Save the Tigers Essay

Save the Tigers Essay.

Someday, we may never see tigers again because tigers are on the critically endangered list, which is why the National Zoo was celebrating Global Tiger Day. This is happening because of poaching and habitat changes. Large plantations have replaced a lot of tiger habitat in several tropical range countries. Tigers occupy only around 7 percent of their historic range. The current wild tiger population is at as few as 3,200 tigers, including only about 400 Sumatran tigers, which are listed as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species (TigerPopulation).

If people in the countries that the tigers live in do not take action to protect the tiger’s habitat and go against poaching, tigers have a big chance of becoming extinct. Most tigers are being held in captivity to keep them reproducing, there is one type of tiger that no longer exists in the wild but is held in captivity. Humans now control the fate of the tiger, their choices will determine whether it survives or becomes extinct (Wikipedia).

If humans could make hunting tigers illegal for a while and let them reproduce, it would help the tiger stay in existence.

Three out of the eight species of tigers are already extinct, which are the Bali, Caspian, and Javan. The tiger has been a popular game animal and has been hunted for prestige as well as for taking trophies. People like to hunt tigers for their fur, claw, and pelts to make fur coats, rugs, and money; they also go for the tigers’ bones for medicinal use. For hundreds of years, if tigers saw people riding elephants it usually meant that a hunting party was about to happen. Threats to tigers can be separated into two categories: Poaching (Hunted for their pelt and bones) and retributive killing, which includes the illegal trade of tiger parts and human wildlife conflict, and habitat destruction and fragmentation, including illegal logging and commercial plantations (hintsforums).

Someone may ask why it would matter if the tigers were extinct. People tend to say “it is just an animal like all the others so it would not make a difference if they were gone.” Tigers are on the top of the food chain in all the ecosystems they live in; they keep the populations of deer, antelope, and gaur in check. Without the tiger to control them, these prey species would expand. If the population of these animals expanded more and more every day, they would completely clear out the vegetation, which is the food source of most animals and the smaller animals and insects would not survive without it. If the insects moved to the crops in farmlands vital food sources could be lost, impacting on human populations (WWF).

People need to stop hunting the tigers and let them reproduce. Humans now control the fate of the tiger. The tiger probably has little future outside protected areas because of the danger to livestock and humans. Tigers that come out of reserves and attack livestock are usually poisoned by people. It may take more than words to convince certain people to stop hunting because of the amount of money that the tiger brings to them. Tigers are magnificent creatures and most humans would love to keep them in existence.

Tigers are becoming an endangered species because of people poaching and changing the habitat by deforestation. Three of eight tigers are extinct and humans need to keep them in existence. It will make a bigger difference than people may think if the tigers were to disappear forever and people do not need to find out what could happen so they should help prevent it and stop hunting the tigers, there are plenty of other ways to make a lot of money.

Save the Tigers Essay

What Is Your Opinion of Zoos Essay

What Is Your Opinion of Zoos Essay.

Recently, zoos have come under a considerable amount of criticism from animal activists, who claim that it is unfair to keep animals in cages and that the money spent on protecting them in their natural environment. Zoologists, on the other hand, insist that zoos benefit not only human beings from an educational standpoint, but that they protect the animals themselves. What is your opinion of zoos?

Nowadays, there has been a great deal of controversy about the animals’ rights and if zoos serve to protect them or they exacerbate the problem of animals in danger of extinction.

Keeping animals in zoos has both benefits and drawbacks which should be taken into account.

Zoos benefit both animals and human beings. One of the central advantages lay in the education that people receive when visiting a zoo. They receive firsthand knowledge of how animals behave and act. Surrounding the exhibits, zoos usually have information describing the animal, its history and natural location. Learning about animals also brings empathy to many people, raising awareness about their endangerment in the wild.

Zoos often take an active approach in helping animal population, as they breed captive species. In addition, animals are safe in the zoos, as they have security and food. Sick or injured animals can be treated immediately, giving them a higher chance of survival. Besides, animals in zoos are fed on a regular basis and there is no threat for them –particularly the young ones- about starving or get killed by other animals or hunters.

