Toyota: Management

Toyota: Management.


1. Analyse the reasons for the problems faced by Toyota in 2009.

2. Identify Toyota’s capabilities and core competencies. How is Toyota placed internally to effectively implement the initiative proposed by Akio Toyoda?

3. What should Akio Toyoda do to return Toyota to profitability?



1. The reasons for the problems faced by Toyota in 2009 are briefly mentioned below (Connor, 2010).

Global economic crisis which initiated in 2007-2008 and reached its peak in 2009 resulting in plummeting demand in US which is one of the biggest markets for Toyota. Additionally there was slowdown in demand elsewhere including Japan and a rising yen further compounded the problems.

The aggressive growth path pursued by the company since the last two decades so as to become the market leader resulted in the quality standards becoming increasingly lax due to which the number of recalls showed a sudden surge.

The recall crisis of the company was further compounded by the fact that there were differing explanations on the origin of the problems resulting in recall due to which the consumers were not satisfied and hence consumers started looking for other products which offered superior quality and safety at similar prices and thus reducing demand at a period when the global economy was in a crisis.

2. Toyota’s primary core competency has always been the superior quality people tend to associate with their offerings. Additionally the supply chain of Toyota along with labour management policies is considered to be highly capable with emphasis on lean manufacturing. At the time of this crisis, Toyota was ill placed internally to implement the initiative proposed by Akio Toyoda. Akio demanded a fresh look at cars with a focus on manufacturing better cars which pass through more rigorous safety tests and additionally can inspire the drivers. Clearly this required a focus on innovation (particularly in designing) and a change in the mindset of the employees or else the company would have perished. However the existing culture bolstered by the decade long success that Toyota had witnessed was that of complacency and being laid back with a relentless focus on efficiency in the current set of activities (Hall, 2009). However the change in business environment required that the company undergoes an overhaul of the internal management culture so that employees and other stakeholders such as suppliers are better adept at adapting to the new business environment.

3. It is imperative that in order to return to profit, Akio Toyoda must focus on the core competencies of the company and must facilitate an environment where innovative practices can lead to superior quality cars. For this it is imperative that changes in the organization structure and the executive positions need to be made so that essentially the people at the top are those who can drive innovation and change (Taylor, 2012). Additionally prudence needs to be observed in the selection of suppliers so that quality raw materials and parts are provided to the company. Clearly the designing team needs to be much more innovative in their designs based on the demands of the customers in different geographies. Further the testing procedures need to be made more robust so as to ensure that the incidents of recall are minimised and the value proposition of Toyota brand is maintained.


Connor, M. 2010. Toyota Recall: Five Critical Lessons, Business Ethics, Available [Online] from: (Accessed on April 17, 2015)

Hall, K. 2009. Toyoda on Toyota: “Grasping for Salvation, Bloomberg, Available [Online] from: (Accessed on April 17, 2015)

Taylor, A. 2012. Akio Toyoda: Toyota’s comeback kid, Fortune Magazine, Available [Online] from: (Accessed on April 17, 2015)

Toyota: Management

Diabetes & Metabolism

Diabetes & Metabolism.


Describe about the Diabetes & Metabolism?



The best method that is used to deal with the understanding of any of the medical aspect or that of disease may be through Evidence Based Project or EBP. The problems that have been analyzed in the prior studies have been used to understand the current situation. In the present study the most important case that has been followed includes prevention of diabetes or the major cause of the same (Andreelli et al. 2009).

Tools and reflective discussion

The most effective tool that is used these days includes the measurement of the diabetes reading through fasting glucose. There are devices that are being made by a number of organizations to use the technology for the purpose of measurement. There are a number of clinical studies and advancement research that has been carried out. These days it has been found that there is an extended range of the people who are affected with diabetes. The range includes from old people, to adults and children (Dean & Galdas, 2009). The most important aspect is that of successful implementation of the programs. In such case it is important to find a technique or a method that is crucial. The best diagnostic tool that has been made is the machine that could be used in order to measure the reading of diabetes. As per the evidence based report it has been found that one out of twelve people are affected with the disease. Apart from this one out of two affected people are not aware of the fact that they are having the disease.

