Professionalism Essay

Professionalism Essay.

Professionalism is the first thing that is being notice when you are in a workplace. Professionalism is defined as a set of characteristics and skills. Being in a medical health field, or in any business that requires interactions, professionalism is expected when working with clients. For me, aside from having a profession which is I define as a job, professionalism for me is having all the positive attributes and expertise that you can use when you are in a work environment.

Clients often see your professionalism first before they open up to you, some of them will treat you the way you treat them. Being respectful and treating others equally will make client feels that they are not being put aside. Show warm and friendliness toward the client will also make them feel comfortable and at ease with this attitude clients will likely to open up to you and share their worries where you can address their worries and problems quickly.

Appearance also play an important role in professionalism, having a great image will give the clients great impressions about you. When you say you work in a medical field, people will begin to think that it’s about cleanliness, with this in mind people will expect you to appear neat and clean. Your facial appearance and dress should reflect the professionalism it takes to do your job and be neat, and clean, and suitable for the workplace.

Your appearances portray how professional you are, so wearing the right attire for a workplace is a must, this way clients will be more willing to work with you. Skills are also a big part of being professionals. Employee now days seek employers that have a lot of skills that can be contributed to a workplace and make the workplace works easier and workloads lesser. Aside from being able to speak English well to communicate, organizational skill is one of the skills that being look upon from one person.

Having the ability to prioritize tasks, distinguishing tasks to be accomplished, and working excellently with co-worker to accomplished all the works in a work situation will reduce the work in a busy office and keeping the flow of work at a pace that is not chaos. Most work of an MOA in the office is being done in the computer. Computer skills, keyboarding skills, and having the knowledge of using the database that being used for billings and transcription will be your advantages when working in this field.

Many hospitals and offices are now turning into computerized environment to reduce too much paper being put into a record. As a Medical office administrations professionals we should all have these characteristics and skills and most importantly we should do our job confidently. As long as we all have these things on us, our work as a Medical office administrator will be easier and we will be able to give our clients a better services and we can make our clients happier.

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Professionalism Essay

Challenges in Motivating Employeess Essay

Challenges in Motivating Employeess Essay.

Why motivating employees is becoming increasingly challenging. The study of motivation is concerned basically, why people behave in a certain way or why people do what they do? Generally motivation can be described as the direction and persistence of action. However different items such as work environment or internal and external forces can influence the person’s choice of action. Managers face a significant challenge in finding ways to motivate their employees. Some employees can often if hard to get motivated for a job even after being employed.

Maybe because there is a day job duties repletion, work condition and etc. Below I discuss some of the most significant challenges in employee’s motivation: Money is one of the major variables of satisfaction and motivation, no doubt that employees will feel less motivated if they feel their compensation is not appropriate. Paying employees less will lead to dissatisfaction and of course dissatisfied employee is an unmotivated employee. However we have to consider individual differences in the motivation.

Employees have different needs and given reward do not motivate all individuals similarly. Managers should spend time necessary to understand what is important to each employee and the align goal, level of involvement and reward with individual needs. For example professionals and knowledge workers which highly trained with a college or university degree are more concerned with content of work rather than their place on the organization chart. Money and promotions typically are low on their priority list in contrast job challenge and having skill-development opportunities tend to rank high.

However motivating low skilled service workers which pay levels are often little above minimum wage such as retailing and fast food is different. Many employees working in low skilled service jobs feel that they do not get the respect they deserve from their employers. Unless pay and benefits are significantly increased, high dissatisfaction is probably inevitable in these jobs. Trying to understand the needs of such employees might help motivate them better. Motivating employees in a unionized workplace environment is another challenge.

For example unions have not been very receptive to pay for performance plans. They believe that differential pay to employees doing similar work can hurt corporation and lead to competition in the workplace. In other word in unionized companies providing opportunities for training and advancement and listening to employees concern all help in creating a more positive environment. On the other hand with todays globalized companies we have to consider motivation do not necessarily work equally through the world.

Reward practices in different countries are variable based on cultural differences. For example countries that put a high value on uncertainly avoidance prefer pay base on objective such as seniority. Countries that put a high value on individualism place more emphasis on an individual’s responsibility for performance that leads to rewards. Countries that put a high value on human orientation offer social benefits and programs that provide working family balance, such as childcare, maternity leave and etc.

Work conditions and environment is another motivation challenges. Changing the way workers are treated may boost productivity more than changing the way they are paid. An employee who feels his working conditions are unreasonable maybe unmotivated. If he feels completing a task would place him in a dangerous situation, he may not see the value doing or completing it. Other thing which could affect employee motivation is training. An employee being asked to do work which he is not qualified for or capable of doing can result in an unmotivated employee.

People are generally the most motivated when their jobs give them an opportunity to learn new skills and tasks that are performed and enable them to demonstrate competence. So no doubt having an open, safe and welcoming environment is one of the most important factors. Regulation of the hours of work is another condition. If an employee is working 60 hours a week instead of the standard 40 hours, he may feel unmotivated to show up or give a full effort knowing that he will give more work and expected to stay late to finish project. Multicultural Team is another challenge in motivation.

Nowadays most of the companies from big to small have multicultural team. People from diverse culture, background and beliefs. It’s clear we cannot motivate multicultural teams the same way we motivate teams with members all from same culture. Multicultural teams are differing from same culture teams in a variety of aspects. For example people from different culture have different communication style, working method and decision making practices. The expectations of team behavior vary among nationals and ethic cultures. In result managers in these companies have special challenges for motivation.

Managing and motivating employees who respect different cultures can be simultaneously exciting and challenging, provide supervisors and managers understand how culture differences inspire organizational excellence, at the same time, employers encounter challenges by separating employees instead of using management and motivation techniques that focus on common traits through the workforce. In these companies as a motivating factor, money is important but only to some extent. Usually After they start getting a fairly level of compensation for their input, money stop being the greatest motivator for most people.

Knowing the strength, weaknesses and performance history of each team member are very important. Some training such as multicultural awareness, team building and intercultural management workshop, motivate multicultural team members are very helpful but they must know why they are being trained. Result: All said and done working with a cross cultural team is significantly challenging as the manager must develop strategies to cope not only with differences but also motivate the team to be productive and efficient. Can a manager or supervisor “empower” an employee?

Generally managers used their power as the part of their interaction with employees. In today’s workplace, there is a movement toward sharing more power with employees by putting them in teams and also by making them responsible for some of the decisions regarding their jobs. Some managers believe that to empower people is a real part of leadership as opposed to management and they give examples of way empowerment can actually set people set free to do the jobs they are capable of and also allow them to do self-managing.

However managers have different concepts of empowerment, for example one group of executives believed that empowerment was about delegating decisions making within a set of clear boundaries. While another group believed that empowerment was a process of risk taking and personal growth. There is a lot of positive press on empowerment but much of the talk of empowerment, but much of the talk of empowerment, does not result in employees being empowered. Some managers have difficulties letting employees have more power.

But most of the managers agree that the employees should understand how their jobs fit into the organization and that they are able to make decisions regarding job action in light of the organization purpose and mission. Empowerment can offer a number of potential benefits throughout all levels of organization. Although there is a continuing debate about the real benefits of empowerment, there appears to be a general assumption motivated staff, quality customer service and improved profits.

However all the theories share a common assumption that workers are an untapped resource with knowledge and experience and an interest in becoming involved, and employers need do provide opportunities and structures for their involvement. It’s also assume that participative decision making is likely to lead to job satisfaction and better quality decision and that gains are available to employer (Increased Efficiency) and workers (Job satisfaction), in short an everyone win scenario.

