England Essay

England Essay.

Until lately England was normally considered as a calm, enchanted land freeze outlined for a while in the 1930s, residence of the post office, country inn and church house. It’s now known for lively cities with great nightlife and lure, contrasted with pleasant and green countryside. From Tower Bridge and Stonehenge to Oxford and Eton, England is full of treasured images of past age. But it also has modernity with a self-assurance and flamboyance left from its days in the never setting sun.

Fine dining, shopping, Style, clubbing – England’s is among the best in the world.

Geography: England is only than 18miles (29 kilometers) from the border of France across the narrowest part of the English canal. Much of England is plane. In the north there are the Pennines Hills, towards the west lies the Lake District and the Cumbrian Mountains and towards the South of the Pennines hills is the immensely populated Midland and in the southwest region which is called West Country has linkage with a rugged coastline, stone outcrops and high-quality dairy farming.

The remaining part of the country is known as the English Lowlands, a combination of farmland, hills, an industrial sector and the enormous city of London.

Around 8% of the entire country is covered by National Parks which include Exmoor, the peak districk, the North York Moores, the Broads, Northumberland, Dartmoor, and the Lake District. The National Parks in England are not in wilderness but they have villages and roads and offer the perfect cure to the frantic speed of numerous cities in England. When To Go Anybody who spend any extensive amount of time in England will commiserate with the local’ fascination with the weather, even though in virtual terms the weather is gentle and the rainfall is not stunning.

The least friendly months for travelers are between November-February when it is relatively cold and the days are small. March and October are insignificant – there is more sun shine but it can be pretty cold at times. Between April till September are the best months to visit, and this is, naturally, when most tourist attractions are open. July and August are the months when it is very busy and best evaded if it is probable. The tourists on the shore, at parks, in London and famous towns like York, Oxford and Bath are to be seen.

Weather Overview England’s weather is placid and moist, with temperatures restrained by the winds that blow in off its moderately humid seas. Temperatures in the interior part don’t get much beneath freezing point in winter that is between December till February, or above 86* F (30*C) in summer that is between June till August. The northern part of England is the chilliest area; London, West Country and the southeast part are the warmest. There is immense amount of Rainfall in West Country and in the hilly areas. The tourist can anticipate overcast conditions and light rain in England at any period of time.

Apart from the clearer propensity of temperatures in the south to be slightly hotter than the northern part there is also some difference in the weather. The west is frequently warmer, wetter and cloudier in the summer and chilly in the winter than what is found in the east. Type of Government: Constitutional monarchy Leaders: Queen Elizabeth (Head of the state) Gordon Brown (Prime Minister) Food: Although England is not well-known for the excellence of its food, London’s new resurgence in superiority is scattering to the provinces.

In different cities travelers will find an extraordinary assortment of eating choices from all over the world, although those on resources should be cautious of consuming way too much food. Architecture: Travelers are beleaguered by the grand homes of the upper classes, and England’s excellent compilation of cathedrals and castles. Although cheap housing development, motorways and high rise characterize England’s 20th century architectural legacy, current architects like Richard Rodgers and Norman Foster are making spectacular and inventive constructions like the Lloyds of London Building, Tate Modern and the Millennium Bridge.

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England Essay

UK National Stereotypes Essay

UK National Stereotypes Essay.

Personality tests indicate that national stereotypes are constructed on the basis of prejudices and rumours. “Themselves” consider them to be superior in all respects to anyone else in the world, allowing other nations to assume a number of qualities, becoming less in number as these countries move away – the farthest country being the poorest in quality. Who are these “themselves”? The Americans, the Germans or the British?

They are the Persian, described by the Greek historian Herodotus, in the fifth century before Christ, but this description could be made about almost anyone.

Nations tend to treat their people as more or less perfect, while the rest the world is somewhat strange. Most times, nationalistic selfishness is doubled national stereotypes. The Germans are believed to be extremely serious, the Swedes – boring, about the French is said they are conceited. But do these stereotypes have a real basis?

Some stereotypes seem to be anchored to a certain extent in reality, to start from a “kernel of truth”.

Women are generally considered to have a warm personality and men to be rational: women tend to obtain higher scores on tests of personality than men to chapters relating to heat, while men seem inclined to rational side. In the attempt to get an “average of personality” for each culture, differences in average national figures were small compared to differences between members of each cultural group.