The other side of the coin is the captivity the animals face. No matter how nice the zoo and the stuff are, the room is limited for zoo animals, which can be especially troublesome for large animals that are prone to roaming. Taking animals out of their habitat serves an ethical issue, because of its focus on human benefit opposed to animal benefit. Another disadvantage is that animals are deprived from developing their survival skills. There is no doubt that wild animals can never survive if they are released in the wild, as their ability to fight or hunt for food may disappear. Finally, many zoos lack proper maintenance and animals may live under poor conditions.

All things considered, even though there is no doubt that more funds should be allocated to saving animals in their natural environment, one should also bear in mind that zoos provide numerous benefits to animals as well as to humans.

What Is Your Opinion of Zoos Essay

Formosan Black Bear Essay

Formosan Black Bear Essay.

The Formosan black bear is also known as the white-throated bear. They are endemic to Taiwan. In 2001, they were voted the most representative wildlife of Taiwan. And they are also the largest land animals and the only native bears in Taiwan. Because of severe exploitation and habitat degradation in recent decades, populations of wild Formosan black bears have been declining. This species was listed as “endangered” under Taiwan’s Cultural Heritage and Preservation Law in 1989. The body of the Formosan black bear is well covered with black hair, which can grow over 10 cm long around the neck.

On the chest, there is a distinctive yellowish or whitish mark that is shaped like a “V” character or a crescent moon. This earns it another nickname — “moon bear”.

They feed primarily on leaves, buds, fruits, roots, although they also eat insects, small animals, and carrion. They will eat fat-loaded hard mast (e.g., acorn and walnut) in fall or winter. The Formosan bear lives in the mountainous forests in the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan at elevations of 1,000–3,500 meters (3,300–11,500 ft).

In the Winter, rather than hibernating, they move to lower elevations to find food, such as acorns.

Even though they look clumsy and slow, Formosan black bears can easily outrun humans, reaching speeds of 30–40 km per hour. And they are skilled at swimming and climbing, as well. Because of their Endangered Species Status and their habit of avoiding humans, Formosan black bears are rarely seen in the wild. In most of the sightings, the bear usually retreats and runs away from the human. Even if the bears can be aggressive, they rarely attack humans without provocation.

Sometimes bears are hunting targets for many Taiwan indigenous tribes, but there are taboos in their hunting traditions. The indigenous people all consider bears to have behaviors similar to humans. Therefore, hunting bears is just like killing humans and will cause misfortunes such as disease, death,

Oral Presentation – Formosan Black Bear or crop failure. As a result, hunters usually left bears alone unless absolutely necessary. There are several beliefs in Formosan Black Bear for some Taiwan indigenous tribes. For example, Bunun people call black bears Aguman or Duman which means the devil. Rukai people believe hunting bears can result in diseases. In Taroko legends, Formosan black bears are respectful “kings of the forest” whose white mark on the chest represents the moon. They believe that killing black bears results in family disasters.

Although Formosan black bears were selected to represent the wildlife of Taiwan in 2001 and are listed as protected. In traditional Chinese culture, the bear’s paw & gall are precious medicine. This reason makes the price of bear meat are 10 times more than pork. Thus, they continue to make news by being killed or sold illegally. This indicates that today’s laws and law enforcement have not done enough to ease the main threat to the sustainability of bears: illegal hunting.

Based on Taiwan’s Culture Heritage and Conservation Law, Formosan black bears were listed as endangered animals in 1989. Internationally, this species is protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), appendix I. CITES bans all international trade in any products from this species. The Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural

Resources (IUCN) also describes these bears as vulnerable to extinction. In the end, there is a story about Black-Bear conservation. A cut-paw baby bear, which is nicknamed ”Little Cute” and only 3 month-years-old, was captured by the illegal hunter in 1994, and Its right back foot was cut off by the trap. Because the incident happened in Shei-Pa National Park, the authorities set up a memorial statue and hope that this statue can remind people to conserve the Formosan Black Bear. Everyone should chime in on the conservation effort. Only then can we success be declared in the black bear conservation project.

