Describe how bias, confounders, and interaction can influence the results of a study

Getting Started

Analytic epidemiology studies seek to identify the risk factors for various adverse health outcomes or to test the effectiveness of interventions to improve health status. Analytic epidemiology examines cause and effect relationships. These study designs allow researchers to test hypothesized relationships between exposure, treatment, or intervention (cause) and an outcome (effect) or the impact of risk factors. Analytic studies focus on the how and the why rather than the descriptive studies’ who, where, and when (Zeni, 2021). There are two types of analytic epidemiology studies: observational (cohort and cross-sectional) and experimental (randomized control trial [RCT] and quasi-experimental).

Upon successful completion of this discussion, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish the difference between observational and experimental studies in epidemiology.
  • Describe how bias, confounders, and interaction can influence the results of a study.

Instructions

  1. Review the rubric to ensure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.
  2. Read from your textbook Chapters 7 and 8.
  3. Review the Chapter 7 PowerPoint(PowerPoint presentation) file and the Chapter 8 PowerPoint(PowerPoint presentation) file.
  4. Watch the following videos:
    1. 6 Steps to Formulate a Strong Hypothesis(new tab)
       
    2. Variables(new tab)
       
  5. Search OCLS for either an observational study (prospective cohort study, retrospective cohort study, case-control study) or an experimental study (randomized control trial, clinical trial, intervention study, quasi-experimental) on a topic in nursing that interests you.
  6. Write an initial response to the following prompts:
    1. Summarize the study’s purpose, research design, methods used to collect and analyze data, and the results.
    2. What were the study’s hypotheses or research questions?
    3. What were the independent and dependent variables?
    4. Describe how bias can influence the results of a study.
  7. Post a link to your article.
  8. Support your initial discussion post with references that are relevant, scholarly, peer-reviewed sources, or authoritative professional organizations. You can utilize IWU Online Campus Library Services (new tab) to help locate these sources.

Rubic

Criteria

Excellent

 

Competent

 

Needs Improvement

 

Inadequate/Failing

 

Criterion Score

 

Quality of Initial Post

16 points

(13-16 points)

Thoroughly addresses the prompt(s). Post is well developed, refers to relevant course concepts (with citations and references), and provides clear evidence of critical thinking.

12 points

(9-12 points)

Adequately addresses the prompt(s).
Post refers to relevant course concepts (with citations and references) and provides clear evidence of critical thinking.

8 points

(5-8 points)

Post addresses the prompt(s) but is limited in referring to relevant course concepts (with citations and references) and providing clear evidence of critical thinking.

4 points

(0-4 points)

Post does not address the prompt(s), refer to relevant course concepts (with citations and references), and/or provide evidence of critical thinking.

Score of Quality of Initial Post,

/ 16

Timeliness

3 points

Initial posting to the question or topic assigned in the workshop activity is made by day five of the workshop.

2 points

Initial posting to the question or topic assigned in the workshop activity is made by day six of the workshop.

1 point

Initial posting to the question or topic assigned in the workshop activity is made by day seven of the workshop.

0 points

No initial posting by day seven of the workshop.

Score of Timeliness,

/ 3

Interaction

8 points

(7-8 points)

Demonstrates critical thinking through quality interaction with at least two classmates by directly commenting on their ideas and making connections to relevant content.

Advances the discussion by introducing new ideas, asking clarifying questions, and synthesizing concepts.

Responds to faculty follow-up questions.

6 points

(5-6 points)

Demonstrates critical thinking through quality interaction with at least two classmates by directly commenting on their ideas and making connections to relevant content.

Responds to faculty follow-up questions directed to you.

4 points

(1-4 points)

Interaction is incomplete (only one quality response) or lacking in quality in both responses.

May or may not respond to faculty follow-up questions directed to you.

0 points

No interaction with classmates.

Score of Interaction,

/ 8

Written Communication

3 points

Written communication is easy to read and understand. Communicates clearly through the effective control of grammar and spelling.

Appropriately uses APA for citations and references.

2 points

Written communication is readable. Communicates clearly through the control of grammar and spelling, with only minimal errors.

Appropriately uses APA for citations and references.

1 point

Written communication is not as clear due to a few issues with the effective control of grammar and spelling.

Attempts to use APA for citations and references, but errors are present.

0 points

No communication or written communication is not as clear due to many issues with the effective control of grammar and spelling.

No attempt to use APA appropriately.

Score of Written Communication,

/ 3

Total

Score of Discussion (30 Points),

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Describe the link between climate change and health.

Getting Started

The concept of environmental restoration The growth of seedlings on cracked soil, cracked soil in the dry season affected by global warming causes climate change

What is climate change? Climate change is the alteration in the usual weather found in places caused by long-term changes in temperatures and weather patterns. It could be the amount of rainfall or snow or the change in temperature in a region for a month or a season. Climate change can affect our health, ability to grow food, housing, safety, and work. Some communities are more vulnerable to these climate changes, such as those living in coastal areas and developing countries. Climate change is progressing and carries significant public health consequences that nurses must be aware of and address in practice and research.

Upon successful completion of this discussion, you will be able to:

  • Describe the link between climate change and health.
  • Identify opportunities for nurses to mitigate climate change.

Instructions

  1. Review the rubric to ensure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.
  2. Read Unit VI: Climate Change (pp. 260-302)(new tab)
  3. Watch the video Nurses Caring for Climate and Health(new tab)
  4. Review the following resources:
    1. Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: Impacts, Inequities, Responses(PDF document)
    2. Climate Change Health and Nursing: A Call To Action(new tab)
  5. Write an initial response to the following prompts:
    1. Describe the impact climate change has on health.
    2. Describe how vulnerable populations are disproportionately affected by climate change.
    3. What opportunities do you see to influence climate change as a nurse leader in your specialty area?
  6. Use APA Style(PDF document) for all citations and references.

Rubric

CriteriaExcellentCompetentNeeds ImprovementInadequate/FailingCriterion Score
Quality of Initial Post16 points

(13-16 points)

Thoroughly addresses the prompt(s). Post is well developed, refers to relevant course concepts (with citations and references), and provides clear evidence of critical thinking.