EBP is a process that includes five steps:

The question is to be analyzed that helps in getting the proper answer that is related.

The next step deals with the facts and the literature that forms the base of answering the question.

The results that have been received are then analyzed in order to receive the formal evaluation of the project.

There it is process of evaluation that is integrated with the use of evidence.

The result that has been found is then re analyzed in order to know about the future prospect and the improvements that are required in future.

The paper that has been conducted on similar ground made it evident in the previous cases that the awareness of the people was very restrained and confined (Kocurek, 2009). It is important in such case that there has to be awareness programs that is to be started along with the proper measuring techniques. The methods that are used helps in gaining the required knowledge effectively.

The intervention of the same could be included in the following:

The tools for intervention may be the ones that are important or the assistants in the health care sector. The help and the understanding that they have are crucial in regard to the increasing levels of the diabetic rate (Bosi, 2009). The nurses have a clear idea of the reasons that are pivotal for the increase rate and the negligence that are related to the patients. A shared decision making process would help for the lifestyle goals and the communication style.

The next method of intervention could be the understanding of the problem with the help of technology. The use of the modern machineries could be useful in dealing with the problem and to get the reading. Based on this there are methods of intervention that could be tried. In such case it is important to deal with the same prospects of technology efficiently (Tesfaye & Selvarajah, 2009). The computer based risk analyzing tools that are used can be another method of dealing with the technology.

There has been studies that has been carried out is US with the relationship that could be established with diabetes and cancer. In such case it is necessary for any organization or the medical practitioners to know about the previous study and to bring out effective medical process (Jaffe, 2015).


It may be said in this regard that there are a number of aspects that is to analyzed in order to know about EBP. The evidence that are received from the intervention process of diabetes could be used in order to know about the current scenario. There are a number of aspects that is carried out to know about the situation in the most effective way. In such case it is crucial to note that there has to be an integrated service and technological method that may be analyzed.


Andreelli, F., Amouyal, C., Magnan, C. & Mithieux, G. (2009). What can bariatric surgery teach us about the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes?. Diabetes & Metabolism, 35(6), pp.499-507.

Bosi, E. (2009). Metformin – the gold standard in type 2 diabetes: what does the evidence tell us?. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 11, pp.3-8.

Dean, H. & Galdas, P. (2009). The Social Scientist Within Us: Responsibilities to Diabetes Care, Education and Research. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 33(1), pp.14-15.

Jaffe, S. (2015). US initiative for prediabetes. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology.

Kocurek, B. (2009). Promoting Medication Adherence in Older Adults … and the Rest of Us. Diabetes Spectrum, 22(2), pp.80-84.

Tesfaye, S. and Selvarajah, D. (2009). The Eurodiab study: What has this taught us about diabetic peripheral neuropathy?. Current Diabetes Reports, 9(6), pp.432-434.

Diabetes & Metabolism

Critical Thinking: Social Media

Critical Thinking: Social Media.


Write an essay on Critical thinking for the usage of the social media?



This report has been prepared for Jack and Jill PLC Company. The company manufacture high quality automobile parts that are sold to the clients and companies. Management of the company proposes to analyse the relevance of the social media method for communicating with the clients and the customers for the company. This report highlights the relevance of effective communication process for the management to interact with the clients (Bragg, 2007).

Social Medias like Facebook and Twitter has become one of the efficient methods for interacting with the clients located at different locations. Through this process, the company can inform the clients about the tasks that have been undertaken by the management to the clients. In this method, it is possible for the management to communicate the product details with the clients and get a feedback from the users. With the help of the social strategies, it is possible for the company to analyse the expectations of the potential buyers. Through this method, the management can develop strategies for connecting with the clients and provide accurate information about the services that is required by the management (Koch & Richter, 2009).

Social strategies include developing effective communication process through which the company can interact with the clients and promote the services. This is one of ether effective methods for increasing the promotional activities, with the customers. The online communication process is quite reliable, fast, and cheaper than the other methods that are available for the clients to interact with the company. In order to increase the sales, it is essential for the company to develop positive and long term relationship with the potential buyers. This is possible through the development of social communication strategies.

