Emotional Expression Essay

Emotional Expression Essay.

Emotional expression is most commonly known by the attitudes people have and the facial expressions they carry in certain situations. You can easily tell if someone is mad, upset, happy, or uncomfortable in a given situation. Whether most people realize it or not, their faces can be read like a book. Most of the time, you can look at someone and see their opinion on an issue without having to actually ask them what they think or how they feel. This is very helpful in most situations, but sometimes it would be better not to know what people think or how they feel so it doesn’t influence your opinion on the issue.

Many philosophers have investigated and studied facial expressions and the behaviors that are associated with these expressions. “William James, a Harvard professor in the late 19th century, is a well known proponent of the view that perceiving the bodily changes during emotion constitutes the emotional experience, and without this perception, emotion would be pale and colorless.

James argued strongly that there is nothing in the mind called emotion that precipitates bodily activity, rather the reverse is true” (Theories of emotion). William James and Karl Lange created the James-Lange theory. This theory suggests that emotions follow behavioral responses to events. This means that how you feel about the event will come after your reaction, whether you ran away, stayed still, climbed a tree, etc. Behavioral actions always come before emotions come into place.

Another well known philosopher of behavior is Charles Darwin. “Darwin’s work emphasized the biological utility of emotional expression. Thus, it contributed to the development of an evolutionary-expressive approach to emotion, which suggests that emotion exists because it contributes to survival (Oatley, 1992)” (Emotional Processing). Darwin suggests that survival depends on emotional responses. This means that people must feel and relate to an issue in order to make it out of the situation. If the person cannot relate to the issue or figure out what to do, then they will experience a negative outcome because they could not help their self out of the issue. In order to make it anywhere in a society, a person must be able to relate to the issue and have past experiences with the issue or know of a situation in which someone else did so they have an idea of how to handle the situation effectively.

Emotional responses play an important part in the survival and maintenance of any person. In order to succeed in life, a person must be able to handle good and bad experiences and learn from the experiences so they can handle other things that life gives them. Certain situations involve other people and their feelings, so it is important for people to think of others in that situation so the feelings do not get hurt and you do not lose a friend. Other people have an effect on your emotions and you have an effect on their emotions, so always remember to be cautious in these situations and look out for others and not just yourself.

Emotional Expression Essay

The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear Essay

The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear Essay.

“The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear.” I bet no person will disagree to this statement. We all have fears. Some would admit it, most prefer hiding it. The fears we have inside serve as our weakness in our times of strong points. Facing and conquering these fears is the ultimate key to eradicate these frightening feelings inside us.

To start with, what is fear? According to Encarta 2008, “fear is an unpleasant feeling of anxiety or apprehension caused by the presence or anticipation of danger”.

When an individual felt a threat, he/she is having fear towards that object or situation. I remember my first conscious encounter with “fear.” it happened during my first audition in a declamation contest. I prepared for it for two weeks. I made sure that I had memorized every line and word and its corresponding actions.

On the actual contest, I was the third to present and I readied myself. After the second declaimer was called to the stage, I experienced something different.

I noticed that my heart beat faster than the usual. My hands were fidgeting and sweating. I felt my stomach turning and had the feeling of throwing up.

When I was called, all I did was stood, looked at the audience and judges, and stared my piece. Sad to say, I was not able to finish my piece because I forgot most of the lines and my whole body was trembling. After the contest, my mother told me that I looked very “fearful” in the stage. I admitted it to my mother, of course. The signs and symptoms I experienced are some indicators that fear is already happening inside you.

When a person feels fearful, he/she is feeling anxious. Anxiety is an “emotional state in which people feel uneasy, apprehensive, or fearful” based on Encarta Encyclopedia 2008. Usually, people are aware of what causes their fear. For example, I would feel different whenever I came close to a high place. Some interchange the word fear and anxiety but they describe the same thing. However, fear emphasizes the want of a person to escape the situation that entails danger.

When people feel threaten by a specific object or event, it became a phobia. Phobia is defined in Encarta Encyclopedia as an “intense and persistent fear of a specific object, situation, or activity.” Phobias are further divided into three categories: simple, agoraphobia, and social phobia. Simple phobia refers to fears of specific things or situations. I have a fear of cockroaches. I screech and run away whenever I see them on streets or at home. I recalled the moments when I and cockroaches are still “friends” (you read it right). When we were still living in an apartment, a lot of cockroaches lived with us.

They even crawled on my legs but I just let them do it because it felt good and ticklish. When we moved into our new home, my mom told me that cockroaches are dirty creatures that transmit diseases. She said I should exterminate them if ever I see one. From that moment, I became scared of my “ex-friends” and tried to avoid them as much as possible. I cannot kill them using my footwear because its germs will just transfer to me and that would worsen everything! Another simple phobia I have is of heights. A third floor of any building could make my legs and shoulders tremble. This was formed when I we went to a swimming reunion. I was suddenly thrown into the pool and almost drowned because it was 6 feet high! Ever since, heights are a no-no for me.

The second kind of phobia is agoraphobia, fear of open, public places and situations. These include being in crowded places or public vehicles. I also have this. I rarely went to any huge gatherings like concerts or assembly because I feel so inferior and vulnerable. People made me consider that escaping will be very difficult. Social phobia is the third kind and usually happens to teenagers. It is when you feel foolish during social events. I have a great fear of rejection from other people.

This is the reason why I am a shy person. I do not like meeting up and chatting with people personally. Once when I was in grade school, my classmates would laugh at me when I was introducing myself to class. Ever since, I dislike and fear present myself to a crowd of people. I felt that they would stare at me and laugh at the same time. These fears greatly affected how I manage my life as a person right now.

I prefer to be alone of the most of the time. I faced my problems alone and rarely asking for help. This could be a result of having a fear to socialize to other. Then, I realized that when I kept in living inside my own shell, I will not appreciate the individuals surrounding me. They might actually help me solve my conflicts and guide me to become a better person. Trust is what I have learned by facing and conquering my fears. I never took risks in my life because I fear that I would fail and become a loser all my life. However, there are individuals who assisted me to come out of my shell and conquer my fears. I am grateful of them.

Fears made individuals imperfect. It shows the limitations of the human race. We should learn from Viktor’s story that running away from our fear would not make our lives better. The courage to confront it is an approach we can use to fight our fears. Remember, there is nothing to fear but fear itself. Courage is not the lack of fear, but the ability to face it.

Works Cited

Bufka, Lynn F., and Barlow, David H. “Anxiety.” Microsoft® Encarta® 2009 [DVD]. Redmond,        WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008.

The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear Essay

Emotional Connection and Its Relation to Physical Intimacy or Sex Essay

Emotional Connection and Its Relation to Physical Intimacy or Sex Essay.

Majority of women view sexual relationship with valued commitment. They do not allow themselves to be persuaded by their partner who believes that sexual intimacy is part of having a relationship. On the other hand, old-fashioned and modern day women acknowledge the belief that sexual relationship is much persistent within marriage life. This could be true since emotions flow and desires could be much prevalent in the intimate moments of married couples. However, this assumption can be a predicament, finding that intimacy within marriage somehow unpredictably vanishes, and consequently unlit the once flaming emotions.