12 points

(9-12 points)

Adequately addresses the prompt(s).
Post refers to relevant course concepts (with citations and references) and provides clear evidence of critical thinking.

8 points

(5-8 points)

Post addresses the prompt(s) but is limited in referring to relevant course concepts (with citations and references) and providing clear evidence of critical thinking.

4 points

(0-4 points)

Post does not address the prompt(s), refer to relevant course concepts (with citations and references), and/or provide evidence of critical thinking.

Score of Quality of Initial Post,

/ 16

Timeliness3 points

Initial posting to the question or topic assigned in the workshop activity is made by day five of the workshop.

2 points

Initial posting to the question or topic assigned in the workshop activity is made by day six of the workshop.

1 point

Initial posting to the question or topic assigned in the workshop activity is made by day seven of the workshop.

0 points

No initial posting by day seven of the workshop.

Score of Timeliness,

/ 3

Interaction8 points

(7-8 points)

Demonstrates critical thinking through quality interaction with at least two classmates by directly commenting on their ideas and making connections to relevant content.

Advances the discussion by introducing new ideas, asking clarifying questions, and synthesizing concepts.

Responds to faculty follow-up questions.

6 points

(5-6 points)

Demonstrates critical thinking through quality interaction with at least two classmates by directly commenting on their ideas and making connections to relevant content.

Responds to faculty follow-up questions directed to you.

4 points

(1-4 points)

Interaction is incomplete (only one quality response) or lacking in quality in both responses.

May or may not respond to faculty follow-up questions directed to you.

0 points

No interaction with classmates.

Score of Interaction,

/ 8

Written Communication3 points

Written communication is easy to read and understand. Communicates clearly through the effective control of grammar and spelling.

Appropriately uses APA for citations and references.

2 points

Written communication is readable. Communicates clearly through the control of grammar and spelling, with only minimal errors.

Appropriately uses APA for citations and references.

1 point

Written communication is not as clear due to a few issues with the effective control of grammar and spelling.

Attempts to use APA for citations and references, but errors are present.

0 points

No communication or written communication is not as clear due to many issues with the effective control of grammar and spelling.

No attempt to use APA appropriately.

Score of Written Communication,

/ 3

Total

Score of Discussion (30 Points),

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Describe how God can help you have a positive attitude despite your circumstances

Getting Started

This week you will be learning about two types of analytic studies in epidemiology: observational and experimental. No matter what type of study it is, bias can negatively change the results of a study. These biases can be selection bias or information bias. Information bias relates to the quality of the data collected. If the data, we collect is incomplete or misclassified we can draw the wrong conclusions about the results of the study. The same can be true in your own life. What type of data do you collect daily? The things that you watch, read, and listen to can cause you to draw the wrong conclusions about the events in your life. Information bias can have a negative or a positive effect on your attitude.

Your attitude determines the success and failure of every relationship. God has given us the ability to think, reason, and choose whether we will focus on positive thoughts or negative thoughts. The choice is up to you. Jesus wants to help you choose and cultivate a positive attitude. This does not deny the fact that life has its share of ups and downs. God wants you to trust Him. He will help you have a positive attitude despite your circumstances. Choose not to worry, instead pray about everything. Tell God what you need and thank him for all that he has done in your life. When you do this, you will experience God’s peace. His peace exceeds all understanding. God loves you and wants you to experience harmony in all your relationships. Scripture says, “Finally, brothers and sisters, whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable—if anything is excellent or praiseworthy—think about such things. Whatever you have learned or received or heard from me or seen in me—put it into practice. And the God of peace will be with you” (New International Version, 1973/2011, Philippians 4:8-9(new tab)).

Reference

New International Version. (2011). New International Version Bible Online.  https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Philippians+4%3A8-9&version=NIV(new tab)

Upon successful completion of this discussion, you will be able to:

  • Identify how bias can influence your attitude and how this can affect your relationships.
  • Describe how God can help you have a positive attitude despite your circumstances.

Instructions

  1. Review the rubric to ensure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.
  2. Read the Devotional Message under Getting Started.
  3. Write an initial response to the following prompts:
    1. Describe a relationship in your personal or professional life affected by information bias.
    2. What changes can you make in this relationship to control for information bias?
    3. How does your faith or worldview influence information bias in your personal or professional relationships?
  4. Your initial post is due by Day 5 of the workshop.
  5. Use APA Style(new tab) for all citations and references. Refer to the 7th Edition APA Style Bible Citations(PDF document) if necessary.

Rubric

Criteria

Excellent

 

Competent

 

Needs Improvement

 

Inadequate/Failing

 

Criterion Score

 

Devotional Quality of Initial Post

16 points

(13-16 points)

Thoroughly addresses the prompt(s) and clearly demonstrates an effort to reflect on the integration of faith, personal experiences, and course content.

12 points

(9-12 points)

Adequately addresses the prompt(s) and clearly demonstrates an effort to reflect on the integration of faith, personal experiences, and course content.

8 points

(5-8 points)

Addresses the prompt(s) and demonstrates an effort to reflect on the integration of faith, personal experiences, and course content.

4 points

(0-4 points)

Does not adequately address the prompt(s) and/or demonstrate an effort to reflect on the integration of faith, personal experiences, and course content.

Score of Devotional Quality of Initial Post,

/ 16

Timeliness

3 points

Initial posting to the question or topic assigned in the workshop activity is made by day five of the workshop.

2 points

Initial posting to the question or topic assigned in the workshop activity is made by day six of the workshop.

1 point

Initial posting to the question or topic assigned in the workshop activity is made by day seven of the workshop.

0 points

No initial posting by day seven of the workshop.

Score of Timeliness,

/ 3

Interaction

8 points

(7-8 points)

Demonstrates critical thinking through quality interaction with at least two classmates by directly commenting on their ideas and making connections to relevant content.

Advances the discussion by introducing new ideas, asking clarifying questions, and synthesizing concepts.

Responds to faculty follow-up questions.

6 points

(5-6 points)

Demonstrates critical thinking through quality interaction with at least two classmates by directly commenting on their ideas and making connections to relevant content.

Responds to faculty follow-up questions directed to you.