Strategies for communication

The strategies adapted for communicating with the members have to include the below mentioned factors –

Analysing social challenges – Through this method, the company can reconnect with the clients which is done through the formation of the groups.

Strategy – This includes the plan through which the strategic changes and plans can be introduced by the company for improving the production activities for the management. This is done to reconnect the people and enable the members to share the details and other services associated with the task performance.

Analysing the challenges – The online communication process has to be effective and simple. This will help the company to approach maximum number of clients and provide the best information through which the marketing strategies can introduce by the management of the company (Piskorski, 2011).

The communication method has to outline the values through which the customers can be serviced with the best options related to the service. In this process, the social solution for the strategies has to be adopted and implemented in an effective manner. In this process, the lower costs and the willingness to increase the communication process has to be developed and implemented by the management in an effective manner. The profitable segmentation has to be analysed as this will help the management in choosing the better strategy through which the changes can be introduced by the company (Skul, 2008).

The process adopted for communication has to be simple and effective as this will help the management to reach out to maximum number of clients from different markets. Strategies adopted by the company needs to be tested as this will help in approaching the clients and convincing for the purchase of the products and services that will be useful for the product promotional activities. In this process, the business houses work towards helping the clients in handling the economic needs, rather than handling the social needs for the company. The social stage that has been developed by the company has to be communicated with the clients, and for these corrective measures has to be implemented by the management. Through this process it is possible for the management to introduce an effective step through which the changes can be introduced by the company. Through this process, the management of the company can develop an effective strategy through which the level of competition can be increased for the clients. In this process, an attempt has been made or develops defensive methods through which the changes within the business executing can be developed and implemented (Gotta et al., 2006).  


Business strategies and social communication process plays an important role in the development of the company. The challenges involved with the process have to be developed and implemented. This will help in improving the sales for the company.


Bragg, A.B. (2007). Reflections on pedagogy: Reframing Practice to Foster Informal Learning With Social Software. Retrieved: March 20, 2007 from:

Boyd, D. & Ellison, N. (2007). Social Network Sites, Definition, History and Scholarship.

Gotta, Mike and O’Kelly Peter (2006). Collaboration and Content Strategies: Trends in Social Software

Koch, M., & Richter, A. (2009). Enterprise 2.0: Planung, Einführung und erfolgreicher Einsatz von Social Software in Unternehmen (aktualisierte und erweiterte Auflage.). Oldenburg

Piskorski, M. J. (2011). Social strategies that work. HarvardBusiness Review, 89(11), 116-122.

Skul, D. (2008d). How To Use Social Network Marketing To Your Advantage. Relativity Business Technology, Solutions.

Critical Thinking: Social Media

Knowledge Management Systems: Ikea Company

Knowledge Management Systems: Ikea Company.


Describe about the Ikea Company and its goals and objectives?



The organisation that will be assessed in this paper is Google Inc. It is a technology firm that specialises in various different fields particularly in providing services related with searching the web. The aim of this unit is to assess how the chosen organisation manages the factors of communications, knowledge and information. In the context of the overall business processes and functionalities of the chosen organisation an assessment of communication knowledge and information will be completed. The tasks that will be done in this paper are as follows: understanding how to assess the needs of knowledge and information; creating strategies in order to increase personal networking in order to widen its involvement in the decision making process; be able to develop communication processes; be able to improve systems relating to knowledge and information.

Understanding how to assess information and knowledge needs

The term ‘decision’ refers to any resolution or conclusion that is reached upon by an individual or an entity after the process of thorough consideration. When assessing the factor of decisions that take place in a large multi-national firm such as Google, it is observed that such decisions can be divided into three levels.

assess information and knowledge needs

These are strategic decisions, tactical decisions and operational decisions. The different categories of decisions that needs to be taken in order to arrive at the clear description of what Google needs is dependent upon these mentioned levels of decisions.

In strategic decisions, the top executives decide the overall direction of the organisation i.e. decisions regarding acquisitions and product pricing. Decisions of pricing should be taken by the CEO (Barnes, 2002).

