Impacts of Climate Change on the Coastal Community of Alaska

Impacts of Climate Change on the Coastal Community of Alaska


Climate variations denote the shift in global weather patterns associated with ever-increasing temperatures (IPCC, 2014). History has it that the current global temperatures are way high when compared to the period between the 1850s and 1900s, this was during the pre-industrial age. Human activities have altered the desired conditions for animals, and crop survival. This comes as a result of the advanced and increased industrial processes. In Alaska, the variations in climate patterns are resulting in unstable environmental changes which negatively influence the livelihood of the population. The damaging of the infrastructure has led to economic derailment thus posing unforeseeable risks to the residents.

Alaska is a coastal region and the only Arctic region in the US. Its marine and rainforest habitats make it different from other states. It has a population of about 1,000 people whose livelihood depend largely on fishing, hunting as well as tourism (Urama & Ozor, 2011). It is clear that the alterations that come with climate change have a greater impact on their normal conditioned lifestyle. The rising temperatures have affected the ocean sea level resulting in increasing water levels and melting of the glacial bedrocks. As a result, this extends the ripple effects to the people and their economic activities within the region.

Climate Change and Food Production

Agriculture is considered one of the major sector of the Alaska community and the US at large. Crops, livestock as well as fishing contributes to at least $400 billion to the US economy on an annual basis (IPCC, 2014). Agriculture relies heavily on climate, an increase in temperature and CO2 levels may either result in increased food production or declined crop yields. In order to realize the rewards of climate change, the soil proportions need to be taken care of, that is to say, its moisture content, nutrients levels as well as other factors should be maintained at a constant level. However, variations which come with drought and floods make it hard for farmers, fisheries and ranches which eventually, leads to threatened food security. High temperature causes the aquatic life to migrate to other stable ecosystems. Ultimately, climate variations make it difficult for farmers to grow crops, herd animals, and practise fishing (Urama & Ozor, 2011).

Temperature and Crop Production

Ozor & Cynthia (2011) postulates that the variations in temperature, carbon dioxide levels and light intensity greatly impact crop yield. Different crops require different temperature range for their stability and well maintained growth. The warming that results from increased temperatures may benefit some farmers; it dictates the kind of crop that needs to be planted. Consequently, when the temperatures exceed the optimum temperature for a particular crop, the same crop yields may decline. Some research potents that high precipitation rate influences crop growth negatively, in extreme cases, the crops may be prevented from growing. Floods and droughts also result in reduced crop production. Further, increased concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere reduces the nutrients level thus influencing altering the required content of protein as well as minerals to plant species. Again, the nutritional value of some crops poses a threat to human health, mostly those who feed directly from the crops.

Climate Change and Fishery

The variation in climatic change impacts differently on the aquatic life, instances  defined by high temperatures forces the marine life to migrate to colder places, this, as a result, may expose them to compete with other species for the available limited food as well as other necessary resources (Ozor & Cynthia, 2011). Conversely, certain marine diseases are linked to climatic change. High saline and temperature levels have resulted in the spread of oyster parasite to other regions of the Atlantic coast. Furthermore, periods of winter are heavily contributing to the spread of salmon diseases and the outbreak of coral and eelgrass disease among certain marine life.

Climate Change and Tourism

Changes in climate have rendered tourism sector in Alaska to be at risk. It affects the requisite facilities on land and in the ocean. The eco-tourism is adversely affected due to the extinction of certain marine life which saved as a great attraction. Again the reduction in biodiversity and the migration of species to new areas pose a challenge to the few existing species. In addition, the increased rate of forest fire has resulted in drought and infestation. This has negatively threatened the tourism sector as the regions where wine growing was done no longer suitable. The rising sea tides threaten the beach areas and destroy the serene coastal relaxing areas (Urama & Ozor, 2011). Again, the rising water temperature levels, as well as high levels of acidity, jeopardizes the reef habitat which serves as a great tourist attraction.

Climate Change and Power Supply

Statistics show that climatic variations in terms of temperature change, precipitation levels and the sea level influence the rate of energy production. Energy plays a crucial role in an economy; electricity is used to drive a myriad of industrial processes, lighting, transportation as well as production at different levels of human engagements. Energy production and usage are tied to many factors such as water, land and the economy level. IPCC (2014) argues that, during summer, the Americans apply more electric energy for conditioning purposes when compared to oil, fossil and coal. The increased demand for this purpose results in reduced levels of electricity. In addition, water levels are also affected by climate change. This, in turn, affects the rate of electric energy production. Areas with a scarce water supply have high chances of competition between energy production and domestic use. Consequently, the unstable sea levels which result in storms may disrupt the rate of energy production as well as delivery. 

