Tourism is becoming the Driving Economic Force in Developing Countries
Tourism is the latest economic venture too many countries in the world both developing and developed nations. Tourism is the act of traveling for business or pleasure to a place away from home. There are dual categories of tourism which are domestic and global tourism. Actually, domestic tourism is wayfaring within the borders of a country while global tourism involves roving in other countries. Tourism boomed well after the Second World War especially when the United Nations signed the treaty of abolishing nuclear bomb attacks. From the 1980s the number of tourists increased with a greater margin. In the year 2011, the money earned from international tourism in the world accounted for US$ 1.03 which was about 4% increase of the amount earned in the year 2010 (Telfer & Sharpley 2015, p. 103). Many countries that have spectacular nature and diverse culture receive a high number of tourists all the year round. Environmental and political factors greatly favor tourism. Those countries with the stable environmental condition are likely to receive the tourist all the year round. Especially those located within the tropics since do not experience devastating weather condition like in summer and winter seasons. Political stability is a contributing factor that favors tourism in many countries. Tourist, usually prefer regions that are peaceful where enjoy their holidays without threats or fears of terrorism. Terrorism experienced in many countries in Africa and the Middle East affects the tourism industries in such countries and neighboring nation greatly. International tourism in such nation usually drops with a greater margin due to international countries issuing travel advice to their citizen. Another major blow to the tourism industry is outbreaks of communicable and influenza diseases such as H1N1, swine flu, Ebola, breathing problem among others (Honey & Gilpin 2009, p. 2). These fatal diseases instill fears to the tourists and avoid visiting such countries (Honey & Gilpin 2009, p. 2). In spite of all challenges, that face the tourism industry; it has become one of the major motivating strength of the economy in the developing countries.
Although developing countries have not invested more in the tourism, it remains to be one of the most important ventures of their economy. Tourism promotes peace, stability, and economic prosperity in developing countries a good example is Kenya, Rwanda, India, and Nigeria. There are many economic benefits that the developing country gain from the tourism but the most common one are job creation, income generation, diversifying agricultural economy, the growth of infrastructure and communication network, cross-cultural awareness and industrial growth. Leisure industry is the fourth major business in the world after three largest economic venture which are fuel chemicals and automotive. There is a faster expansion of tourism in developing countries in the recent past since it accounts for 83% of their foreign exchange earnings. This means that only one-third of their foreign exchange come from all the good export. In many poorest countries, tourism is the only source of foreign income. International tourism accounts about 98% of tourism in developing countries (Honey & Gilpin 2009, p. 3). Developing countries that have maintained a peaceful environment promote cultural and social traditions and enhance national cohesion experience optimum benefits from the tourism industry. In many developing countries, tourism is productive because of prioritizing in three main bodies. These bodies are the host community, the developing countries government, and the foreign agencies. The three constituents work together to ensure the success of the tourism industry, each of them it has specific roles that it plays in the industry. The host community shows the tourist hospitality, protecting the environment and their culture. The developing countries governments ensure there are peace and observe international tourist standards. Lastly, the foreign agencies advise the tourist on the viable economic venture and improve technology and economic transfers in developing countries.
Tourism does not only lead to the growth of national economy, but it also promotes the growth of the society as well as local industries that are present in the developing countries. Tourism in many developing countries transforms the economic venture of the communities by directly influence the growth of food industries, accommodation industries, cultural heritage, and social amenities. Tourism is the direct market of locally produced goods by the local communities. Most communities in developing countries usually involve in small-scale business and manufacturing industries most of the goods produce and sell them to the tourist. Tourism enhances the economy of many poor communities with rich cultural heritage and practice across many developing countries. Many of the communities especially those that live in marginalized areas benefit more from the tourism. Most of them were neglected and regarded as unproductive for many years. Tourism industries embrace their cultures of communities, especially those with rich cultural heritage. These spectacular characteristics enable the community to earn income. International tourism expands impressively in the countries that have communities with diverse cultural history and heritage. Tourist usually enjoys events that are unique. Unique cultural practices of the communities in developing countries attract a large number of tourist’s thus promoting tourism (Timothy & Nyaupane 2009, p. 184). When the number of tourist increase in developing countries, the economy of such countries is likely to flourish as a result of foreign exchange earned.