According to Erstad, among the many fashionable management refers to the change strategy with the objective of improving both the individuals and the organization’s ability to act. From the context of articles especially in this area empowerment is a complex process. In order to be successful it requires a clear vision, a learning environment, both for management and employees, participation and implementation tools and techniques.

Challenges in Motivating Employeess Essay

Unemployment Essay

Unemployment Essay.

In every society there will always be a number of people who are unemployed. Unemployment is when there are people in our society who desire work but are unable to obtain it because of the fact that there are not enough jobs for everyone. There are many factors that can cause unemployment but one of the biggest factors is lack of private investment. This is caused by private companies not expanding their activities fast or not expanding them fast enough. Another main factor of unemployment is the increase of labour costs.

Labour costs are the wages and salaries businesses have to pay their employees. This is a bad thing because if there wages and salaries increase to fast or are already high then businesses won’t be able to afford to pay the employees so they have to fire them. One final cause of unemployment is when there is a depression in the world economy. This is when countries of the world are going bad in there economy and cannot afford to buy as many exports as they would be able to previously.

There are no positive aspects of unemployment and is really bad for the production of the economy.

This means that we are wasting our resources because instead of producing goods and services with them we aren’t doing anything with them. But this isn’t the only effect of unemployment, people’s income will also change and it will cause more poverty. Unemployment also reduces the amount of tax paid to the government which means that the government will be losing money because since less people are working the government is getting less income tax but with whatever money they get they have to pay all the unemployed people and this is how the government gets into a lot of debt.

Long-term unemployment is when people have been unemployed for 12 months or more. This is a very serious matter because when you have been unemployed for so long you have a high risk of poverty. Long term unemployment also places a strain on the government because they have to support without getting much tax revenue. Unemployment, particularly long term unemployment, is the most savage cause of poverty and disadvantage in our community. It is the cause of enormous personal and financial hardship for hundreds of thousands of people and their families.

Unemployment is the greatest determiner of poverty and exclusion–and that is why the fight against unemployment is so critically important. However it is said that this battle can only result in victory by concentrating on providing jobs and opportunities rather than penalties or slogans. The importance of employment can only be explained, in that undertaking paid work fulfils many functions in our society. Employment is the main way of receiving money and thus survival, but we also often gain our sense of identity, self-worth and social connections through the paid work we do.

Unemployment is the condition of one who is capable of working, actively seeking work but is unable to secure a paid job. However, it is essential to note that to be considered unemployed, a person must be an active member of the labour force and in search of remunerative work. In March 2002, the ABS estimated that 622,300 people were unemployed in Australia at a rate of 6. 3 per cent. This is disturbing, in itself, but the figures would be even higher if the definition of unemployment was not so narrow.

While the unemployment rate is useful, it also has some very real limitations. It does not represent what jobs are disappearing or being created, whether they are part-time or full-time, permanent or casual. It also does not reflect upon whether people are working too many hours or not enough hours, or the amount of time they remain without work. Unemployment is not a problem solely for those without paid work; it is a problem for all of us. If people have no money to spend, local businesses do not sell their products and this spiraling effect can impact on entire economies.

People face a number of barriers to employment. The primary barrier is that there are not enough jobs for those who wish to undertake paid employment. In February 2002 there were still seven job-seekers for every job vacancy. There are also not enough supports available for people seeking paid work, such as access to affordable child care and rehabilitation or support mechanisms for people with disabilities. Also, paradoxically, people are often considered too young or too old by prospective employers, so age can also be a barrier to employment.

Other barriers relate to where people are living. There are differences between rural and urban levels of unemployment, and also stark differences between suburbs in all major Australian cities. The unemployment rate is a figure produced monthly by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). An unemployed person is defined by the ABS as someone not in paid employment who is actively looking for work. Anyone who is doing paid work for at least one hour a week is not considered to be unemployed.

Many people are marginally attached to the labour orce–they want to work but are not actively seeking employment. Sometimes people stop looking for work because they are under the misleading impression that they won’t be successful. These discouraged job seekers may believe they are too old, or too young, or do not possess the skills an employer would want. This is hidden unemployment. The other large group of people not represented in the statistics are those who are working but would prefer to work more hours, the underemployed. In February 2002, over 27 per cent of part-time workers wanted to work more hours .

Three sources of data are used to calculate the figures representing the labour force in regard to unemployment. These involve the monthly labour force survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, statistics from the Job Network and statistics from Centrelink. Also, the Australian Bureau of Statistics take sit further in that they attempt to categorize the final statistics into sections involving age, region, sex, occupation and education. Currently, as previously mentioned, the Australian Bureau of Statistics states that the unemployment rate in Australia is approximately 6. % and nevertheless, this figure does not encapsulate hidden employment.

Unfortunately, anyone can become unemployed readily. Statistically, however, indigenous Australians, recently arrived migrants, people with disabilities, young people and older workers who have been retrenched are most likely to be unemployed. People living in remote and rural communities also have higher rates of unemployment. The graph above shows the percentages of people in different age groups who were unemployed and looking for work in March 2002. Youth unemployment is very high across Australia.

There are, however, fewer young people looking for work than in the past, as more undertake education and training before entering into the job market. Within the last two budgets, the Howard Government have attempted several tactics involving policies and the like to lower the unemployment rate in Australia. The centrepiece of the 2002 budget involved the Welfare Reform Package, which entailed many new policies to hopefully effectively reduce unemployment in Australia. This was designed to provide higher levels of service and support to those having difficulty with acquiring employment.

This new system features policies where sole parents who wish to retain benefits they receive as an unemployed citizen and support a child between 12 and 15 years of age is required to attend an annual meeting at Centrelink, or a program which involves the undertaking of community service and/. or part time work. Those over the age of 50 are now required to claim identical benefits tot hose under, as opposed to the previous Mature Age Allowance or Partner Allowance. Training credits will be offered, but conversely mutual obligation requirements were introduced.

Finally, all unemployed people face new requirements as soon as they have bee without employment for over 3 months, and are requested to attend interviews and job help programs to assist them in their search. Although Australians who are unemployed receive government assistance if they meet certain requirements, unemployment benefits leave many to survive below the poverty line. Governments play a pivotal role investing in research and development and social infrastructure (health, education and community services). Job creation is vital if the unemployment rate is to be reduced.

If governments make such investments, this will not only maintain the fabric of society, but will create many meaningful employment opportunities. An important aspect of unemployment is the length of time people are without work. Long-term unemployment is a major problem in Australia. In March 2002, 24. 7 per cent of unemployed people had been without work for a year or more; of this group, 57. 2 per cent had been unemployed for over two years. It is estimated that one in five poor Australians are in paid work but are still almost unable to support themselves, and are known as–the ‘working poor’.

Many people in Australia also get trapped in the cycle of insecure low-paid casual jobs, followed by periods spent living on income support. This growing number of people highlights the importance of creating quality jobs. Personally, I believe that whilst many effective strategies are in place to reduce unemployment in Australia, and in fact the rate of unemployment is lower than it has been in many years, more can be done to assist those unfortunate people. It has been said that the first step is to acknowledge that unemployment is a structural problem, not one of lazy individuals.

This indicates that governments have a role to play in developing appropriate policy: as unemployment may be exacerbated by government policy it can similarly be alleviated by political intervention. A policy to reduce unemployment very substantially has a much greater chance of success if it is based on increased government expenditure. Some regions have been particularly hard hit, with industries that have previously provided the bulk of employment closing down or moving elsewhere. In some of these areas people from business, governments and the community have started working together to generate employment and strengthen local economies.