General Impacts of Climate Change on an Economy

A country’s economy is adversely affected by the varying changes in climatic condition. The agribusiness sector, fishing, livestock, tourism and hunting activities are stifled. Extreme temperatures results to high precipitation rates affect crop production and survival, leads to high sea levels characterised by storms and floods whose effects are felt by the locals who earn their living from the ocean offshore (IPCC, 2014). Again, tourist activities are affected as the beaches, and resting points are swept away by the floods. Further, the increased temperatures lead to the migration of sea creatures which cannot survive the extremely harsh condition. As a result, this may lead to the extinction of certain animal species and death of the few weak remaining species.

Adaptations to Climatic Change

In the agricultural and crop production sector, farmers should be encouraged to plant adaptable plant species to the varying climatic change — those crops which can withstand the harsh environmental conditions. Again, farmers should be educated on the aspect of crop rotation; this helps to maintain the nutrients levels of the soil thus being ready and in a position to support different crops.

The people should be encouraged to stop unhealthy tree cutting behaviours (deforestation). Instead, they should be informed of the dangers of tree cutting and the benefits that come with afforestation. In order to maintain the water levels, the water catchment areas should be protected from encroachment and settlement. When taken good care of, the indigenous tree species may serve to replenish the air and supply the people with medicinal options.

The Alaska community ought to be encouraged to adopt and apply the concepts of green energy. This will save and cut on the effects that accrue from carbon emission. The increased levels of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere result in increased temperatures, leading to global warming. The impacts of global warming are felt at every level of human engagement. Thus affecting the productivity level negatively (CCSP, 2008). Additionally, people should be given knowledge on how to conserve energy in their offices and residential places. The adoption of the green building would go a long way in saving energy costs and enhancing efficient energy use.


CCSP (2008). Effects of climate change on energy production and use in the United States. A report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research.

IPCC (2014). Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. The contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel.

Ozor, N. & Cynthia, N. (2011). The role of extension in agricultural adaptation to climate change in Enugu State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, 3(3), 42–50.

Urama, K. & Ozor, N. (2011). Agricultural innovations for climate change adaptation for food security in Western and Central Africa. Agro-science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension 10(1), 1–6.

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Interagency Coordination

Interagency Coordination

Interagency coordination and cooperation focus in enhancing an effective and efficient service that promotes a positive implication to the economy. Agencies operating within international environments need cooperation for smooth operations. For instance, an agency dealing with international border requires coordination among land border, international airports, immigration, police and quarantine customs to enhance smooth travel of people across borders. However, there can exist hurdles among the international border agencies which may hinder effective operations.  For instance, international agencies share different goals in regards to productivity. The variation in shared goals many results to the hurdle of interagency conflicts which may further slow the cooperation between the agencies. For instance, the customs department may have contradicting policies about migrations while the police may have law reviews that contradict the customs departments.  This may cause delayed agreements regarding the best practice of policy to put into place to enhance efficiency and effectiveness among the agencies. The employees for these departments may have diverse skills and knowledge regarding the operations of international organizations, and this may cause inefficiency in the systems used to foster operations.  For example, the employees at custom and immigration department have different knowledge to those of police. This may call for law reviews in the international environment and which may negatively affect the operating systems. 

Lack of cooperation among the agencies may cause delays in shipments and clearance of travellers. This may further affect the interested people willing to engage in trading activities in the region.  Also, the lack of cooperation may cause lack of harmonized tariff structures, an inadequate framework to secure trade and increase in trade transaction costs due to ineffective and inefficiency of systems that aid to better coordination. 

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Why had Dr. Fouts avoided LEMSIP?

Why had Dr. Fouts avoided LEMSIP?.

Watch the following video clip:

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Then read the attached excerpt from &quot;Next of Kin&quot; by Dr. Roger Fouts &amp; Stephen Tukel Mills and watch the answer the following questions:

1. Why had Dr. Fouts avoided LEMSIP?

2. Why did Dr. Fouts decide to accept the invitation now?

3. Before Dr. Fouts arrived at LEMSIP, what did he hope would happen?

4. Why was Booee in a &quot;hot unit&quot;?

5. What happend when it was time for Dr. Fouts to leave LEMSIP?

6. After watching the video and reading the excerpt, do you think that chimpanzees should be kept in facilities like this?

Why had Dr. Fouts avoided LEMSIP?

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Inspect the relationship between environment and global health (CO5).

Inspect the relationship between environment and global health (CO5)..

Activity Learning Outcomes 

Through this assignment, the student will demonstrate the ability to: 

  1. Inspect the relationship between the environment and global health (CO5). 
  2. Appraise global health problems considering WHO SDG’s as well as related epidemiological data (CO5). 

Assignment Requirements  

  1. Go to your state (Florida) government web page. Find one health policy enacted within the last two (2) years at the state level. Write down the bill number and the sponsors of the bill and include this information in your initial post. 
  2. Write a minimum of a one-page critical analysis summary of the policy. (250 words double spaced, APA). Your summary should integrate the concepts of advocacy, population health, and the ANA ethical statements (“The Code”), and course readings, to include a minimum of one course scholarly article (provided at the end of the document). Be sure to speak to the role of advocacy and population health.