The tactical decisions include how to better utilise the human resources department, and how to make the production department more efficient.

The operational management decisions include making sure if an employee is following its task routines, and if an employee is abiding by the policies.

operational management decisions

Assess the internal and external sources of information and understanding available to Management for decisions taking

When assessing the sources of information, it is seen that the factor of quality relies upon the reliability, timing and cost factors associated with data/information itself. Following are some of the sources of information for Google. The internal sources include all those entities within the firm that provides it information, for e.g. middle-level managers and general employees. This information can be of their overall performances. The external sources of information are news media outlets and government.

The primary sources of data and information are those that are utilised, funded and/or managed by Google. These include its own research and development sector. Secondary sources of data and information include those entities that are not part of Google but whose data/information is utilised by it. These include research reports by different analysts. Tech firms must invest heavily upon their primary sources of information (Curry, Flett and Hollingsworth, 2006). Secondary sources of information are often not reliable for a firm for its attainment of the necessary data (Desouza and Hensgen, 2005). Here, information/data that is attained after a thorough research process is often costly but is usually deemed as reliable for the organisation. Such data more often comes from the primary sources. Formal sources of data and information for Google include meetings and emails that are sent within the firm. Information sources of data and information include chats or other personal communication that takes place between various different personnel within the organisation.

Strengths of the information sources

However, the managers and general employees can provide effective information about the firm and the activities of the firm in relation to different work opportunities. They have the real experience about the performance of the company. The research and development sector of Google has provided the clear as well as particular information about the process of the organization. The media outlets or different secondary sources are effective for the purpose of the process. Research report has provided accurate data about the process.

Weakness of the sources of the information:

Employees or managers of the organization often do not provide proper information about the company as it can cause harm to the reputation of the company. The Goggle has an image within the competitive sector of this particular industry. Therefore, the employees and managers of the research and development sector of this company will not provide proper information about the process of decision making of the organisation. However, the research report of different analysts may also have some gap with the data. Those researchers can face issues while collecting information from different sources.

Based on the selected organisation provide examples. 

Information Source


Formal Information

Project reports, meetings

Informal Information

Through informal chats, coffee mornings

Primary Information


Secondary Information

Market Research Firms

Internal Information

Customer records/ sales figures

External Information

Information acquired from internet searches from other search engines


Examine the information and knowledge needed to ensure effective decision taking by Management

The knowledge hierarchy associated with any tech firm such as Google is as follows: Data, this includes raw facts; Information, this is the refined from of data which answers various different questions; Knowledge, this is the application of information. The factor of information and knowledge can support the managers in making effective decisions. This can be done by better identifying the facts that are associated with the overall business activity. Better knowledge of information and facts lead to better decision making by the managers (Dossick and Neff, 2011). Here, the types of information along with their example are as follows: Strategic information relates with the information regarding competitor’s activity and the current trends in the tech industry; Tactical information can refer to the productivity of HR department or the efficiency of complaint management system; Operational Information can refer to an employee’s overall progress and its disciplinary record.

Characteristics of different types of information:

Strategic information helps to describe the activities of different competitors within the same industry. Strategic information helps to demonstrate the action of other competitive firms while operating the business activities.

On the other hand, tactical information can describe the technique or process of Human resource department of the organisation. This type of information helps to describe the efficiency of human resources within the organisation. This type of information helps to describe the complex system of management system within the organisation.

On the other hand, operational information can deliver the aspect of progress within the organisation. All these types of information are very much helpful for making decision within the organisation. These types of information help to provide several types of information within strategic, tactical level within the organisation.

The knowledge Hierarchy

The knowledge Hierarchy

The knowledge hierarchy is a list ofsuccessive factors required to comprehend something. The pyramid suggests that to acquire wisdom there needs to be an acquisition of Data, which is the largest quantity. Information is the data that has been given meaning. Knowledge is adding significance to that information. Wisdom is that dissemination of the previous factors on the hierarchy to discern or judge right from wrong, Bellinger (2004), Koohang, Haman, Britz (2008).

list ofsuccessive factors

Data: Data is documented (captured and stored) symbols and signal readings. Symbols include words (written and/or verbal), numbers, illustrations, and images (still &/or video), which are the basis of communication. Whereas Signals include sensor and/or sensory readings of light, sound, smell, taste, and touch.

