Report on Classroom Observation Essay

Report on Classroom Observation Essay.

Introduction Internship teaching is the culminating experience of the first degree program in education. It provides the opportunity to apply theoretical knowledge on pedagogies in the actual classroom setting and gain the experience. The internees are exposed to an environment where they encounter learners for the first time and face them with multitude of ideas, approaches, techniques and processes. During the internship period I got ample opportunities to demonstrate the art of teaching in actual situation and participate in all activities at the school level.

The duration of internship was one semester. I tried to perform the assigned responsibilities in Azimpur Girl’s School and College under the direct management and control of the heads of respective school and under the supervision of two subject-supervisors and a school co-coordinator, assigned by Institute of Education and Research, University of Dhaka. Aim Teaching is in the center regarding all educational issues. So as a student of Institute of Education and Research, we should have an experience in teaching at the field level.

Before starting teaching face to face it helps a practice teacher to acquaint themselves with the process, method of teaching if they observe a class of a certain level before entering in a class as a teacher. I have observed 3 science classes of grade 8. I have analyzed those classes and gave a brief description of one of the classes below. Azimpur Girl’s School and College Class: 8Sec: B Time: 11. 45-12. 25 Date: 29. 08. 05 Period: 2nd About the lesson The class was on physical science on “Work, Power and Energy”. The lesson contains discussion about the following topics: 1) Work and the mathematical expression of work

2) Different types of work 3) Power Description I had to observe the physical science class of Md. Shamsul Alam sir. I was waiting in front of his classroom. When he came I asked him politely if he could give me the permission to observe his class. He told me to sit in the class. When the teacher entered the class all the students’ stood up and when he told them to sit, they took their sits. At first he declared the lesson. Then he started his lecture by relating the lesson with practical experiences. Then he showed the mathematical expression in the black board.

He explained the different types of work and to do so he dropped the duster from his hand and so also took a book higher from the desk. Now he told that if any student is more curious to know more about this he could go through the text book of higher secondary level, but this is adequate to write down in the exam paper. Then he asked the class “what is power? ” one of the students answered. He agreed with him. Then he discussed on the unit of power. After that, he discussed with the students on energy, its unit and different forms of energy.

He sometimes asked some examples and the students’ participated. While continuing the class he also told students to co operator with me. He left the class before the due time to let me introduce myself in the class. I talked with the class about their class times, syllabus, hobbies etc. when the bell rang for the next class, I left the room. Main features of the lesson observed: A. Physical facilities: • Location of the class: The class is in the middle of the 2nd floor in the main school building. • Shape of the class: The shape of the class room is almost square.

• Doors and windows: All the windows are in the right side of the class and the only door is in the left side of the room. The door is not very much spacious. • Students’ bench and table: Every 23 students sit in a bench. The bench and the writing table are joined together. There is a long wooden string in every two sides of bench. There are columns and every column has rows with only one bench. There are 4 columns and 5 rows of benches in the classroom. The benches are not that much congested. Students have space to easily move. • Blackboard: The blackboard is put in the wall of the class.

It is not portable but fixed. It is not in the middle of the front wall. So all of the students cannot see easily what is written in the board. • Lighting and ventilation: The natural lighting is not quite adequate for the class. The cross ventilation is not available in the classroom. • Provision of artificial lighting and ventilation: There are 4 electric fans and lights in the class. But this is not quite adequate for the room. As there is no generator in the school and power failure being a common problem, sometimes students face problems as they suffer from the hot summer and cannot concentrate to their lessons.

There is another problem of the artificial lighting as it is reflected in the blackboard and the front right side of the class cannot see the right corner of the board. • Teachers table and chair: The wooden chair and table are in the front side of the class. The table is spacious but its drawers are hardly movable. The chair is quite ok as we should use in not for a long time to sit there while teaching. • Color of the class: The colors of the walls are white but fade. It should be brighter. • Other furniture: There are no other furniture except the above mentioned desk and benches for the students and the chair and table.

B. Evaluation of the teacher’s proficiency: • Dress up: His dress up was suitable for the class. • Teaching method: His teaching method is good. When he was working out the problems, he asked the students for its possible solution. It shows that he applied the participatory approach. Sometimes he feels the need for recalling. So he asked the students to write down the important notes. He relates his lessen with real life. He told the students about he group of problems which had an equivalent solution and then worked out one or two from that group of problems.

• Teaching materials: He used no other teaching material except the black board. • Learning environment: He learning environment was come and quite which was obvious for science lesson. But the environment was not fear free because of his way of punishment. • Use of teaching materials: Except the blackboard he did not use any other teaching material. • Use of black board: He used the blackboard neatly. His writings were legible and could be seen from even the last bench. He also did not stand parallel to the board making the students facing his back, but stand making angle with the board.

But he did not look at the students while writing on the chalk board and the students took the advantage for side talking. Before going out of the class he wiped the board. • Students’ involvement and participation: Students’ involvement and participation is not very high. Moreover most of the participants the conventional good students. • Classroom questioning: After finishing a problem, he encouraged classroom questioning. But to arouse interest he did not asked any question to the students. • Punishment and reward: His quantity of rewards was less than the quantity of punishment.

Moreover his way of punishment did not suit to the child psychology. • Classroom control: His classroom controlling power is really strong. No student disturbed in the class while he gave his lesson. Only few students talked in the class while he was using the blackboard. He used a nice technique while calling the rolls. • Teacher student relationship: Teacher student relationship is not friendly, but grim. He maintained a big distance with them. Students were afraid of him. The teacher was caring but not frank. • Way of expressing: He explained the steps of the solution clearly to the students with agile expression.

• Expertise in his particular lesson: He had a good expertise on his subject. He can answer the students’ questions proving his sagacity and he had other knowledge related to his subject beyond the text book. • Beginning of the lesson: He didn’t make any specific motivation for the lesson. But his starting was quite good. • Class work observation: He observed the given class by walking and watching the activities of the students entering the passages between the columns. He also gave individual feed back to some students. He did not collect the class work copies from the students.

• Home work: He gave homework at the end of the class and at the beginning of the class collected the homework copies. He corrected every copy and gave back the copies that day. But he did not give any feedback according to homework. • Wittiness: Hardly ever he created suitable funny situation in the class making the students laugh. But obviously it is related to the lesson. He used some different words in the class, like he said that if anyone feels any pain in his mind meaning that if they had understood the topic. • Voice and tone: His voice is suitable for the class. It can be heard from the last bench.

The changing tone of his voice creates some special situations or attention in the class which is something urgent. • Confidence: His face, behavior, talking shows that he is confident, confident about his expertise and controlling power. It is proved from the situation when students ask him questions and he answered in a very smart way. • Punctuality: He was punctual. He started the class at the right time and finished before 5 minutes for me to introduce myself to the class. • Discipline: The students were disciplined through out his class time. • Cleanliness: He maintains cleanliness in every step. C.

Strengths of the teacher: • Good controlling power over the class. • Appropriate voice and flexible tone • Tries to relate the lesson to everyday life. • Maintains the rules of using black board. • Asks the students about the possible way of solving problems to enhance student participation. • Punctual. • He can clarify the salvation of a problem clearly. D. Weakness of the teacher: • Does not give attention to classroom participation and student involvement. • Does not give much emphasis on girls. • Cannot crate a friendly, fear free classroom situation. • Emphasizes on negative reinforcement rather than positive reinforcement.

• Bad way of punishment and scolding. • Does not use any other teaching material but the blackboard. • Does not make a specific and effective motivation towards a specific lesson. • He didn’t check the class work copies. E. Possible ways of improving the lesson: • He could use a poster with the necessary algebraic formulas, in this lesson. That poster could hang on one corner of the black board thus the students could remind the formulas in a friendly and effective way. • To be confirmed about the students’ class performance the class work copy of every student can be collected and corrected.

And basing on it the teacher can keep a record by grading them about their class work copies. • He could do something at the beginning of the lesson to motivate the students. • If he could check the class work copies of all the students it would help the students to do his class works more sincerely. Conclusion This class observation helped me a lot to improve myself in teaching and learning. In this sense I will ever greatful to the administration of Azimpur School and College for giving me the unique opportunity. Tamanna Kalim Material Developer BRAC Education Programme Bangladesh.

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Report on Classroom Observation Essay

Online Teacing vs. Classroom Teaching Essay

Online Teacing vs. Classroom Teaching Essay.

Although it is very traditional for teachers to teach in a classroom, online teaching is rapidly becoming a very important factor in most colleges. Even though teaching in a classroom has its advantages, online teaching also has its advantages as well. Me personally, I would prefer to be in a classroom with an instructor teaching a class. This is because many individuals feel a stronger connection with their teachers and classmates when they are able to interact face to face. It benefits many individuals to see good teaching practices being demonstrated by their own teachers.

Teachers can also evaluate the different ways individuals are able to communicate. Also, students are trained hands-on according to the standards and regulations of their state, and can be confident of meeting their state’s requirements. Online classes are gaining more and more legitimacy and are fast becoming a legitimate alternative to traditional classes. It’s a great asset because all students are required to participate in the class, and participation can be measured objectively.

Therefore, nobody can skulk in the back of the room and not talk or dominate the conversation.

Classes can also be taken from anywhere that has computer access, so people don’t have to put off their education because of distractions or lack of school access. Online courses emphasize reading, writing and discussion elements that are proven to be effective, and that students can use in their own classrooms. Students can do their classes and coursework at any time that is convenient, especially when traditional classes don’t meet. Plus in today’s society computer literacy is more and more a requirement on many jobs and in some classroom settings and online classes requires that students become computer literate.

Online classes tend to train future workers for general requirements that are accepted in every state. A student might be trained for certification in almost any state by taking online classes. The question of online teaching programs versus traditional teaching programs isn’t usually a question of which offers the better education, but which education serves the student’s needs better. For those looking to be in that classroom environment, traditional might be better, but for those who have concerns over distance, convenience, or class participation, online classes may provide a solution that works for everyone.

Online Teacing vs. Classroom Teaching Essay

Creating a Positive Classroom Environment Essay

Creating a Positive Classroom Environment Essay.

A classroom should be one of inquiry and open-mindedness. In order to foster a classroom of students who feel comfortable asking questions and are open to other students’ ideas it is imperative to create a positive, safe environment and learning community. I believe that students should feel like their classroom has high expectations, in how everyone treated each other, and in how learning took place. Creating a classroom environment where all students feel emotionally and physically safe enough to take risks is a real challenge and one that is worthy of the time it requires.

The key to an inquiry-based curriculum is a safe, positive learning environment, therefore, it is foundational that the teacher work to provide, establish, and maintain that throughout the year.

In the classroom, the teacher should be working on ways to develop a positive learning community by finding out more about my students. For example, each student should fill out a Who Am I questionnaire so that the teacher can get to know their student’s personalities, hobbies, likes and dislikes and therefore include them in lectures, discussions and explanations through out the year.

The teacher should also engage in differentiated instruction in my classroom so that he/she can tailor specific lessons to fit different viewpoints, and abilities of students. This is also a demonstration of care and respect for students as they see their teacher notice certain aspects about their learning or personalities and tailors their instruction to meet their needs. One of the ways I would engage in differentiated instruction is by walking around the room and constantly being available to assist students.