Oral Presentation – Formosan Black Bear
Aphorism
“If there were no bears in the mountains, the forest would look empty and I would feel lonely.” – An indigenous Bunun hunter
“We do not wish to lose this soul of Taiwan’s mountains. We do not wish our offspring to see them only in the zoo or in history books.” – Mei-Hsiu Hwang (a campaigner of Institute of Wildlife Conservation for black-bear preservation)

Reference
1. Wikipedia – Formosan Black Bear
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formosan_black_bear
2. Conservation and Research of Formosan Black Bears.
http://meibear.npust.edu.tw/English/index.asp
3. Shei-Pa National Park
http://www.spnp.gov.tw/

Formosan Black Bear Essay

Increase in discretionary time Essay

Increase in discretionary time Essay.

Teleshopping offers the possibility of increasing discretionary time by eliminating travel time for traditional shopping trips, and by speeding routine purchases. Intelligent agents, or pieces of software that search computer networks, will reduce our need to comparison shop to obtain the best price. Using intelligent agents to automate routine shopping for groceries and staple goods may give households more time for other activities. (Kare-Silver, 1998)

Increases in leisure activities may have far-reaching social and environmental effects. Previously mentioned reductions in activity space, combined with increases in pedestrian and bicycle travel may make neighbourhood attractions more popular.

Family ties may regain importance and discretionary time will be spent at home. Either way, increases in discretionary time will likely boost the economy as spending on leisure activities increases (Markham, 1998). If families and individuals use their new free time to go for drives in the country, we may see a reverse congestion problem, where roads are clear during the week and crowded on the weekends.

Overall, the effects of discretionary time changes are very difficult to predict. Such changes may not produce any noticeable changes in our society or environment for a very long time.

A revolution in the shopping environment is about to take place. But it won’t affect all consumers and impact all retailers immediately. And it will not replace the traditional shopping completely, because there are still many traditional social shoppers. Such as women, to go window-shopping is one of their natural instincts. It is impossible for them to do shopping at home always. What they enjoyed most are the social atmospheres of the malls. They like to have a chat with the sales people, they like to try the clothes on and then do some compare. This is what Teleshopping can not satisfy them.

However, the shopping scene is changing, retailers will need to develop. Standing still carries a high risk of being disintermediated, cut out of the supply chain as Teleshopping grows. As they move into the next century retailers will have a range of options. At one extreme they could transfer their business to become a full electronic home-delivery operation gradually moving out of their physical retail estate. And an alternative they could look to revitalise their physical presence and evolve the store proposition to meet some of the changing consumer demands.

1 Anon (1998a) UK retail sales 160 billion pounds sterling by year 2000. Searchbank

2 Gingh G et al The Information Age IM3007 Participants Pack (1999) p9

Increase in discretionary time Essay

Classical Conditioning Essay

Classical Conditioning Essay.

As far as a conditioned response goes, emotions greatly come into play. Emotions are triggered by something, or maybe someone. One famous study that proves classical conditioning can trigger a phobia, -check your punctuation -is the case of “Little Albert”. John Watson and Rosalie Rayner performed a study with a nine month old baby. They would show him a rat, and then make a loud scary noise using a steel bar. Over the course of a few months, little Albert developed a fear of the rat because of the frightening noise associated with it.

However, classical conditioning is not that simple, fears don’t just simply develop one time something bad happens. “Classical conditioning does not occur every time a bell rings, a baby startles, or a wolf eats some tainted lamb chops. Several factors influence the extent to which classical conditioning will occur. ” (Robin Kowalski, Drew Westen,  2011). Learning can play a big part in classical conditioning. If a bad experience happens repeatedly with a certain object, or place, this can become a fear.

Many people I have known who are afraid of dogs were bitten as a child, or have had many experiences where a dog has acted aggressively towards them. There are many arguments about what people learn through classical conditioning, however prepared learning is something people have learned over time. For example, people are more afraid of spiders, snakes, and more dangerous things because they know it is more likely to hurt them. Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning because it involves behavior. “B. F.

Skinner, who spent years experimenting with the ways in which behavior is controlled by the environment, called it operant conditioning. ” (Robin Kowalski, Drew Westen,  2011) Basically behavior is controlled by outcomes of certain situations. Reinforcement is also involved in operant conditioning. There can be positive reinforcement and also negative reinforcement. As far as addictions are concerned both positive and negative reinforcement is involved. Positive reinforcement by doing drugs is the high someone gets. Maybe the drug makes them feel calmer or happier, and this is the positive aspect.