Information: It is a message that contains appropriate meaning, insinuation, or contribution for decision and/or acts. Information comes from both present (communication) and past (processed data or ‘restructured picture’) sources. Fundamentally, the function of information is to help in making decisions and/or resolving issues or realizing an opportunity. (William D. et al 2006).

Knowledge: Knowledge is the acknowledgment (know-what), capability to act (know-how), and comprehension (know-why) that exist in or is contained within the mentality or in the brain. The function of knowledge is to generate or boost the worth for the project and all its stakeholders.

Relationship between information and knowledge:

The means to understanding the complex relationship between data, information, and knowledge is at the basis of data and information. The source of both is dual – activities and situations. Both activities and situations produce information, which is either gathered thus becoming Data, or become insensible (lost). Recall that information is at its core a message that is created from activities and situations. However, information exists in in storage media (database, print, video tapes, etc.) in the form of data, or in the human mind as knowledge (in its simplest form of know-what or the higher forms of know-how and know-why).

This also clarifies why people often categorize data and information, as well as information and knowledge as the same. However, they are not the same in terms of their conventional separate descriptions. These distinctions can help us formulate the comprehension in terms of organizing data, information, and knowledge within the business model or organization. The importance or value of descriptions cannot be overstated when it comes to implementation of organization activities and business plans (William, 2006).

Anthony (1965) stated 3 main types of that there are within an organization of decision levels of information and understanding that can be made:

Strategic- these are made by the top levels of the management and can affect the course in which the organisation goes.

Tactical- These Decisions are made to assist in implementing the strategic decisions they analyse the resources available including human capital and money.

Operational- it concerns with the day-to-day decisions about how the business runs and these are normally more accurate in terms of their result.

Anthony-triangle Anthony-triangle


Types of Information


Strategic Information

Expansion, project plans project details etc.


Tactical Information

Marketing decisions


Operational Information

What to produce, how to produce How Much to produce


Information and knowledge play a central role in contemporary businesses. Due to the difficulty of business processes individuals need elevated degree of knowledge, ability and proficiency (Menon, and Pfeffer. 2003).  As economy is altering directly, the capability to understand and answer to this alteration depends on the quantity of information and knowledge and business has. Each level of management has some kind of responsibilities and to take decisions they need knowledge and information. Being aware of the level of knowledge an organization has is complicated as it fluctuates according to implicit and explicit knowledge of each individual.  Even discovery and selecting which knowledge is maximum worth for the organization for decision making is also an unfeasible job.

Organisations are inclined to use appropriate new technologies to foresee the changers rather than to react to changes in business decision-making. The knowledge and information an organization has should be appropriately managed with knowledge management methods and region of recovering active business processes, new products and services development and strategic position improvement. This can be accomplished by developing knowledge which are exclusive, pertain the knowledge to innovate, economical position reinforcement, organisation’s stability maintenance. Information and knowledge are quite essential to decision making in Human resource management, Marketing & sales, Administrative systems, IT, departments of an organization (Menon, and Pfeffer. 2003).

Justify recommendations for the improvement of information and knowledge available to Organisations

Some of the justifications for recommendations for improvement are as follows: Google must invest more upon Research and Development procedures. This would allow it to attain better information from the available data thereby helping it in making better short and long-term decisions. Investment in R&D allows better productivity for an organisation (Gottschalk, 2007). Proper investment in R&D is essential for any organisation that wants to grow itself; this would also allow it to tackle the factor of competition more effectively (Kebede, 2010).

Google can make improved use of several of the methods available to them such as T charts and decision matrix by using these diverse options can become clearer and can help while making the final decisions.

The internal and external communication of the organization makes an impact only when beneficiary understand exactly the information of the correspondent. It depends on several factors that affect the operations of the organization. To improve its communication system Google must eliminate the hurdles of communication process. To transfer the information efficiently, the manager must eliminate all the hurdles at different stages of the organization.