4 points

(1-4 points)

Interaction is incomplete (only one quality response) or lacking in quality in both responses.

May or may not respond to faculty follow-up questions directed to you.

0 points

No interaction with classmates.

Score of Interaction,

/ 8

Written Communication

3 points

Written communication is easy to read and understand.

Communicates clearly through the effective control of grammar and spelling.

Appropriately uses APA for citations and references.

2 points

Written communication is readable.

Communicates clearly through the control of grammar and spelling, with only minimal errors.

Appropriately uses APA for citations and references.

1 point

Written communication is not as clear due to a few issues with the effective control of grammar and spelling.

Attempts to use APA for citations and references, but errors are present.

0 points

No communication or written communication is not as clear due to many issues with the effective control of grammar and spelling.

No attempt to use APA appropriately.

Score of Written Communication,

/ 3

Total

Score of Devotional (30 Points),

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Paul, James, Ryan, and Amy pay 80% of the support for their mother. Paul pays 40%, James and Ryan pay 15% each, and Amy pays 10%. Who is eligible to claim their mother as a dependent?

Paul, James, Ryan, and Amy pay 80% of the support for their mother. Paul pays 40%, James and Ryan pay 15% each, and Amy pays 10%. Who is eligible to claim their mother as a dependent?.

Test – CA Midterm 2 (ITC 2019)

Section 1


Question 1 of 60.

Paul, James, Ryan, and Amy pay 80% of the support for their mother. Paul pays 40%, James and Ryan pay 15% each, and Amy pays 10%. Who is eligible to claim their mother as a dependent?

 Since no one person pays over 50% of the support, none of the children may claim her as a dependent.

 Since together they pay more than 50% of their mother’s support, any one of them may claim their mother under a multiple support agreement.

 Since together they pay more than 50% of their mother’s support, Paul, James, or Ryan may claim their mother under a multiple support agreement.

 Since together they pay more than 50% of their mother’s support, they may share the dependency exemption based on the percentage each one pays.

Mark for follow up


Question 2 of 60.

Employer-provided dependent care assistance:

 May be used for the child and dependent care credit.

 Is subtracted from the total expenses for child or dependent care on Form 2441.

 Is included in wages on Form W-2.

 Is not reported to the IRS.

Mark for follow up


Question 3 of 60.

Which of these statements is TRUE concerning a partially taxable distribution of pension income?

 Taxpayers are required to use the simplified method for any pensions with a starting date after July 1, 1986.

 If box 2a of the Form 1099-R is blank, the pension is not taxable.

 For a distribution for a pension with a starting date after November 18, 1996, the simplified method should be used when box 2a of Form 1099-R is blank and “taxable amount not determined” is checked.

 For the simplified method, the age of the taxpayer is the age they turned during the year the pension began.

Mark for follow up


Question 4 of 60.

What is the most an employee would pay in social security tax in 2018?

 $2,175.00

 $4,350.00

 $7,960.80

 $15,921.60

Mark for follow up


Question 5 of 60.

When a tax preparer has knowledge that a client has not complied with any tax law, they must:

 Advise the client that the IRS may contact them about their tax return.

 Notify their manager of the noncompliance and let them handle it.

 Advise the client promptly of the fact and the consequences of the noncompliance, error, or omission.

 Notify the IRS of the noncompliance.

Mark for follow up


Question 6 of 60.

When dependent care benefits are withheld from taxpayers’ income, where does the employer report them?

 Form 2441.

 Form 1040.

 Box 10 of Form W-2.

 The employer is not required to report them.

Mark for follow up


Question 7 of 60.

Health insurance purchased through the Marketplace would be reported to the taxpayer on which form(s)?

 Form 1095-A.

 Form 1095-B.

 Form 1095-C.

 Forms 1095-B and 1095-C.

Mark for follow up


Question 8 of 60.

An employer who has a SIMPLE IRA retirement plan for employees:

 Is required to make a nonelective contribution paid to all employees.

 Must make matching contributions to employees‘ contributions.

 Must give employees a contribution adjustment.

 Receives a deduction on their business return for the contribution they made to their employee’s accounts.

Mark for follow up


Question 9 of 60.

During the year, Fred and Dolores received $10,000 in wages; $5,000 in social security benefits; a $500 gift from their daughter; and $325 interest from a U.S. Treasury Savings Bond. If they file MFJ, what will their federal AGI be for the year?

 $10,000

 $10,325

 $15,325

 $15,825

Mark for follow up


Question 10 of 60.

Carol’s divorce was final on July 3, 2018. Carol’s 24-year-old daughter (a full-time student and nondependent) lives with her. What is Carol’s correct filing status?

 Single.

 Married filing jointly.

 Married filing separately.

 Head of household.

Mark for follow up


Question 11 of 60.

Which of the following is a valid tie-breaker rule?

 If neither claimant is a parent, the taxpayer who lived with the qualifying child longer will be allowed to claim the tax benefits.

 The parent who provided more support for the qualifying child, regardless of residency and AGI, will be allowed to claim the tax benefits.

 The parent with the higher AGI, regardless of residency, will be allowed to claim the tax benefits.

 The parent who lived with the qualifying child longer, regardless of AGI, will be allowed to claim the tax benefits.

Mark for follow up


Question 12 of 60.

In order to qualify for the federal Child Tax Credit, a qualifying child must be under the age of:

 13

 17

 18

 21

Mark for follow up


Question 13 of 60.

A tax preparer is required to complete Form 8867, Paid Preparer’s Due Diligence Checklist, to ensure they:

 Compute the amounts of all credits correctly.

 Reviewed the taxpayer’s records completely.

 Considered all the due diligence requirements for each credit claimed on the return.

 All of the above.

Mark for follow up


Question 14 of 60.

Which of these would be an exception to the early retirement distribution penalty?

 A 45-year-old taxpayer lost his job and cashed in his 401(k).

 A 401(k) distribution was part of a property settlement in a divorce.

 An unemployed taxpayer withdrew money from her 401(k) to pay health insurance premiums.

 A 401(k) distribution used to pay higher education costs.

Mark for follow up


Question 15 of 60.

Which of these is incorrect regarding a Roth IRA conversion?