In order to gain employment people need appropriate skills, so access to training is vital. Labour market programs that offer real and relevant training are needed not schemes which appear to blame unemployed people for their difficulties, with little focus on job placement and support. Whilst many occupations have placed several people out of work due to lack of demand, in opposition many professions require increased numbers of people to fill the demand in Australia. Programs should be established for the encouragement and training of those who require work in these fields, as this would doubly regard both the country and the people of it.

In termination, unemployment is an involuntary condition, which not only affects those engulfed by it, but those who surround such people. In Australia, in my opinion we are blessed to live in such a democratic society, yet where the government takes an active interest in the plight of the people and thus encourages independence. The unemployment issues in Australia are countless, yet they are not without solution. In years to come, it is likely that our unemployment rate shall continue to decrease, due to the unfailing efforts of our government and citizens.

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Unemployment Essay

Diversity Issues in the Workplace Essay

Diversity Issues in the Workplace Essay.

The world is changing and becoming more globalized, especially with the fast growing rate of technology, people who live far away feel closer than they are. Since the world is changing, so are things in it, organizations is one of how things are moving faster. Organizations are no longer run in one region, country or for one market, they are now multi-cultural and diverse in nature. It therefore require special skills to manage and be able to teach employees to properly respect and value people’s opinions, sexual orientation, culture and beliefs to avoid diversity problems.

Diversity is basically defined as acknowledging, understanding, accepting, valuing, and celebrating differences among people with respect for age, class, ethnicity, gender, physical and mental ability, race, sexual orientation, spiritual practice, and public assistance status (Esty, et al. , 1995). In work place, I will personally define it as difference between people working in an organization; it could be their ideas, beliefs, language or even their culture. These factors affect one’s way of thinking, and can even determine their work performance.

Taking for instance lateness at work, it is obviously a bad working habit but in some parts of Africa or Asia, it is a normal to be fifteen or twenty minutes late, this habit is one of the worse working habits in America. That is cultural difference. Workplace diversity could also refer to human quality or ability that is different form our own example. Workers sometimes treat or favor co-workers who they are more related or have some affliction to in a nicer way than other people.

Workplace diversity also happens when companies hire employees from various backgrounds and experiences. “Many companies see workplace diversity as an investment toward building a better business. Although workplace diversity provides many benefits, it also poses many challenges to employees and managers. To reap the benefits of workplace diversity, employees and managers must understand the challenges and know how to effectively deal with them” (Rose Johnson, Demand Media). Being an immigrant I have personally encountered some diversity issues in a few places I have worked.

Coming from a country (Ghana) where the power distance is very wide, there is no way you can call your boss by the first name, you have to address them with their title at least. But in America where power distance is no issue, where you can play ping pong with your company president at break and call them by their first name, I found it hard to fit in. I always call my boss with either sir or Mr. that made him feel I wanted to be distant away from him, and my other managers never liked me until they got to ask me questions about my culture and got to know me more. Another big diversity issue in every U. S organization is the language barrier.

This issue is due to the fact that most U. S companies hire workers who have English as their second language or got exposed to English in America. Workers like this will always have problems getting work done properly due to clarity, because they might have difficulties understanding all instructions they have been assigned to, it will cause misunderstanding and eventually low productivity. If an Indian manager who has a “thick accent” gives instruction to an American associate, the probability that the American might not get the job done right is high.

Globalizing and diverse organizations have become a norm these days and organizations are better off hiring workers that are bilingual and can translate for workers that have problems with language. If this is not done companies may lose highly talented people from different backgrounds. In the movie “crash” the Arab store owner could not understand exactly what the Mexican lock repairer meant by replacing the door and that caused him to lose everything in his store, I am pretty sure if his daughter who is more fluent in both the Arab language and the English language the situation would have been totally different.

Political and religious beliefs could also be another form of diversity issue in the workplace. It is always going to be hard for Christians to work and socialize with Buddhist or Muslims, because they think they involve in bad practices, and might even reject their ideas. Some employers of companies also try to impose their beliefs on employees. Example a Christian might not allow a Muslim to take breaks to pray in their season of fasting (Ramadan), it would also be a challenge for a Christian to work for a Muslim.

This is religious diversity issue, if not properly managed might reduce organizational productivity or eventually it to close down, political diversity is the same as it in religion, Republican view of ruling a nation is different from that conflict Democratic, and it’s sometimes brought into managing an organization and that might cause misunderstanding. Since these two parties have different views one will always reject the idea of another in decision making. This form competition is not healthy for any organization and must be managed with care.

To avoid this issues in organizations law of equal rights must be enforced to protect everyone religious, political or even sexual opinions and mandate that employees cannot force their political choices and religious faiths on other employees. A Christian employee can work with a Muslim because the two should put the goal of the organization first and leave their difference outside of the workplace. Also the Federal and State equal opportunity legislation make discrimination in workplaces illegal.

These laws specify the rights and responsibilities of both associates and employers in the workplace and hold both groups accountable. Workplace diversity issues cannot be discussed without the mention of sexual orientation and harassment. The American Psychological Association (APA) defines sexual orientation as an emotional or affection attraction to another person. This includes heterosexuality (attraction to the opposite sex), homosexuality (attraction to the same sex) and bisexuality (attraction to either sex).

Workers and managers should be ready to accept and work with people with different sexual orientation and not to take advantage of them. Formally it was acceptable to fire or refuse a gay or lesbian with the globalize nature of workplaces, human and civil rights on the rise, organizations should be able to draft laws that can protect people like that. After all they require two workers to deal with their differences outside of the organizations; their personal life outside of the organization should not be a problem to the organization, unless that employee is using his orientation to harass other employees.

It is always good to have a diverse organization, and there is no doubt is comes with problems, but how do managers of these organizations manage diversity? As pointed out earlier, it will be effective for employers to hire professionals that deal with diversity issues to help them with the challenges involved for example having translators to help workers with language problems will help organizations tap out the talented workers. Also organizations should not over react and base their recruitment solely on diversity issues.

Example, hiring with the idea of hiring workers from all walks of life will definitely be more of a challenge than an advantage. “According to Lawrence Herzog of HCareers, managers face challenges when new employees from diverse backgrounds interact with long-standing employees. ” Another powerful way to deal with diversity in the workplace is by creating avenues like meeting social gathering and business meetings, where every member must listen and have the chance to speak, are good ways to create dialogues.

Managers should implement policies such as mentoring programs to provide associates access to information and opportunities, workers can socialize, talk to each other and get to know more about each other’s culture, beliefs, and ideas. There might be something they could learn from each other that might positively benefit the organization. This is a strategy my formal managers in my previous job used and I think it really helped solve the diversity issue between us.

I spent time with them and they got to know about me more and began to understand the way responded to certain things at work. Having a diverse workforce is due to our changing world, and if it’s managed effectively, organizations can benefit positively and have a large pool of different ideas to make the organization very competitive in all markets. Good diversity management does not only benefit the organizations it creates a safe and comfortable working environment for workers; this benefits the organization as well because employees work with enthusiasm.

Diversity Issues in the Workplace Essay

Absenteeism, Causes and Effects Essay

Absenteeism, Causes and Effects Essay.

I. Meaning Absenteeism is the term generally used to refer to unscheduled employee absences from the workplace. Many causes of absenteeism are legitimate, for example personal illness or family issues, but absenteeism also can often be traced to other factors such as a poor work environment or workers who are not committed to their jobs. If such absences become excessive, they can have a seriously adverse impact on a business’s operations and, ultimately, its profitability. The Labour Department in India defined the absenteeism rate as the total man-shifts lost because of absences as a percentage of the total number of man-shifts scheduled.