In western cultures and highly developed countries, it is publicly acknowledge and as a normal happening to observe teenagers already sexually aware, accepting that having sexual relationship is a customary expression of love. In fact, sexual orientation is part of the educational curriculum, embarking on the sexual awareness of teenagers at their early age. However, sexual awareness does not pinpoint much the linkage of keeping a happy marriage which is seemingly less emphasized in the sex education, discussing the development of sexual maturity.

Either in marriage or in a platonic relationship, one of the important elements that should be present is emotional connection. However, experts believe that the key to successful relationships within marriage lies on adding the aspect of emotions to physical intimacy or sex. Coping or surviving an affair is determined by the sexual intimacy as partly the emotional means. Marriages come to an end because one or both parties are not emotionally attached to each other. They do not see their spouse as a partner in life but as a different individual which tends to be obsolete over time.

This research paper will discuss and examine how relationship of couples is survived by several factors within their married life, relating how the effect of emotional connection to physical intimacy or sex is significant features. The review of several literatures and other information is the method used throughout the examinations and findings. Literature Review Overview In the United States, the common causes of divorce are found by experts to be purely emotional, rather than the usual infidelity of a partner.

Vis-avis infidelity is also causal to several emotional disturbances, like failure to achieve sexual satisfaction can be disappointing and may cause one party to look for another sexual partner. The troublesome underpinning of failed emotional connection to a partner then becomes a baggage of couples right through their married life. Emotional connection is very crucial in every relationship, specifically marriage. This is why it is important for the couple to get to know each others emotions before deciding to exchange vows as the next level of commitment.

Emotions could be the result of openness according to the individual liking or disliking that can be connected by simple understanding, agreement and appreciation (Paulsen, 2008). Sadly, emotional connection gradually disappears as the married life of couples matures. The intimacy that is required to make their marriage strong is displaced on the side, as couples seem to have separate lives within the home setting. When simple differences set in, their individual “baggage” comes in which initially ignite the unfulfilled emotions that cry out loud as a hostile ground of resentments.

The conflict begins beyond disagreements and feeling of neglect, resulting to resolve at the option of divorce. Emotional connection is important in the survival of marriage, enabling couples to iron out differences and work out a solution without parting ways. The convergence of emotional attachment allows couples to make compromise in order to set aside the beliefs that separation would resolve the disagreements (Johnson, 2008). Thus, several factors must be established as the converging point of emotional connections.

Importance of Emotional Intimacy in Marriage According to an article written by Shruti Paulsen (2008), creating emotional intimacy in marriage is vital to its survival and success. He likened married life to traveling on a ship with two pilots. At first, the two pilots know what direction to take as well as their destination. However, as the trip goes on, one of the pilots decides to shift the direction to the surprise of the other pilot. In a sense, this is what happens to marriage. In the first few years, the couple has a shared direction and goal.

In order to establish emotional connection, it is important for couples to communicate with each others directions. Human culture has the notion that it is bad to be dependent and is a sign of weakness. The truth of the matter is that being emotionally connected with another individual is not. In fact, it provides some sense of security and safety. The basic tenet of the attachment theory is that being apart from another individual can be a traumatic experience (Johnson, 2008). On the other hand, the absence of emotional connection puts into jeopardy an individual’s need for security.

Without someone to be emotionally connected with, there is a reason for an individual to panic and become worried. Being emotionally disconnected can play a crucial role in married life as well as in the life of partners. It develops into mistrust of a spouse of their partner (Johnson, 2008). Emotional connection paves the way for couples to develop a deeper understanding of themselves. Establishing intimacy requires sharing of feelings, thoughts, and beliefs. There are various factors that can affect the ability of couples to become emotionally connected to each other.

Rearing of children and hectic schedule at work can contribute to the loss of emotional connection and intimacy. Aside from their failure to communicate with each other, there are other factors that can also lead to emotional insecurity such as low self-esteem, childhood experiences, past rejections, and failed relationships. When emotional connection is lacking, marital problems can set in. One spouse views their problem differently than the others (Marriage Quest. Org, 2007). Treatment Issues Warning Signs of Marital Problems

When emotional connection is lacking, marital issues can develop some vital signs of marital problems, such as (1) feelings of isolation; (2) increase in arguments or negativity; (3) lack of affection; (4) increase in anger, hostility, and/or sarcasm; (5) avoidance of each other; stonewalling; (6) mistrust. Unfortunately, majority of couples do not possess communication, anger management, commitment, conflict resolution, and intimacy skills (Relationship Institute, 2004). According to Relationship Institute (2004), a study conducted by Dr. J.

Gottman from the University of Washington has found the following ‘Four Signs of Relationship Breakdown’: ? Criticism is more than a complain when a spouse finds fault in their partner and attacks the personality and character of the other. ? Contempt shows intention of a spouse to insult or psychologically abuse the other. ? Defensiveness shows unwillingness of a spouse to listen to what their partner wants to say out of fear of being attacked or hurt by the other person. ? Stonewalling is for the spouse to completely ignore or make distance from the other.

The Relationship Institute (2004) further cited that a similar study of Dr. Markman and Dr. Stanley from the University of Colorado has described the ‘Four Indicators of Relationship Breakdown’, as follows: ? Increased negativity during interactions of couple shows increased complaining and criticism of each other. ? Invalidation of couple does not show any interest in understanding each other’s point of view. ? Negative Interpretation occurs when one spouse does or says something neutral or positive, but their partner perceives it as hostile or negative. ? Avoidance and withdrawal shows the disagreements.

Lack of emotional connection can likewise lead to look for a substitute for the lost intimacy. The substitute can be sexual in nature, such as a sexual partner (infidelity), sex over the phone, pornography, nightlife related to sexual mingling, internet blogging, chronic masturbation, to name a few, or non-sexual in nature, like sports activities, gambling, shopping, pets, community activities, among others. Therapists view these conditions as a disease or addiction, in which sex therapy is suggested to determine the underlying problems (Marriage Quest. Org, 2007).

Another potential problem that may arise as a result of the absence of emotional connection is emotional affairs. Having an emotional relationship with another individual is as dangerous as having a physical affair. In marriage where emotional connection is conspicuously absent, one of the spouses finds emotional intimacy through circle of friends. The spouse finds ease, safety and comfort in confiding with another individual, wherein the emotional bond between the couple can become blunt which may jeopardize the marital relationship (Wasson, 2007). Most spouses deny speculations that they are emotionally attached to their friend.

In which case, the spouse do not have an idea on what their intimacy with their friend or another person can do to his or her marriage life. While the attachment may not be obvious on the outside, there is however an underlying “physical chemistry” which can heighten the emotional bond between the individuals involved. The person with whom the spouse has an emotional intimacy with can either be an old friend or a co-worker. It can also involve an individual whom the spouse met through online chatting (Wasson, 2007). Eventually, this individual could transform as the spouse’s primary source of emotional strength.

As this develops, the spouse would slowly feel that the friend or co-worker understands them better than their spouse. This would become a major marital problem because it would reach the point that the spouse would keep the conversation a secret to their partner. The spouse would then feel betrayed or deceived by their partner who would bring about a fracture or barrier in their marital relationship (Wasson, 2007). A certain John Gottman who has been undergoing research for more than 18 years, revealed that there are four potential contributors to unhappy marriage namely defensiveness, criticism, contempt, and stonewalling.