By offering them one-on-one assistance I can better gauge where their personal understanding and misconceptions are and tailor my teaching to them differently than I would to the class as a whole. In order to maintain a positive classroom environment, a teacher must use the ability to make quick decisions and to be flexible in the classroom. The teacher needs to make decisions and adjustments to enhance the student motivation, engagement, and productive work. One way I would make adjustments when there are issues in the classroom hindering the productive learning community is to create a new seating chart.

I find that this act is often used enough to nip any potential social problems in the bud and sends a message to students that if they want to sit with their friends, they need to earn the privilege. You would be surprised with how a new seating chart for the class can increase productivity and engagement in core subject content instead of social life information. In a science classroom, experiments and lab work are an important way for students to engage in the content. All students in the class should work on labs at the same time with minimal supervision.

The teacher must also be cognizant of how the resources of time, space, activities and attention are allocated to students throughout the short hour that they are in class. However, there are more traditional strategy for lab work. The difference comes in how many materials you have for certain labs, how much time it takes for each group of students to complete the experiment, and how tricky the directions are. Deciding which method to employ for a given lab and analyzing the classroom environment to decide which will work best in a given situation.

In the Collier County School District it is acceptable to have up to 30 students in each classroom. It is difficult in this type of environment for students to feel that they are an important member of the learning community. I found that it was easy for certain students to disengage from activities and it was hard for the teacher to pick up on their lack of involvement because of the sheer number of other students in the room. Therefore, I thought up of an activity that would give the teacher time to walk around to individual students and check their understanding of the material.

This lesson was an ACT preparation lesson where the students would be working on writing organized essays by finding a thesis statement, supporting it and including evidence from newspaper articles. I found that students would initially be hesitant to show their work to the teacher, but when they saw that the teacher would be going around to everyone at their table they became less nervous and more open to share their problems with understanding. When observing a classroom, one student even remarked as the teacher came to her, “I don’t know what I’m doing.

” She was a student that has never raised her hand to ask for help, but with the teachers inevitable arrival she was open to telling her teacher she did not understand. This showed me that if the teacher had not gone around to individual students she would not have told her teacher she did not understand. In order for a classroom to become a learning community it is important that it is organized, and meets clear standards of conduct.

An environment in which students are assuming responsibility, participating in decision-making, working collaboratively and independently, and engaging in purposeful learning activities that use higher order thinking skills and are all pieces of smoothly functioning learning communities.

The first lesson that I would present to the class in the fall would be attempting to engage students in a purposeful learning activity that asked them to think deeply about the issues of a the subject that they are in class for. The students would first work together as a class and then the students work individually to show understanding.

They were active members of the activity so they had a hand in the decision-making and therefore could assume some ownership and responsibility for the success of the activity. A strategy for engaging students in purposeful activities that promote higher order thinking that is often used in classrooms is asking students to work in pairs to create a concept map from a list of content words. By working in pairs students are collaboratively building understanding and taking responsibility for their own learning plus their partner’s.

As mentioned above, in order to have a smoothly functioning learning environment, clear standards of conduct must be established and enforced within the classroom. In order for students to feel safe enough to ask questions, engage in inquiry activities and take risks in their learning. They must feel secure and know that their teacher has clear standards of conduct that will be enforced. The first day of school is a very important day for establishing the standards of conduct that all students are expected to follow.

It is also important that student behavior is monitored in a preventative way. One way is by asking a student who is very high-energy and can become disruptive to do small tasks during the hour to keep him engaged, such as feeding the class fish, or putting up the class grade sheet. This particular student can be disruptive and cause problems with other classmates, but with the teacher keeping him engaged when she sees him getting off-task, she is signaling to him that she notices him and has her eyes on his actions.

This has been a successful strategy in keeping him out of trouble. However, all issues in a classroom cannot be prevented. Things do sometimes happen despite the best efforts of the teacher to create a safe learning environment. For example, say that you, the teacher had an incident in your classroom where two female students got very angry with each other and yelled loudly and violently at each other and refused to stop. This behavior is very upsetting to the teacher and to the class.

And to be successful in resolving the situation, you just have to remove the two students from the class and separate them. In this situation it was important to thoroughly pick up the pieces after the incident was over. This is a very helpful way for a teachers peace of mind and further ability to create a safe learning environment. The teacher should also have individual talks with the students that created the problem. One student in particular would most likely have a very changed attitude about the class after the incident.

In order to bring her back to being her enthusiastic self, the teacher should have a one-on-one talk with her, which greatly improved her attitude towards the class. One of the things that would help you to act appropriately when the incident happened in the classroom was the established standards of conduct and consequences that occur if students do not follow the standards. One way to foster students’ ability to engage in dialogue and argumentation and develop the language of thinking is to participate in Socratic seminars in class.

Socratic seminars offer a tangible, engaging way for students to develop both ethics and critical thinking, actively and cooperatively. A discussion technique that I would use in my classroom would be an ethical discussion based on the merits and problems with new genetic testing that is available. Students engaged in small groups, then in the large session to discuss their opinions about genetic testing, based on a text they had all read. In order to help the discussion remain civil and productive, I used an ethical discussion framework that was very helpful.

In a large classroom of 30 students it is often difficult to make time to meet with students individually to discuss their progress, but it is an important part of teaching that time must be allocated for. Therefore, a lesson plan that can allow the teacher to talk with students individually about an essay they had written. Lets just say that while students were in the Library Center working on ACT preparation tests the teacher then would be able to make time to talk with students individually about the strengths and weaknesses of their essays and what specific things to keep in mind when writing their next essay.

This lesson shows a good allocation of time and attention so that students could take away concrete information from the lesson about what they need to work on with their writing and they also saw that their teacher cared about their progress enough to plan a special meeting with them. This one-on-one discussion time between teacher and student is something I do not see a lot of in school and I feel it is very important to include meaningful time talking with each student.

In a science classroom it is very important that resources be used appropriately to help promote in-depth, inquiry-based understandings of content. I include it here to demonstrate how helpful it is for teachers to keep up-to-date on literature that is being written on the topics they are teaching. Through reading academic literature they can gain new ideas and insights on how to use technology effectively in their classroom in order to enhance learning and the classroom environment. Creating a positive classroom environment is a very important aspect of effective teaching.

In a teachers student teaching placement it has been a priority for to establish and maintain a safe and positive environment where all students can grow, inquire, and learn. I feel strongly that a classroom should always be a safe one for students physically. At times there are going to be things said between students that cannot make it emotionally safe, but you, the teacher can always deal with the issues to send a strong message that your classroom is not a place to come down on peers.

I do feel I have more to learn about enacting a true inquiry-based classroom, however. And I know that there are going to be times and lessons where I believe students should be actively involved in inquiry-based projects and if so, I would be very proud of them for their efforts. However, I would like to increase the times that this occurs and make my classroom into a place where students know they are going to question, explore and learn, and not just another stop on their school day schedule.

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Creating a Positive Classroom Environment Essay

Adult Education is very important Essay

Adult Education is very important Essay.

The problem in India is that we have adopted democracy without preparing the ground for it by educating population. But even now it is not too late if the programme of mass Adult educa¬tion, or Social education is undertaken in right earnest as a mass movement. No doubt the provision of universal, compulsory and free primary education is the only solution to the problem of illiteracy. But the country cannot afford to leave out a whole mass of adults and grown-ups of our society from the benefits of the literacy-drive.

Apart from the political justification to the problem, Adult education is needed because it is a powerful auxiliary and an essential incentive to primary education. No programme of compulsory universal education can bear fruit without the active support and co-operation of adults. It is, therefore, imperative that educational facilities should be provided to adults. Adult education, as the term signifies, is the education of grown-up men and women who are above eighteen years.

Bryson says, “Adult education includes all activities with an educational purpose, carried on by people, in the ordinary business of life who use only part of their energy to acquire intellectual equipment. ” Ernst Baker says, “Adult education is given on a part-time basis and, therefore, given concurrently with work and the earning of a living. ” Maulana Azad re-oriented the concept of Adult education for preparing every citizen to play his part effectively in a democratic social order. So he renamed Adult education as ‘Social Education’.

In our country, adult education is imparted tinder two aspects: (1) Adult Literacy i. e. education for those adults who never had schooling before; and, (2) Continuation education i. e. education for those adults who had some schooling before. Agencies of Social (Adult) education include all the bodies, organizations or institutions which ‘deliver the goods’ which contact the ‘consumers’ of social education and satisfy their needs.

They may be categorized as under: (a) Teachers, Government servants, NSS and other volunteers, social education workers etc. b) Regular educational institutions like schools, colleges, rural colleges, community centres, agriculture extension groups, worker’s educational associations and voluntary organiza¬tions. (c) Informal educational devices like forums, study circles, group discussions, listening groups, camps. (d) Recreational, educational bodies like theatres, cinemas, clubs, societies, fairs, melas, nautanki etc. (e) Institutions whose primary aim is not education, such as eligious bodies, the Army, Parents Associations, Co-operative Societies and other Government Departments. The scope of Adult education is very comprehensive. Social education covers all those topics that are not touched by education in general at school. Topics like religion, politics and family planning can now be discussed with adults who have a mature under¬standing. Moreover, it aims at giving a new orientation to the outlook of adults to suit the dynamic world. Then, the growth grooves of each individual are different from those of others.

Social education harmonizes differences in growth and it also provides an opportunity for growth to those who have not been able to grow properly or completely earlier. About the need and importance of Social (Adult) education Swami Vivekananda remarked : “So long as the millions live in hunger and ignorance, I hold every man a traitor, who having been educated at their expense, pays not the heed to them. Our great natural sin is the neglect of the masses and that is the cause of our downfall. No amount of politics would be of any avail until the mas¬ses are well educated, well fed and well cared for.

National development and reconstruction is closely allied to Adult Education. If democracy is to survive, we must educate the masses for social education is the new hope for illiterate masses. Social education is heeded to widen the intellectual and political horizon of the illiterate adults. It is also needed to sharpen the aesthetic sensibility of the adults and to set the cultural tone of the community. Moreover, social educa¬tion is needed in order to guide in spending their leisure in healthful recreations and useful activities.

Lastly, illiteracy and ignorance is a sin; an illiterate adult is a burden on society. Adult education emancipates people from the tyranny of illiteracy. The objects, or purposes, or functions of social education may be stated generally or pragmatically. The philosophically oriented functions of Adult education are clearing concepts of reality of universe and life, reconciling the old and the new approaches to life, balance and independent judgment, self-realisation, human relationship and citizenship training and economic efficiency.

According to the second approach which is more pragmatic and practical education has to perform two-fold purposes to the indivi-dual and to the society. From the individual’s point of view social education fulfils various purposes remedial, vocational, health, recreational, self-development and social skills. From the social and national point of view the purposes of social education are social cohesion, national efficiency and development of national resources. On the practical plane, however, there are some difficulties that confront a Social education planner or worker.