So for calculation of the rate of the absenteeism we require the number of persons scheduled to work and the number actually present.

II .Causes of the absenteeism

The rate of the absenteeism in Indian industries is very high and cannot be dismissed. A Statistical study of absenteeism of Indian Labour observed that, the basic cause of absenteeism in India is that industrial worker is still part-time peasant.

Thus the workers go to find jobs at cities after the harvesting their crops. It means that when the transplanting season. These workers consider to the modern industrialism is insecure. Thus, cause to high rate of the absenteeism in the industrial sector. According to the Labour Investigation Committee (1946), there were many reasons that caused the absenteeism of the industrial workers. The Commission pointed out many factors which caused the absenteeism in Indian industries. These factors are:

1. Sickness and low vitality: The committee pointed out that sickness is most important responsible for absenteeism in almost of the in Industrial sector. Epidemics like cholera, small-pox and malaria always break out in severe from in most industrial areas. The low vitality of the Indian workers makes them easy prey to such epidemics and bad housing and unsanitary conditions of living aggravate the trouble. However, the Commission has been noticed that the rate of absenteeism among the female workers is higher than their male counterparts.

2. Means of Transport: The Commission also stated that the transport facilities also play very important to contribute the absenteeism of the worker in the industries. It has been pointed out that, the rate of absenteeism is higher in those factories where transport facilities are not easily available as compared to those where such facilities are easily available or provided by the factory itself

. 3. Hours of work: The long hours of work also affect the workers’ efficiency and consequently their sickness rate and absenteeism rate are increased.

4. Nightshift: It has also been pointed out that there is a greater percentage of absenteeism during the nightshifts than in the dayshifts, owing to the greater discomforts of work during the night-time.

5. Rural exodus: The committee also pointed out that probably the most predominant cause of absenteeism is the frequent urge of rural exodus. It has been noticed that the workers go back to their villages at the time of harvesting and sowing the crops. It increases the rate of absenteeism in factories.

6. Accident: Industrial accident depends upon the nature of work to be performed by the worker and his ability for doing that work. In case of hazardous nature of job, the accidents occur more frequently which lead to higher rate of absenteeism.

7. Social and religious Function: it has been noticed that workers become absent form their duty on occasions of social and religious functions. Since the workers like to join their families on such occasions, they go back to their villages for like to join short periods.

8. Drinking and amusement: the Labour Investigation committee pointed out that drinking and amusements are also responsible for absenteeism. Since drinking and amusements in the late hours of night make it difficult for the workers to reach in time on their duties. They like to become absent rather than late since they know that badli workers will be substituted for them, if they are late.

9.After Pay-Day: the Labour Investigation committee also noted the level of absenteeism is comparatively high immediately after the pay-day because they get their wages, they feel like having a good time or return to their villages to make purchases for the family and to meet them, so the absenteeism is high after they got paid.

10. Nature of work: the absenteeism rate is also affected by the nature of work. According to Prof. William pointed out that absenteeism prevails because workers are not accustomed to the factory life and factory discipline. In other words, absenteeism prevails because the nature of work in factories is different from that for which the worker is accustomed. So when they come to work in the factory, they feel strange, this new situation make them uncomfortable, so lead to high rate of absenteeism of the industrial workers.

11. Other causes : The above factor which are caused the absenteeism in the Industrial which are pointed out briefly by the Labour Commission. However, there can be tow other factors which caused the absenteeism in industrial sector.

These factors are: a) personal Factors and b) workplace factors.

A. Personal factor: The personal factor also divided into other sub-factors, these are:

i. Personal Attitude: there are different attitude of employees. The Employees with strong workplace ethics will respect their work and appreciate the contribution they make to their companies. Such employees will not engage themselves in taking unscheduled off. On the other hand, employees with very low or no work ethics are indiscipline and have lot of integrity and behavioural issues. Since, they feel no obligation towards the company, absenteeism comes easily to them.

ii. Age: The younger employees are often restless. They want to spend time with their friends and have fun, rather than being tied down with work responsibility. This lack of ownership often leads them to take unauthorized time off. With age, people gain experience and maturity, which makes them focused and responsible. Their approach is rather professional and they prefer to stick to their chairs to get the work done. If ever they are found absent, then it could be due to sickness.

iii .Seniority: Employees, who have been with the company for a long time are well-adjusted with the working culture and the job, therefore, they find no reason to be absent without permission. On the other hand, new hires are more prone to taking ad hoc breaks to unwind themselves. iv. Gender: Women generally do a balancing act by shuffling their time between home and work. Family, being their foremost priority, they don’t think twice before taking a step towards absenteeism.

B. Workplace Factors

i. Stress: The pressure at work sometimes takes a toll on the employees. This results in increased levels of stress. The employees then resort to excuses that can help them stay away from work.

ii. Work Routine: Doing the same job over a period of time can get monotonous. The employees find the job functions boring. They rather choose time off to do something interesting than come to work.

iii. Job Satisfaction: If employees do not find their job challenging, dissatisfaction creeps in. That leads to more absenteeism in the workplace.

III. Effect of absenteeism: The effects of the absenteeism of the workers in the factories adversely effect to the employers, the cost of production of the factory is increased because of the absent of the workers, by employed extra temporary staffs in order to replace the absentee. The effects of absenteeism in the workplace are directly proportionate to decreased productivity. The company, eventually, is trying to cover up the direct and indirect cost involved to hire temporary staff, and pay employees for overtime.

So the cost of the production of the company is increased as the result they increase the price of the commodity, so the consumers have to pay high price for the commodities.. However, the workers themselves also effect of the absenteeism because their income is reduced according to the principle of “no work no pay”, as the result their standard of live decreased. Thus, absenteeism adversely affects the employers and the workers, and consumers and ultimately , it can be adverse affect to the growth of the economy in the country. so all these give rises to many industrial labour and social problems.

IV. Method to remedy the absenteeism As regard to the measure to be adopted to remove the absenteeism, the Bombay Textile Labour Enquiry committee stated that “the proper conditions of work in the factory, adequate wages, protection from accident and sickness, and facilities for obtaining leave for rest and recuperation constitute the most effective means of reducing absenteeism. The Labour investigation committee, agreed with the above view, stated that “the excessive fatigue and sweated conditions of work are bound to create a defence mechanism’ in the worker and if adding results are to be obtained, the best policy would be to improve conditions of work and life for the workers and make them feel contented and happy.

Therefore, the Committee suggested that the most effective way of dealing with absenteeism is to provide holiday with pay or even without pay and permit workers to attend their private affairs occasionally and thus regularise absenteeism instead of merely taking disciplinary actions for it . Provision of suitable housing facilities in industrial towns should also go a long way in improving attendance. Besides, the above provisions a sense of responsibility towards industry should be created among the workers through proper education and training. The workers’ participation in the management of industry, introduction of an incentive wage scheme and linking wages and bonus with production may also prove very helpful in checking the rate of absenteeism.

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Absenteeism, Causes and Effects Essay

Employee Is the Most Important Asset Essay

Employee Is the Most Important Asset Essay.

“Human Resource is the most important asset of an organization”. In Singapore, where there are no natural resources, human capital is one of the valuable resources that the country depends on to attract foreign investors. The skills, knowledge and experience of each individual contribute to the growth of organizations, communities and the development of the nation. With today’s workforce becoming more diverse, the importance of employee has also been increasingly highlighted in the organizations.


People are employed to perform the various hierarchy roles in the different divisions of an organization.

They are mainly the Admin, Sales & Marketing, Finance, Production, Information Technology, Customer Service and Human Resource.