There was no a surprise to find that people who lived close to each other showed similarities in terms of personality: the Americans seemed with the Canadians, the South Koreans resemble the Chinese, the South Africans look like people in Zimbabwe. But what is the explanation of these differences? Ellen Churchill Semple wrote at the end of last century that “man is a product of earth surface”. Scottish were dull because they were constantly forced to bear the rain, and Swedes were boring because … Sweden was also boring.

This “environmental determinism” showed the negative side when, with genetic determinism, has become the basis of Nazi ideology. When these two concepts became “out of favour” of all nations after the war, they were replaced by cultural determinism. Culture, not the genetic or the environmental heritage, was the factor on which the differences between people were placed. Information provided by Allik McCrae indicates that there could be a number of geographical influences: people who live in countries with warm climates tend to be more open and extroverted, for example.

However, the cultural determinism may also have some exceptions: white South Africans have many features in common with Europeans than with black South Africans; also features of the inhabitants of England and Northern Ireland are different. Genetic evolution in recent decades brought back into light the genetic determinism. A number of genetic differences between the Anglo-Saxon, Celtic, Hebrew, Africans and Indians were discovered. So, may the genetic differences lead to differences in personality?

In the most recent study of Robert McCrae, subjects were asked to evaluate not their own personality but that of a “typical” member of their community. In this context, stereotypes have been revealed: the Germans self-assessed them as being extremely conscientious as people, Australians were described as extroverted, and Canadians were considered to be more agreeable than other people. But these projections of stereotypes are more or less related to the “average personality” of citizens of each country. Germans consider they are conscientious, but attribute this quality to the Turks also, who assess themselves as being rather lazy.

Residents of Puerto Rico see themselves as extremely extroverted, but they are more open than the French Swiss, who are assessed as being introverted. How are these stereotypes reflected in the perception of English people? Over the years, the English were associated with a type of strict conduct and a set of rules of etiquette that have conferred status of civilized but stiff people , – and often those unwritten laws of society have made them look cool or snobbish compared to other cultures considered more open and welcoming. The Englishman dresses in tweed or striped three-piece suit and a Burberry raincoat during rainy days.

Gate bowler leads a tight black umbrella with cane handle and thrust a pink paper left at the armpit. He goes to church on Sunday morning and eats roast beef with Yorkshire souffle Sunday at noon. He is a principled man, insists on fair play behaviour for competitors with low chances of winning, doing things properly and showing more affection for horses, cats and dogs than children, foxes and grouse. He studied at Eton and Oxford probably and attends clubs such as: Ascot, Wimbledon, Twickenham, Lord’s and Wentworth. He believes in monarchy, empire and the Conservative Party.

When they are not at the club (ladies cannot be here) you find them in the local (pub) with gardeners and security guards drinking a sip of warm beer, called real beer. Often takes the tea with the vicar, with whom he discusses about the Church of England, land cultivation, poaching, and years spent in holiday village guard. The Englishmen love cricket, croquet, rugby, Sheepdogs, detective story and standing at queues. When the queue goes slowly, they do not complain, because the English must not make scenes ever, even if their family name is spelled with a hyphen.

This persistent stereotype of the British character has been imprinted in the minds of other peoples by several generations through British movies. Sizeable populations worldwide, that include the Japanese, the Indians, the Africans and the Southeast Asians still share this idea and send their children to England to receive this type of education. Most of the British people no longer have too many similarities to the stereotype mentioned. Not only it is the primary instance of a character of high society from a vanished era, but does not take account of regional differences, which in Britain are extremely obvious.

First of all, almost 10 million British are Celts (the Scots, the Welsh, the Irish, the Cornish and the Manx). They are essentially romantic, poetic and sensitive. They, like millions of central and northern England, living in the wilderness beyond Oxford, are particularly critical with the typical Englishman existing in the mind foreigners. There is a kind of Englishman that corresponds roughly to the projected image, but it is to the Englishman in the South, the exponent of the high society and is almost extinct!