There are two types of hurdle – internal and external. The major part of communication is interaction among employees and manager. Therefore, managers must build a calm environment to increase the efficiency of communication among employees. Also selecting the correct communication design also helps in improving the effectiveness of the organization. There are many designs that manager can apply within organizations such as face-to-face meeting, audio and videoconferences, telephone call and so on (King, 2008).

Also the latest developments in technology can help ensuring the communication process operates efficiently. The organization should also implement ways to listen the feedback from subordinates and consumers. This will help in improving the communication, along with ensuring that the support system works effortlessly. The manager plays an important role in maintaining the information system (William, 2006). They can install, update, monitor and manages business applications, along with controlling the database system to ensure that all database and service in organization are functioning appropriately.

Secondly, Google can increase the speed of its communication processes in the following ways. All information and messages should be transferred via local computer network. Also using intranet is a good way to develop efficient communication system. The Staff can use Skype and other messenger services to have real time conversation, thus saving a lot of time. The use of ICTs could help Google expand the market and enhance the quality of services, lower prices, and faster distribution of its services etc. CEOs can conduct customary meetings to emphasize the significant aspects and mission of that particular period of time, which can be either weekly or monthly. Also changing organizational culture is excellent way to improve the communication system of the organization.  A good culture connects the people of the organization internally as well as externally thus helping them work and communicate effectively.

Google needs to plan a strategy to improve and minimize the negative effects from the outside, which affect the organizations performance. The main issue is to determine which information and knowledge must be provided as it is often considered as confidential organizational resources. The ease in information management and analytics is highly important for successful operation of an organization. In today’sdigital times, the technology is developing at a rapid rate, thus this affects the way an organization uses and creates the information.

First, Google should identify the weaknesses and issues with the system and then start planning eliminate the barriers. All information should be stored in online cloud sharing applications, so the employees of the organization can access them through the Internet.

Also Intranet is a useful tool for an organization to share information between departments, the intranet helps to keep the information confidential sharing it with only the authorized people. Additionally, it is also used to alert the employees about the information through e-mail. It is important for an organization to conduct weekly meeting, as the meeting help in evaluating the work done throughout the organizations as well as they are a good platform while assigning work to the employees.  Google should focus on creating an organizational culture, which helps and supports information gathering from various sources. It is essential for the manager in strategic and planned decision-making.

In order to ensure the effectiveness of system, it is significant for Google to control operating and functioning of the system. Utilizing application software will help it integrate the database and create a report and survey. Management can effortlessly organize and run system more effectively as compared to the previous times. It ensures that the access to data is only provided to the authorized person. Furthermore, the structure of organization will transform as roles fluctuate. This will lead to integration of systems at the operational level. Data management is fundamental in digital age because it is the information, which supports the organization to be successful in business and compete with their competitors. 

Create strategies to increase personal and networking to widen involvement in the decision making process

2a. A stakeholder is an individual or an entity that has any stake in an organisation. These can be classified on internal, external, primary and secondary basis. The internal stakeholders are those who are directly employed by the company, these include the managers and employees. External stakeholders are those that are involved with the firm but are not directly employed by the firm, for e.g. suppliers and customers. The primary stakeholders are those who are directly affected by the results of the organisation. Secondary stakeholders those who have a stake in the decision-making process but are not directly affected by the results of the organisation, this includes NGOs and funding organisations.

However, the company can maintain effective relationship with the stakeholders of teh organisation through different tools of new media. Big data and cloud computing can help the stakeholders for gathering data about the company.  

 decision making process

For Google, its internal stakeholders are its employees as well as the management. The external stakeholders are its suppliers of equipment; this includes pc and furniture. The primary stakeholders are its workforce whereas the government of United States can be deemed as a secondary stakeholder.