**To see view the grading criteria/rubric, please click on the 3 dots in the box at the end of the solid gray bar above the discussion board title and then Show Rubric.

DISCUSSION CONTENT  Category  Points  %  Description  Scholarly   13  22%  The student actively stimulates and sustains inquiry by making reflective, insightful comments, asking thoughtful questions and/or engaging in a scholarly discussion.  The student expresses a clear idea of the topic under discussion and sustains inquiry to explore relevant issues. The student recognizes values or values conflict as things that form the assumption basis of arguments and recognizes when it is important to acknowledge these values.  The student recognizes the statements’ accuracy, logic, relevance, or clarity. The student asks clarifying questions and knows when clarifying questions need to be asked.  The student distinguishes fact from opinion.   Application   20  33%  All components of discussion prompt addressed (met) in the initial posting. The student’s writing conveys an understanding of significant ideas relevant to the issue under discussion. This is indicated by integration of course and weekly objectives, as well as readings from text and articles.   All posts should make correct use of terminology, precise selection of the pieces of information required to make a point, correct and appropriate use of examples and counterexamples, demonstrations of which distinctions are important to make, and concise explanations to the point.  Information and knowledge are accurate. The student elaborates statements with accurate explanations, reasons, or evidence from the course and/or weekly objectives. All postings integrate scholarly sources to support points consistently.    Interactive Dialogue  10  16.6%  Responds to ideas in a way that advances discussion with engagement, depth, rigor, and application.  Interacts with a professional tone and is able to express opinions with ownership and without judgement. Chooses to include the professional experience to the discussion board mindful of appropriateness and boundaries. Experience is integrated as it supports the discussion board topic and utilizes scholarly references to support overall topic.     43  72%  Total CONTENT Points= 43 pts  DISCUSSION FORMAT  Category  Points  %  Description  APA(current edition)

12  20%  In text citations are formatted per APA. Reference list is formatted per APA. Spelling, grammar, and scholarly tone per APA.   Spelling / Grammar etc.  5  8%  Posts should utilize correct spelling and grammar(sentence structure and avoidance of slang or casual language).    17  28%  Total FORMAT Points=17 pts    60  100%  DISCUSSION TOTAL=60 points 

Scholarly articles:

Angelini, K. (2017). Climate change, health, and the role of nurses. Nursing for Women’s Health, 21(2), 79-83.

Kurth, E. A. (2017). Planetary health and the role of nursing: A call to action. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 49(6), 598-605.

Kooienga, A. S. & Carryer, B. J. (2015). Globalization and advancing primary health care nurse practitioner practice. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 11(8), 804-811.

Genetics/genomics competencies for RNs and nurses with graduate degrees. (2019). Nursing Management, 50(1), 1-3. (Links to an external site.)

Reed, K. E., Ingram, T. & Edelman, A. E. (2019). Three things every nurse practitioner can do to integrate genetics into practice. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 31(1), 6-7.

Gonzalez, K.,Shaughnessy, M. J., Kabigting, E. R., Tomasulo West, D., Callari Robinson, J. F., Chen, Q., Stewart Fahs, P. (2018). The healthcare of vulnerable populations within rural societies: A systematic review. Online Journal of Rural Nursing & Health Care, 18(1), 112-147.

Morgan, A. S. & Stokes, L. (2017). Overcoming marginalization in the transgender community. American Nurse Today, 12(5), 34-35.

Erie, C. J., Pueringer, R. M., Brue, M. S., Chamberlain. M. A. & Hodge, O. D. (2016). Statin use and incident cataract surgery: A case-control study. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 23(1), 40-45.

Moukaddem, A., Chaaya, M., Jaffa, M., Sibai, A., Slim, Z., & Uthman, I. (2017). Fibromyalgia: Epidemiology and risk factors, a population-based case-control study in Lebanon. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, 20(2), 169-176.

Gawlik, K., Melnyk, B., & Tan, A. (2018). An epidemiological study of population health reveals social smoking as a major cardiovascular risk factor. American Journal of Health Promotion, 32(5), 1221-1227.

Inspect the relationship between environment and global health (CO5).

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How do you think a “bossless” environment would lead to higher productivity?

How do you think a “bossless” environment would lead to higher productivity?.

For this discussion, you will read from the Annual Editions: Maidment, F. (2013). Annual Editions: Management (17th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/ Dushkin.

