resources and maintenance of the quality of renewable resources are needed. For that, certain objectives should be followed. Objectives for Natural Resources Development

(i) Conversation of renewable resources and economic use of exhaustible resources for sustainable development.
(ii) Multipurpose use for resources,
(iii) Much emphasis should be given on development of non-conventional energy resources,
(iv) Economic use of resources to achieve minimum waste.
(v) Environmental impact assessment for new projects.
(vi) Nature of balance should not be disturbed through exploitation of natural resources. (A) Land Resources
The total land area of India is of 32, 87,262 sq. km. But statistical information is available for only 93 per cent of total area. Out of this the productive or cultivable land is only 47 per cent. Rest 19 per cent comes under forest, 9 per cent as fallow lands, 11 per cent as cultivable waste land and others. Figures of availability of arable land per capita reveal that India is not favorably placed in this respect. When India accounts for 15 per cent of world population, it possesses only 2.4 per cent of the land surface of the world. Hence efforts should be taken to increase cultivable area. Now it is trying to add fallow lands and cultivable waste lands which account for 20 per cent to net area sown and to increase the area under double cropping using modern scientific techniques. (B) Forest Resources

Forests are an important renewable natural resources that contribute substantially to economic development. They provide raw materials to a number of important industries, namely, matchboxes, paper, newsprint, rayon, furniture, construction, tanning etc. Apart from timbers and woods, forests are rich sources of varieties of valuable plants for medicine, spices, dyes, bamboo, canes, grasses, lac, gums, tanning materials etc. From checking of wood and soil erosion to wild life protection, rainfall, human recreation, water sheds and balance of nature, forests play a major role in enhancing quality of environment. The total area under forest is of 752.9 laky hectares which is 19 per cent of the total geographic are. This area is gradually decreasing year after year due to deforestation. On the basis of legal status forests are classified into (i) reserved (53%) (ii) protected (30%) and (iii) unclasped (17%) forests. Forest area is concentrated in few States like Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and a few union territories, but it is deficient in northern India. There is a need to develop forest areas in the entire country. (C) Forest Policy

The forest area is decreasing very fast day by day. Hence the Government of India declared its forest policy in 1952 to increase the forest areas. According to this policy, it was decided to raise steadily the forest area to 33 per cent for the country as a whole, 60 per cent area under the forests for hilly regions and for plains to bring this area to 20 per cent. The 1952 forest policy was again revised in 1988 and the main objective of the revised forest policy of 1988 is. Protection, Conservation and Afforestation. It emphasizes on: (i) Substantial increase in forest/tree cover through massive forestation and social forestry programmes. (ii) Maintenance of environmental stability through preservation and restoration of ecological balance. (iii) Conservation of natural heritage.

(iv) Check on soil erosion and denudation in catchment areas of rivers, lakes and reservoirs. (v) Check on extension of sand dunes in desert areas of Rajasthan. (vi) Steps to meet requirements of fuel wood, fodder and minor forest produce of rural and tribal populations. (vii) Increases in productivity of forests to meet national needs. (viii) Steps to generate massive people’s awareness to achieve objectives and minimize pressure on existing forests. The Department of Forest, Government of India has given much emphasis on Afforestation and development of waste lands, reforestation and plantation in the existing forest, prohibition of grazing and elimination of forest contractors.

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Conservation of natural resources Essay