 The taxpayer can receive a distribution from their traditional IRA and personally contribute the money into their Roth IRA within 60 days of the distribution.

 The taxpayer is not required to pay income tax on the transferred amounts in the year of conversion. Income tax will be paid when the taxpayer receives distributions from the converted funds.

 The taxpayer can request the traditional IRA trustee to transfer the funds directly into their Roth IRA.

 The taxpayer can reclassify their traditional IRA account as a Roth IRA, if the account is maintained by the same trustee.

Mark for follow up


Question 16 of 60.

Which of the following items is NOT considered when determining the cost of maintenance of a home for the head of household filing status?

 Utilities.

 Insurance on the home.

 Food consumed in the home.

 Mortgage principal payment.

Mark for follow up


Question 17 of 60.

Which statement is incorrect concerning alimony?

 Alimony payments executed under orders after December 31, 2018, will no longer be taxable income for the recipient or deductible by the payer.

 Taxpayers who make taxable alimony payments may be eligible to deduct these payments as an adjustment to income.

 Alimony payments may not include child support.

 To claim an adjustment for alimony paid, all that is necessary is the recipient’s name and the amount of alimony paid.

Mark for follow up


Question 18 of 60.

Jasmine, age 48, contributed $5,000 to her traditional IRA. She is an active participant in a retirement plan at work. Her IRA MAGI is $75,000. What is her IRA adjustment to income?

 $0

 $5,000

 $5,500

 $6,500

Mark for follow up


Question 19 of 60.

Noncompliance for a tax preparer includes:

 Refusing to provide records and information lawfully requested by the IRS.

 Reporting inaccurate income.

 Claiming deductions or credits for which the taxpayer does not qualify.

 All of the above are considered noncompliance issues.

Mark for follow up


Question 20 of 60.

For a taxpayer to claim a dependent, that person must be:

 A U.S. citizen.

 A resident of Mexico.

 A resident of the United States.

 Any of the above.

Mark for follow up


Question 21 of 60.

Jerry (52) and Diana (50) are married and lived with their qualifying relative, Rachel (25), for all of 2018. In October 2018, Rachel married Mike (27), and both lived with Jerry and Diana for the rest of the year. Rachel earned $2,400, and Mike earned $24,500 in 2018. Which of these is correct?

 Jerry and Diana may claim Rachel, even if she chooses to file a joint return with Mike.

 Jerry and Diana may claim Rachel if Mike chooses to file married filing separately.

 Jerry and Diana may not claim Rachel because she is now Mike’s dependent.

 Jerry and Diana may claim Rachel for the nine months she was single, but not for the time after she was married.

Mark for follow up


Question 22 of 60.

Jamie is a degree candidate at her local state college. She received a scholarship for $4,000 which covered half of her tuition costs. How much, if any, of the scholarship is taxable income?

 $0

 $1,000

 $2,000

 $4,000

Mark for follow up


Question 23 of 60.

Sheila is the daughter of your neighbor, Mary. She and her 6 year-old son moved in with Mary in August. Mary would like you to prepare a return claiming the grandson as her qualifying child. What do you do?

 File the return since you know that Mary has done them a favor by allowing them to move in.

 Explain the residency requirement and file the return showing the grandson lived with Mary for more than half the year.

 File the return, but only after Mary assures you that Sheila will not be claiming her son.

 Explain to Mary that she is not eligible to claim her grandson, and that you cannot knowingly file an incorrect tax return.

Mark for follow up


Question 24 of 60.

What is the age requirement (if any) to contribute to a Roth IRA?

 The taxpayer must be at least age 18 and less than age 70?.

 The taxpayer must be at least age 18, but there is no maximum age.

 The taxpayer must be at least 19 if not a full-time student, or age 24 if they are a full-time student, but there is no maximum age.

 There is no age requirement if the taxpayer meets the compensation requirements.

Mark for follow up


Question 25 of 60.

Assuming they meet all other requirements, which of these taxpayer’s could claim the American Opportunity Tax Credit?

 Mary is claimed by her parents, but would like to claim her own education credit.

 John would like to claim the AOTC for his son, who is attending a private secondary school.

 Julie is a full-time student working toward her MA and would like to claim the AOTC.

 Jerry would like to claim the AOTC for his son who is a sophomore at a state university.

Mark for follow up


Question 26 of 60.

What happens if an education credit is received and later the school refunds part of the fees?

 There is no tax consequence.

 Part of the credit may have to be recaptured (paid back).

 The credit will be reduced in future years.

 Any additional education credits will be disallowed.

Mark for follow up


Question 27 of 60.

Which of these is true regarding a U.S. national?

 A U.S. national is the same as a resident of the United States.

 A U.S. national is a resident who owes their allegiance to American Samoa.

 A U.S. national is a U.S. citizen residing in Mexico or Canada.

 A U.S. national meets the citizenship or residence test for a dependent.

Mark for follow up


Question 28 of 60.

Which of these is correct regarding a spousal IRA?

 A spouse may be eligible to contribute to an IRA even if they have no income of their own.

 A spousal IRA is allowed for any filing status.

 The limitation on the amount that can be contributed to a spousal IRA is always the same as that of the working spouse.

 The taxpayer’s income is not taken into consideration when establishing a spousal IRA.

Mark for follow up


Question 29 of 60.

Lisa is a full-time undergraduate student who wants to claim AOTC. She brings in her school billing statement, as well as receipts for books she purchased for her college courses. Lisa informs her Tax Professional that she did not receive a Form 1098-T. The tax preparer should do which of the following to meet the due diligence record keeping requirement?

 A. Require Lisa to obtain a Form 1098-T before she can claim AOTC. Then make a photocopy of the Form 1098-T to include in the H&R Block client file.

 B. Determine if Lisa’s college is an eligible educational institution and document the conversation about verifying Lisa’s college attendance during the year.

 C. Take a photocopy of Lisa’s billing statement and book receipts to keep in the H&R Block client file, as well as document the questions asked and answers provided to determine Lisa’s AOTC eligibility.

 D. Both B and C are correct.

Mark for follow up


Question 30 of 60.

Which of these are ordinary dividends?