Some of the main difficulties and problems are : isolation of adult education in education, accommodating difficulties, age structure of the adults, the family circumstances and background of learners, occupational grouping, cultural background, socio-economic background, geo¬graphical location of the social education centre, level of the social education worker teacher, lack of proper knowledge of adult psy¬chology, paucity of leisure lack of equipment, lack of motivation, fatigue of adults and their constitutional and temperamental lethargy, lack of proper publicity, hostility from certain vested interests, poor supervision of centres and half-hearted implement¬ation. The difficulties have to be overcome either by cleverness, or by fact or by compromise, or may be, by intentional avoidance. Only then we can hope to spread Adult Education. The purpose of all good teaching is to produce changes in human behavior.

All adult education teacher must adopt a positive approach; he should help the adults learn quickly and effectively and willing by using any of the three prevalent methods – the Teacher Dominated methods, the Learner Dominated Method or the Co-operative Method. He may make use of any or all the seven types of aids given in the Govern¬ment of India Handbook on Social Education viz, Spoken words, spoken words reproduced through radio or recording, written words, chart, graphs and maps, objects produced or reproduced as models, demonstrations, pageants, dramas, television and other objects represented as pictures, pictures reproduced by episcopate-slides etc. actual objects, field trips and specially arranged exhibitions, museums or films shows.

Gandhiji’s idea of social service for college students during the vacation and, later on full time basis will prove invaluable in this regard. Young men and women taking up Adult education as a drive should be fired with a missionary zeal to eradicate illiteracy and ignorance from our country. The slogan should be “Each one, teach one. ” Happily, greater emphasis has been laid on Adult Education in the Seventh Five-Year Plan. The tenth point in Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi’s 20-point Programme-‘Expansion of Education’-also makes special mention of stimulating Adult literacy.

Sizeable funds have been allocated and separate staff, including the block and Aanganwari people has been deployed to foster Adult education. Adult education officers have been appointed in each college and they supervise the running of adult schools by student volunteers. The programme of Adult education has to be undertaken on war-footing. adult education is very important . adults must know the basic things of life. adult education is needed because it is an essential part of primary education. some people in their early age did not get chance to education because of some reasons but if they are old they can get education and discover their live in a new way. people who are not making effort for the success cant succeed in their lives . we can get education in any age . education helps us in many ways. such knowledge is necessary for every person living in a democratic country. education is a important part of our life. education means knowledge and it is very important for us. in old times people do not send their girls to schools for education but now people want that there childern should be educated. if we are not educated we have to depend on others but if we are educated we do not have to depend on others. educated person can differentiate between good or bad. education increase our knowledge

Adult Education is very important Essay

Teachers Essay

Teachers Essay.

I wish I could persuade every teacher to be proud of his occupation – not conceited or pompous, but proud. People who introduce themselves with shame remark that they are, just teachers, gives me despair in my heart. Did you ever hear a lawyer say depreciatingly that he was only a patent attorney? Did you ever hear a physician say I am just a brain surgeon? I beg of you to stop apologizing for being a member of the most important profession in the world.

Draw yourself up to your full height, look at anybody squarely in the eye and say, I am a Teacher. ~ William Garr

How do teachers take pride and dignity in the nobility of teaching as profession? Can we say that we are proud and grateful because we are teachers? For me this is the point of William. We who are teachers must have a high outlook and regard for the teaching profession. Like William Garr, I cannot understand why some teachers tend to give a degrading impression when they are introducing themselves as “just teacher” or in Filipino “teacher lang po” It seems that from this expression being a teacher is a shameful profession.

Shame to those teachers who tend to underestimate their worth on being teacher. There is nothing to be ashamed of in being a teacher. Not everybody was given the chance to stand in front of a number of pupils to teach. Not everybody was given the chance, to do the most important task in molding the young to be the future hope of the world. It is in this profession, the fate of the entire civilization rest. Therefore, we must ask after realizing our inestimable value what should we do?

We must believe that we are on the noblest profession, the most dignified profession. Believing that our profession was a noble one, we must strive and do our very best to let them know that being a teacher is close to being a hero. Being a teacher is becoming a saint in the process of making other as saints as well.

We should never regret with our chosen profession. It won’t help us promote and develop well-rounded individuals. We should be proud being a teacher. We should promote and uphold up no matter what we say and do, no matter where we are that we are teachers. We will always be teachers up to our last breath. Then when the day comes that we will face our last second here on earth, in all profound humility we can say that I was a teacher, I am a teacher and I will always be a teacher! I am a teacher for life!

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Teachers Essay

Right to Education: Reality or Myth Essay

Right to Education: Reality or Myth Essay.

The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act was enacted by the Indian Parliament. This amendment provided for insertion of article 21A in the constitution, by which it was made obligatory for the state to provide for free and compulsory education to all children of the age six to fourteen years. This amendment envisaged a consequential legislation stating the modalities and intricacies of such a novel and innovative step. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act was passed in 2009, to fulfill this requirement of legislative direction.

This right made education a fundamental right of children and put the onus of providing education on the shoulders of the appropriate government. With this piece of legislation a new ray of hope shone for the millions of children in India who do not, or rather cannot, attend the schools. Human rights activists were filled with hope as they felt that this move had the potential to change the lives of innumerable children. Even a basic level of education could help brighten the future prospects of these underprivileged children.

The Right to Education (RTE) stipulates three years to ensure the fulfillment of the majority of its milestones, which terminates on 1 April 2013. The nation has got barely a few months left to fulfill the historic promise made to ensure that every child in the country has a school of acceptable quality. It has been more than three years since the Act was passed, but whether it has been able to achieve its conceived objectives is rather a debatable question.

It aimed at, among other things, providing free and compulsory education to every child, improving school infrastructure, rational deployment of teachers, appointing adequately trained teachers, prohibition of physical punishment etc. Just a basic study of the ground realities shows the true state of the Indian education system. The standards of Government schools are so deplorable that underprivileged children find it more fruitful to engage in menial jobs than to attend these ‘namesake’ schools.

Each of us has witnessed instances of children of school-going age, employed at the local mechanic shop, eateries, railway station etc. On one side are the parents who only care about getting their children admitted in a reputable institution. On the diagonally opposite ends are the children for whom this act is actually put into place. Majority of children in India are those who suffer from such extreme levels of poverty that school seems like an unnatural proposal to them. I’m not sure about how many families in the rural areas of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh would even know about this act.

Thus, the current state of Indian education system is definitely gloomy. In my view the RTE Act has been a disappointment and has failed miserably in its pursuit of empowering children. I have a rather pessimist opinion about the achievements of RTE as well as its future, and feel that the citizens have been miserably let down by it. The ground realities suggest that the RTE Act is definitely not a reality but just a myth propagated by the government to cover up its failures. The state has the obligation to provide its citizens with meaningful education.

Only the government schools can endeavor to provide education to the illiterate and economically poor masses. The government schools- which are responsible for the education of more than 73% of the school-going children – suffer from some integral problems that refuse to let the RTE Act improve education system. But the government schools are in such a bad condition that it is almost impossible for them to provide meaningful education to its students. The government schools are plagued with multiple short-comings, the most glaring of which I will describe and critique here.

All of these short comings have combined to help Indian government schools attain world infamy. Issues plaguing the Education System in India: 1) Infrastructure: Firstly, the government schools are caught short of the basic infrastructural requirements envisaged under the act. 95. 2% of schools are not compliant with complete set of RTE infrastructure indicators. Students do not have sufficient number of classrooms. 40% of primary schools have a classroom student ratio higher than 1:30.. Students of different standards are cramped into the same classrooms.

Many of the government schools do not have supply of clean drinking water neither do they have proper sanitation facilities. In many schools girls are forced to use common toilet facilities, if at all the school has these “facilities”. In fact forty percent of the schools do not even have a common functional toilet and another forty percent of the schools do not have separate toilet for girls. This means that in only twenty percent of the government schools do girls have a separate toilet arrangement.

Such kind of inadequate facilities ompromises the safety of girls in schools, further dissuading their family members from sending them to schools. Sixty percent of the schools are not electrified. The plight of children in such settings is easily imaginable, especially in the scorching summers. Even though the act aims for “all round development” of children, availability of a playground is a rarity in the schools. Another important objective of RTE is to increase access to the disabled children. But the draft report filed by RTE forum shows that half the schools even lack a ramp for access by the disabled.

In fact we see that access to disabled is hindered even in the private commercial schools, and not just in government schools. Such kind of infrastructure shortcomings consigns the “access to disabled” part of RTE Act just to the statute books. 2) Quality of Teaching Faculty: The quality of teachers in government schools is also questionable. The draft report filed by RTE forum reveals shocking figures. 93% of teacher candidates failed the National Teacher Eligibility Test conducted by CBSE. 6. 7 lakh teachers are professionally unqualified and untrained.

Also, 36% of all sanctioned teaching posts are vacant. Such kind of unprofessional teaching staff is a major cause for the failure of the act. Common sense tells that such kinds of teachers are definitely not going to be of much help to the students. To add to the woes is the problem of absenteeism and corruption in the teacher recruiting process. The RTE Act has tried, and achieved limited success, in countering the problem of absenteeism. In Section 24(1) of RTE Act it states that teachers have to compulsorily maintain regularity and punctuality in school.

Section 25(2) prohibits deployment of teachers for any non educational purposes except the “decennial population census, disaster relief duties or duties relating to elections to the local authority or the state legislatures or the Parliament, as the case maybe”. Also Section 28 of the act prohibits teachers from engaging in private tuition or private teaching activity. All these provisions have achieved limited success though there is much scope for stronger enforcement of these provisions. But corruption in the teacher recruitment process continues unabated.

The recent teacher recruitment scam involving former Haryana Chief Minister OP Chautala is just a case in point. The court convicted Chautala and 54 others in the case of illegal recruitment of 3,206 junior basic trained teachers, and held Chautala as the “main conspirator”. Also corruption is widespread in the mid-day meal scheme, launched by the government to attract students to schools. But the quality as well as quantity of this “nutritional support” is questionable. There have been quite a few instances where dead animal bodies have been found in these food servings.

Also a significant portion of food grains sanctioned for this flagship scheme is siphoned off and sold in the open market and children are forced to make do with the meager quantities that they get in the name of proper nourishment. What it shows is corruption spread across the rank and file, from the politicians and IAS officers to the ordinary school peon. Strict deterrent measures have to be urgently taken to protect the credibility and effectiveness of schools. Also the existing teachers should be provided with periodic training so that they can adapt to the changing needs of the present world.

With the kind of teaching staff we have presently, the objectives of RTE Act remains a distant future. 3) Corporal Punishment: The RTE Act also prohibits corporal punishment. But it is common knowledge that any average mischievous kid who goes to school, has at some point or other faced physical punishment, be it in the form of a slap or cane beatings. In fact 99. 86% of children report to have faced some kind of physical punishment in school. Periodically, the ugly face of this practice reveals itself when the newspapers cover a case of brutal beating or, even worse forms of torture.