It isn’t long until negative reinforcement comes into play concerning drugs. This can be the bodily harm it does to people, getting arrested, or hurting friends and family members. With operant conditioning, someone who is thinking of doing drugs, especially a younger person maybe sees it in their environment, and that it is a cool thing to do. They may see someone else do drugs, and then become popular so they want to do it also. It is not just the high they are seeking but the general social outcome of the situation. For example, steroids is a widely used drug.

It is a good example of an outcome that causes people to use it. People have seen others use steroids and become muscular or obtain the perfect body overnight. They are just thinking of the positive reinforcement steroids provides for them. The positive reinforcement outweighs the negative, and sometimes it is too late. They do not think about the people that have died from using steroids, or have suffered the nasty side effects. Also, some people try a drug just to try it for that first time, but they do not realize how addictive it can truly become.

The difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning, is that classical conditioning involves emotions, and operant conditioning involves behavior. Classical conditioning involves a stimuli triggering an action in another stimuli, like Pavlov’s dogs salivating with association to being fed. Operant conditioning requires that the person or subject do something to receive positive or negative reinforcement. Extinction is basically to unlearn a certain reaction. “Extinction occurs when a CR is weakened by presentation of the CS without the UCS. (Robin Kowalski, Drew Westen,  2011). As far as classical conditioning is concerned, extinction happens when a conditioned stimuli is no longer present. For example, if a dog is used to being rewarded with a treat by performing a trick, and it no longer receives a treat after doing the trick several times it might stop doing the trick, the reaction becomes extinct. ”Extinction in classical conditioning refers to the process by which a CR is weakened by presentation of the CS without the UCS; that is, the response is extinguished. (Robin Kowalski, Drew Westen,  2011) Extinction in classical conditioning can also be the curing of a phobia. If a person was bitten by a dog as a child, they may have a fear of dogs as an adult. If they face their fears by petting a dog, walking a dog, or simply interacting with dogs and having repeatedly good experiences with dogs, the fear becomes extinct. As far as operant conditioning goes, extinction happens when a behavior no longer produces its usual consequences. This greatly applies to disciplining a child.

For example, if a child is normally put on time out every time they have a temper tantrum, they will learn not to have a temper tantrum. Extinction occurs when the parent stops disciplining the child, or putting them on timeout. The child will no longer expect a timeout or a negative reinforcement for having a temper tantrum, which is why it’s so important for parents to stay consistent with discipline. The same thing can happen in a positive way. A child may constantly get rewarded for good grades. After a few times of not getting rewarded, the child may care less about getting good grades and not try as hard.

This is when extinction occurs. “Extinction in operant conditioning occurs if enough trials pass in which the operant is not followed by the consequence previously associated with it. ” (Robin Kowalski, Drew Westen,  2011) Extinction can also happen through overcoming addictions. Many people have gambling addictions. As far as operant conditioning is concerned, the person gambles and gets good results or “lucky streaks” by winning a lot of money. They become addicted to this outcome, and soon gamble all their money away.

The good consequence of winning money is no longer provided for them, and maybe they have to hit rock bottom and lose everything until they have overcome their addiction, or until it becomes extinct. Check your spacing! In conclusion classical conditioning and operant conditioning can be a part of our daily lives. We learn that over time if we do certain actions, positive or negative outcomes are a result. There is still a lot to learn about these types of conditioning, but it certainly helps us understand the human mind a little bit better. Works Cited: Always use a separate reference page!

Robin Kowalski, Drew Westen. (2011). Psychology, Sixth Edition. Retrieved from Robin Kowalski, Drew Westen, University of Phoenix website. All key elements of the assignment are covered in a substantive way. ?       The paper is  1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you discuss phobias and addictions as related to classical and operant conditioning. Phobias and addictions are two emotional difficulties which learning theorists can account for. | Content| Points Earned6/6 The paper is  1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you discuss phobias and addictions as related to classical and operant conditioning.

Classical Conditioning Essay