 Dividends paid on a credit union savings account and reported on a Form 1099-INT.

 Exempt-interest dividends paid by a mutual fund.

 Capital gain distributions reported in box 3a of a Form 1099-DIV.

 Dividends from stock reported in box 1a of a Form 1099-DIV.

Mark for follow up


Question 31 of 60.

Lloyd, a 50-year-old single taxpayer, earned $40,000 in wages. He is covered by an employer-sponsored retirement plan. What is his maximum allowable contribution to a traditional IRA for 2018?

 $0

 $5,500

 $6,500

 $18,000

Mark for follow up


Question 32 of 60.

The lifetime learning credit has a maximum credit of:

 $2,000 per return.

 $2,500 per return.

 $4,000 per return.

 $10,000 per return.

Mark for follow up


Question 33 of 60.

Harry (65) retired this year and began taking distributions from his 401(k). Contributions to his 401(k) were made over the course of his career through a combination of before-tax contributions, after-tax contributions, and employer matching. How should Harry determine the taxable amount of his distribution?

 All of Harry’s distributions will be taxable because a 401(k) is a qualified plan.

 Harry should use the Simplified Method to determine how much of his distribution is attributable to return of cost basis.

 Harry should use the General Rule to determine how much of his distribution is attributable to cost basis.

 Distributions from a 401(k) plan are always tax free.

Mark for follow up


Question 34 of 60.

Jeff comes to you to file his tax return. He tells you that he has received all his compensation in cash for several years, but this year he received a Form W-2 so he will be filing his taxes. What do you do?

 File his current year return with a note to the IRS explaining that you believe he has not filed previous years because he received his wages in cash.

 Refuse to file the current year return until you have filed all his previous returns.

 File the current year return, but explain to Jeff the law regarding filing requirements and encourage him to file previous returns.

 Refuse to file the current year return explaining that you don’t want to be put in jeopardy because of his failure to file in the past.

Mark for follow up


Question 35 of 60.

Which of these is not required to receive a waiver of the penalty for not taking a required minimum distribution from a retirement account.

 File Form 5329.

 Prove it was due to a reasonable error.

 Withdraw double the required minimum distribution (RMD) the following year.

 Establish they are taking steps to remedy the failure.

Mark for follow up


Question 36 of 60.

Jennifer Searcy, a single mother, has three children, Sydney (7), Patrick (11), and Joanna (17). Jennifer’s AGI is $62,000, and her tax liability is $4,816. How much is Jennifer’s Child Tax Credit and Other Dependent Credit?

 $3,000

 $4,500

 $6,000

 Jennifer is not eligible for the Child Tax Credit

Mark for follow up


Question 37 of 60.

Which of these certificates qualifies for the mortgage interest credit?

 Federal Housing Administration Certificate.

 Farmers Home Administration Certificate.

 Homestead Staff Exemption Certificate.

 Mortgage Credit Certificate.

Mark for follow up


Question 38 of 60.

Tax preparer’s should always document every question and answer:

 Only for returns with EITC.

 Any time they think the IRS might question something on the return.

 On every tax return.

 Only when they believe a taxpayer has lied to them.

Mark for follow up


Question 39 of 60.

Section 7525 privileged communication applies to:

 State tax law.

 Corporate tax matters.

 Tax advice.

 Criminal tax matters.

Mark for follow up


Question 40 of 60.

John and Sarah have three children (ages 5, 6, and 14). John earned $36,000 in 2018. Sarah worked part-time and earned $5,000. They had no other income. They paid a total of $4,600 in qualifying childcare expenses for their two youngest children ($2,300 for each child). The 14-year-old is John’s son from a prior marriage. He lives with John’s first wife, but John will be claiming the exemption this year. What is the correct amount of the federal Child and Dependent Care Credit?

 $495

 $945

 $990

 $1,012

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Question 41 of 60.

Joe (55) and Gail (49) are filing jointly for 2018. Joe earned $40,000, and Gail earned $2,500. Joe may contribute up to $6,500 to his IRA for 2018. If Joe contributes $4,500 to his IRA, how much may they contribute to Gail’s IRA for 2018?

 $2,000

 $2,500

 $5,500

 $6,500

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Question 42 of 60.

Which of these is TRUE regarding the adoption credit?

 The adoption credit is a refundable credit.

 The maximum credit is $13,810 per return.

 The maximum credit is $13,810 per child.

 Employer assistance payments qualify for the credit.

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Question 43 of 60.

Which of these is incorrect in regards to child support payments?

 Child support is not taxable income.

 Child support is not included as an alimony payment adjustment.

 Child support payments are not included when calculating the Earned Income Credit.

 Alimony payments can never be treated as child support payments.

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Question 44 of 60.

Which of these is a risk for a taxpayer when they are not compliant with the tax laws?

 The IRS will interview both them and their employer.

 Includes an examination to check their compliance with all four EITC due diligence requirements.

 Their returns will automatically be audited for the next 2-10 years.

 Civil penalties with the possibility of incarceration for criminal penalties.

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Question 45 of 60.

Which of the following is not subject to federal tax?

 Interest on U.S. Treasury bills, notes, and bonds.

 Interest on a federal income tax refund.

 Interest on New York state bonds.

 Dividends paid by a credit union.

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Question 46 of 60.

Education assistance from an employer:

 Qualifies for the American Opportunity Tax Credit, but not the lifetime learning credit.

 Can only be used for the lifetime learning credit.

 Can be used for any education credit.

 Is tax free and cannot be used for any credit or deduction.

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Question 47 of 60.

Documents used to substantiate eligibility to claim either EITC, AOTC, and/or CTC/ACTC must be:

 Photocopied and retained in the H&R Block client file (attached to Form 8879).

 Shredded when the taxpayer receives their refund.

 Submitted with the tax return. This means paper documents attached to the paper filed return or digital copies submitted with the e-filed return.

 Verified for accuracy and authenticity prior to filing the return.

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Question 48 of 60.

When may a noncustodial parent claim a child on their tax return?

 When the noncustodial parent has the higher AGI.

 Every other year.

 When the custodial parent releases the exemption on Form 8332.

 When they pay over 50% of the support for the child.