Discuss how Organisations build business relationships with stakeholders identified using different methods of communication

The following communication plan can be utilised by Google to communicate with its stakeholders


What do you need to communicate

Who should communicate to them

Communication objective

Methods use to communicate

Time of the Communication


Political reforms

Senior level management

To negotiate better taxation policies

Letters, Calls



Organisational performance

Regional management

To allow better productivity



PC Supplier

Effective business operations

Departmental management

To ensure timely delivery of supplies




Consumer satisfaction

Senior employees, managers

To ensure better services are provided

Emails, newsletters, feedback



It is believed that customers tend to have the most positive or negative influence on the firm’s efforts. Here, the senior level management is likely to be most affected by the effort. Google must regularly utilise different factors of communication in order to work with stakeholders that have different levels of influence and interest in the firm.

Discuss how personal networking helps to involve identified stakeholders in the decision making process of your selected organisation

The term ‘personal network’ addresses a defined set of social contacts of a person among which the person could expect to stay in interaction. Personal networking can greatly assist the general workforce in their various different duties (Leidner, 2010). This is more often done for the attainment of support that is required for the conduction of a set of activities. The management of Google with its stakeholders can use personal networking in order to develop better business relationships. This can significantly affect the decision making process of Google.


Involvement in Decision Making Process


Staff Union- It can help in the determination of better wages


Decision making- It can help in the determination of the overall requirements of any specific organisational department.


Buying power- It can help in determining the various different buying capacities of different categories of customers.


Product supply- It can help in understanding the overall demands of the suppliers.



Personal networking, “is the result of each person’s “societal decisions” – which is the result of a set of “choices” by each person in the population” By using the personal network an individual operating at a decision making position in an organization is more capable to make decision due to the range of information that are available to the decision maker. When a manager who is in charge for decision making takes the effort of diverse individual through his personal network and is more capable to make reasonable decisions due to contribution from the diverse people that form his personal network (Davenport, 2000).

For example a manager is making decision, which involves issues related to personnel range. If he rejects anapplicant, who he considers is not capable for the job, he can take legal action the organization as well as the manager for defying laws related to equal employment opportunity. Thus if the manager who makes the decision took the required input from a lawyer who is a member of his personal network the situation could have been different.

Communications and Interactions

Lack of communication among stakeholders, which could be a major potential obstacle although open communication is a main tactical tool in defying problems. Stakeholders cooperate with each other and are associated to each other in diverse ways (Oliver, S. 2006).

Leadership and Commitment

Leadership, administration, mission and mainstay values must be combined in a stakeholder-inclusive culture and should there is noteworthy detachment in any area; reliability and reliability will be destabilized. In addition, every organisation necessitates an apparent long-term vision in order to secure stakeholder commitment, which needs short-medium term purposes and objectives to be placed and accomplished.

Interests and Influences

Stakeholders may work together and influence each other in order to change corporate behaviour. Restricted and provincial stakeholders who are concerned with the authority of production activities on their daily life and routine activities. International stakeholders are usually affected by observing and assessing plans which impact to make sure that the impact is not superior to what was considered previously.

Perception and impact of stakeholder and its management

Any techniques in management would have to face the same difficulty in its functioning particularly a negative perception. Inadequate management may also replicate to the failure to identify stakeholder and missing requirements specify that the force of project to stakeholders can be set into positive and negative effects (Oliver, S. 2006). 

Design strategies that can be adopted by your selected organisation to improve personal networking to widen participation and involvement in the decision making process.

Ideal Network

Make Plan

Current Network


The following network strategy can help in bringing improvement in personal networking at Google. This would widen the circle of participation for different stakeholders and would allow them to get involved in the process of decision-making.

 network strategy

Firstly, it is essential to define the desired opportunities that the management of Google wants. In this reference, the management must determine which networking mechanism may generate these opportunities. Here, it is also important to define instances where the firm will be able to generate opportunities and where it would turn those opportunities into values. Google must thoroughly examine its existing network and assess what opportunities does it generate and how it turns those opportunities into values.

From its existing mechanism, the firm has to identify ways through which it could reach towards the position of its ideal network. Finally, at the action phase, the firm has to implement the new findings that it has taken note of. Some of the ways through which the concept of personal networking may get improved are as follows: Google can allow better and more effective utilisation of different social networking tools at the workplace. Firms must emphasize the usage of latest tech tools for its workforce (Maier, 2007). However, with the changing aspect of online technology, this company can acquire tools of social media for enhancing the involvement as well as participation of the internal and external stakeholders of the organisation. Every employees and stakeholders use different tools of social media, like face book, twitter. Therefore, this particular organisation can improve the productivity and relationship with the employees of the organisation.