In order to gain a competitive advantage in the market, it is vital to have the correct people in their respective role in these functional divisions as the staff can then perform their scope of work to produce excellent results for the company. Particularly when employees’ talents are valuable, rare and difficult to imitate, an organization can achieve a sustained competitive advantage.

Human resource is always related to one organization profitability and their ability cannot be replaced by machines as discussed by Hargreaves and Jarvis (1998: 3).


Every business and organisation will have its own unique culture, based in the prevailing beliefs and values within the business and organization. The advanced equipment, new technology, good marketing strategic, excellent customer services and many other elements can be the factors to build up for the success of an organization. In every business people are playing different roles with defined responsibilities and accountability. Take for example, in the manufacturing and production industries, the factory and machines are considered very important just as the people.

However, I agree to a large extent that human resource is still certainly an extremely valuable asset to determining the success or failure. In an industry that depends on highly skilled professionals in a service firm, without their support, the organization’s daily business function will not be done well and ready.

In my opinion, one good example of a successful organization that values its employees as an important asset of its business would be CapitaLand Limited. CapitaLand is one of Asia’s largest real estate companies and it believes that people are the core assets. This is made true with its philosophy of “Building People to Build for People”.

A second example would be Sheng Siong Supermarket Pte Ltd. The managing director, Mr Lim Hock Chee is a hardworking man who believes in treating the employees well. His staffs get one free meal every day – a buffet-style one for those who work in the Woodlands headquarters and boxed meals for the rest. He always has the employees’ interests at heart and will go out of his way to help anyone who has problems at home e.g. giving cash incentives to those with young kids. He believes that only when the employee is happy at home will he be able to concentrate at work.

Ultimately, a motivated employee can make a significant difference to the company’s bottom line in terms of bringing in new orders, meeting customer needs, developing new products and thus meeting the goals of the organization.


Employees’ talent and efforts have tangible effects on an organization’s productivity and stability. As such, efforts are often been neglected and fail to satisfy employees’ needs. When employees’ efforts are not recognized, there will be a lack of commitment to the organization. Thus, employees will not be motivated and will be less creative. It is important to have a common understanding of having a work-life balance environment for its employees.

CONCLUSION As people’s talent, ability, and grasp of the business improve, some group members are likely to realize their own high growth potential. Organisations will probably suffer minor setbacks when losing a valuable team member to a better job or even another company. On the contrary, it means the organisation is giving its people important skills.

Hence by helping the people to scale up their critical skills, it can establish skills accountability and foster continuous learning – a key strength in today’s marketplace of constantly changing environment. Let’s create and promote a culture of knowledge and innovation in our organization, and respect Human Asset – the most valuable Intangible Asset.

Employee Is the Most Important Asset Essay

Apex Door Company Essay

Apex Door Company Essay.

The case is about Apex Door Company and its president Jim Dellani who has problems with his employees. The summary of the problem is the following: employees of the company do their work in their own way and their mistakes cost a lot of money to the company, there is no formal training process of new employees, employees don’t know how to use the multipage order form, job descriptions are not updated.

1. Our attitude towards the training process in Apex Door is the following: * As far as there are no updated job descriptions in the company a trainer usually performs an improper training to a new employee.

He does it in his own way. * Training is usually the same on every level of the company. There is no difference what position a new employee will obtain. * Training period is 1-2 weeks. We think that on some levels this amount of time is not enough. * Employees show a lack of interest in what they do * We also think that this company does not have a good structure otherwise why does the president tell his employees how to carry out their responsibilities.

This is the task of managers or head of departments.

2. First of all the heads of departments of the company should make the job analysis and look through the job specifications. Then, they will have to update job descriptions in the company. Secondly, proper and structured coaching on the job training should be given. Managers have to look through the alternative trainings for the employees and to choose those that will be effective. Managers also have to think how to organize this training and evaluate.

3. The organization of the training should be started from setting the objectives and creation the motivation for the training. As far as we cannot stop the process of manufacturing the training should be provided on the working place mostly. We can use the group method (lecture), training of newly-comers in the classrooms and at their working places, on-line studying, studying with the help of video conferences. The company can also organize the training of managers and etc. Each level of the company can use the most appropriate method for them. After training it would be useful to organize the evaluation to see if the training was successful.

Apex Door Company Essay

Apple and employee motivation Essay

Apple and employee motivation Essay.

Ideally, Apple wants to have a workplace that fosters creativity from all the employees. Apple combines extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in order to empower their employees to be innovative. There are numerous methods Apple employs to motivate its employees. Once, Apple rewarded its executives by giving them a recognition bonus of 3 to 5 percent of their base salary. This motivating incentive occurred despite the fact that they recently missed their target on a project. This implies that Apple upper management empathized with the group’s efforts.

Another motivating incentive is the discount on products that all Apple employees receive.

Employees who work at corporate Apple can receive a free iPhone or iPod Shuffle. Giving products to employees rather than money can be a better an effective motivator because many Apple employees are simply motivated to see the end results of their efforts. It is also typically cheaper to give the employees products rather than a raise. Recently, Apple has given employees more vacation days due to the company’s strong performance in product sales.

These are all extrinsic examples of how Apple motivates its employees.

Employee motivation also stems from the corporate culture. Most Apple employees are heavily committed to their work and can be described enjoying monotonous encoding. Perhaps it is even insightful to look at what intrinsic forces were driving Steve Jobs. Jobs’ Stanford commencement speech indicates that he knew he had a limited time on Earth and this motivated him to follow his heart and pursue his passion. His ultimate motivation for creating innovative products was not based around profit but what would he would personally want to have.

Apple and employee motivation Essay

Graduate Employability Essay

Graduate Employability Essay.

When we say Graduate Employability, the first thought that comes to mind is the definition of employability. Various definitions have been written, and rewritten. They are all correct, but not quite complete. Reason being, the perspectives on employability are dynamic, while the norms in education run according to the knowledge curriculum, which may also be dynamic in most cases, but runs on a pre set pattern- one cannot jump the queue. Often, there has been a gap between discipline based skills acquired during higher education, and generic skills which are increasingly regarded as an essential input for employability.

This gives rise to this perennial debate about graduate employability and reveals issues in higher education. As David Hind and Stewart Moss (in their book, Employability Skills, published in early 2005) seem to suggest. – written, verbal, communication, presentation skills etc enhance the employability of an individual or graduate looking for a job. Having skills and putting them to work is the starting point of employability- by how much an individual succeeds in this effort determines his level of achievement.

Employability is an ongoing process- and it does not begin or end with a graduate getting his first job.

Britain has been in the forefront of this ongoing debate. While skills and knowledge have been the twin constituents of employability always, it remains to be decided which one is the critical attribute and what is the optimum mix. Professor Mantz Yorke takes the view that employability is complex and goes well beyond the notion of key skills- it takes into account a mix of personal qualities and beliefs, understandings, skilful practices and the ability to reflect productively on experience (Learning and Employability Series, the study on “Employability in Higher Education- what is and what is not”)

Then we come to the issues in higher education impacting graduate employability. Higher Education Funding Council for England conducted a study on graduate employability way back in 2003 and found that work experience during courses appears to be a highly positive influence on employability. The reason is simple- while on the job, the student gets an opportunity to use his academic knowledge in realtime scenario- that too under close supervision and tutorial guidance. The ownership is high because the results are linked to the students performance.

The intrapersonal skill sets are fine tuned and behavioural skills are further honed to provide the student with tools to accomplish a given task or project. When later, as a graduate he or she looks for employment , there is far more clarity on the demands of the job and his/her ability to match up- so wrong decisions are averted. It results in well matched expectations from both sides- the employer and the employee. Competencies being different for different job roles, it just gets that much much simpler to know what one is good at, and what one should be looking for.