Divorce is a potential end result due to the couple’s lack of communication. It was found in a study involving 130 newlywed couples that (1) lack of emotional connection was lacking as reflected in the husband’s rejection of the influence of his wife, (2) the negative feelings of the wife during conversations, (3) the failure of the husband to weaken the low-level negative effect of his wife, and (4) the absence of physiological soothing in the male (Levine et al, 2005).

Studies have also revealed that the negativity of their wives has an adverse affect on the husband. This is evident when they withdraw from conversations raised by their wives’. As a result, the relationship satisfaction of the wife declines. The couple then undergoes a negative cycle wherein a high degree of negativity from the wife leads to higher degree of withdrawal from the husband (Levine et al, 2005). Infidelity Having an emotional affair is also known as emotional infidelity.

Although there is no physical component that might be involved, emotional infidelity is an act wherein a spouse invests love, time, and attention to another person other than their partner. Components of emotional intimacy are present such as sharing, understanding, companion, self-esteem, and close relationships. According to a 2003 study, 57% of women and 44% of husbands revealed that they were emotionally connected to another person without involving intercourse. The study also revealed that women are more prone to emotional infidelity than men (Piercy et al, 2005).

Infidelity refers to the “breach of a contract of sexual exclusivity between two individuals” that is dating, being married, or committed to each other. Recent definitions have expanded to having sexual relationships with another individual aside from the partner. It may also involve cybersex, pornography, physical intimacy, or emotional attachment with another person which jeopardizes the primary relationship. Infidelity may also involve issues which are connected to time, energy, and resources in order to maintain the other relationship (Piercy et al, 2005).

According to statistics compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics from the 1980s to the early part of the 1990s, approximately a third of marriages end up as a failure in the first 5 years and about fifty percent to two-thirds results to divorce. Several studies reveal that a marriage which started with love, care, affection, sense of humor, commitment, and optimism usually results to satisfaction. This was reflected in a longitudinal study involving 95 newlywed couples who perceived that the marital bond between partners would stay married or divorced within the first five years of married life (Levine et al, 2005).

Effects of Infidelity Emotional infidelity has a significant effect on the lives of couples and families. It transcends in the couple, family, as well as in the social network of the couple. Upon the discovery of the affair, the couple needs to make a decision whether to continue the relationship or part ways. To the offended spouse, they would become angry at their partner for betraying them. Eventually, they would lose their trust in their partner for their deception (Piercy et al, 2005).

Aside from anger, the offender spouse may also become suspicious of their partner, having mistrust of the same cheat. They may continuously inquire about the whereabouts of their spouse. In return, the involved spouse may need to report about their activities and may be judged by their partner. Psychologically, emotional infidelity may lead to guilt feelings and loss of self-esteem. The involved spouse may develop the need to protect their partner from being hurt as a result of their deception. Consequently, this may hurt the couples’ chances of working on their relationship.

They would develop fear of resolving some difficult issues as well as feeling unsafe communicating with one another (Piercy et al, 2005). Infidelity may also bring about physical effects. The combined factors of stress, agitation, and exhaustion can result to health issues for both partners. Likewise, the involved spouse may place the primary relationship at risk with the threat of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV and herpes. Some STDs can be a lifelong suffering which could have a significant impact on the life of the couple and their families (Piercy et al, 2005).

Emotional Connection and Its Relation to Physical Intimacy or Sex Essay

Emotionalism Theory Essay

Emotionalism Theory Essay.

Emotionalism theory is an aesthetic and critical theory of art which is mainly concerned with the expressive qualities of art work. According to the theory, the most important thing about a work of art is the vivid communication of moods, feelings, and ideas.

The theory posits that an artwork can either be shocking or entertaining but will mainly try to provoke you into action or call for your attention to any issue of concern. The artwork can either be realistic or acquire an abstract outlook but the primary objective of the artwork is to get the viewer’s attention in a dramatic way and to impact the viewer’s emotions.

A good emotionalist artwork will succeed in getting the artist’s message across. Pieces of artwork will mainly depict characters showing emotions. Artwork is however classified as emotionalist only if the emotion being expressed was the primary purpose of the artwork. An example is artwork by David Siqueiros which has been tailored to draw your attention to the horrors of war.

A screaming baby’s head emerges from the destruction. The artist is making the point that no child could survive in that environment for very long. |[pic] |

The painting below is a social-protest work of art. It depicts an actual event in history when the French army, led by Napoleon, invaded Spain. The painting shows the merciless French soldiers executing defenseless people at point-blank range.

Critique of the theory

The theory has been criticized for dwelling too much on the emotional aspects on the pieces of art work and ignoring the identifiable features such as interest, recognition of motifs, forms, or ideas, acute perceptual awareness, intuitive insight, perception of relationships, and the like to give true meaning.

The theory assumes that an aesthetic experience must be characterized by an “aesthetic emotion”. The theory ignores the identifiable features in art and basically analyses the quality attached to the emotional aspects in the experience without highlighting any positive features of human experience, and maintaining that it is entirely unlike the emotions of “life.” Therefore, the narrow representation of art by means of one or many emotions only offers a partial account because the emotional- element is just one factor that is discernible when the experience of art is reflected upon.

The theory has also been faulted for describing pieces of art based on general terms like “joyful,” “sorrowful,” “exhilarating,” “depressing,” and “exciting to reflect the meaning in the art piece.” These general terms have widely been touted as misleading especially when similar descriptions are applied to an indefinite number of dissimilar art works to distort meaning.

Further, the words used to describe emotions in art work are restrictive in comparison to the richness of emotional experience. Therefore any time we assign a single term or even a combination of them to a work of art, one succeeds more in misrepresenting and distorting than in characterizing it eg the description of a musical composition as sad, tragic, amusing or cheerful.

Moreover, to apportion a single type of emotional reaction such as pleasure to cover all cases of aesthetic response can not only lead to misinformation but also limit the variety and scope of aesthetic experience by confining it to a single feature of its emotional aspect. Further, falsification of meaning can occur if “feeling” is used to summarize “everything that can be felt, from physical sensation, pain and comfort, excitement and response, to the most complex emotions, intellectual tensions, or the steady feeling-tones of a conscious human life,”. Such generality, however, makes feeling equivalent to the entire range of human experience of which we may become aware, and goes well beyond emotionalism

Any objective analysis of artwork must therefore capture all the other aspects of the experience. This helps bring out the totality of an experience that is usually tied to the emotional component during the experience and before reflecting on it.

Emotionalism Theory Essay

Emotions make the world go round Essay

Emotions make the world go round Essay.

Emotions are one of the unique traits of humans. Not all living things created by God were able to have emotions, only men are permitted to feel and express. Although animals have the ability to sense some things, it is not as powerful and as expressive as that of the humans. Human emotion speaks a thousand words… in silent mode. What we have to understand when it comes to emotion is the reality that it comes from different factors which affects the cycle of emotion and feelings.