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Question 49 of 60.

Josh, one of your clients, gives you information that seems inconsistent. What do you do?

 File the return only after you have asked Josh questions to clarify what he has said and you believe you now have a full understanding.

 Refuse to file the return and refer them to someone else in your office.

 Refuse to file the return until you have time to investigate what Josh has told you.

 File his return because you don’t want to lose a client.

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Question 50 of 60.

John and Lois are filing a joint return. Their 26-year-old daughter, June, and her daughter, Jessica, live with them the entire year. John and Lois explain that Jessica plans to claim June, but they think they should be the ones to claim her since she lives in their home. They would like you to prepare the tax return. What do you do?

 Prepare and file the tax return. Explain to John and Lois that once their return is accepted, the IRS will reject their daughter’s return if she claims Jessica.

 Go through the tie-breaker rules with John and Lois. Explain to them that that June has the higher claim. Explain that the only way you can file the return with them claiming Jessica is if June decides that she will not claim her.

 File the return with a preparer’s note that you don’t believe they should be claiming Jessica.

 Encourage them to go to a different preparer and not them know that Jessica’s mother plans to claim her.

Mark for follow up


Question 51 of 60.

William and Jackie Colby are filing a joint federal return. They have the following investment income: Wells Fargo Bank CD, $720 Series HH bond interest, $521 Port of San Francisco, California, bond interest, $375 City of Bend, Oregon, bond interest, $64 Oak Farms dividends, $826 Craft Inc. dividends, $597 Frankfort Mutual Fund dividends, $283 Credit Union dividends, $232 Blake Harrison, private contract interest, $1,263 What is the amount of total taxable dividends reported on Schedule B?

 $1,455

 $1,655

 $1,706

 $11,058

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Question 52 of 60.

There’s is a dependent who is a qualifying child and has not reached their 13th birthday when the care was provided. What determines when the dependent is considered to be 13 years old?

 The day of their birthday.

 The day before their birthday.

 The last day of the year.

 The first day of the following year.

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Question 53 of 60.

Which of these is not among the most common reasons an e-filed tax return is rejected?

 Use of an incorrect TIN on a tax return.

 The preparer relied on nonstandard tax documents.

 Mismatches between name and TIN.

 The same TIN on more than one return.

Mark for follow up


Question 54 of 60.

Which of these is an exception to the penalty for early distribution of retirement funds?

 The distribution was made from an IRA to pay qualified higher education expenses for the taxpayer’s grandchild.

 The distribution (up to $10,000 lifetime limit) was made from a 401(k) to pay qualified first-time homebuyer expenses.

 The distribution was made from a qualified plan in a year (and to the extent that) an unemployed taxpayer paid health insurance premiums.

 The distribution was made from an IRA to a taxpayer who separated from service during or after the year in which they reached age 55.

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Question 55 of 60.

How can you determine if a taxpayer’s medical insurance premiums were paid by their employer?

 They will receive a Form 1095-A from the employer.

 They will receive a Form 1099-C from the employer.

 There will be an entry coded “DD” in box 12 of the taxpayer’s Form W-2.

 The taxpayer will need to inform you if this is the case.

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Question 56 of 60.

Brian, a 48-year-old single taxpayer, earned $98,000 in wages. He is not covered by an employer-sponsored retirement plan. What is his maximum allowable contribution to a traditional IRA for 2018?

 $0

 $5,500

 $6,500

 $18,000

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Question 57 of 60.

For 2018, the maximum rate of tax on capital gain distributions is:

 0%

 15%

 20%

 37%

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Question 58 of 60.

Which of these is not reported on Form 1099-DIV?

 Nondividend distributions.

 Capital gain distributions.

 Credit union dividends.

 Qualified dividends.

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Question 59 of 60.

All of the following are due diligence requirements a tax preparer must meet for EITC, AOTC, and CTC/ACTC, EXCEPT:

 Investigate and verify the accuracy of information the taxpayer provides to show eligibility for EITC, AOTC, or CTC/ACTC.

 Complete all worksheets used to compute the credit. If the worksheet is completed by hand, keep a copy in the taxpayer’s client file.

 Maintain a copy of documents provided by the taxpayer that the tax preparer relied on when determining credit eligibility. Then record the date the information was obtained and the name of who provided the information.

 When information provided by the taxpayer appears to be incorrect, inconsistent, or incomplete, the tax preparer must make additional inquiries to determine if the taxpayer is eligible for the credit. Then document both the questions asked and responses provided.

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Question 60 of 60.

A qualifying widow(er) receives the same standard deduction as which other filing status?

 Single.

 Married filing jointly.

 Married filing separately.

 Head of household

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Save / Return LaterSummary

Paul, James, Ryan, and Amy pay 80% of the support for their mother. Paul pays 40%, James and Ryan pay 15% each, and Amy pays 10%. Who is eligible to claim their mother as a dependent?

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IFSP Treasure Hunt

IFSP Treasure Hunt.

Part 1: IFSP Treasure Hunt

Find out what kind of important information is in the IFSP that can help you support Cathy Rae Wright’s special needs — see pages 73-78 of the textbook.

What is the student’s birthday?


Name one strategy that will help meet the outcome, “Cathy will increase her attempts to vocally communicate in order to meet her needs known and to positively interact with others?”
What is the primary language spoken at home?
What is the student’s disability?
What is one important strength to remember about the student/family?
Are there any health, vision, and hearing concerns to remember?
Who is the service coordinator, and what is her phone number?
After reading the present levels of development name three things the student might have difficulty with in a toddler inclusion classroom?
What are the four major concerns that the family has about their child?
How many times a week does the infant educator go to the home to work with this family?
Now go on a treasure hunt to find the required elements of an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP). Your will still be using Cathy Rae Wright’s IFSP located on pages 73-78. As each element is located make notes of what you find.

Find a statement of the child’s present level of development including physical (including vision, hearing, and health status), cognitive, communication, social/emotional and adaptive/self-help.
Find a statement regarding the family’s resources, priorities, and concerns.
Find a statement of measurable outcomes expected to be achieved for the child and family. What is the criterion for that outcome, the strategy to achieve the outcome, and the timeline?
What specific early intervention services types are offered to this family? Try to find them all. Choose one service and determine when it will start, for how long, and the frequency of sessions
What is the percentage of time that Cathy will be spending in the natural environment?
Find the name of the service coordinator who will be responsible for the implementation of the IFSP.
Find the steps to be taken to support Cathy’s transition to her next program upon reaching the age of 3.