Another point highlighted in the study by HEFCE says that employer involvement in course design and delivery is positively associated with the quality of initial employment found by graduates. This way, the employers expectations are stated explicitly, and the curriculum tweaked to accommodate the expectations. Sufficient to say, that while there is already a whole lot being done at the graduation level, to turn out complete, capable and well balanced individuals, more can be done to enhance employability.

The times are changing, so are the needs and expectations of students and Corporates. The efficacy of a sound education system gets established if the alumni are successful in their calling. This focussed group discussion is meant to establish the relationship between schooling and education. As Mark Twain said, so long ago- “don’t let your schooling interfere with your education”. We are all familiar with Robin Hood!

Graduate Employability Essay

Impacts of Motivation in Employee Performance Essay

Impacts of Motivation in Employee Performance Essay.

1.1 Back Ground of the Study

The study was attempted to investigate analytically the major causes of employees’ motivation in Commercial Bank of Ethiopia. To accomplish this, the research was considered to take appropriate data that relevant to the problem. Since, Commercial Bank of Ethiopia is the major sector that supports the current development of Ethiopia economy and the five years of transformation plan, so it should be better to take study to identify the major causes that affects of employees’ motivation toward their work and to propose necessary tools of solution to mitigate the problem.

This will be at least a solution currently and in the future for the organization. The major initiatives to conduct this study are also one of the researchers is working in Commercial Bank of Ethiopia that observe most of employees are not satisfied or motivated to work. This forced the rest researchers to examine the basic problems of human resource management unable to conduct how frequently motivate employees’ in the existing work place using financial and non financial tools.

If this problems not solved, it may affects the image of the organization, belongingness workers etc…gradually.

Considering this, it should be necessary to conduct study to identify the major causes of employees’ dissatisfaction in their work place that affects motivation, and the drawback of motivation packages relative to the image of the organization and its strategic plan which is to be “Classic Bank In The World”. To do an extensive study, the researcher performed methodological ways of gathering data pursuant to the problems and objective of the study paper. The employees are one of the vital resources or ingredient that will help organization to achieve its objectives. Employees supply their talents, knowledge, skill and experience towards to the achievement of organizational objectives. To get maximum performance from employees, the organization must have the necessary motivational scheme that encourages employees for better performance.

Optimizing performance of employees by motivational factors is challenging and sensitive due to uniqueness of working force which came to organization from different socio-economical background. Performances of motivated employees create high productivity, innovativeness and good attitudes towards the organizations. There is a relationship between motivational factors and some facts of the employees behavior such as performance, turnover, absenteeism, poor attendance, willingness to do more, creativity, flexibility, and commitment to the organization. So motivation has important implications because it affects the individual quality of work, life, and performance.

Therefore, managers are expected to have necessary skill on how to motivate employees. Commercial Bank of Ethiopia as a service rendering organization thereby maximizing its profit, its quality of service is highly determined by devotion of its employees. Therefore, the bank has to give importance to the recruitment of educated employees, to staff training and the improvement of workers’ benefit packages. Besides, it has to revise its benefit package with a view to motivating its staff towards greater efficiency and competence. In general, the study was focused on to investigate the real causes of employees’ dissatisfaction at their work place in the Bank and its impacts toward the image, rest of employees’ belongingness.

1.2 Back Ground of the Organization

Currently, the Commercial Bank Ethiopia (CBE) has 15 district offices and above 300 branches throughout the country serving as market outlets. As the largest bank and development partner of the Ethiopian Government, the CBE has transferred Birr 1.23 Billion in 2008 1 to the coffers/treasure of the state. In 2005/2006, the market share of the Bank was 24% and 76% for credit extension and deposit mobilization, in that order. The Commercial Bank of Ethiopia (CBE) is the leading Bank in the country. It has over 8,600 employees and close to 2 million accounts holders throughout the country, and total asset of Birr 73.7billion, total deposit and other liabilities of Birr 56.1 billion and outstanding loans of Birr 22.9 billion, and close to 70 years of solid accumulated banking experience.

The CBE is in the forefront of the banking industry in meeting the financial needs of the various sectors, sub-sectors and ongoing varied investment projects in the economy. It has diversified credit portfolio with loan facilities extended ranging from farmers’ cooperatives to commercial farmers and large manufacturing and construction project. Commercial Bank of Ethiopia currently has given services for customers such as Deposit, Loan service, foreign currency service etc…

The CBE has a vision to be world a worldwide class commercial bank by 2025.It has also set a strategy of exceeding customers and stake holder’s expectation through service excellence and business growth supporting the development efforts in the country. Commercial Bank of Ethiopia currently played a great role for the development of the economy to achieve the million goal of the country. (CBE Public Relations Documentation, 2011).

1.3 Statement of the Problem

It is obvious that currently Commercial Bank of Ethiopia is a major blood for the current economic growth of Ethiopia. In order to fulfill this, the company mobilized big amount of foreign and domestic currency to facilitate and support high investment process in the economy. To perform effectively this, the firm should have well developed human resource management tools to enhance the work forces motivation toward their work which help to create loyal and belonging employees in the work area. This has a direct relationship with the service quality level to satisfy the existing and prospect customers. Moreover to introduce new and modern type of working system throughout the organization, there should be also a sound strategy of workers motivation program, which helps to increase workers retention in the bank.

Organizations that only focus on its goal, without considering the factors of employees motivation toward their works has become a cause of fragility of the business in the long run. In this essence, employees that are not satisfied in their organization could not be initiated to exert more efforts effectively in the organization, instead they will look for other opportunities externally and vote with their feet by moving their allegiance to competitors, and this will affect the firms in the long run. The outcomes of the research will help the organization to take the necessary corrective measurements in the future and to revise its motivation strategy of employees.

Because of the above major problems, the existing employees’ lack confidence on the bank. Moreover, the bank faces problem of employees’ turnover due to lack of effective motivation, this also results in high cost of getting experienced employees and recruiting of new one. Therefore; regarding the above problem, the study attempted to respond the following basic research questions.

1.What is the feeling and attitudes of employees towards to motivational factors used in Commercial Bank of Ethiopia? 2.What are the consequences of job dis-satisfaction in Commercial Bank of Ethiopia? 3.What are the consequences of lack of motivated employees’ performance? 4.What is the effect of motivation on employees’ loyalty to the organization? 5.What kind of action should be taken by the bank to increase employees’ motivation toward work areas? 6.What are the basic factors for employees’ motivation in the work area? Is it financial or non financial benefits?

1.4 Objective of the study

Due to lack of effective motivation, most employees are dissatisfied to their work place; this creates desperate work forces that perform their work till to get other opportunities of work in order to get the root of the problem the study set the following objectives.

General objective

The general objective of the study was to identify the causes and impacts of lack of employees’ motivation and to identify the basic causes of dissatisfaction of employees to ward their work, which aggravated lack of employees’ motivation.

Specific Objective

•To indicate which is the basic factors for lack of employees motivation currently in the bank •To show the relation between lack of employees’ motivation impacts and employees’ turnover. •To assess the potential consequences of lack of employees’ motivation in the Bank. • To set appropriate recommendation for the problem based on the findings.