Organism and environment has something to do with this but it is always linked to the question, “how do you feel? ” which basically means that in emotions, feelings are essential (Kuhl, 1986). Do you ever wonder why a new born baby cries after his or her birth? Scientifically speaking, babies cry after birth because they are cold but there is a long story behind this one which we will not elaborate anymore. Looking in another aspect, away from science, babies cry because it signifies their ability to live.

It serves as a sign that they are alive and it assures the people inside the delivery room about the baby’s existence. Looking at this situation through science’s perspective, an infant’s emotion is more likely associated with both conditioning and stimulation. Remember that around four (4) minutes before the baby is born, something happens inside his or her body which triggers the crying when the time to get out of the mother’s womb comes (Morley, 2002).

On the other hand, when the baby is already born, we all know that the doctor taps the baby which ignites a little sense of feeling or sensitivity on the baby’s side. Therefore, conditioning and stimulation happens before and after the baby is born, thus, it is clear that there is really an effect both inside and outside the baby’s body. Although science can explain almost everything in life including emotions and feelings, in the end, it does not really matter that much when you were used in feeling and not thinking too much.

Emotions are reactions in everything which happens to you. Others might associate it with adrenalin rush but thinking outside the box, emotions were proofs regarding your humanity. It is not the basis of weakness but instead, it is the sign that you are alive and doing well. Many people were not able to express their emotions like anger, fear happiness and sadness and decide to go to medical doctors for check ups. Perhaps, this is one proof that emotions are not just a thing in our life but ability.

Works Cited

Kuhl, J. (1986). Motivation and information processing: A new look at decision making, dynamic change, and action control. In R. M. Sorrentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds. ), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior (pp. 404-434). Chichester: Wiley. Morly, G. M. (2002). Why Do Babies Cry? The Anatomical and Physiological Changes During the Moments After Birth. http://www. cordclamp. com/Why Do Babies Cr1. htm

Emotions make the world go round Essay

Research Paper on Empathy Essay

Research Paper on Empathy Essay.

The purpose of this essay is to define empathy and discuss its use on how it is used on a daily basis and what makes people feel empathy for others. Empathy is being able to feel and understand what another person is going through or what they have experienced. Typically, it would be a happiness, sadness or anger that would immediately affect how we feel, we would generally feel the same emotion as the person we are in contact with, where as sympathy we would be in agreement on the emotion, really just respecting one another.

Empathy is used as a noun, the dictionary meaning for empathy is the intellectual identification with or vicarious experiencing of the feelings, thoughts, or attitudes of another. The second dictionary meaning of empathy is, the imaginative ascribing to an object, as a natural object or work of art, feelings or attitudes present in oneself.

Empathy is became apart of the English language in 1909 by E.

B. Titchener, while try to translate the German word Einfühlungsvermögen. Later near the end of the 19th century it was changed to empathie and is now being used as that in Germany. The German meaning of empathy is, physical affection, passion, partiality and also passion” or “suffering. The word was founded by Hermann Lotze and Robert Vischer to be added to the German language as Einfühlung which means (feeling into) while later Edward B. Titchener translated to the English term Empathy. Empathy, in the 1900-05, was also used from the Greek word empátheia which in turns means affection.

Empathy is used in so many forms and has so many definitions and starts off being imaginative. Imagining how the other person feels, putting yourself in the other person shoes and being able to feel what the person is going to through. Empathy involves being able to understand the emotional state how people feel, empathy would be described as a bodily feeling. Bodily feelings include body language, facial expression, and tone of voice. Being able to relate to one of the following and immediately responding to it is what empathy is. Automatically knowing what the other person is thinking and in turn making you feel the way the other person feels.

Scientifically, some scientist believe that empathy is linked to observing another person’s emotional state activates parts of the neuronal network involved in processing that same state in oneself. Certain objects are known to automatically activate neural representations, and activation automatically to prime or generate the associated autonomic and somatic responses, unless inhibited. This very example that scientist have worked on trying to prove, is compared to common coding theory between perception and action. Meaning empathy is determined by whatever activity is going on around the person and how the brain perceives it. This theory also means that some people may have beliefs that are different from one’s own, and is thought to involve the cognitive component of empathy. Empathy has been linked to be genetically inherited in our DNA its labeled as traditional science and used as alternative healing practioners.

Empathy has been linked to being associated with mental disorders like, Psychopathy, Narcissistic personality disorder, Sadistic personality disorder, Anger and Distress. These kinds of disorders have been known to scientist to cause rapid activity of neurotransmitters that deal with emotion and personality. Like psychopathy, some are able to pick up on others theory of mind mimic others emotionally and convince others their feeling a certain way when they really are not. In some cases psychopaths may be able to sense what others are feeling but may not be able to put themselves in their position. This shows that empathy in the brain waves of psychopaths are dysfunctional. Another mental disorder would be Narcissist one feeling them own self and unable to feel for others.

So with this being said they would lack empathy to protect and make them self feel secure for the sake of their own vulnerability. Now Sadistic disorder this is most likely shown in 16 to 18 year old boys with aggressive problems. This is a conduct disorder where the boys showed too much aggression. Performing violent behaviors and taking pleasure out of other peoples pain. Showing no sign of empathy for the victims of these violent crimes at all. Emotion like anger is another form linking to empathy. When people get angry over a certain situation somebody else that is close to them would immediately feel what their feeling also.

Anger has a affect on certain people directly and indirectly its known to triggers states of empathetic angers. Empathy and anger linked together has been investigated as negative arousal. That was only if empathetic behavior triggered a response to anger. Distress is also another form of empathy, feeling pain for somebody else which in turn can immediately turn into empathetic anger for somebody else. This would include feelings such as guilt and injustice, etc. Some scientist say this can be seen as pro social and moral behavior.

These are some example statements to define what empathy means. Jean Decety: “A sense of similarity in feelings experienced by the self and the other, without confusion between the two individuals.” Frans de Waal: “The capacity to (a) be affected by and share the emotional state of another, (b) assess the reasons for the other’s state, and (c) identify with the other, adopting his or her perspective. This definition extends beyond what exists in many animals, but the term “empathy” … applies even if only criterion (a) is met.” Alvin Goldman: “The ability to put oneself into the mental shoes of another person to understand her emotions and feelings.”

Heinz Kohut: “Empathy is the capacity to think and feel oneself into the inner life of another person.” Wynn Schwartz: “We recognize others as empathic when we feel that they have accurately acted on or somehow acknowledged in stated or unstated fashion our values or motivations, our knowledge, and our skills or competence, but especially as they appear to recognize the significance of our actions in a manner that we can tolerate their being recognized.” In conclusion, empathy is a strong emotion exerted from an emotional level to feel, think and understand what somebody else is feeling at the time of any emotion they may be experiencing.


Research Paper on Empathy Essay

The Truman Show Analysis Essay

The Truman Show Analysis Essay.

The Truman Show presents to us that the media can be very controlling and influences our lives. For example, Truman lives a perfect and happy life. This way of life is supposed to be the “American Dream” and the media is advertising this perfect life to the public. The media influences our lives in many ways such as magazines, T.V. and radio. The media wants us to live our life in a certain way. The media sets many expectations not only to how we live but also how we look, such as size zero models being promoted which increases the amount of people desiring to be thinner.