Tourism has anonymously endorsed travel, food, and accommodation industries in developing countries. The food supply in developing countries has increased as the result of the tourism. The demand for food is high in developing countries that receive a high number of tourist all the year round. The high demand for food promotes the agricultural industries where crop and livestock production increase to cater for the demand of food. Industries such as hotels, restaurants, bars, and food processing industries emerge as a result of tourism that needs an urgent supply of food. Tourism much favors beverage industries which are the vibrant growing industries in developing. Tourist frequently needs drinks as their mutual habit, using those drinks promotes beverage industries in developing countries. Tourism promotes food supply chain in many developing countries. An effective food supply chain offers a wide range of employment to artisans and professionals. Food supply chains offer employment to individuals such as drivers, sale person, food managers, chefs, waiters, cooks, cleaners, hotel managers among others. Some of these designations are seasonal, so can venture in other economic activity such as farming as an alternative method of generating income. The growth of tour guide and travels are as a result of tourism. Many tour guide and travel companies start due to increased number of the tourist in developing countries. These companies generate income used for the growth of the nation and generating income to people like tour guide personnel, translators, drivers among others. Lastly, tourism led to the growth of accommodation, leisure, and recreation industries. Many investors in developing countries invest more by coming up with modern flats, lodge, motels, and restaurant so as to host and accommodate tourist and in return earn the income (Matarrita-Cascante 2010, p. 1147). Leisure and recreation activities such as gym, swimming, scatting, music extravaganza, sauna, generate a lot of money used for economic growth.
Tourism promotes international cohesion and infrastructure development in the developing countries. Many governments of the developing countries are doing everything necessary to ensure can promote their infrastructure and social amenities so as to make the tourism impressive as the efforts of encouraging tourism. Improvement of infrastructures such as roads opens up the nation thus enhancing the economy. Social amenities such as health centers and schools in many communities in developing countries are as a result of tourism. This, in turn, promotes the living standard of the population in developing countries, leading them to be more economically productive. Tourism has promoted international cohesion as well as globalization (Azarya 2004, p. 953). The developing countries are today in a strong partnership with the developed countries as the result of the tourism. It has, in turn, led to the growth of international trade, which is significance to the economy of the developing countries. Trade relationship promotes industrialization in developing countries and attracts the foreign investors. Foreign investor promotes the economy of countries by paying taxes and providing employment. International cohesion promotes the market for raw materials produced by developing countries thus earning them foreign exchange.
United Nation integrated tourism with the accomplishment of millennium development goals (MDGs) five. The MDGs five concerns with eradicating the extreme poverty. Most of the developing countries have little natural resources such as minerals and fuel. Such countries mainly depend on agriculture as their main source of income. Over-reliance on agriculture, it makes most of the population from these countries to live in extreme poverty condition. Diversifying tourism and agriculture in many developing countries in the world led to significant change in the eradication of extreme poverty. UN world tourism organization made remarkable efforts in eliminating poverty in developing countries. In Mali, the organization educated local female artisans and integrated them with the tourism (Huybers 2007, p. 57). As a result, the household economy improved, as the efforts of reducing poverty. Tourism reduced poverty with a big margin, especially in developing countries.
Azarya, V 2004, Globalization and international tourism in developing countries: Marginality as a commercial commodity, Current Sociology, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 949-967.
Honey, M & Gilpin, R 2009, Tourism in the developing world. Promoting peace and reducing poverty, 233, pp. 1-12
Huybers, T 2007, Tourism in developing countries. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Matarrita-Cascante, D 2010. Beyond growth: Reaching tourism-led development, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 37, no.4, pp. 1141-1163.
Telfer, DJ & Sharpley, R 2015, Tourism and development in the developing world, Routledge. pp. 103-145.
Timothy, DJ & Nyaupane, GP 2009, Cultural heritage, and tourism in the developing world: A regional perspective, Routledge.