There was this case in Kolkata where a child was made to drink her own urine as a punishment for bed-wetting. Another horrifying case was reported from M. P where a class IV student was beaten to his death just because he broke a bucket belonging to the school authorities. Thousands of such cases go unreported every year. Such kind of punishment/torture acts as a strict deterrent to kids voluntarily wanting to go to schools. Also such kind of torture so early in their life could easily adversely affect the mental state of kids. Under such circumstances parents are anxious about the safety of their kids and keep their kids away from school.

It is essential to make the students comfortable in schools, and for that to happen such kind of mental torture has to go. 4) Charging of Capitation Fee: Section 13 of the RTE Act disallows the schools from collecting any capitation fee or subjecting the kids to any kind of screening process. But Indian schools still, out rightly, go in for both of these. Most of the quality schools have strident admission tests for kids, and the deep-pocket parents have the option of by-passing such procedures by giving donations or granting other allurements to the school authorities.

Capitation fee is also a regular feature in the fee structure of most schools, though under different titles. In a case reported in national media on October 9th, 2012, a parent from a Mumbai school filed an FIR against the school for charging capitation fee. The parent alleged the school charges building fun, book money etc. Such kind of cases just highlights what everyone knows to be true i. e. schools do blatantly charge capitation fee and still go scot free. 5) Lack of Quality School Education: Shortage of seats in schools providing quality education is another major obstacle in the progress of RTE.

The number of aspirants far outnumbers the number of seats available. Under such demand-supply mismatch the most disadvantaged people often belong to the under-privileged sections of the society. Parents are forced to adopt unethical practices to secure admissions in premium institutions. Parents having that extra dime often get the seats by providing the allurement of donation. Such a situation results in status quo in the society, where people belonging to poorer sections do not have any chance of coming up the social ladder.

By denying quality education to kids from poor families, the society takes away from them one of their most potent weapon in a world based on exploitation. In an investigation undertaken by the news channel IBN7, it was exposed that nursery seats are on sale well before the admission session in the national capital. The investigation had exposed that as much as Rs. 2-3 Lakh was being charged for each nursery seat. What is even more shocking is the fact that seats for poor kids were being sold for lakhs of rupees and the Delhi government had said that it cannot do much.

Such kind of hand-washing by the government does not cut much ice. If the government truly cares for these kids, then it is imperative for them to increase the number of quality schools, so that every child born in our country, in reality, has education as an inalienable and fundamental right. Also some of the provisions of RTE are out rightly retrogressive. For example the provision which makes it mandatory for the teachers to pass the students in every class up till 8th class just lowers the quality of students that the primary school delivers.

Also it results in increasing laxity on the part of teachers, aggravating the impact of this provision. Section 16 spells out the need for compulsorily passing a child up until completing his/her elementary education. In such a situation of guaranteed success hoping that children will strive for excellence is living in an unrealistic world. Do you think that David would actually go-through the pain of even lifting and flinging the stone towards Goliath, if he was assured of his victory? In many a cases it is the fear of failure that propels you through the steps of success.

Right to Education: Reality or Myth Essay

Seating Structure Design Essay

Seating Structure Design Essay.

Most settings of classrooms we see in the Philippines or observed even in our own schools and universities are almost similar with each other. Specifically concerning the seating style. Very few from our teachers or professors are changing the style of the seats like instead of using the Row Style in teaching, change it to Semi-circle style. The researcher also noticed that with the traditional kind of setting in seating arrangement, we hear teachers say, “People from the back, please stop talking” or in a scenario of recitation we often hear “Other hands please”.

Many studies and articles as the researcher goes on with the study proven that there are actually effects of classroom seating arrangement with the performance of the students yet some still contradicts it and as the researcher observed in the Philippine setting of education, classroom seating arrangement is not a concern or a significant variable for most of the schools and universities. According to Damer, M. (2000), classroom managements is a term coined by teachers and mentors which means a process of ensuring that a lecture in the classroom goes smoothly and delivered effectively despite disruptive behavior of the students.

Classroom management, particularly seating arrangement is one of the factors and not saying the only factor to be considered in getting high grades as the researcher’s concern. As for the researcher, part of classroom management and one of the ways to maintain order and control in the classroom is to have seating style. According to Chinappi, J. & Wistrom, E. (2011), the physical atmosphere of the classroom can play a large role in how well professors are able to manage the students. In the Philippine setting, the most commonly used is called the Row-column style or the Traditional style.

With this kind of setting, the students are arranged by rows facing the teacher at the front of the class. Based on Otrar et. al. (2004), students sitting next to the wall or at the back row have less participation and attention and are more likely to display undesired behaviors. Therefore, the researcher thought that it is harder to involve the whole class especially those who are seating at the back row. With this, during lecture period, it may be possible that student will feel boring or sleepy especially during lecture period thus may affect their active participation.

In case like this, students who are usually participating are the ones participating over and over again. She stated, “I agree that the physical arrangement to seating and the assignment (or lack thereof) to such is basic classroom management” Fulton, M. E. (2001). According to Wannarka and Ruhl (2003), students at the back of the classroom tend to interact with each other more frequently than those seated at the front, potentially adversely impacting their attention to the task.

According to Fernandez, Careena & Rinaldo (2011), Parker, Hoopes & Eggett (2011) and Ikram (2010) other types of seating arrangements which are the following; the U-style arrangement helps the teachers to easily get along the class for monitoring students, it is also advantageous in a sense that the design encourages group discussion as students can see and interacts with each other, but it also allows the instructor to remain the central feature. The instructor can move freely through the space in the center while assisting students and presenting projects and assignments clearly.

Therefore, it is also ideal for easy learning and participation in class since the students may easily understand the lessons. He stated “Question asking was more frequent when the children were seated in the U-style arrangement” (Marx et al. 2000). The professors could easily see the faces of the students thus preventing student to student chatting that can cause environmental disrupt therefore, the attention of the students are more likely on the teacher. The New York University is one of the schools in America who uses this kind of style.

The active performance of the students can be seen during recitations, asking questions and participation in class activities. The researcher decided to stick with the variable, recitation of the students. When a child is active in his or her performance, it is possible that he or she learned a lot and gets more knowledge. As for the researcher’s opinion, seating arrangement is not for a shallow reason of controlling the students because after all, inside the classroom, there is always an authority and that is the teacher and authority should be followed for they set order for the better.

In case of a classroom, seating arrangement is a concern for the teachers in order to prevent and lessen constraints brought by the students that could affect the attention of both the teacher and the classmates and much worse the learning process that could affect the active participation of the students. Still, the majority’s advantage is being seen. The researcher aims to know the effects of U-style seating arrangement to active participation in terms of first, question and answer portion between the teacher and students, second, sharing of ideas of the students and lastly, lessening of disruptive behavior in the class.

Also, the researcher wants to know the effects of Row-style seating arrangement to active participation in terms of first, question and answer portion between the teacher and students, second, sharing of ideas of the students and lastly, lessening of disruptive behavior in the class. By understanding these mentioned, this study could contribute to the knowledge of the teachers on how to do an effective seating arrangement that could contribute to a better classroom management. Therefore, mentors could have better strategy in teaching and continual smooth flow of discussion.

This study would also be beneficial to the students because having them be seated in a good seating arrangement may help them to somehow focus more of the lecture. This could help the students to actively participate knowing they understood more of what the teacher has taught. Review of Related Literature The researcher gathered several studies and related articles to support the stated topic. The different variables that would be mentioned may contribute to the dependent variable, which is the active participation of the students. 11 reliable articles in specific were collected and these were classified into the following subtopics:

Order and Control in the Classroom The study of Konzier (2011), states that teachers must take time at the beginning of the school year to plan out a seating arrangement that will work best for their particular class. Seating arrangement has an effect with maintaining order and control thus contributes to classroom management. The location of the sit of a particular student has an effect in the learning and concentration process. Another is from Callahan (2005) where in he investigated the arrangement of seating and equipment in computer lab classrooms and its effect on the social and physical settings of the classroom.

The article of Damer (2000) said that the placement of the teacher’s desk also affects student behavior. They will be on-task more consistently and will display fewer unnecessary behaviors when they know they are closely monitored. Active Participation of the Students The research of Piorier (2011), which based his study on Robert Sommer’s Research about Personal Space, he found that students who sit in the front and center rows of a classroom participate more than other students. He extended this study to perimeter-style seating arrangements and found that students sitting directly across from the teacher were the most frequent participants.

Students who sat to the left and right of the teacher were less likely to participate in the classroom activities, regardless of their previous participation patterns. Another is from Marx, Fuhrer and Hartig (2006). This study investigated the relationship between classroom seating arrangements and the question asking of fourth-graders. Two seating arrangements were used, semicircle position and a row-and-column arrangement. The results showed that children asked more questions in the semicircle than in the row-and-column arrangement, and that the pattern of question characteristics was stable over time.

Roxas, Carreon and Monterola (2010) also proven that the effect of seating arrangement, group composition and group-based competition on students’ performance. All the lectures were scattered with student interaction opportunities, in which students work in groups to discuss and answer concept tests. Two individual assessments were administered before and after that. The ratio of the post-assessment score to the pre-assessment score was calculated to establish the improvement in student performance. Using actual assessment results, an optimal seating arrangement for a class was determined based on student seating location.

Lastly, the study revealed that competition-driven interactions increase within-group cooperation and lead to higher improvement on the students’ performance. The study of Cohen et al. , (2007) suggested results state that the majority of pupils preferred the circle arrangement when taking part in a class discussion and participation increased therefore seating arrangement has an effect in learning. Another study is from Ikram (2010). According to his research, it is not only the seating arrangement of the classroom but also the way students are distributed in the class that affects significantly the students’ learning.

The place the students prefer to sit brings some advantages and disadvantages in terms of learning and participation. For a teacher to know about the personal features of the students and about how effective their sit mate are helps her/him know about them more. The purpose of the study is to determine the students’ preferences about the place to sit in teacher-centered (traditional) classrooms in terms of their personal characteristics and the characteristics they look for in their seatmate based on their perceptions.

It was concluded that students preferring to sit at front rows care the lesson more and are more willing to participate, while those sitting at back rows are vice versa; that for females the place they prefer, which is usually the front rows. Student’s Appropriate Behavior Wannarka & Ruhl (2008) concluded that seating arrangements are important classroom setting events because they have the potential to help prevent problem behaviors that decrease student attention.

Three common arrangements (i. e., rows, groups or semi-circles) were considered in the said study. Results indicate that teachers should let the nature of the task dictate seating arrangements. Evidence supports the idea that students display higher levels of appropriate behavior during individual tasks when they are seated in rows. Also, Parker, Hoopes and Eggett (2011) contradicts with the previous studies stated because according to them there is conflicting evidence on the effect of seat location on student performance and participation in the classroom.

The two major hypotheses used are a. ) that seat location influences student behavior and b. ) that seat preference and selection is associated with personality traits of students. Half of the class was randomly assigned a permanent seat while the other half was randomly reassigned a different seat each class period. Students sitting in the front of the classroom in the permanent group made significantly more comments than permanent group students in the back.