Truman shows this because his life is manipulated by the media through a universe of illusions pulled over his face; where nothing is real but he believes it is not only real but true. Truman is a happy person who lives the life of a well put together American. He has been chosen as the star of a media show because he was up against four other unborn babies that weren’t wanted by their parents.

Just so happened he was born first. He doesn’t know about it because everything in his life is controlled within the world’s biggest media studio ever.

He is influenced by the media by emotional manipulation and his actions are controlled. The town in which Truman lives, Sea Haven, is a giant dome decked out with high tech simulations of sun and sky, in which the rain and wind are courtesy of the special effects department. Truman alone has no idea he is in a giant TV studio, as the rest of humanity watches him from one staged situation to another. He is trapped in his own life, held down in the surreal existence in which he has been forced to spend the last 30 years. A non-stop telethon of reality programming lets the audiences enjoy his most intimate moments. This “prison” that Truman has been placed in allows us to identify with him, because we feel his emotions, we follow his struggle for freedom and privacy, friendship and love, and his search for truth, in a world that he doesn’t understand. We follow him through the death and re-surfacing of his father, his battle to discover the truth and ultimately his journey for freedom, where he finally realizes the deceit in the life he has been leading, and comes face to face with harsh reality.

We experience his emotions in intimate close ups, tension filled moments accompanied by heartfelt music, and in times of great intimacy, special effects are used to heighten emotions. All these techniques enhance the relationship we have with Truman and the emotional responses this evokes, which allow us to identify with him. The Truman Show conveys the negative consequences of restricting the freedom of an individual, namely, Truman. We are presented with a world run by big business, shown through the manipulative character of Christof. We are positioned in opposition to Christof as he is focused merely on the ability to make money. In comparison, we sympathize with Truman as he is depicted as merely a pawn in Christof’s game. We are shown that every attempt to escape is blocked by malevolent simulators and high tech manipulators intent on keeping him inside. This is where values regarding basic human rights are explored; the fact that Truman’s life lacks vital elements – freedom and privacy.

He is stripped of this, as he is watched 24 hours a day, seven days a week and his life televised as a form of entertainment. This allows the audience to become very sympathetic towards Truman and identify with him through various technical codes. The scene in which Truman tries to escape contains action-filled shots in which he comes up against the barrier of defense in the form of a wall of fire; and the contrived radiation leak in which Truman’s frantic efforts to escape are foiled by the people who block him. The use of close ups of Truman’s distressed face and the suspenseful music, emphasize Truman’s desperation; as to create a sympathetic emotional response from the audience. The closing scene in which Truman ascends the staircase and exits his false world is heavily symbolic; climatic music is used as Truman is released and liberated from the false world he has been the star of for so long. We see through his endless attempts to escape, the recklessness of his actions in his search for answers, and realize the only thing that Truman is really searching for is freedom and above all else privacy.

In view of Truman’s life, we are privileged to information that Truman is denied and thus we are able to judge the accuracy of Truman’s relationships and his right to freedom of choice. The scene in which, in a flashback of Truman’s youth, his wife Meryl is shown flirting and being very inquisitive towards Truman, we sympathize with him. We realize she is merely an actor playing a role, in which she was placed; she had no real emotional feelings for Truman. She is just playing the role of his wife and thus Truman’s sense of love is distorted. Truman’s lack of the right of freedom of choice is enhanced when Sylvia, a woman that tried to convince Truman that he was a character trapped in a TV show, is taken away. She is forcibly removed from the set and in a close up of Truman’s confused face, followed by long shot in which Truman stands alone on the beach as the car is driven away we become fully aware of the control that Christof holds in his ability to manipulate Truman’s emotions.

Thus we identify with him, in a common need for ethical decency. His best friend Marlon highlights the deceit of the life he leads. The intense scene in which Marlon and Truman are sitting side by side on the pier, their faces dimly lit, accompanied by evocative and ironically sentimental music, and heightens the viewers sympathetic response. Marlon says ‘I’d never lie to you Truman’, and this statement implies the trust that Marlon has when in reality it’s the complete opposite. This deliberate irony that the audience is obscure to, allows the audience to sympathize with Truman, as we realize the extent to which Truman’s emotions are being manipulated. The people he relies on and holds closest are the very people deceiving him. The reality is that all the relationships that Truman is involved with are manufactured. Truman is denied his own rights to freedom of choice. Truth for Truman is established through the deceit and forged life that he has been placed into.

He is being misled into believing the lies that have been constructed for him to keep him unaware of the real events occurring around him. The scene, in which Truman discovers the object that falls from the outer fringes of the dome, is followed by a long shot of Truman’s puzzled face. This, as the audience is aware, is a camera but to disguise this fact from Truman it is backed up by a radio broadcast in which a falsified explanation is given to cover up any suspicions that Truman may have. We are able to sympathize because we as the viewer are aware of the manipulation taking place allowing Truman to accept what he is being told. The scene in which Truman’s father is reintroduced in a tearful reunion, in a fog on a dimly lit pier, enhanced by the emotive music increases the overall feeling of deceit. Christof exploits Truman in manipulating his feelings and concealing the truth from him. This is done in an effort to sustain his perfect TV show and keep Truman oblivious to the falsity of the life he leads. As the movie progresses the crew makes mistakes that cause the seamless illusion to break down and thus Truman figures out that his surroundings are full of staged scenes in which he discovers a camera crew behind an elevator.

This leads Truman to become very volatile and quite audacious. This false reality or dishonesty as you may call it is keeping Truman from realizing what is truly happening. Truman is being kept ‘ in the dark’, and unaware of what was happening around him which only heightens the viewers response of a need for honesty and truth. The Truman show presents certain attitudes and values through the identification of Truman, using various cinematic techniques. The naive and innocent character of Truman is developed through the use of evocative music, intimate close ups and action filled scenes in which we are able to identify with Truman because of the circumstances he has been faced with. The manipulation of Truman by the character Christof reveals the attitudes and values of freedom of choice and the right to make his own decisions in both life and love.

Together with the values of freedom and privacy that every individual deserves and the basis that lives should not be built on dishonesty and mistrust. All these values are reflected in this movie through the use of audience positioning, symbolism, camera work and audio effects, as we see the character of Truman manipulated and molded, under the guidance of Christof, in his greater search for ratings and power. We are able to directly relate to Truman as the way in which he is manipulated and deceived, allows us to see that he is no longer a man in a TV show, he is just a performing monkey in a worldwide circus. Just like Truman we can also be manipulated by the media not only by the celebrity gossip that floods our T.V. screens, but also in the news that is reported to us every day.

The media doesn’t just put information out there for us to absorb it and do nothing, it is manufactured to make us formulate an opinion on the subject whether in be good or bad, and often times the media is trying to persuade the public to agree with their opinion. The media today is quite similar to what is presented in the Truman Show because the end result is the same, the media is there to throw information out at the public whether it is true or false and it’s our job to not just sit there and take them at their word. This film was particularly effective because it shows that we can’t trust everything that is put in front of us, we need to learn to ask more questions and to not be satisfied with vague information.

The Truman Show Analysis Essay

Effects Of Verbal And Emotional Abuse Essay

Effects Of Verbal And Emotional Abuse Essay.