Even in the south, one can speak of a small very fraction of the society, although often highly visible. The Brits in North, Central and the Celtic have more affinities with some Europeans (Norway, Danish, Swedish, Finnish, Dutch, Belgian, German, and Swiss) than with character dressed in tweed. Who are the real English? The global picture seems with the reality, but not too much. Class system in England is still an unfortunate anachronism now that North America and most European countries have been dispersed but in reality it is considered that most Britons are middle class.

It is true that the British like detective story. Novelist Agatha Christie is the novelist with most translated works in the world, and Britain was first in the world in terms of books borrowed from the library. Sherlock Holmes is one of England’s most famous and popular Englishman of all time. The truth is that the British have a strong predisposition to enjoy conspiracy plot. Extensive most beloved characters in British drama are negative. Apparently refined and sophisticated in diplomacy, the British are the masters of gathering information and political blackmail.

Still, Britain`s people are considered honest, reasonable, careful and delicate. Originality is often bordered with eccentricity, but it is true that in history, they were adept at lateral thinking, which is based on the almighty power of imagination. Often showing an aptitude for study, but also scatter they can excel in science and technology. Described as a nation of amateur that find solutions with difficulty in crisis situations, they have found inner strength in the hardest tests. Their insularity is incurable.

Standard habits, fixed ideas, slow changes, unprofessional people – how do these features apply in the British way of doing business? How should this oddity be handled? The British feel at home along with other English speaking nationalities, from which face little difficulty in establishing a stable but effective relationship. They feel at ease Nordic people, Dutch and with the Japanese. They believe they have found a middle way between excessive formality (French and German trends) and premature familiarity (features American, Australian).

When negotiating with the most prosperous South English, with a developed class consciousness, you should stress out the civilized, educated size; when you deal with the British in the north, the Scottish or Welsh, with more practicality, emphasis should be on sincerity and the direct negotiations, without complications. In short, humour is considered one of the most effective weapons available to the British manager, and you can win the British trust if you can compete with them in this area (Swiss, Austrians, Turks and Germans have difficulties in this regard).

During the meetings, British managers try to appear as being guided by moderation, willingness to compromise and common sense. It must be noted that there are certain rules of etiquette that must be respected, but should not be followed just because English society requires, but because they are common sense rules that ensure the smooth running of society, but also respect for the individual in question, and the others. Punctuality is essential for the English, but to get a few minutes early, for sure, is accepted.

The English are not very familiar with the foreign and do not like effusion in public. The standard greeting is a simple handshake. Also, personal space (the distance from other people) is strictly observed and touching in public, even without non-explicit sexual nature, must be avoided at all costs. Also, the British avoid to talk about thorny issues or themes considered almost “taboo”, like religion, salary, personal life or sexual themes, which is instead subject on the agenda and a completely harmless one, is … the weather. Also, negative references to the royal family should be avoided.

The English are very protocol when it comes to titles, so particular attention must be paid to the presentation and the form of address, when you speak to someone. In universities, but also at work, there are different degrees of familiarity that should be respected as such. For example, if a superior position include a PhD or Professor (in Britain, the title of Professor is the highest), then we must politely address or refer to the person concerned, always using that title given to him, except the case you are asked to give up the formalities.

However, non-academic society and outside work is very open and free of unnecessary formalities. Often, in the university familiarities are permitted, especially to young teachers who have the title of Lecturer. All taken into consideration, it seems that such perceptions are in fact social constructions based on unfounded information and prejudices. National stereotypes can seem relatively harmless but they may have adverse effects to lead to prejudice, misguidance, discrimination or even genocide. Pointing out that stereotypes are false should help to eliminate them.

UK National Stereotypes Essay

Indian Relations in Chesapeake and New England Essay

Indian Relations in Chesapeake and New England Essay.

In the 1600’s English settlers came to America seeking refuge, and land. Upon coming to America the settlers crossed paths with the natives and eventually lead to a variety of relationships. There were various factors that shaped the relations in certain regions such as the Chesapeake Bay and New England. The events that lead up to tension between the natives were the settler’s lust for new land, diseases and the on-going disputes between the natives and the settlers. In the Chesapeake Bay the Powhatans were originally the dominant power among the Native Americans.

The Powhatan tribes flourished under the Powhatan Confederacy until the arrival of the Europeans. Tension arouse between the natives and the settlers as the new colonist began establishing their town and had a scarce amount of food leading them to raid the Powhatan’s food source. The natives fought back and attempted to restore their supply of foods when Lord De La Warr declared war against the Powhatan’s therefore marking the beginning of the Powhatan war.