The move group, however, showed increased overall participation with no significant difference between the front and back of the classroom. Findings suggest a more flexible explanation-that students may adopt or reject an implied social role in which seat location and personality traits are influential factors. Dunbar (2004) quoted from Fred Jones, “A good classroom seating arrangement is the cheapest form of classroom management. It’s discipline for free. ” Many experienced teachers recommend assigned seating for students to facilitate discipline and instruction.

Synthesis The articles mentioned above are interrelated in terms that all of them regardless of the point of affected variables stated that there is a significant effect or significant relationship between classroom seating arrangements and other related variables with students like learning process, behavioral process etcetera. Also, almost all of the stated articles above except for articles Piorier (2011), Parker, Hoopes and Eggett (2011) , Ikram (2010) , and Damer (2000) linked classroom seating arrangement with the learning and participation of the students.

The mentioned contradicted articles focused on the discipline and behavior of the student, which is actually not so much on focus of the research although they may contribute a little with the study. Moreover, the study of Konzier (2011) , Roxas, Carreon and Monterola (2010) and Callahan (2005) articles have something in common although each mentioned studies used different methods actually arrived at the same conclusion. The conclusion was those students who are sitting on the front row are most likely active in performance, learning and behavior rather those who are siting on the last rows.

But in the twelfth study, it says that “the place the students prefer to sit brings some advantages and disadvantages in terms of learning and participation” or increasing participation or learning which contradicts the statement concluded based on the seventh article that says, “increased overall participation has no significant difference between the front and back of the classroom. ” About the method used, the eighth and ninth studies used the same method that is longitudinal method. Survey method was both used by the tenth and thirteenth articles.

Methodology Research Design The researcher will use the Two-Independent Groups Experimental Design. The researcher decided to use this because there is one Independent variable which is the seating arrangement but consists of two levels of treatments, which are the Row-column style and the U-style. Subjects are randomly assigned to avoid bias. Subject Second Year Bachelor of Arts in Psychology College Students of San Beda College Alabang, school year 2012-2013. Approximately 30 students per section are randomly grouped so biases in selecting or assigning will be avoided.


The professor that will give approval to the request will be using 2 classrooms both are classrooms of 2nd year BA Psychology of San Beda College Alabang but divided into Section 1 and Section 2 classrooms. The professor will use chairs that will be arranged depending on the random assigned seating arrangement. Since it will be a lecture discussion, LCD for PowerPoint presentation/Laptop, white board and white board marker will be needed depending on the professor. The professor and the observer, which is the researcher itself, will use a recording sheet for the recitation or participation of the students.

Procedure First, the researcher will ask a permission form one of the professors from the BA Psychology department of San Beda College Alabang about their willingness to allow the researcher to conduct the experiment in their class. Second, the professor that agreed will be advised by the researcher not to mention to that she will be conducting an experiment. It will be a secret between the professor and the researcher to avoid bias response form the students. It may be an extraneous variable if the students know that their participation are being observed thus may affect the result of the study.

Instead, the researcher will be introduced by the professor as a sit-in student for the reason of reviewing her lesson on that particular topic for the used of her thesis making. Third, the researcher will toss a coin and ask the professor to choose between heads or tails. Not knowing, heads is for the Section A while tales is for the Section B. Whichever comes out, Treatment A which is the Row-Column style will be used on that particular section. While Treatment B which is the U-style will be given to the left one. By doing this, random assignment and random selection are used to avoid the bias of choosing.

Fourth, the professor and researcher will now proceed on the section chosen, with the treatment A, no need to arrange the style of the arrangement of the chairs since this is the one used in San Beda College Alabang. In case of the treatment B, the researcher will arrange the chairs before the teacher and students come to class to avoid time-consuming nor distractions on the professor’s part. Fifth, after everything has settled on, the lecture and recitation or asking questions by the professor will start and go on for about 1 hour to 1 hour and 30 minutes.

The moment the lecture started, the observation will be on process and will be recorded by the researcher. Both class sections will be exposed to same lesson topic and teaching style since the same professor will be on hand. It will only vary with the seating arrangement style. The researcher decided to do this for 4 meetings or 2 weeks since there are 2 meetings of the class per week for each of the class. For 2 consecutive weeks, same seating arrangement styles will be used for each class. By doing this, the consistency of the results will be attained by the researcher.

Active Participation will be measured by the numbers of students reciting and numbers of students who are willing to recite in classroom A comparably with classroom B. Those who are raising their hands yet did not call by the teachers due to the reason of time management will also be included in the record because their action showed wanting to participate thus may also be considered as active participation. The researcher foresees extraneous variables in the said procedure. First, the mood of the professor or the professor itself may be an effect of the active participation of a student.

For example, the professor looks rugged and so the students may be frightened to recite. A boring professor may also be a factor that may affect the student’s participation. With these in line, the researcher decided to survey beforehand about the best professor for them so far in this semester. This will happen with the class that the researcher will conduct the experiment. By getting the result, the researcher will get the top 3 professors and will ask from their approval. The researcher will choose the professor which got the highest vote if ever all of them approved or two of the 3 approved.

Second issue, students may not be interested with the topic. This may affect the result of the study but John, Sarah (2012) Math is perhaps the most unpopular subject in school. It is one many people struggle with, so creating a fun, engaging and entertaining activity can make learning it easier to embrace. Therefore the researcher concludes that this issue lies also with the teacher. No matter how difficult the subject may be, it will always depends on how the teacher delivers the lesson that will make it interesting to learn.

Data Analysis The researcher decided to use T-test for independent groups as a statistical design because there will be evaluation in the differences in means between two groups. For data gathering, Experimental Design specifically Two Independent Group Design will be used. Active Participation will be measured by the numbers of students reciting and numbers of students who are willing to recite in classroom A that will be compared with classroom B. After having the data, the researcher will evaluate the differences in means between two groups by using T-test.

Based on the result, the researcher will now evaluate and state her conclusions and recommendations regarding the said experiment and study. References Callahan, Jessica (2005). Effects of Different Seating Arrangements in Higher Education Computer Lab Classrooms on Student Learning, Teaching Styles and Classroom Appraisal. , Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12(3), 147–165. Cohen, et al. (2007). The Impact of Seating Arrangement in a Classroom on Pupils’ Verbal Participation in Year 8 and Year 9 RE Lessons. , Research Methods in Education. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, London.

Damer, Mary (2000). How seating arrangements impact student behavior. , International Journal of Educational Research . 33. Douglas, Marshall P. , & Losonczy-Marshall Marta (2010). Classroom Ecology: Relations between Seating Locations, Performance, and Attendance. , Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2(2), 119–124. Dunbar, Christopher (2004). Best Practices in Classroom Management. Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues, 17–43. Ferncandes, Amanda, Jinyan Huang, Careena, & Rinaldo, Vince (2011). Does Where A Student Sits Really Matter?

– The Impact of Seating Locations on Student Classroom Learning. , Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9(2), 199–206. Ikram, Cinam (2010). Classroom Geography: Who Sit Where in the Traditional Classrooms? , Journal of Economic Education. 35 (3), p. 215-231. Marx, Alexandra, Fuhrer, Urs, Hartig Terry (2006). Effects of Classroom Seating Arrangements on Children’s question-asking. , Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12(3), 147–165. Parker, Tory, Hoopes, Olivia, & Eggett, Dennis (2011). The Effect of Seat Location and Movement or Permanence on Student-Initiated Participation.

, Journal Articles; Reports – Research, 59 (2) p79-84, 2011 Poirier, Alexander (2011). Psychological Effect on Perimeter Seating in the Classroom. , Roxas, R. M. , Carreon-Monterola, Monterola, C. (2010). Seating Arrangement, Group Composition and Competition-driven Interaction: Effects on Students’ Performance in Physics. , Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(2), 239–253. Wannarka, Rachel, Ruhl, Kathy (2003). Seating arrangements that promote positive academic and behavioural outcomes: a review of empirical research. , Support for Learning. , Volume 23 Issue 2. 6. 5.

2003. Nasen. Appendices Treatment A – Traditional Style [pic] Content: The professor will have her lecture with this kind of setting with the first group. How many students recited willing to recite will be recorded by the observer/researcher. Running Time: 1 hour- 1 and 30 minutes Treatment B – U-Style [pic] Content: The same teacher will have his/her same lecture topic with this kind of setting with the second group. He/she will just choose one from these styles. How many students recited and willing to recite will be recorded. Running Time: 1 hour-1 and 30 minutes.

Seating Structure Design Essay

Introduction to Early Childhood Education Essay

Introduction to Early Childhood Education Essay.

The education of early childhood is widely valued in a great variety of human development theories, and in some degree the quality of the early childhood education determines the quality of the child’s future life. In this essay, I will give my views on three quality indicators and relate them to children and Te whariki. A planned curriculum is important for children, and it is one of the sigh of quality early childhood education. The starting point of the curriculum of early childhood education-Te Whariki-is to achieve child’s individual requirements and help him/her to become a competent and confident learner and communicator.

(MoE, 1996) A planned program means before the curriculum comes out, educator need to observe the children and discover the particular needs of each child then design a special learning project to mesh with individual child. Partnership with parents and families also a important mark of early childhood education, it provides more comprehensive perspectives about a child, which helps educator to make an Individual Development Plan to enable children with special needs to be actively engaged in learning (MoE, 1996).

“Children’s learning and development are fostered if there is a strong connection and consistency among all the aspects of the child’s world. ” (MoE, p42, 1996), families and teacher communicate proactively and to work toward the same goal helps to empower the child to develop holistically within mind, body and spirit (MoE, 1996); Working in partnership with parents and families also helps educators to provide additional learning experiences to complement those provide in the home.

Trained staff have the knowledge about children’s development and early childhood curriculum, they also could administer the curriculum (MoE, 1996), is an indispensible part of quality early childhood services, children’s development and learning could be well supported surrounded by trained and professional educators. Assessment: Short Essay 2 Identify TWO early childhood services in your community. Briefly explain their history and then compare and contrast their philosophies, educational goals and the strategies employed to achieve these goals.

In this essay, I will introduce Te Kohanga Reo and home-based education and care services, compare and contrast their philosophies, educational goals and the strategies employed to achieve these goals. Te Kohanga Reo are parent-led services, the first thought of Te Kohanga Reo was begun in 1981, in response to Maori concern of the Maori language survival, by the Department of Maori Affairs. (Te Kohanga Reo National Trust.

1999) Te Kohanga Reo are “total immersed” early childhood services in te reo Maori program, where the language of communication will be Maori. The operation and running of each Kohanga Reo is the responsibility of the parents and whanau of the Te Kohanga Reo within the guidelines set down by Te Kohanga Reo National Trust Board, and they administer it to ensure the safety and well-being of the children and the whanau and to ensure the survival of te reo Maori.

(“What is a Kohanga Reo?“,1999) Home-based education and care services are teacher-led services, they involve a teacher providing education and care for small groups of up to four young children either in the home of the teacher’s or in the child’s own home. This may be all-day or part-day education and care. (MoE, 2006) The kaupapa (philosophy) of Te Kohanga reo highlight “The quality of learning and development of mokopuna (young children) stems from the collective strength of the whanau” (Te Kohanga Reo National Trust, 1999).