The effects of verbal abuse and emotional abuse intertwine because verbally abusive statements play on the victim’s emotions. For example, the simple statement, “You’re just looking for a fight!” tells the victim what he’s doing and thinking, accuses the victim of attacking the abuser, and diverts the topic to a new problem (avoiding a fight).3 Emotionally, the victim feels misunderstood, unimportant, and afraid of what may happen if he presses the issue. Is this how we want our loved ones to feel?

There are many causes for verbal abuse.

Some people have grown up in the environment of a verbally abusive parent or parents and the chain continues in many cases onto the children (learned behavior); a person who feels they are insufficient in the eyes of society and have not succeeded; a person that has had a lot of bad luck and feels they are judged by their peers; a person that hasn’t had the opportunities others have and feel cheated; lack of confidence; over-confidence to the point of having a high ego within themselves and they feel other people don’t stack up to what they feel is on their intelligence level; medications can cause a change in personality; different diseases can change a person’s personality;

Alzheimer’s and Dementia (sister to Alzheimer’s) can change a person’s personality as well as traumas such as rape, losing a loved one to murder, physical or emotion abuse including partner physical and emotional abuse.

A master at verbal abuse can damage your self-esteem while, at the same time, appear … Answer: Physical abuse is easily identified. There is no doubt, once you have … you are living with someone who goes verbally ballistic for very little cause. … Major Effects of Infidelity · Responding to Your Spouses Infidelity · Negative …

Effects And Causes Of Addiction Social Networking Essay

Below is a free essay on “Effects And Causes Of Addiction Social Networking” from Anti Essays, your source for free research papers, essays, and term paper examples. Effects and causes of Addiction social networking

The world is an extremely modern place and technology become necessary for people. Almost people used communication technology by social networking. Social networking can lead to many serious problems. This essay will examine some possible effects and solutions of social networking. There are many negative effects why most of people become addiction social networking. Firstly, the main effect of not stopping social networking spends too much time at home. As a consequence, many people become passive in living. For example, teenagers waste lots of time for using computer so they do not enough time to exercise. Therefore, they might become isolated and have a physical issue. Additionally, people may lose concentration in school or work. For instance, students always feel tired in class. As a result, they do not understand what their teacher taught them. Thus, students can fail examination. All of these negative situations can happen with addition social networking.

There is a variety of social networking. Firstly, parents should monitor time of their children using social networking at home. To illustrate, they can make a plan for using social networking, studying and do exercise in each day for teenagers. Consequently, they would control their using time for social networking. Moreover, people should go outside activities. For instance, they can go to the gym to exercise with friends. In addition, they can play many popular sports such as swimming, football, basketball and tennis. Finally, schools should limit online games and only open a lot of useful studying. All of these possible solutions, people need to pay attention. In conclusion, addiction social networking is a severe issue existing in modern life. Addiction social networking can be negative effects by spending too much time and losing concentration in class or company. Therefore, it is important that solutions are found. Besides that, parents should…

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Effects Of Verbal And Emotional Abuse Essay

Emotions and memory Essay

Emotions and memory Essay.

In our everyday life, we rely on our memory to fully function. We either have to recall something so trivial such as where we left our keys, or we need to remember names of college classmates that we have not seen for a very long time. Given this fact, we ask, what exactly is memory, what are the processes involved in this cognitive function, and what are the factors that affect our memory?

Memory is said to be the process and means by which we retain information and later on retrieve that same information from storage when we need it in the present (Bjorklund, Schneider, & Hernandez Blasi, 2003; Crowder, 1976; Tulving & Craik, 2000).

When we experience something, we do not entirely store all the information in our memory. Studies show that there are different techniques that aid in adequate memory retention. There are also several dynamic theories about memory being a storage space for all our past experiences which involve sensory and informative data.

Furthermore, there are also various processes through which we could access, recall, remember, or recognize these data in our memory. Although there are extensive research studies about memory and its processes, it is interesting to look at some factors that aid or hinder memory recall and retention. One of these factors which are given particular interest and attention is the role of emotion on our memory. There are instances when we recall a part of our memory in vivid clarity as if it is reenacted in our minds and retrieved in full detail.

This is what we call flashbulb memory (Brown & Kulik, 1977). The reason behind this phenomenon is that the event that happened could be so emotionally powerful that it became strongly retained in our memory. In the event that you experience something that has a very strong emotional impact, you tend to remember the details more clearly and when you need to retrieve that certain information, you would be able to easily recall it accurately (Bohannon, 1988).

This could manifest in both the explicit and implicit memory, with the former requiring the person to deliberately pull out the memory from storage and put it out in consciousness, and the latter being an automatic response to the emotional trigger. To further illustrate the capacity of affect to influence memory, a study was made by Heuer and Reisberg in 1990 which showed that materials which show more emotion than similar ones with less emotional impact are more likely to be stored in one’s memory and could be therefore retrieved easily in general and in detail as well (Christianson, 1992).

Furthermore, it was also found that the mood or emotion where we were in when a specific situation happened would most likely serve as a retrieval cue when we experience the same mood in the present (Baddeley, 1989). For an instance, when we experience a certain situation when we are in a state of sadness, we would most likely remember the memory of the same experience when we are placed in the same emotional state. This is called the memory-dependent memory effects (Christianson, 1992). Biologically-speaking, the interaction between memory and affect could be attributed to certain processes in various parts of the brain.

Brain processes involved in the evaluation of rewards and punishments are directly related to affect in the sense that it depends upon the emotional impact of a certain situation to be determined if it is a form of a compensation or a penalty (Rolls, 2000). Because of this, it could be inferred that since emotion influences memory processes, data-driven information and past situations are stored in our memory in the basis of a reward-punishment system. Essentially, when a certain event, person, place, or thing is categorized as something rewarding, it could be more easily encoded and retrieved.

This categorization and selection happens in the amygdala, which is the center of emotional processing, and the data that get to pass through and be encoded encompass the mechanism in the hippocampus, which is on the other hand related to memory. Emotions disinhibit the barrier that the CA3 hippocampal area creates and so the data inputs could then proceed to the prefrontal cerebral cortex to be stored in memory (Neugebauer, et al. , 1999). It is also found in the study by Fast, et al. (1999) that the amygdaloid complex is primarily responsible with the emotional mechanism which affects memory retrieval.

Subjects who have lesions in the amygdalo-hippocampal area do not only suffer from amnesia, but they also show significant impairments in memory process related with emotional arousal. The reason behind this is that the AC organizes the information that are encoded, stored, and retrieved in our memory. Another effect that emotion has on memory is what is called by Christianson (1992) as resource allocation effects, which is the impairment of the memory processing when a person experience an extreme or negative emotion or mood during encoding or retrieval.

In this case, the person might find it difficult to access his/her memory of a certain situation, person, thing, or place because it has become a somewhat traumatic experience and the emotion that goes with it blocks the memory process. There are also some contradicting views that affect could not facilitate the retrieval or encoding of memory information. Some studies say that experiencing a negative emotion, for an instance, could prevent the person from remembering the details of a certain situation or event.