The Powhatan villages were raided, burned and the cornfields were torched down cutting off their main food source. A peace treaty ended although it was shortly broken after the Powhatans attacked the Settlers due to them further expanding and into English territory. Like many wars the gain of territory is one of the fundamental reasons as to why many people start a war.

The Powhatan were defeated due to lack of unity despite of their confederacy while they were attacked by diseases and the Europeans advance weapons which gave the Europeans the upper hand. Unlike the Powhatans and the English Settlers in the Chesapeake region, the relation between the Puritan Colonist and the natives started in mutual respect. The natives were first attacked by a new set of diseases causing nearly three-quarter of the population to die. Although the natives were introduced to diseases they befriended the Quakers. They formed an alliance and established the treaty with the Plymouth pilgrims in 1621 and aided the Quakers in celebrating the first thanksgiving. Despite the treaty and tension began when new English settlers began to migrate to America further settling inland to the natives’ region.

Like the Powhatan Indians the Pequot Indians were attacked where their homes were burned and the fleeing natives were shot. The Puritans then pushed forward to converting the natives into Christianity further creating tension through resistance from the natives. The Indians final form of resistance was the alliance between tribes in the war against king Phillip.

Roughly about 52 puritans towns were attacked at the end of the war where the English won. In conclusion the English Settlers came to America in search of land. The land-hungry settlers caused tension that arouse from the colonist moving into natives’ land as well as diseases and constant attacks to each other. The two regions share the commonality that both shared hostility between the natives and English settlers.

Indian Relations in Chesapeake and New England Essay

On Seeing England For the First Time by Jamaica Kincaid Essay

On Seeing England For the First Time by Jamaica Kincaid Essay.

When you see something for the first time as a child it’s fascinating to you. England is like a diamond in the rough to young Jamaica Kincaid. When she thinks about England, she sees a great place and it’s unlike anything she’s ever seen before. In the essay “On Seeing England for the First Time,” Jamaica Kincaid uses imagery, diction, and repetition to show her feelings of awe.

In the essay “On Seeing England for the First Time” Kincaid uses imagery to express her feelings of awe toward England.

She compares England to “Jerusalem.” This shows her adoration, she is comparing England to the city of the bible. In Kincaid’s eyes England is a place that one aspires to visit. England is also described as “a very special jewel.” It’s considered rare and precious. In Kincaid’s eyes, England is valuable and should be venerated. When she sees England on a map for the first time she describes it as having “shadings of pink and green unlike any other shadings of pink and green.

” Kincaid considers England unique; it’s unique and unequal, even on a map. Kincaid also expresses her awe toward England by calling “its yellow form mysterious.” This signifies that England is mysterious to her, as if it holds some special secret. Kincaid has a big fascination with England and shows it using imagery.

Through the use of diction Jamaica Kincaid shows her feelings of wonder toward England. She uses the word “adoration” to illustrate how she admires and adores England. Jamaica uses the word “greatness” to show that she considers England most important. “Gently” is used to show that England has no harshness or violence. Jamaica Kincaid calls England “meaningful.” She feels that it is significant and of importance to her. Kincaid proves her admiration for England through diction.

Throughout the Kincaid passage the phrase England is constantly repeated. Kincaid shows her admiration for England when she says “the people who got to wear England were English people.” Kincaid considers the people of England remarkable and they leave a lasting impression on her. To Kincaid “England was a special jewel…and only special people got to wear it.” Kincaid exhibits her admiration for England by giving up her preferences to emulate English behaviors. Kincaid states, “We somehow knew that in England they began the day with this meal called breakfast.” This is an expression of her admiration because even though eating a big meal so early in the morning is strange to her, she does it because she wants to imitate England. To Kincaid “made in England” means that whatever the product is, it came from a great place. Kincaid shows her fascination with England using repetition.

In this passage, Jamaica Kincaid uses diction, imagery, and repetition to show her feelings toward England. She shows fascination and awe using these literary terms.

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On Seeing England For the First Time by Jamaica Kincaid Essay

Critical commentary on engineers corner by Wendy cope Essay

Critical commentary on engineers corner by Wendy cope Essay.