The emphasis for all philosophies of the home-based education and care services is to affirm the value of children learning and being cared for in a home setting. (ERO, 2009) Both kinds of services all showed the high position of children, however, Te Kohanga reo focus on the whanau, lay emphasis on skills of the adult to teach the children; and in home-based education and care services teachers bend themselves to establish positive relationships with children and their families to support children’s well-being and learning.

The education goal of Te Kohanga reo is total immersed mokopuna into Maori language and cultures, to achieve this goal, Kohanga Reo are overseen by an organisation call Te Kohanga Reo National Trust. Its role is to ensure the quality of education and care provided by Kohanga Reo and to promote and ensure the survival of the Maori language. (Government Review Team, 1988). The Trust provides Kohanga Reo support and advice to the whanau. It offers Whakapakari Tino Rangatiratanga – a teacher training course, and a training course for whanau in Maori language, computer training, Te Whariki (ECE curriculum) and business administration.

(Orange, 2004) Home-based centre hammer at build up a cared, warm and encouraged home setting for children, to insure the environment is safe and the education given by educator/caregiver is professional, the teacher of home-based education and care service must supported by a coordinator who is a registered teacher, just like the Te Kohanga Reo National Trust to Te Kohanga Reo, this person will visits the home based caregiver/educator regularly to check on the child’s safety and wellbeing and their learning progress.

The coordinator might help parents to choose a suitable teacher for their children as well, and also involved to create the children’s learning curriculum. Assessment: Short Essay 3 Discuss THREE of the following significant factors which were covered in this course and that promote health and safety in early childhood centres: 1. Providing a safe environment 2. Providing a hygienic and clean environment 3. Identifying and responding to childhood illness 4. Nutrition across the early years 5. Child protection

In this essay, I will talk about three significant factors, providing a safe environment; identifying and responding to childhood illness; and nutrition across the early years. I will use the document “Licensing Criteria for Early Childhood Education and Care Centres 2008, and Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework” and other relevant literature to support this essay. Health and safety guarantee is an essential part of quality ECE programmes and a major responsibility of ECE providers.

Children have the right to be protected and nurtured. As a caregiver, it is necessary to offer an environment which promots their health and nurtures their emotional well-being, and also need to keep the children safe from harm. (MoE,1996) To establish a safe environment in early childhood services contain a major problem, how to prevent injury from the environmental setting. Injury prevention is an important method to build a safe environment.

Many injuries can be prevented if staffs understand how they happen and provide preventive actions to avoid them, preventive actions for example such as strengthen security measures on environment setting and enforcement of safety policies. Knowledge of children’s behavior at each stages of development plays a key role in identifying the potential hazards in ECE program. (Marotz, L. R. , Cross, M. Z. , & Rush, J. M. ,2005). Infants are totally dependent on others, have little prior knowledge or experience, and are learning to anticipate events and to communicate their needs in a confusing world.

(Ministry of Education,1996) They explore the world by vision, hearing, feeling, smelling and tasting. The save environment for infants, for example, should not have anything small or sharp, babies may swallow things and choke; And no plastic bags, they will be dangerous if these cover infants’ mouths and noses, and it may suffocate the infants. (Ministry of health, 2011) Toddlers are active and curious, determined to become competent and to make sense of happenings, objects, and ideas. They learn with their whole body and learn by doing rather than being told.

(Ministry of Education ,1996) The safe environment for toddlers for instance that all the edges are soft or un-sharp; and all electrical outlets contain safety caps. To identifying and responding to childhood illness that is a professional quality as an early childhood educator should never ignore. Firstly, because of the feature of children’s immature immune systems, children always get a viral cold and then later on the viral illness start a secondary infection with bacteria which might turns into a dangerous condition such as a chest infection.

Nevertheless, children are still building up their immune systems, there are lots of illnesses caused by the bacteria and viruses, which need immune system to protect people away from. Sick children attending school increases the opportunity of some children’s common illnesses’ contagious and the illness will pass to other children at centre. Furthermore, sometimes children’s allergic could coursed asthma, ‘a common disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction. Common symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.’ ( National Asthma Education and Prevention Program, 2007)

Children who attacked asthma can be serious but treatable. “All practicable steps are taken to ensure that children do not come into contact with any person (adult or child) on the premises who is suffering from a disease or condition likely to be passed on to children and likely to have a detrimental effect on them. ” (Ministry of Education, P21, 2009) This quote from Licensing Criteria for Early Childhood Education and Care Centres 2008 showed that early childhood educator should have the ability to identifying and responding to childhood illness.

Strand 1 of Te Whariki, well-being, empowered that ‘Children experience an environment where: their health is promoted’ (MoE, p48, 1996), early childhood services need to achieve children’s nutrition needs. A nurtured dietary structure is an essential part of helping children develop holistically. When children intake vitamins, minerals and nutrients from eating and drinking, the quality and quantity of them direct influence on children’s bodies grow, bones built, muscles and brain development.

A balanced diet for children should include a variety of healthful fruits and vegetables, grain products, lean proteins and dairy products. (Marotz, L. R. , Cross, M. Z. , & Rush, J. M. , 2005). Early childhood education centre need to make sure food is served at appropriate times. And meanwhile, foods are of sufficient variety, quantity, and quality to meet the nutritional needs of each child. (Ministry of Education, P20, 2009)

To help to ensure that children receive adequate nutrition, and allows parents to see the commitment the centre has towards the nutritional wellbeing of their children (Leaity, K.2008), there is a practical guide to food and nutrition for early childhood education services, call Food For Under 5’s, to provide information on developing nutrition policies and menu planning in the early childhood education centres setting. Reference List Education Review Office. (2009).

About home-based early childhood services – Education Review Office. Retrieved September 13, 2013 from New Zealand government, Web site: http://www. ero. govt. nz/National-Reports Government Review Team. (1988). Report of the review of Te Kohanga reo. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Government. Leaity, K. (2008). Food For Under 5’s.

Retrieved September 15, 2013 from Auckland Regional public Health service, Web site: http://www. arphs. govt. nz/Portals/0/Health%20Information/HealthyEnvironments Marotz, L. R. , Cross, M. Z. , & Rush, J. M. (2005). Health, safety, and nutrition for the young child (6th ed. ), (pp. 193–207). Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Ministry of Education. (1996). Te Whariki He Whariki Matauranga mo nga Mokopuna -o Aotearoa/Early Childhood Curriculum. Wellington, New Zealand:Learning Media Limited. Ministry of Education. (2006).

Choices in early childhood education (pp. 1-4). Retrieved September 12, 2013, from http://www.minedu. govt. nz/Parents/EarlyYears/OtherInformationAndResources/Choices. aspx Ministry of Education. (2009). Licensing Criteria for Early Childhood Education and Care Centres 2008 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework. (pp. 21-22).

Retrieved September 15, 2013 from New Zealand Ministry of Education, Web site: http://www. lead. ece. govt. nz/ServiceTypes/CentreBasedECEServices. aspx National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP). (2007). “Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma” NY: U. S. Department of Health & Human Services Orange, C.

(2004). An illustrated history of the Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books. Te Kohanga Reo National Trust. (1999). History. Retrieved September 12, 2013, from http://www. kohanga. ac. nz/index. php? option=com_content&view=article&id=4&Itemid=10 What is a Kohanga Reo? (1999).

Retrieved September 12, 2013 from Ngaio Te Kohanga Reo, Web site: http://www. ngaiokohanga. co. nz/about-us Leaity, K. (2008). Food For Under 5’s. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from Auckland Regional public Health service, Web site: http://www. arphs. govt. nz/Portals/0/Health%20Information/HealthyEnvironments.

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Introduction to Early Childhood Education Essay

Technology Into Early Childhood Education Essay

Technology Into Early Childhood Education Essay.

Earlier research was more concerned with weather or not technology; including computers were, in fact, beneficial to children’s learning. Current research is concerned with how technology can be used to support children’s learning and development (Morrison, 2009). Acronyms like PC, CD, DVD, PDA, DSL, eBay, and . com, are part of our professional vocabulary right alongside ECE… technology has changed the way we teach children (Donohue, 2003). This author takes the position that technology is beneficial to early childhood education.

This paper will outline how technology is beneficial to early childhood education through an analysis of contemporary literature.

The paper has been set out in sections addressing a different aspect of technology and matters to consider as it effects early childhood education. This paper will begin by defining technology. It will discuss recent trends in technology and the importance of educators and the benefits for children. It will discuss computer technology in the classroom and the use of media in education. It will conclude with a discussion on the effects of television superheros on children’s behaviour in an educational setting.

This paper will show by presenting different aspects of technology and arguing different perspectives from research; technology is beneficial to early childhood education. Defining Technology in Early Childhood Education Before a discussion on technology in early childhood education can proceed, there needs to be an understanding of what technology is comprised of. Depending on which author one reads or what the purpose of the research is for, the definition of technology varies to include or exclude varying forms of artefacts.

Dockett & Fleer (1999) explain technology to be inclusive of high technology such as television, fax machines and computers as well as replica objects of television characters (p. 150). Dockett & Fleer use a very general definition of technology. Looking critically at this example leads this author to feel the information here is too limited in content. In addition, other ‘high technology’ items include cell phones, smartphones, PDA’s, personal computers, the internet, e-mail, and digital cameras (Donohue, 2003), and electronic teaching materials such as SmartBoards (Flynn et, al., 2010).

Donohue (2003) and Flynn et, al. (2010) explain that we routinely use these tools in our classrooms, as well as the home and work. Both Dockett & Fleer (1999), and Donohue (2003) use the term ‘high technology’. The purpose here is that there are other categories which can be viewed as artefacts of technology such as blocks, sandpit toys, play group equipment or infant toys (Dockett & Fleer, 1999). While this author acknowledges the listed ‘low tech’ items as developments of technology, this paper will not be discussing such items.

Technology as listed above (Dockett & Fleer 1999; Donohue 2003) lists items which could be considered as hardware. But technology is not limited to hardware alone. Other forms of technology which this paper holds interest include media. Weddell (2001, p. 4) describes media as being”…all forms of broadcasts, advertising, television, computer games, film, video, interactive online media (email, internet), recorded music, print material (newspapers, magazines, cards, stickers), toys and merchandising associated with media-related products”.

This paper will refer to technology as including both technical hardware and digital media. Technological Trends in Early Childhood Education In this section, the author will address matters that need to be considered about trends in early childhood education. While differing views are presented, the favoured position is overwhelmingly for the inclusion of technology into the early childhood curriculum as shown in the research. The question of technology in the early childhood classroom is not if, but how and why we use it (Donohue, 2003).

The use of computers and technology in early childhood education has grown each year, and the ways in which technological tools are used to manage and improve programs and enhance children’s learning have expanded dramatically (Donohue, 2003). It needs to be acknowledged that technology and media are social icons, and, most importantly, children are active consumers of these products (Weddell, 2001). There is little wonder why technology is being viewed as becoming, if not already, common place in the educational setting.

Zevenbergen (2010, p. 1) states, “This generation has been immersed in technology since their emergence into the world. Their homes have computer technology in all facets of gadgetry-the remote control for the television, the programmable microwave, the mobile phone computers, digital games (such as Xbox, as well as those on the computer)”. Early childhood is a period of growth and rapid development. During this time, many children attend preschool, where they have access to technology as a learning tool (Chen & Couse, 2010).