Part 2: Individual Family Service Plan Assignment Summary

Now that you have completed the hunt, ask your self the following questions:

What surprises, ideas, or concepts came up for you about the elements of an IFSP?
What questions about either the elements of the IFSP or the family came up for you during the treasure hunt?
If Cathy is expected to come into your inclusive classroom, what further information or clarification would you like to ask the family or specific professionals who are listed as the IFSP participants?
What kind of adaptations might you make to your environment to accommodate Cathy?
What kind of activities might you plan to work on Cathy’s goals in the IFSP?
You will now need to take all the information gathered and write a summary of your findings and answer the above questions. Be sure to be detailed in your summary. You must use APA and include the following:

IFSP Treasure Hunt

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In what ratio areas is Under Armour stronger than Nike?

In what ratio areas is Under Armour stronger than Nike?.

In what ratio areas is Under Armour stronger than Nike? According to the National Sporting Goods Association (2013), sporting goods in the United States is a nearly $60 billion industry. Sports apparel and athletic footwear are two of the largest categories of this industry. Under Armour is a fast-growing competitor in the sports apparel and athletic footwear categories, in which Nike has long been recognized as the leader. Use the financial ratios for Nike that you computed in the Practice Problem and the financial ratios for Under Armour provided throughout this chapter to compare the financial health of Nike and Under Armour. Answer the following questions.

Case Questions

In what ratio areas is Nike stronger than Under Armour?

Nike

Liquidity Ratio

Current Ratio =  =  = 2.7244

Quick Ratio =  =  = 1.939

  • In what ratio areas is Under Armour stronger than Nike?
  • If you were an investor considering purchasing stock in either Nike or Under Armour, which company would you choose? Explain and support your answer.
  • If you were a bank manager or other investor considering a request to loan money to either Nike or Under Armour, to which company would you choose to provide a loan? Explain and support your answer.

APA Format

In what ratio areas is Under Armour stronger than Nike?

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Alvarez studies how the degeneration of nerve cells in the brain might contribute to the development of multiple sclerosis. Alvarez’s work best…

MVC109 Grand Canyon Professional Development of Nursing Professionals PaperOctober 13, 2020Dr. Alvarez studies how the degeneration of nerve cells in the brain might contribute to the development of multiple sclerosis. Dr. Alvarez’s work best exemplifies the ________ subfield of psychology.The post Alvarez studies how the degeneration of nerve cells in the brain might contribute to the development of multiple sclerosis. Alvarez’s work best… first appeared on Submit Your Homeworks.Alvarez studies how the degeneration of nerve cells in the brain might contribute to the development of multiple sclerosis. Alvarez’s work best… was first posted on October 13, 2020 at 7:31 pm.©2019 “Submit Your Assignment”. Use of this feed is for personal non-commercial use only. If you are not reading this article in your feed reader, then the site is guilty of copyright infringement. Please contact me at support@customuniversitypapers.com/  “Is this question part of your assignment? We Can Help!”

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We examined two important topics in finance during this unit: external financing requirements and agency conflicts

We examined two important topics in finance during this unit: external financing requirements and agency conflicts.

Essay

Instructions

External Financing

We examined two important topics in finance during this unit: external financing requirements and agency conflicts. Address the prompts below in your essay.

· Include an introduction that summarizes the main points with an example.

· Critically reflect on the importance of external financing requirements. What key factors must be considered when determining external financing requirements?

· Briefly describe the types of agency conflict, and provide an example of at least one of the types of agency conflict to support your response.

Your essay should be at least two pages in length, not counting the title and reference pages. You are required to cite and reference at least your textbook. Use APA format to cite in-text and reference citations.

ESSAY

Instructions

Stock Repurchases

In the short article “Royal Dutch Shell Finally Delivers Big Stock Buyback, But Shares Break Support” by Aparna Narayanan (see below), stock repurchases may produce favorable effects on key financial ratios.

Narayanan, A. (2018, July 26).  Royal Dutch Shell finally delivers big stock buyback, but shares break support Investors Business Daily

After reading the article, write an essay that addresses the prompts below.

· Include an introduction that summarizes the article.

· Analyze the importance of stable dividend policies.

· Determine reasons behind stock repurchases.

· Analyze how stock repurchase plans and returns specifically affect individual financial metrics.

Your essay should be at least two pages in length, not counting the title and reference pages. You are required to cite and reference at least your textbook and the article. Use APA format to cite in-text and reference citations.

Textbook:

Brigham , E. F., & Ehrhardt, M. C. (2020). Financial management: Theory and practice (16th ed.). Cengage Learning

We examined two important topics in finance during this unit: external financing requirements and agency conflicts

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Biographical essay on a fictional character who turned 18 years old in 1760 and lived until 1805 or who turned 18 years old in 1820 and lived until 1865

Biographical essay on a fictional character who turned 18 years old in 1760 and lived until 1805 or who turned 18 years old in 1820 and lived until 1865.

You will prepare a five-part (1000-word minimum) biographical essay on a fictional character who turned 18 years old in 1760 and lived until 1805 or who turned 18 years old in 1820 and lived until 1865. (Instructors may choose or allow you to select another relevant era)

2. You may choose your character’s place of birth within colonial North America or the United States (or perhaps as a young immigrant to North America), gender, ethnicity, race, religion, class, occupation, and overall personality traits.