ISBN-10: 1121833810 or ISBN-13: 9781121833814 

Textbook article, “Who’s the Boss? There Isn’t One,” and then answer the following questions with a minimum of 200 words:

1. How do you think a “bossless” environment would lead to higher productivity? 

2. What are some of the advantages and some of the disadvantages of a “bossless” environment?

3. Do you think you would like to work in a “bossless” environment? Why or why not? 

The discussion requires correct grammar and at least one citation in proper APA style. 

How do you think a “bossless” environment would lead to higher productivity?


Answer the 2 posts below with a minimum of 100 words each.

1) A bossless environment can lead to more productivity for workers, but there is a significant emphasis on the word “can”. There’s a few different things that have to happen for a bossless organization to succeed, but the most important is that it must possess a group of “highly motivated workers.” (Silverman, 2018) In the more traditional hierarchal organizations, workers can come to work and operate at fifty percent of effort and get away with it for years before their superiors catch on. This lack of desire to put forth maximum efforts often times stems from lack of investment in the success of the company or just a general feeling of disinterest in the actual job they are performing. In a bossless organization success hinges on all of the workers being passionate about the various tasks they are tackling. While there are ways for people in this type of organization to be held accountable if they put forth an inadequate amount of effort, it is much more difficult than in a hierarchical organization where there’s a person in charge who can easily hire and fire at will (usually). There is something to be said for the elimination of many middle management positions that tend to clog up the works so to speak, however most companies still operate within the general model of bosses and employees.

There is definitely a slew of pros and cons in reference to the bossless structure, a few of which have already been discussed. Greg Coomer, an employee of Valve pointed out one significant pro for their bossless organization when it came to whether or not a product should be carried out. He said, “When no one takes the lead, it’s usually a sign that the project isn’t worth doing.” (Silverman, 2018) This resonated to me personally because too many times do you read in local and national media outlets about companies who spend large amounts of cash on various expansions/new ideas only to have them not pan out. Perhaps if they had a structure similar to Valve they wouldn’t lose so much money on bad projects, who’s to say? One downside that was touched on previously, is the lack of accountability without a person in charge. A person who truly wanted to just skate by doing the minimum could potentially get away with it by bouncing from group to group in a bossless organization, limiting their exposure to any one person for too long. Since no one really gets to see their work ethic for an extended period they can be quite hard to catch.

I personally do not think I could function in a bossless organization. I very much like structure in my life, I like to know what I’m doing, who I’m doing it for, and why I’m doing it. This isn’t to say that I am not driven, I take great pride in putting forth the very best effort I can in everything I do. However, after being in the Army and being deployed to Iraq, I have seen firsthand the benefits that a highly hierarchal organization can have. To be fair the organization would have to have solid leadership up and down the totem pole to ensure employee satisfaction and overall success for the company as well. Plus I believe that the hierarchy of an organization gives something for employees to work for. Like in the military where enlisted soldiers and officers can move up through the ranks with a combination of time in service and ability, so to should be the case in a company. I as an employee am much more likely to put forth an excellent effort if I know there is future promotions, raises, etc. than if I was to just constantly be working at the same level. 

( Sean Thumma)

2) How do you think a “bossless” environment would lead to higher productivity?  

I was surprised after reading this article that those types of environments exist. I think that the most important aspect to a “bossless” environment is having a group of people who trust each other and who can get along well together. Every team has individuals who think they should be running the show or who have trouble when they don’t get their way, or their idea is not the best. But I can defiantly see the opportunity for more productivity when you take out the mid-level managers who sometimes ends up dragging a project to a halt with paperwork or in-decision. With a “bossless” environment, each team member feels more involved and they fell they have more of a stack in the project. Positive results will be because of the team, not the manager.

What are some of the advantages and some of the disadvantages of a “bossless” environment?

Some of the advantages to a “bossless” environment are that your team has the potential to get along better if the right group of workers are on the same team. Productivity could increase due to the fact that the workers feel as though they are more part of the project and they benefit directly if things go well. Another advantage is that team members are more likely to make suggestions to a group of like-minded co-workers than to their manager or boss. Some of the disadvantages are that if the project or job goes wrong, the “bossless” team has to take on that responsibility of failure and not the boss. Another issue I can see is that if you have an employee who is not a team player or they don’t agree with the team, they could possibly stir trouble and distrust within the team that could affect productivity. Many teams have that one person who doesn’t pull their own weight, in a “bossless” environment these types of employees could go un-noticed and not be challenged for some time.

Do you think you would like to work in a “bossless” environment? Why or why not? 

As much as the thought of this type of environment intrigues me, I think I would rather work under a boss who can provide solid direction, be a liaison between the team and upper management, and who can recognize the hard workers in the organization and reward them appropriately. Even though I am self-motivated and secure in my abilities, I think working under a boss is a better environment for me than the alternative. I do think that I would do well on a self-managed work team which might be a better option that would allow some independent thinking while also still having the leadership and accountability of a manager. 

Essay Writing

How do you think a “bossless” environment would lead to higher productivity?

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