There is increasing interest and belief in the need to start this education [technology] at an earlier age, possibly as soon as children begin formal schooling or even nursery school or kindergarten (Stables, 1997). In a survey conducted by Flynn et, al. (2010), the results showed more than half of the educators surveyed think that children should be introduced to technology between ages 3 and 4. Perhaps one reason the findings would indicate this is due to the motivational interest technology hold for young children.

In support of this, Chen & Couse (2010) state, “Encouragement in the learning process is directly linked to motivation, as illustrated in Haugland’s study (1999), which found the motivation of kindergarten and primary-aged children increased when academic instruction was paired with the use of technology (p. 77). Today, educators are using technology in many creative ways (Donohue, 2003). In a study conducted by Jarvis and Rennie (1994) (cited in Fleer & Jane, 1999), young children were asked about their views on technology by using a picture quiz to identify their perception of the term ‘technology’.

Of the 28 items shown that had something to do with technology, the most frequently listed item was the computer (p. 7). This author notes this research was carried out in 1994. The results of a similar study being carried out today could likely reveal a different result. Unfortunately this author was unable to locate such a study. Either way, in early childhood classrooms, computers have become an increasingly accepted tool for learning and when used in a pedagogically appropriate manner, they provide valuable educational experiences for children (Edwards, 2005).

As children naturally explore and learn about their environments through inquiry, computer technology has proven an effective means of cognitive and conceptual development as children develop literacy and numeracy skills and competence (Edwards, 2005). Educators recognize ever developing potential of technologies to enhance the ability of children to learn, problem solve, and convey their ideas (Chen & Couse, 2010). The trend will continue for the foreseeable future; but equity issues of access, affordability, and the need for computer literacy for early childhood teachers and faculty will remain as significant barriers for many early childhood programs and professionals (Donohue, 2003).

The trend of introducing technology into the classrooms appears to have gained motivation to the point where it is accepted by students, educators and parents (Dockett & Fleer, 1999; Edwards, 2005), the reason for this occurring is largely due to children being so familiar with technology as a result of this generations lifestyle (Zevenbergen, 2010), we must also consider another aspect for introducing technology into the classrooms as it has been pointed out by O’Shanesy (2013, MOCR), not all children have computers in their homes.

This is one very important reason why educators need to introduce technology and computers to these children as early as possible so that they may also develop the computer literacy skills that their peers may take for granted (p. 3). Early Childhood Educators in an Age of Technology In this section, the author will address matters that need be considered about early childhood educators working in this age of technology. While differing views are presented about the educator’s level of training and confidence, it is without question that educators are the key to successful integration of technology into the school curriculum.

Digital technologies and computers have become an integral part of many children’s daily lives. For this reason, it is important that early childhood educators are not only familiar with the use of computer technologies, but are able to guide children’s understanding of, and ability to use them (Morrison, 2009). In agreement with Morrison, Weddell (2001) also insists that teachers need to guide children’s learning to better understand and interpret technology (p. 5). Haugland & Wright (1997) suggest, without training it is very difficult for teachers to obtain the necessary expertise to successfully integrate computers into their curriculum.

Only when teachers feel comfortable with technology will computers play a significant role in early childhood education (p. 17). It seems that researchers agree that the key to successfully implement technology into the classroom rests with the early childhood educator. According to Filipenko and Rolfsen (1999, as cited in Edwards, 2005), the integration of computers in the early childhood classroom to support children’s learning and development is influenced by the educators’ level of computing knowledge (Edwards, 2005).

The question is raised, are teachers provided with the appropriate level of training to successfully implement technology into the classroom? Stables (1997) suggests, some teachers have warmly welcomed the challenge of introducing technology education to children at an early age. They have found that it has allowed them to develop new dimensions to work already underway (p. 50). This is not the case however with all educators as the research shows.

Burnett (2010, p.1) states, “Studies have highlighted a lack of confidence and competence amongst early childhood educators in relation to new technologies. ” In support of this statement, Stables (1997, p. 50) argues, “Some [educators] are confused by what technology education would mean for young children… There are also those who believe that technology education is simply inappropriate with a younger age group. “

The author questions why there are such differing opinions amongst early childhood educators. Perhaps Zevenbergen (2010, p.1) offers an answer to this issue as he states, “We contend that young children coming into early childhood settings may be different from other generations because of the social and technological conditions within which they are developing. “

In support to this statement, Donohue (2003), argues that most early childhood educators, unlike the young children in their classroom, have come to computers as adult learners and can be resistant to using technology (p. 17). If this is the case, then how does one bring these generations closer together?

How has it come to be that the early childhood learners, know more about technology, and are more comfortable using it than many of the educators? There are noted benefits of early childhood educators using computers in classrooms as Morrison (2009) mentions, when educators support children to use computer technology in their classrooms; it helps them to develop skills such as the use of a keyboard and basic computer software. It also assists children to build learning concepts around computer use and digital media over time (p. 16).

A point being addressed here by Morrison is not regarding the benefits that computers offer to children but rather what benefits the educators off to children in developing their computer skills. Consistent with this research, it has also been bought to the authors attention by O’Shanesy (2013, MOCR) that educators need to be trained appropriately to scaffold learning and use the correct computer language when working with children (p. 3). Early Childhood Learners and Computer Technology In this section, the author will address matters that need be considered surrounding computers in the classroom.

While differing views are presented, the position is overwhelmingly in favour for the instruction and use of computers in the classroom as shown in the research. Computers are all around us. It has become virtually impossible to function on a daily basis without using or benefiting from computer technology (Haugland & Wright, 1997). It is inevitable in this technological age that children will be exposed to computers and that these computers will be instrumental in their daily lives (Haugland & Wright, 1997). Computers have been shown to be beneficial to children’s cognitive development (Dockett & Fleer, 1999).

With the use of a computer, children can develop their skills in areas where they would otherwise be limited. For example (Clements, 1992), a child can further develop their composition abilities using a simple word processing program. It is argued that children will not be limited by their handwriting ability as it is easier to press the keys on the keyboard (Cited in Dockett & Fleer 1999). Stables (2007, p. 51) states, “Curiosity as to how things work, leads to a determination to make things work. Consequently, opportunities to develop problem solving skills are provided [through the use of computers].

” Used in developmentally appropriate ways, the computer is a resource which fits children’s learning style (Haugland & Wright, 1997). Introducing technology into the curriculum of young children is important because of the propensity of this age group to engage in technological activity with an enthusiasm, curiosity and lack of inhibition that creates an optimum opportunity for development (Stables, 2007). Haugland & Wright (1997) explain learning involves children actively exploring their world and then, through a process of assimilation and accommodation, acquiring and constructing knowledge.

Piaget (1971 cited in Haugland & Wright, 1997) states, “If we desire to form individuals capable of inventive thought and of helping the society of tomorrow to achieve progress, then it is clear that an education which is an active discovery of reality is superior to one that consists merely in providing the young with…ready-made truths to know with. ” This author acknowledges how relevant is this statement by Piaget of 1971 is to modern education.

While based on the research indicating the many developmental advantages of computers in early childhood educational settings as presented in this paper, there is still some doubts as to the benefits that will come from computers. Haugland & Wright (1997, p. 6) state, “Opponents believe computers should not be placed in early childhood classrooms. They fear computers will replace other activities, will rob children of their childhood, are too abstract, provide children an unrealistic image of the world, lead to social isolation, reduce feeling awareness and creativity. ” But based on research findings (Lipinski, et. Al, 1986, NAEYC in Press) this is not the case.

It needs to be stated that a computer does not replace traditional resources for teaching in the classroom. Instead usual or traditional activities that take place in the classroom are as important as they always were. As suggested by Haugland & Wright (1997), computers should be used to supplement or accompany the children’s normal learning experiences (p. 7). Classroom activities help children place computer experiences in context and reinforce the competencies and skills children gain from technology (Haugland & Wright, 1997).

Early Childhood Education and Media Technology In this section, the author will address changing opinions towards media technology. While differing views are presented, the argument for introducing media into the classroom is favoured as shown in the research. Television programs, whether positive or negative, do form a large part of children’s life experience (Dockett & Fleer, 1999). In support of this research, Flynn et. al. (2010, p. 3) states, “It is hard to find a national study of children’s use of media in the past 20 years that does not demonstrate that media, and especially television, are a dominant activity of childhood.

” Flynn et. al. (2010) claims that young children have incorporated media technologies into their out-of-school lives in unprecedented ways in recent years. Early media use is now the norm, with baby videos and 24/7 cable television for children used by even infants and toddlers (p. 3). Weddell (2001) presents a position (but does not advocate to) that parents do not want media studies in their children’s curriculum. Waddell argues in most cases, parents and teachers report that children are exposed to enough [media] at home and in the community without it becoming part of their education (p.4). Weddell (2001) comments that children aged three to five are watching up to 17 hours of television a week (p. 4).

While the argument that parents do not want media studies in their children’s classroom is not further supported by the research this author has located, there is certainly supporting research (Dockett & Fleer, 1999; Flynn et, al. , 2010) that children are exposed to a great deal of media in their lives. There is research that indicates that parents are in favour of media being integrated into their children’s curriculum.

Rideout & Hamel (2006, cited in Flynn et. al. , 2010) state, “We have a generation of parents who are more accepting of not just television but also computers and other technologies and who view such technologies as more likely to help than hurt their children’s development (p. 3). Perhaps this change in opinion could be a result of changing attitudes from 2001 to 2006. Dockett & Fleer (1999) argue there is a range of children’s programs in Australia designed by educators to enhance children’s cognitive, social and emotional development.

There is a great deal of community support for these kinds of programs. As a result, these television programs are part of many children’s educational experience. The Effects of Television Superheros on Early Childhood Learners In this section, the author will address matters of the media that affect the behaviour of children. The research presented shows conflicting views. Once again, it is shown the educator is the key to successfully integrating media technology into the school curriculum.

A significant amount of research into superhero play has suggested that teachers should work with the popular children’s culture initiated and developed through television and video (Cupit 1989 cited in Dockett & Fleer 1999). This would be interesting and thus motivating for the children. However, research indicates this also has negative effects on children’s behaviour due to television superheros usually being associated with violent acts. According to a study by Lisosky (1991; cited in Levin and Carlsson-Paige, 1995); there are over 200 acts of violence per hour in a popular children’s show of that time (Dockett & Fleer 1999).

In addition, the same television program used footage of real-life actors and settings with special effects and animation. As a result, children see real people engaged in realistic acts of violence (Dockett & Fleer 1999). According to Levin and Carlsson-Paige (1995, p. 70, cited in Dockett & Fleer 1999), teachers surveyed on the effects of the said television program on children’s play believe that the use of real people in the program increased the negative effect on children. It was argued ‘at 4 and 5 years of age, children do not have the cognitive skills to separate the fantasy from the reality of the show’ (p.153).