Artists are always acclaimed for the works that they produce; however, there are other professions, such as doctors, mechanics, engineers how contribute greatly to the world we live in. The Engineer’s corner is a satirical piece which emphasizes on how life as an artist is overrated, as well as recognizing the underestimation of other professions that lend more to society and its development, such as the Engineer. Cope effectively uses tools of irony, rhetoric, tone as well as rhyme to convey this message.

The use of irony and rhetoric in the poem really builds on the mockery that Cope uses to emphasis the great undermining of the Engineer- representation of other working class jobs in the poem. Cope constructs a parallel world where it is the engineer who is ‘sure to need another job’ and that they would have to ‘burn the midnight oil to earn a crust’, and that little boys would prefer poems to ‘the bike… and the train’.

The reader recognizes that Cope has switched the lifestyles of these two professions, and through this effective use of irony, the reader is able to feel the sharp bite of Cope’s sarcasm.

This is effective as it truly exemplifies the differences of the life of the poet against an established engineer, clearly identifying the Engineer, the representation of the working class, as successful in society. The true irony of the poem, however, is the fact that Cope herself is a poet, and therefore is almost criticizing her own work. This sarcasm is further emphasized through Cope’s use of rhetorical questions, such as ‘Who needs a bridge or dam? ’. The answers to the questions that she asks are so glaringly obvious to the reader, which makes it clear that the role of an engineer is so important.

Moreover, the obvious nature of the rhetorical questions furthers Cope’s sardonic tone, making clear to the reader on how she feels about the exaggeration of poets’ importance. The overstatement of poets’ lives is seen through the diction as well hyperbole of their importance, which demonstrates to the reader how Cope finds a poet’s exultation ridiculous. The poem begins with recognizing that England makes ‘more fuss of ballads than of blueprints’, the words here are plosives that are hard hitting, and as the first line in the poem, it adds to the sarcasm and snappy tone of the poem.

Furthermore, there is the repetition of the words ‘everybody’ and ‘with no hope’, where the added emphasis is mocking the idea that we all ‘need poems’ and that ‘everybody reads them every day’. The word ‘every’ for example is drawn out and lengthened, adding to the sarcasm of the importance of poems in life. Different literary devices contribute the poem’s satirical nature. Through the construction of the poem, devices such as rhyme, punctuation as well as syntax contributes to the crippling sarcastic tone. Hard-hitting words are used in the rhyme scheme such as ‘rich’ and ‘ditch’, which contribute to the harsh tone and mood of this poem.

This is further emphasized by the short sharp sentences Cope uses to add to the biting flair of the poem, lines such as ‘It must be hell’, carry so much power that this emphasis strengthens the sarcasm of the poem. Moreover, the pauses in the poem highlight the mordant words of the poet, leaving the reader to completely understand Cope’s attitude. The last two lines of the poem in particular are most powerful, as this is where Cope abandon’s her sarcasm to end in a powerful harsh criticism of British society, that the ‘country’s going down the drain’.

The dramatic change in tone at the very end of the poem serves to clarify the poem’s intention; to ridicule the ‘far too much encouragement for poets’ over the working man. Thus, Cope manages to completely explore her scathing opinion through an intelligent satire, allowing the reader to use their own insight to understand how she perceives the ridiculous nature in which poets are treated in England over the hard working and vital Engineer.

Critical commentary on engineers corner by Wendy cope Essay

Farewell Party for Miss Pushpa Essay

Farewell Party for Miss Pushpa Essay.

In fact, Nissim Ezekiel makes fun of the way in which semi-educated Indians speak or write the English language. He ridicules the errors in grammar, syntax, and idioms which many Indians commit while speaking the English language. In other words, he mimicks the Indian way of speaking English with so many faults, and the poem is highly amusing. The speaker says that their dear sister, Miss Pushpa is leaving for a foreign country, and they all wish her bon voyage. In his speech, he again and again uses the present continuous tense instead of the simple present, which creates a ridiculous effect.

He says that they “are all knowing” the sweet nature of Miss Pushpa who “is smiling and smiling for no reason, but simply because she is feeling”. The speaker goes on to say that her father was a renowned advocate in Bulsar or Surat, and that he is “not remembering” the correct place. Then he suddenly remembers that the place is Surat.