This is the reason why most researchers focus on the determinants and factors which would tell what specific kind of data or information does emotion facilitate or impede. Although most of the existing studies focus on the effects of emotion on the memory processes, there are also some minor studies which show that memories of past experiences affect the present mood or emotional state of a person (Christianson, 1992). Though this angle is not yet looked at more closely by researchers, we most of the time experience this feeling, which we sometimes call nostalgia.

Because memory and emotion are such complex topics when studied on their own, it is a more complicated feat to research on the interaction of the two concepts and their effect on each other. However, a lot of studies are being made in order to understand better these two psychological phenomena when they intertwine in their processes and how they affect the human psyche.


Baddeley, A. D. (1989). The psychology of remembering and forgetting. In T. Butler (Ed. ) Memory: History, culture and the mind. London: Basil Blackwell. Bjorklund, D. F. , Schneider, W., & Hernandez Blasi, C. (2003). Memory. In L. Nadel (Ed. ), Encyclopedia of cognitive science, 2, p. 1059-1065. Nature Publishing Group. Bohannon, J. (1988). Flashbulb memories for the space shuttle disaster: A tale of two theories. Cognition, 29(2), p. 179-196. Brown, R. & Kulik, J. (1977). Flashbulb memories. Cognition, 5, p. 73-99. Christianson, S. (1992). The handbook of emotion and memory: research and theory. Crowder, R. G. (1976). Principles of learning and memory. Erlbaum. Fast, K. , Fujiwara, E. , Grubich, C. , Markowitsch, H. J. , & Herrmann, M. (1999).

Role of the amygdala in emotional memory. Memory and Emotion. p. 430. Neugebauer, A. , Calabrese, P. , Schmieder, K. , Harders, A. , Ferri, D. & Gehlen, W. (1999). Memory and emotion processing in healthy subjects, focal brain-damaged and patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Memory and Emotion. p. 113. Rolls, E. T. (2000). Precis of the brain and emotion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 23. p. 177-191. Sternberg, R. J. (2006). Cognitive psychology. Singapore: Thomson Wadsworth. Tulving, E. , & Craik, F. I. M. (Eds. ) (2000). The Oxford handbook of memory. New York: Oxford University Press.

Emotions and memory Essay

Daniel Goleman Theory of Emotional Intelligence Essay

Daniel Goleman Theory of Emotional Intelligence Essay.

The cognition ability among humans is as varied as their physical abilities. However, one apparent fact is that they all possess some similar characteristics. Psychologists have often tried to understand humans by studying their behavior and explaining it in terms of sense cognition. As such, it has been argued that the way a person perceives and interprets his physical world, described and exhibited in behavior, is determined by intelligence. However, psychologists are not yet agreed on the exact definition of intelligence even though there are some agreed upon attributes that can be attached to the concept.

The ability to comprehend complex ideas, handle situations effectively and reason is varied among humans. It is recognized that this variation is substantial but never consistent as an individual will exhibit different intellectual performance on different occasions. The concept of intelligence is thus aimed at rearranging and clarifying these complex phenomena. There has been progress with regard to rearranging and clarifying these complex phenomena even though they still do not command universal assent.

Psychologists have often focused on cognitive aspects on their analysis of intelligence.

In other words, emphasis has always been laid on such aspects like memory and problem solving skills. However, some psychologists recognize the importance of non-cognitive aspects in analyzing intelligence. In his definition, David Wechsler identifies such factors like rationality, purposeful action and ability to handle the environment effectively as the main features of intelligence. In his early works, Wechsler identified non-intellective as well as intellective aspects. By intellective and non-intellective aspects, he was referring to social, personal and affective factors.

(Wechsler, 1940: 444-445) He further held that the possibility of success in life is dependent upon non-intellective abilities. In recent past, a new aspect has emerged with regard to intelligence and this has been motivated by the need to explain how emotions and thought impact on each other. It is thus in the interest of this paper to look at this aspect of intelligence which has gained prominence in the field of psychology. This new aspect is what has been referred to as emotional intelligence. In this paper, I will look at the development, theories and elements of emotional intelligence. What is Emotional Intelligence: Background

The term emotional intelligence was coined by Salovey and Meyer in 1990. When they coined this term, they were well aware of the previous work by other psychologists on non-cognitive aspects of intelligence. In their description of emotional intelligence, Salovey and Meyer viewed it as the ability of an individual to guide his or her thinking and action through monitoring his or her feelings and emotions (and those of others) and compare them against his own. As such, they considered it a form of social intelligence. The study in this field of social intelligence emerged as a result of research in the field of cognition and affect.

Research in this area also gained prominence as a result of works by other psychologists who pointed out that there could be a cognitive connection between mood and judgment. These psychologists suggested that there could be a possibility that when a person gets happy, for instance, he is bound to cognitively judge his past positively thus elevating his moods further. On the other hand, bad moods lead to negative thoughts thereby increasing or worsening the condition. Robert Zajonc (1980) suggested that in determining attitudes, feelings played a bigger role than cognition.

His argument was that it is feelings which paid attention to the physical world. This view emanated from an empirical conception of human life. It is a widely held position that it is the senses that is responsible for feeding the brain with information for interpretation. This on the other hand affected or is affected by moods and memory. The influence of mood on memory was examined by Gordon Bower who described an activation model of memory. He observed that happy moods influenced happy thoughts while on the other hand, sad moods influenced sad thoughts.

(Bower, 1981) According to him, if one was in the state of happiness, he is bound to view his past social actions positively which in turn stimulates positive thoughts. On the other hand, if one is sad, he is bound to view his past as a series of failures within the social realm thereby increasing his sadness. As such, the state of mind influences attitude and cognition. This analysis by Bower helped in the comprehension and explanation of many empirical aspects of emotional intelligence. Much contribution in the field of emotional intelligence was brought by Clerk and Fiske’s ‘Affect and Cognition’.

A departure from research on the interaction between emotion and cognition was marked by the study of emotion and thought by social, personality and cognitive psychologists. The concept of defense mechanism by Sigmund Freud even though put emphasis on the pathological factors, also recognized and emphasized on the interaction between thought and emotion. The view that emotions prejudiced and disrupted thought was inherited when the cognition and affect literature surfaced. The idea that emotions and thought caused biasness went hand in hand with the idea that emotions could be adaptive for thought.

This went on as inquiries into emotions and thought diverged from an emphasis on psychopathology to normal everyday thoughts and moods. The result was the idea that intelligence and emotions can integrate to perform complex information processing that either cannot manage independently. This was the development of the concept of emotional intelligence. Salovey and Mayer in their attempt to develop accurate and valid measures of emotional intelligence initiated a research program which was also meant to explore its significance. Daniel Goleman recognized their work which led to his formulation of the theory of emotional intelligence.

Theories of Emotional Intelligence There is a general conception that emotion and intelligence are two distinct concepts which cannot integrate. As such, the term emotional intelligence appears as a contradiction. However, emotions often convey messages which can be processed. That is, they signal relations. This assumption makes the term sensible. Philosophers have often inquired into the nature and meaning of emotions and came into a conclusion that they define the relationship between an individual and other members of the society. As such, every emotion defines an individual’s relationship with himself and his relationship with others.