In contradiction to this survey finding, Weddell (2001, p. 4) states, “Very few children will be influenced by antisocial images or violence they see on the screen, nor will they become obese, unimaginative, poor communicators. ” Weddell (2001) does not deny that some children may behave violently during play after watching their television superheros in violent acts, however Weddell (2001) claims that some children behave violently because they have a predisposition to violent acts and are in need of supervision.

Dockett & Fleer (1999) suggest that children act out their superheros violent actions as they are unable to imagine another storyline to go with their superhero character, as a result, children should be protected from violence in media (p. 153). In argument, Weddell (2001, p. 5) states, “The notion that children are inevitably ‘at risk’ from the media and therefore must be ‘protected’ from it is a distorted perspective. Encouragement-rather than protection-is needed to guide children’s viewing and to teach the art of watching and interpreting the media.

” Weddell (2001, p. 4) states, “Most importantly we need to trust that children can learn to discern the media messages they receive. We seem to forget that children of this century will know more about the media than their parents or teachers. ” It is unlikely that teachers will be able to influence what children choose to watch at home. As a compromise of the research presented, perhaps while at school, this author suggests teachers should choose media programs that do not involve violence but rather appeal to the children through other means.

In support of the author, Dockett & Fleer (1999) suggest teachers use quality television programs to stimulate positive children’s play. Programs such as ‘Playschool’ actively encourage children to construct the same or similar things as those shown on the program. The construction work (e. g. , building a doll’s house, making name tags, or making hats) may stimulate further play (p. 158). This suggestion (Dockett & Fleer 1999) is consistent with the research presented from both positions.

Children do, to varying degrees, imitate what they see on television. So rather than expose them to violent acts, in an educational setting, children should be exposed to ‘quality’ television media that stimulate their desire to learn. Conclusion The future looks bright for technology in early childhood classrooms (Donohue, 2003). The effects of technology in educational settings on the development of young children have been widely documented and strongly positive (Chen & Couse, 2010). Technology has changed the way we teach children (Donohue, 2003).

This author has taken the position that technology is beneficial to early childhood education and presented this position with supporting research through an analysis of contemporary literature. This paper addressed different aspects of technology and discussed matters to consider as it effected early childhood education. This paper began by defining technology to include technological hardware (Dockett & Fleer, 1999) and digital media (Weddell, 2001). It discussed recent trends in technology arguing technology is present in all areas of children’s lives (Zevenbergen, 2010).

It argued the importance of educator training and experience as being a key factor to successful implementation of technology into the curriculum (Haugland & Wright, 1997). It also argued the learning benefits technology offers for children (Dockett & Fleer, 1999) in early childhood education. It discussed benefits of computer technology in the classroom (Clements, 1992) and the benefits of using media in education (Flynn et. al. , 2010) including a discussion on the benefits of television in education (Dockett & Fleer 1999).

This paper has shown by presenting different aspects of technology and arguing different perspectives from research; technology is beneficial to early childhood education. References Burnett, C. (2010). Technology and literacy in early childhood educational settings. Journal of early childhood literacy, 10(3), 247-270. Retrieved 20 January 2013 from http://shura. shu. ac. uk/1308/1/Final_JECL_(3). pdf Carlsson-Paige, N. & Levin, D. (1990). Who’s calling the shots? How to respond effectively to children’s fascination with war and play and war toys. Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers. Chen, D. & Couse, L. (2010).

A tablet computer for young children? Exploring its viability in early childhood education. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(1), 77-100. Clements, D. (1992) Computer technology and early childhood education. In Roopnarine, J. , & Johnson, J. (eds). Approaches to early childhood education, 2nd ed. , pp. 297-316. Columbus, OH: Meril Publishing Co. Cupid, C. (1989). Socialising the superheroes. Australian Early Childhood Resource Booklets, no. 5, Canberra, ACT: AECA. Dockett, S. , & Fleer, M. (1999). Play and pedagogy in early childhood.

Bending the rules (pp. 149-168). Marrickville, NSW: Harcourt Brace & Co. Donohue, C.(2003). Technology in Early Childhood Education: An Exchange Trend Report (pp. 17-20). Child Care Information Exchange, November/December 2003: Redmond, W. A. Retrieved on 23 January 2013 from http://www. secure. worldforumfoundation. org/library/5015417. pdf Edwards, S. (2005). Identifying the factors that influence computer use in the early childhood classroom.

Australasian Journal of Educational Technology. 21(2), 192- 210. Fleer, M. , & Jane, B. (1999). Our experiences and understandings of technology and technology teaching. In Technology for children: Developing your own approach (pp. 3-21). Sydney: Prentice Hall. Fatouros, C., Downes, T. and Blackwell, S. (1994). In control: young children learning with computers. NSW: Social Science Press. Filipenko, M. & Rolfsen, G. (1999).

What will it take to get computers into an early childhood classroom? Canadian Children, 24(2), 35-38. Flynn, R. , Lauricella, A. , Robb, M. , Schomburg, R. , & Wartella, E. (2010). Technology in the Lives of Teachers and Classrooms: Survey of Classroom Teachers and Family Child Care Providers. Latrobe, PA: The Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning and Children’s Media. Retrieved on 23 January 2013 from www. fredrogerscenter. org/media/resources/TechInTheLivesofTeachers. pdf.

Haugland, S. (1999). What role should technology play in young children’s learning? Young Children, 54(6), 26-31. Haugland, S. , & Wright, J. (1997). Young children and technology. A world of discovery (pp. 1-20). Needham Heights, Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon. Jarvis, T. and Rennie, L. (1994). Children’s Perceptions about technology: an international comparison. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching Anaheim, March 1994. Levin, D. and Carlsson-Paige, N. (1995). The mighty morphin Power Rangers: teachers voice concern. Young children, vol. 50, no. 6, September, pp. 67 – 72.

Lipikinski, J. , Nida, R. , Shade, D. , & Watson, J (1986). The effect of microcomputers on young children: An evaluation of free play choices, sex differences, and social interactions. Journal of Computing Research, 2, 147-168. Lisosky, J. (1995). Battling standards worldwide “Mighty Morphin Power Rangers”fight for their lives. Paper presented at the World Summit for Children and Television, March 12-16, Melbourne, Australia. Morrison, T. (2009). Putting Children First: Digital technology and computers in child care. National Childcare Accreditation Council 29 March 2009 (Pages 16-17). Retrieved on 15 January 2013 from http://ncac.

acecqa. gov. au/educator-resources/pcf-articles/Digital_computers_and_technology_Mar09. pdf Piaget, J. (1971). The science of education and the psychology of child. New York: Viking. Stables, K. (1997). Critical Issues to Consider When Introducing Technology Education into the Curriculum of Young Learners. Journal of Technology Education. Spring, 8(2), 50-65 Waddell, C. (2001). Media-savvy young children. Understanding their view. Every Child, Summer, 7(1), 4-5. Zevenbergen, R. (2008). Computer use by preschool: Rethinking practice as digital natives come to preschool. Australian Journal of Early Childhood. 33(1).

Technology Into Early Childhood Education Essay

What Is College for? Essay

What Is College for? Essay.

In the article, “What Is College For? (Part 2)” written by Gary Gutting we see a description of his ideal vision to improve education and the intellectual culture of our citizens. Mr. Gutting emphasizes that preparing students for employment should be the job of the elementary, middle and high school rather than college. He argues that higher education is basically unnecessary for the practice of many professions.

At the beginning of this article he states “colleges and universities are primarily vehicles for the preservation, development and transmission of our intellectual culture (scientific, humanistic and artistic).

” He then goes on to explain that we expect colleges and universities to provide students with the necessary skills that they need to find well-paying jobs but the humongous cost of education leaves most of these students with burdening levels of debt.

He says that college prepares students with basic intellectual skills like the ability to understand complex instructions, write and speak professionally, or as in his own words “earning a college degree shows that you have the ‘moral qualities’ needed for most jobs”(Par.

#3) However; he argues that it is unnecessary to go through years of college to obtain this sort of knowledge; he affirms that this is rather “the sort of training that ought to result from good elementary and high school education.

” (Par. #4) He thinks that college should only be for specialized occupations like medicine or accounting, or for those who would like to gain intellectual culture, we would “see college as the entree to intellectual culture for everyone who is capable of and interested in working at that level of intellectual engagement. But an adequate high school education should be of sufficient quality to make graduates competitive for a wide range of meaningful jobs. ” (Par. #11) Mr.

Gutting also makes a point that teaching is not the profession of choice anymore, the best students go for professions with more prestige and better pay, therefore only those who don’t make the cut, with the exception of a few, become teachers and this is not a good thing for students to learn from. I was a little thrown off with this explanation of teaching professionals, “Now that these professions are much more open to women, we have come to accept that pre-college teachers will, on the whole (and with admirable exceptions), be our less successful students.

” (Par. #8) I could not understand why this point was in the context, I didn’t get the connection between this and the point that he’s trying to convey. After reading the article several times, I finally came up with my own interpretation of it, I think he means that since less students would be going to college, less college professors would be needed, therefore more money available to provide a better incentive to the new teachers recruited after a vigorous search for high school educators.

He then adds that in order for or Nation to accomplish this we would need to use the same sort of selection criteria for pre-college teachers as we do for other professionals such as doctors or college professors. He believes that this would allow for a cutback on unneeded teaching positions to focus on more efficient teaching strategies allowing to recruit the best students as teachers which as he believes, it’s a necessary condition for successful education.

In the article, he explains that while he understands that raising high school to this level and opening college to everyone who would like to pursue it, would be very expensive and very difficult for the government to provide the means to ensure an appropriate education to all students that will match up to their aspirations regardless of family resources, but the intellectual culture of the citizens of our Nation should be a priority since it would improve our national well-being.

As a college student who worries about the future and the burdening amount of debt that awaits me after graduation, I personally do believe that our education system needs some type of reform to help alleviate the cost. I also believe that professors have an essential role in our education and there’s nothing more educating than to receive your knowledge from someone who knows what they are doing. However; I firmly believe that most people at the age of 18, after graduating from High School, do not possess the maturity necessary to perform highly demanding jobs where reliability and responsibility are so important.

College, on the other hand, allows us to have some extra time to grow up and mature into responsible adults. I have to admit that I have immensely changed since my graduation from high school, I see the world with different eyes, in a more responsible manner, when I finished high school I had no idea where my life was going, my tastes and choices were not very clear to me, the solution? Two years of college, it took me 3 semesters to realize where I wanted my life to go.

Therefore I wouldn’t have too much faith in Mr. Gutting’s proposal. These are the reasons why he believes that college and its debts could be avoided by many, making high school graduates excellent candidates for well-paying jobs for example in sales and service industries. Having good, qualified teachers in high school who would prepare us for life’s endeavors would be sufficient to enter into the work force right off of high school graduation, according to Mr. Gutting.

Still, I stand by my point of students not being mature enough. Growing is a process, it does not happen overnight, and it has been proven that the best school is the school of life. Experiences overtime make us who we are. This is why I highly doubt that high school graduates would be ready for many jobs right after they finish high school, even with the best education provided, because the maturity level has not reached the necessary experience to survive in the responsible and reliable work world.

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