He seems to be a poor speaker when he points out the irrelevant fact that he stayed there once with his uncle’s very old friend whose “wife was cooking nicely. ” Again, the speaker starts praising Miss Pushpa, and says that she is very popular with men and ladies also.

Whenever he asked her to do anything, she said,” Just now only I will do it”. Clearly the speaker means Miss Pushpa’s readiness to do any work, and the unnecessary use of “just” and “only” exhibits the Indian speaker’s ignorance of the usage of English words, creating laughter and fun. The speaker’s frequent wrong use of the present continuous instead of the simple present is further revealed in his speech when he says that he is always appreciating Miss Pushpa’s good nature, and “she is always saying yes” when he or anybody “is asking” any help.

The speaker concludes his amusing speech, saying that they are wishing Miss Pushpa bon voyage. He informs that Miss Pushpa ‘will do the summing up”, when the other speakers finish their talk. What he means is that Miss Pushpa will respond to their words of praise in the end. Thus the poet makes fun of the faulty Indian way talking English. THEME: bad and ungrammatical english spoken by people of india.. this poem is a mockery on indian english, not to indians or india

Farewell Party for Miss Pushpa Essay

Chesapeake Colonies vs. New England Colonies Essay

Chesapeake Colonies vs. New England Colonies Essay.

During the late 16th century and into the 17th century, two colonies emerged from England in the New World.

The two colonies were called the Chesapeake and New England colonies. Even though the two areas were formed and governed by the English, the colonies had similarities as well as differences. Differences in geography, religion, politics, economic, and nationalities, were responsible for molding the colonies. These differences came from one major factor: the very reason the English settlers came to the New World. The Chesapeake colonies were primarily created by ompanies interested in profiting from the natural resources of the New World such as gold or silver to bring back to England. The New England colonies were primarily created to escaped religious persecution and set up a haven for people of their faith. The inhabitants of the New England area were far healthier. Their clean water supply was a sharp contrast to the contaminated waters of Chesapeake Bay. The cool climate had a good impact on colonists because it prevented the spread of life-threatening diseases.

Because of New England’s cool climate, many people died during severe inters. Chesapeake’s climate had positive and negative factors as well. The warm, moist climate in the Chesapeake colonies carried diseases that killed many of the colonists. In contrast to the New England colonists, the Chesapeake colonists did not have to worry as much about surviving cold winters. The natural resources of the Chesapeake Colonies included rich farmland and forests. The colonists in the Chesapeake region started to make a profit with Tobacco.

Many farmers moved farther and farther out of the colony for more land. This way they could produce ore products The geography in the New England colonies was a lot different. Because of poor, rocky soil and the short growing season, the land was not very good for farming, but there were a lot of forests and natural ports. These features made that area ideal for shipbuilding and fishing. So the northern colonies became a big shipbuilding industry. Both colonies shared the similarity in suffering from diseases because of their climate. The religion of the two areas differed greatly as well.

The New Englanders were very religious-based, and claimed that they were far more odly than all other colonists. Religion was family-based and with extreme faithfulness. In the Chesapeake, religion was much less severe. The established church was the Church of England, but only became so after 1692. The religious tone was low, and many people did not participate in the church. 0Both colonies practiced religion at their own pace and based it upon their society at their own rate. The New England colonies had developed into a religion and family based society comprised of mostly middle class families.

The economy was based on fishing, shipbuilding, and arming. The farming in New England was done on a much smaller scale. Because the society was so family-orientated, they grew much of their own food and the farms were normally self-sufficient. It was nowhere near the size of the vast plantations in the Chesapeake. This was simply because New England’s focus was not on economic gain. The Chesapeake region developed into a land of plantations and money-driven the population. The economy revolved around the tobacco industry.

Slave trade relied fully on the tobacco plantation owners as a market to sell the slaves to. In addition, the tobacco raised enough to finance the importation of indentured servants, who would then go to work the tobacco, increasing the production further. Both colonies were an experiment as a “new society’ for colonization. In New England, the population was almost entirely English and white. Religious families, including Puritans, Quakers, and Catholics made up a large percentage of the population due to the reputation the New England colonies had as a place of religious freedom.