1.5 Significance of the study

The study identified the major causes of employees’ dissatisfaction, which is a major factor that affects motivation of employees at the work area. The outcomes of the research help to increase employees’ satisfaction at their works that support to increase the service level of customers’ satisfaction. Moreover, increase of work force motivation has also a direct relationship to minimize turnover in the bank. The other advantages of increase of motivation of employees at the work area are enables employees to enhance their loyalty for the organization and at the same time employees’ belongingness increase. This also helps for the reputation of the image of the bank. Employees will increase their efficiency to serve their customers with smiling face. Moreover also; the study provided a hint for other researchers as a reference, and the findings of the study will help to give valuable information for top management to establish new system to increase employees’ motivation.

1.6 Scope of the study

The study considered major causes of employees’ lack of motivation in the Bank especially focusing in the area of Addis Ababa core operation. It scopes limited to study employees’ lack of motivation in Addis Ababa area only, by taking as a population and sample of the existing employees.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

The major limitation of the study is constraints of time and collecting appropriate data from respondents since there was few samples unwillingness to return the questionnaires properly.

1.8 Research Methodology

1.8.1 Research Design

The study applied the following types of research method to investigate the problems. The research is designed by using both Primary & Secondary data.

1.8.2 Source of Data & Methods of Data Collection

The method of data collection carried out by distribution of questioners, which consist of both closed and open-end questioners. The questioners were being the main instrument of primary data collection. The secondary data gathered from different books, literature review, internet and printed materials.

1.8.3Sampling Design & Techniques

A sampling technique of random sampling adopted by taking the sample from the selected four city branches and two departments of Manager and non-manager line staff employees of commercial bank of Ethiopia. The total population was taken 200.

1.8.4Methods of Data Analysis

Descriptive and explanatory methods of data analysis applied. Test hypothesis for possible interdependence and effect relation ships conducted for easy understanding of trends of some patterns of distribution, table, percentage and interpretation of data conducted based on the response and theoretical concepts.

1.9 Organization of the paper

The study paper included four chapters. The first chapter is about the introduction part which contains back ground, statement of problems, objective of the study, significance, methodology of research, limitation of the study and organization of the paper. In Chapter II, Theoretical concepts from internet are included. Chapter III included the important part of the study, which is data analysis and interpretation, this lead to the final Chapter IV, which described the summary of findings, conclusions and recommendation of the paper.

2.1 Motivation and Motivation Theory

The term motivation is derived from the Latin word movere, meaning “to move.” Motivation can be broadly defined as the forces acting on or within a person that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of goal-directed, voluntary effort. Motivation theory is thus concerned with the processes that explain why and how human behavior is activated. ( The broad rubric of motivation and motivation theory is one of the most frequently studied and written-about topics in the organizational sciences, and is considered one of the most important areas of study in the field of organizational behavior.

Despite the magnitude of the effort that has been devoted to the study of motivation, there is no single theory of motivation that is universally accepted. The lack of a unified theory of motivation reflects both the complexity of the construct and the diverse backgrounds and aims of those who study it. To delineate these crucial points, it is illuminating to consider the development of motivation and motivation theory as the objects of scientific inquiry. (

2.2 Historical Development

Early explanations of motivation focused on instincts. Psychologists writing in the late 19th and early twentieth century have suggested that human beings were basically programmed to behave in certain ways, depending upon the behavioral cues to which they were exposed. Sigmund Freud, for example, argued that the most powerful determinants of individual behavior were those of which the individual was not consciously aware. ( According to Motivation and Leadership at Work (Steers, Porter, and Bigley, 1996), in the early twentieth century researchers began to examine other possible explanations for differences in individual motivation.

Some researchers focused on internal drives as an explanation for motivated behavior. Others studied the effect of learning and how individuals base current behavior on the consequences of past behavior. Still others examined the influence of individuals’ cognitive processes, such as the beliefs they have about future events. Over time, these major theoretical streams of research in motivation were classified into two major schools: the content theories of motivation and the process theories of motivation. (

2.3 Major Content Theories

Content (or need) theories of motivation focus on factors internal to the individual that energize and direct behavior. In general, such theories regard motivation as the product of internal drives that compel an individual to act or move (hence, “motivate”) toward the satisfaction of individual needs. The content theories of motivation are based in large part on early theories of motivation that traced the paths of action backward to their perceived origin in internal drives. Major content theories of motivation are Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Alderfer’s ERG theory, Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory, and McClelland’s learned needs or three-needs theory. (

2.3.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.

Abraham Maslow developed the hierarchy of needs, which suggests that individual needs exist in a hierarchy consisting of physiological needs, security needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. Physiological needs are the most basic needs for food, water, and other factors necessary for survival. Security needs include needs for safety in one’s physical environment, stability, and freedom from emotional distress. Belongingness needs relate to desires for friendship, love, and acceptance within a given community of individuals. Esteem needs are those associated with obtaining the respect of one’s self and others.

Finally, self-actualization needs are those corresponding to the achievement one’s own potential, the exercising and testing of one’s creative capacities, and, in general, to becoming the best person one can possibly be. Unsatisfied needs motivate behavior; thus, lower-level needs such as the physiological and security needs must be met before upper-level needs such as belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization can be motivational. (

Applications of the hierarchy of needs to management and the workplace are obvious. According to the implications of the hierarchy, individuals must have their lower level needs met by, for example, safe working conditions, adequate pay to take care of one’s self and one’s family, and job security before they will be motivated by increased job responsibilities, status, and challenging work assignments. Despite the ease of application of this theory to a work setting, this theory has received little research support and therefore is not very useful in practice. (

2.3.2 Alderfer’s Erg Theory.

The ERG theory is an extension of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Alderfer suggested that needs could be classified into three categories, rather than five. These three types of needs are existence, relatedness, and growth. Existence needs are similar to Maslow’s physiological and safety need categories. Relatedness needs involve interpersonal relationships and are comparable to aspects of Maslow’s belongingness and esteem needs. Growth needs are those related to the attainment of one’s potential and are associated with Maslow’s esteem and self-actualization needs. 1.The ERG theory differs from the hierarchy of needs in that it does not suggest that lower-level needs must be completely satisfied before upper-level needs become motivational.

ERG theory also suggests that if an individual is continually unable to meet upper-level needs that the person will regress and lower-level needs become the major determinants of their motivation. ERG theory’s implications for managers are similar to those for the needs hierarchy: managers should focus on meeting employees’ existence, relatedness, and growth needs, though without necessarily applying the proviso that, say, job-safety concerns necessarily take precedence over challenging and fulfilling job requirements. (

2.3.3 Motivator-Hygiene Theory.

Frederick Herzberg developed the motivator-hygiene theory. This theory is closely related to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs but relates more specifically to how individuals are motivated in the workplace. Based on his research, Herzberg argued that meeting the lower-level needs (hygiene factors) of individuals would not motivate them to exert effort, but would only prevent them from being dissatisfied. Only if higher-level needs (motivators) were met would individuals be motivated. (

The implication for managers of the motivator-hygiene theory is that meeting employees lower-level needs by improving pay, benefits, safety, and other job-contextual factors will prevent employees from becoming actively dissatisfied but will not motivate them to exert additional effort toward better performance. To motivate workers, according to the theory, managers must focus on changing the intrinsic nature and content of jobs themselves by “enriching” them to increase employees’ autonomy and their opportunities to take on additional responsibility, gain recognition, and develop their skills and careers.

2.3.4 Mcclelland’s Learned Needs Theory.

McClelland’s theory suggests that individuals learn needs from their culture. Three of the primary needs in this theory are the need for affiliation (n Aff), the need for power (n Pow), and the need for achievement (n Ach). The need for affiliation is a desire to establish social relationships with others. The need for power reflects a desire to control one’s environment and influence others.