There is a universality and regularity in the meaning of emotions. Comprehending the universal meaning of emotions was adopted by cognition and affect researchers. A system which defined joy as a positive feeling which comes after an assurance that an action will be rewarded and relief as a positive feeling which points to the absence of punishment was outlined by Roseman (1984). A similar approach was taken up by Ortony, Clore and Collins (1988) which defined joy as a “well being” emotion which comes as a result of self reaction to desirable occurrence.

Emotional intelligence can be fragmented into four branches of abilities. These include perceiving and expressing emotions, integrating emotions in thoughts, comprehending and managing emotions. All these are important in the overall theory of emotional intelligence. Perceiving Emotions Accurate perception is the first step in emotional information processing. The system of emotional perception is a product of evolution built through time so as to facilitate communication between parent and child. The child therefore learns emotions from the mother.

For instance, when the infant smiles, her mother reflects back the kind of face associated with smiling which in this case is contracting the cheek’s muscles. As a person grows, he learns to generalize patterns of how emotions are manifested in the physical realm which includes objects, artwork and even other people. For instance, a person may associate a relaxed shouldered posture with calmness. Emotional integration After the perception of an emotion, it has the capacity to influence cognition at various points of processing. Emotional integration thus focuses on the contributions that emotion makes in the reasoning process.

Various suggestions have been put forward on how emotions may facilitate cognition. According to Easterbrook (1959), Mandler (1975) and Simon (1982), emotions provide an impulse to prioritization. (Tad. In John D. Mayer, Emotions, Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence. p. 420) For instance, someone in deep concentration in say, a movie is oblivious of the surrounding environment, even the couch he is seated on. Nonetheless, he may experience a growing sense of anxiety and on hearing the voices of children outside; he realizes that he is supposed to be in a psychology class.

The interrupting anxiety to some extent is a second processing system independent of the central cognitive system. As such, it enables cognition to direct resources to a problem until and unless a competing response emerges. Another way through which emotions help cognition is by functioning as a secondary store about emotions themselves. For instance, if an artist wants to paint suffering, he reflects back on an experience or scene of suffering and recreates the feeling. The act of mood cycling or mood switching is another way through which emotions contribute to intelligence.

Cognitive system is often refreshed by mood alterations. These mood alterations have a consequence of bringing various emotional tools to handle a particular problem. According to Mayer, a shift in judgment through increasing motivational direction may enhance functioning. (Ibid. 421) A cycling of moods also provides different perspectives on a subject or problem thereby enhancing creativity. Mood can also assist intelligence by providing implicit information on past experiences. As such they act as references in decision making processes.

For instance, one may have some facts on a given event but still would not be in a position to choose which of his alternatives is best for him. As such, he reflects back on his feelings towards those alternatives. Emotions thus summarize these past experiences. Comprehending Emotion The closest branch to traditional intelligence is understanding emotions. The hypothesis is that there exists a mental processor whose main function is to understand, abstract and reason about emotional data. Labeling feelings and understanding what they represent are just but part of this processing.

For instance, one may label a feeling love. As such, he or she recognizes that love reflects upon relationship with other people. Emotion Management This is the final branch to emotional intelligence model. It involves the management of emotions for personal development and growth. For instance, an informative emotion enables one to gather information about his environment, especially the social environment, if one opens himself for such information. People open to sadness will best understand the painful conditions which man has to grapple with in the course of existence.

This also enhances the good in the sense that one may not be in the position to appreciate blessings if he doe not understand the difficulties in life. For instance, after sacrificing ones time to study hard, he may achieve happiness when he graduates with a first class honors. However, openness is not the end of management. The knowledge gained from perceiving, integrating and understanding emotional dispositions must be put into practical use in order to maximize emotional management.

In other words, it is through perceiving and understanding emotions that one knows the consequences of experiencing them or blocking them. The theory has left open the way in which emotional intelligence manage emotions. Intelligence enables one to explore and evaluate possibilities with their own goals in mind. Even though one may hope that many people manage their emotions well, emotionally intelligent individuals at times manage their feelings negatively. Discussion The foundations of the new theory of emotional intelligence are based on the field of cognition and affect.

As inquiries were made on how thoughts were altered by emotions by cognition and affect researchers, a shift emerged from the clinical researchers who emphasized on how thoughts were pathologized by emotions. Normalization of such phenomena was started by the cognition and affect researchers who who found them in everyday human behavior. The focus of emotional intelligence was thus how emotions and intelligence facilitate each other mutually in order to create a high level of emotional information processing and a higher level of thought.

A model of emotional intelligence was formulated which viewed it as a form of intelligence mainly concerned with processing emotional signals related to relationships. As such, emotional intelligence is concerned with the capacity to consider emotions rationally for better management. Measuring Emotional Intelligence The assessment of intelligence is done entirely by ability tests. As observed earlier, theoretical model construction and measurement procedures are involved in the development of emotional intelligence. Individuals who take ability tests are subjected to relevant mental tasks within a controlled environment.

This is meant to measure their optimum mental performance. However, the examination of many different skills which may be tied to intelligence is a requirement for the establishment of intelligence. This is so because the existence of intelligence is based upon the intercorrelation between skills which also develop with age. The Value of Emotional Intelligence When people are confronted with setbacks or failure, they tend to make some causal attributions. Optimists tend to make external attributions that are temporary and specific while pessimists make internal attributions which are universal and permanent.

This is according to learned optimism construct developed by Martin Seligman. In a research carried among salesmen by Seligman and his colleague, they found that optimistic new salesmen sold more insurance in their first years than the pessimistic ones. When the company hired another group of individuals who failed normal screening but scored high on optimism, the made more sales than the pessimists by 21 per cent. (Schulman, 1995). an aspect of emotional intelligence which has exhibited much success is the ability to handle stress and manage feelings. Tests of Emotional Intelligence

According to Goleman, even though entry level executive positions require technical skills and IQ, high emotional intelligence is an integral part of high performance leadership. A simple emotional test based on theories by Goleman can help identify emotional intelligence and leadership. As such, one may establish his emotional intelligence through the use of emotional intelligence test so long as it is based firmly on emotional intelligence theory. A happier and more balanced lifestyle can be achieved by an awareness of ones emotional abilities which may also help in improving his emotional intelligence.

Rating of ones ability to regulate his emotions in a balanced and healthy manner can be achieved through emotional intelligence tests. After the completion of the test, an individual is in a better position to comprehend his greatest emotional strengths and weaknesses which enables him to evaluate his aptitude in every emotional category. Emotional intelligence theory is also important in identifying the emotional intelligence of a child which provides abase for emotional intelligence training. Developing emotional intelligence skills require that one is in a position to identify his emotional intelligence strengths and weaknesses.


Bower, G. , H, (1981) Mood and Memory. American Psychologist. 36, 129-148 ed. John D. Mayer, Emotions, Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence. p. 420 Goleman D. (1995) Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Mayer, J. & Salovey, P. Choosing a Measure of Emotional Intelligence: The Case for Ability Scales. In R. Ban-On Handbook for Emotional Intelligence. Guilford Wechsler, D. (1940) Non intellective Factors in General Intelligence, Psychological Bulletin, 37, 444-445 Zajonc, R. , B. , (1980) Feeling and Thinking: References Need No Inferences. American Psychologist, 35, 151-175

Daniel Goleman Theory of Emotional Intelligence Essay