In the Chesapeake colonies, the population was a majority white ndentured servants and later had more black-slaves. With the boom in the tobacco industry, plantation owners relied on the cheap labor slaves or indentured servants provided. Both colonies take lead in driving off the natives and seizing their own land. Most of the population in both colonies were English/White. The political difference between the New England and Chesapeake region was that New England government associate more with religious matter than the Chesapeake government. The type of government was a theocratic environment.

Each town, which was filled ith educated people, had a local authority and held monthly town meetings in the meeting hall. The Chesapeake Colonies was a legislative owned by aristocrats. The county governments were more spread out; therefore the backcountry farmers were underrepresented. Both colonies had their set way of organizing their government. The New England and the Chesapeake colonies differed in numerous ways. These differences included geography, religion, economics, nationalities, and politics, which created the contrasting societies.

The differences involved almost every aspect of the ocieties from which they all originated from one initial difference between the two: the very reason the colonists came. Therefore, it cannot be denied as a significant cause of the contrast. The fortune-seeking colonists in the Chesapeake created a society based around economic growth, which affected their entire community. The New Englanders, looking for religious freedom, wanted to create a very different society that was centered around religion, not economic gain. It is because of these motives that the Chesapeake and the New England regions of the New World became so different by 1700.

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Chesapeake Colonies vs. New England Colonies Essay

The Dales to the Border Essay

The Dales to the Border Essay.

The Northumberland and Durham coalfield is the second most important in England. The large reserves of coal, which are used to operate electric power stations, made the North grow enormously. Iron and steel: there is a large production of iron and steel, which provides the raw material for machinery, heavy engineering and ship building. Textile industry: the woolen industry is largely concentrated in a small group of towns in Yorkshire, among the hills and valleys of the Pennines. The cotton industry is situated in Lancashire.

Chemical industry: it is expanding rapidly.

The basic elements are: salt, potassium, calcium and petroleum. The end products are: fibers, plastics and fertilizers. 3) Tourism: there are holiday resorts in the Lake District. There are also some historical places in the North. Coal mining Coal mining Tourism Tourism Textile industry and farming Textile industry and farming Important cities: York Yorvik was the capital of a Viking kingdom. In medieval times, it was the second city of the land.

In York tourists can find glorious churches, ancient narrow streets, old houses and welcoming pubs.

Micklegate in York, England The walls surrounding the city of York are fine examples of medieval fortification. The walls remain largely intact. Micklegate, spanning the road to the south, was one of four gates guarding the main roads in and out of the city. In the Yorkshire moors lies the village of Haworth, where there is a parsonage that is said to be haunted by the ghosts of the Brontes. Along the ancient street the ghosts of the three sisters, Charlotte, Emily and Anne walk among the crowds. Branwell, their brother, still sits silently in the corner of and old pub.

Leeds: It is an industrial city which is famous for its clothing and leather industry. It is a river port (the Aire) and it has a well-known university. Leeds, a city located in northern England on the Aire River, is a major center for the manufacture and wholesale trade of clothing. Carlisle It is an important route centre. Hadrian’s Wall is a historical landmark. This wall, which stretches from Newcastle to Carlisle, was built by the Romans to control commerce as customs office and to protect people from the barbarian invasions. Castle in Carlisle

Hadrian’s Wall, ancient Roman stone and masonry wall, constructed to protect the northern boundary of Roman Britain against hostile tribes. Emperor Hadrian of Rome ordered its construction around ad 122. The wall extended 117 km from Solway Firth to the mouth of the Tyne River and was about 6 m high and about 2. 4 m wide. The wall also marked the frontier of Roman civil jurisdiction. A few sections of Hadrian’s Wall remain standing in present-day Great Britain. Island Holy Island, also called Lindisfarne, a small island off the coast of Northumberland, England, 5 sq km in area.

Holy Island is connected with the mainland at low tide by a causeway. A monastery was established on Holy Island in 635 by Saint Aidan and a group of Celtic monks, who produced the elaborately decorated Lindisfarne Gospels. The island became the religious center of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. In 1093 the monastery was reestablished by Benedictine monks from Durham, and the island has since been continuously occupied. Today, Holy Island is a bird sanctuary along with the neighboring rock islets of Farne.

The Dales to the Border Essay