The need for achievement is a desire to take responsibility, set challenging goals, and obtain performance feedback. The main point of the learned needs theory is that when one of these needs is strong in a person, it has the potential to motivate behavior that leads to its satisfaction. Thus, managers should attempt to develop an understanding of whether and to what degree their employees have one or more of these needs, and the extent to which their jobs can be structured to satisfy them. (

2.4 Major Process Theories

Process (or cognitive) theories of motivation focus on conscious human decision processes as an explanation of motivation. The process theories are concerned with determining how individual behavior is energized, directed, and maintained in the specifically willed and self-directed human cognitive processes. Process theories of motivation are based on early cognitive theories, which posit that behavior is the result of conscious decision-making processes. The major process theories of motivation are expectancy theory, equity theory, goal-setting theory, and reinforcement theory. (

2.4.1 Expectancy Theory.

In the early 1960s, Victor Vroom applied concepts of behavioral research conducted in the 1930s by Kurt Lewin and Edward Tolman directly to work motivation. Basically, Vroom suggested that individuals choose work behaviors that they believe lead to outcomes they value. In deciding how much effort to put into a work behavior, individuals are likely to consider: •Their expectancy, meaning the degree to which they believe that putting forth effort will lead to a given level of performance. •Their instrumentality or the degree to which they believe that a given level of performance will result in certain outcomes or rewards. •Their valence, which is the extent to which the expected outcomes are attractive or unattractive. All three of these factors are expected to influence motivation in a multiplicative fashion, so that for an individual to be highly motivated, all three of the components of the expectancy model must be high.

And, if even one of these is zero (e.g., instrumentality and valence are high, but expectancy is completely absent), the person will have not motivation for the task. Thus, managers should attempt, to the extent possible, to ensure that their employees believe that increased effort will improve performance and that performance will lead to valued rewards. ( In the late 1960s, Porter and Lawler published an extension of the Vroom expectancy model, which is known as the Porter-Lawler expectancy model or simply the Porter-Lawler model.

Although the basic premise of the Porter-Lawler model is the same as for Vroom’s model, the Porter-Lawler model is more complex in a number of ways. It suggests that increased effort does not automatically lead to improved performance because individuals may not possess the necessary abilities needed to achieve high levels of performance, or because they may have an inadequate or vague perception of how to perform necessary tasks. Without an understanding of how to direct effort effectively, individuals may exert considerable effort without a corresponding increase in performance. (

2.4.2 Equity Theory.

Equity theory suggests that individuals engage in social comparison by comparing their efforts and rewards with those of relevant others. The perception of individuals about the fairness of their rewards relative to others influences their level of motivation. Equity exists when individuals perceive that the ratio of efforts to rewards is the same for them as it is for others to whom they compare themselves. Inequity exists when individuals perceive that the ratio of efforts to rewards is different (usually negatively so) for them than it is for others to whom they compare themselves. There are two types of inequity—under-reward and over-reward. Under-reward occurs when a person believes that she is either puts in more efforts than another, yet receives the same reward, or puts in the same effort as another for a lesser reward. For instance, if an employee works longer hours than her coworker, yet they receive the same salary, the employee would perceive inequity in the form of under-reward.

Conversely, with over-reward, a person will feel that his efforts to rewards ratio is higher than another person’s, such that he is getting more for putting in the same effort, or getting the same reward even with less effort. While research suggests that under-reward motivates individuals to resolve the inequity, research also indicates that the same is not true for over-reward. Individuals who are over-rewarded often engage in cognitive dissonance, convincing themselves that their efforts and rewards are equal to another’s. ( According to the equity theory, individuals are motivated to reduce perceived inequity.

Individuals may attempt to reduce inequity in various ways. A person may change his or her level of effort; an employee who feels under-rewarded is likely to work less hard. A person may also try to change his or her rewards, such as by asking for a raise. Another option is to change the behavior of the reference person, perhaps by encouraging that person to put forth more effort. Finally, a person experiencing inequity may change the reference person and compare him or herself to a different person to assess equity. For managers, equity theory emphasizes the importance of a reward system that is perceived as fair by employees. (

2.4.3 Goal-Setting Theory.

The goal-setting theory posits that goals are the most important factors affecting the motivation and behavior of employees. This motivation theory was developed primarily by Edwin Locke and Gary Latham. Goal-setting theory emphasizes the importance of specific and challenging goals in achieving motivated behavior. Specific goals often involve quantitative targets for improvement in a behavior of interest. Research indicates that specific performance goals are much more effective than those in which a person is told to “do your best.” Challenging goals are difficult but not impossible to attain. Empirical research supports the proposition that goals that are both specific and challenging are more motivational than vague goals or goals that are relatively easy to achieve. ( Several factors may moderate the relationship between specific and challenging goals and high levels of motivation.

The first of these factors is goal commitment, which simply means that the more dedicated the individual is to achieving the goal, the more they will be motivated to exert effort toward goal accomplishment. Some research suggests that having employees participate in goal setting will increase their level of goal commitment. A second factor relevant to goal-setting theory is self-efficacy, which is the individual’s belief that he or she can successfully complete a particular task. If individuals have a high degree of self-efficacy, they are likely to respond more positively to specific and challenging goals than if they have a low degree of self-efficacy. (

2.4.4 Reinforcement Theory.

This theory can be traced to the work of the pioneering behaviorist B.F. Skinner. It is considered a motivation theory as well as a learning theory. Reinforcement theory posits that motivated behavior occurs as a result of reinforces, which are outcomes resulting from the behavior that makes it more likely the behavior will occur again. This theory suggests that it is not necessary to study needs or cognitive processes to understand motivation, but that it is only necessary to examine the consequences of behavior.

Behavior that is reinforced is likely to continue, but behavior that is not rewarded or behavior that is punished is not likely to be repeated. Reinforcement theory suggests to managers that they can improve employees’ performance by a process of behavior modification in which they reinforce desired behaviors and punish undesired behaviors. (

2.5 People Motivation- Non – financial Notes

Most business recognizes the need for non- financial methods of motivation. The main ones are described briefly below.

2.5.1 Job Enlargement

Job enlargement involves adding extra, similar tasks to a job. In job enlargement, the job itself remains essentially unchanged. However, by widening the range of tasks that need to be performed, hopefully the employees will experience less repetition and monotony. With job enlargement, the employees rarely need to acquire new skills to carry out the additional task. A possible negative effect is that job enlargement can be viewed by employees as a requirement to carry out more work for the same pay. (http://tutor ).

2.5.2 Job Rotation

Job rotation involves the movement of employees through a range of jobs in order to increase interest and motivation. For example, an administrative employee might spent part of the week looking after the reception area of business, dealing with customers and enquires. Some time might then be spent manning the company telephone switch board and then inputting data onto a database. Job rotation may offer the advantage of making it easier to cover for absent colleagues, but it may also reduce productivity as workers are initially unfamiliar with a new task. Job rotation also often involves the need for extra training. (http://tutor ).

2.5.3 Job enrichment

Job enrichment attempts to give employees greater responsibility by increasing the range and complexity of tasks they are asked to do and giving them the necessary authority. It motivates by giving employees the opportunity to use their abilities to the fullest. Successful job enrichment almost always requires further investment in employee training. (http://tutor ).

2.5.4 Team Working and Empowerment

Empowerment involves giving people greater control over their working lives. Organizing the labour force into team with degree of autonomy can achieve this. This means that employees plan their own work, take their own decision and solve their own problems. Teams are set targets to achieve and may receive and may receive rewards for doing so. Empowerment teams are an increasingly popular method of organizing employees at work. (http://tutor ).

Impacts of Motivation in Employee Performance Essay