3. Your character may not die prematurely.

4. Your character cannot alter the course of history in any fundamental way.

5. Your assignment will consist of the following parts:

a. Part I (100 words minimum): Utilizing your course readings and materials, introduce your character in two or three paragraphs. Provide historically- accurate and meaningful details regarding your character’s name, date and place of birth, current place of residence, race, ethnicity, sex, gender, class, and other relevant personal detail and information. In addition, create an avatar of your character and explain why you chose the characteristics depicted. (COM)

b. Part II (250 words minimum): Identify one major historically relevant ethical dilemma or moral choice that your character faced in the time-period your character is living through. Explain how the ethical issue relates to historical events and how they impact your character, his or her everyday experiences, and your character’s world and ethical view(s). (SLO1; CT; COM)

c. Part III (250 words minimum): Analyze one primary source document relevant to the ethical dilemma your character is struggling with. Examine the historical and ethical issues raised within the primary-source document and explain how the ideas or issues raised within the primary-source document would have reinforced or challenged your character’s world view, ethical values, and/or historical perspective. (SLO2; CT; COM)

d. Part IV (200 words minimum): Explain how your character has decided to respond to the ethical dilemma at hand and why he or she responded in the way you identified. Elucidate how your character’s cultural background and historical setting (<link is hidden> the historical, social, political, economic, cultural and global forces), and the broader conceptions of ethical behavior embedded within, shaped your character’s response. Consider at least one of the following: (1) your character’s conception(s) of civic responsibility; (2) your character’s understanding of importance and role of the democratic process; (3) your character’s respect for social justice, fairness, and difference; (4) your character’s experiences with prejudice, racial or gender discrimination, and/or economic and social marginalization. (SLO3; SR; COM)

e. Part V (200 words minimum): Last, elucidate on how your character’s understanding of self and his or her related personal values influenced their response to the ethical dilemma faced and/or was altered by the historical events of the era he or she experienced. (PR; COM)
Your paper must be typed, double-spaced, Times New Roman 12-point font, and 1000 words (minimum) in length*.

2. You must submit your essay into Canvas by the assignment due date set by the instructor.
3. Your paper must draw from and cite a minimum of 1 secondary and 1 primary source document*. Individual instructors may elect to require specific or additional sources.

4. Use appropriate in-text citations and a complete bibliography, formatted according to the most recent edition of an academic citation style (<link is hidden> MLA/APA/Turabian/Chicago Manual of Style).

5. Papers will be graded according to the essay rubric posted online and below.

Biographical essay on a fictional character who turned 18 years old in 1760 and lived until 1805 or who turned 18 years old in 1820 and lived until 1865

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Assignment 2: Assessing and Treating Patients With Sleep/Wake Disorders

Assignment 2: Assessing and Treating Patients With Sleep/Wake Disorders.

This week, we examine a 31-year-old male who presents to the office with a chief complaint of insomnia.

SUBJECTIVE

Patient is a 31-year-old male. He states that his insomnia has gotten progressively worse over the past 6 months. Per the patient, he has never been a “great sleeper” but is now having difficulty both falling asleep and staying asleep at night. The problem began approximately 6 months ago after the sudden loss of his fiancé. The patient states this is affecting his ability to perform his job, which is a forklift operator at a local chemical company. The patient states he has used diphenhydramine in the past to sleep but does not like the way it makes him feel the morning after. He states he has fallen asleep on the job due to lack of sleep from the night before. The patient’s medical record from his previous physician states that he has a history of opiate abuse, which began after he broke his ankle in a skiing accident and was prescribed hydrocodone/apap (acetaminophen) for acute pain management. The patient has not received a prescription for an opiate analgesic in 4 years. The patient states recently he has been using alcohol to help him fall asleep, approximately four beers prior to bed.

MENTAL STATUS EXAM

The patient is alert and oriented to person, place, time, event. He makes good eye contact and is dressed appropriately for time of year. He denies auditory/visual hallucinations. Judgement, insight, and reality contact are all intact. Patient denies suicidal/homicidal ideation, and is future oriented.

Assignment 2: Assessing and Treating Patients With Sleep/Wake Disorders

Sleep disorders are conditions that result in changes in an individual’s pattern of sleep (Mayo Clinic, 2020). Not surprisingly, a sleep disorder can affect an individual’s overall health, safety, and quality of life. Psychiatric nurse practitioners can treat sleep disorders with psychopharmacologic treatments, however, many of these drugs can have negative effects on other aspects of a patient’s health and well-being. Additionally, while psychopharmacologic treatments may be able to address issues with sleep, they can also exert potential challenges with waking patterns. Thus, it is important for the psychiatric nurse practitioner to carefully evaluate the best psychopharmacologic treatments for patients that present with sleep/wake disorders.

Reference: Mayo Clinic. (2020). Sleep disorders. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sleep-disorders/symptoms-causes/syc-20354018

To prepare for this Assignment:
  • Review this week’s Learning Resources, including the Medication Resources indicated for this week.
  • Reflect on the psychopharmacologic treatments you might recommend for the assessment and treatment of patients with sleep/wake disorders.
The Assignment: 5 pages

Examine Case Study: Pharmacologic Approaches to the Treatment of Insomnia in a Younger Adult. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this patient. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point, you should evaluate all options before selecting your decision and moving throughout the exercise. Before you make your decision, make sure that you have researched each option and that you evaluate the decision that you will select. Be sure to research each option using the primary literature.

Introduction to the case (1 page)

  • Briefly explain and summarize the case for this Assignment. Be sure to include the specific patient factors that may impact your decision making when prescribing medication for this patient.

Decision #1 (1 page)

  • Which decision did you select?
  • Why did you select this decision? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature.
  • Why did you not select the other two options provided in the exercise? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature.
  • What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources (including the primary literature).
  • Explain how ethical considerations may impact your treatment plan and communication with patients. Be specific and provide examples.

Decision #2 (1 page)

  • Why did you select this decision? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature.
  • Why did you not select the other two options provided in the exercise? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature.
  • What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources (including the primary literature).
  • Explain how ethical considerations may impact your treatment plan and communication with patients. Be specific and provide examples.

Decision #3 (1 page)

  • Why did you select this decision? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature.
  • Why did you not select the other two options provided in the exercise? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature.
  • What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources (including the primary literature).
  • Explain how ethical considerations may impact your treatment plan and communication with patients. Be specific and provide examples.

Conclusion (1 page)

  • Summarize your recommendations on the treatment options you selected for this patient. Be sure to justify your recommendations and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature.

Assignment 2: Assessing and Treating Patients With Sleep/Wake Disorders

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