Better utilisation of tech tools result in better productivity from the employees (Moustaghfir, 2008). This must be done regardless of the fact that the tools being utilised are of their competitors. Google can also make it compulsory for its employees to utilise smart phones throughout their official duties, thereby benefitting them in their operational activities.

The stakeholder can be able to relate with the information of the company. Big data and new innovative tools can be very effective for the stakeholders in order to gather effective information about the company..                   

Developing communication processes

The existing processes of communication available at Google tend to address all of its needs that are relative with organisational communication. This is evident from the fact that the organisation is known to take many timely decisions regarding its overall business functionalities. Better and more effective communication methodologies allow an organisation to take timely decisions, this benefits the organisation in its overall decision making (Ruff and Aziz, 2003). The organisation has implemented many mechanisms that have allowed it to perform different communication methodologies such as formal, informal, internal, external, and so on.

Report on existing processes of communication

The internal communication methodologies being applicable at Google are as follows: For personal and informal communication, Google promotes its workforce to routinely interact with each other. Here, the aim of Google is to make the employees feel better connected with each other. Besides the informal way of communication, the organisation also has an efficient mechanism of online communication in place. This involves the utilisation of email ids of the working personnel.

Communication methodologies within an organisation must be made as simple as possible since this would allow the workforce to communicate with each other in an easy manner (Sandberg and Targama, 2007). Such ideas are often known to be utilised by the workforce to communicate with their peers as well as their senior staff members, including the management. An efficient internal communication network can enable an organisation to perform its overall tasks well, thereby making it better in terms of productivity (Sugumaran, 2002). The senior level management at Google is also known to conduct meetings on a regular interval. This is done in order to keep everyone updated in terms of the recent developments that are being taken place. Such meetings often end up with the production of newer set of guidelines that are implemented throughout the organisation.

Today, the mode of communication plays an important role in the successful exchange of communication in all organization. Itplays an important role in ensuring employees satisfaction, team cohesiveness and increase the stakeholder value of organization. The process involves sharing idea, information and feeling with other people.  The effective communication is a two-way process involves sending and receiving. The process can be illustrated as follows:

The communication process

Figure 1: The communication process (, 2013)

Google has designed and built an effective information system that helps the organization to analyse and review the internal and external information. Internally, the Management Information System (MIS)  (Hannsen, M.T et al 1999) department is one of the imperative departments of an organization. The main function of a MIS system is to collect, analyze and transfer data within all departments of the organization. The data can be obtained through internal or external sources stakeholder, public or media. Employees of different departments are responsible for collecting and analyzing the data and information from different sources such as consumers, retailers and local communities etc. Also each department makes a personal report about the financial performance, which is evaluated by the managers. These reports help the managers to plan, organize, direct and control the different activities of the organization.

In an organization, manager or leader have many modes of communication that include meeting and conferences, workshops and training events, internet, email, computer system and so on. The top tier managers will use email, memo or notice board to communicate with subordinates. To ensure that communication does occur, feedback from all the employees’ id the organization should be taken. Feedback can be taken through any verbal or non-verbal reaction and response, through the various modes of communication. All department of Google are linked together and make decisions together. Customer services department uses several surveys to find out what consumer wants and needs, thus the marketing department while promoting a project then uses this information. Besides, the technology department to create and design new services to meet the requirements of consumer (Hannsen, M.T et al 1999) also uses all this information.

The MIS plays a very important role to ensure the communication process of the organization operates smoothly. Board of directors conduct regular meeting to discuss and formulate new plans for the organization every week. All decision taken and policies formulated are then informed to all department and staff, so that they can be implemented quickly.

The external communication methodologies being applicable are as follows: The firm tends to stay in touch with all of its external stakeholders. This includes all of its suppliers, the government and especially the general customers. Here, Google tends to take different approaches when performing external communication. It is also known to stay in touch with the top-level governmental officials regarding their concerns with the organisation, this is done through meetings and phone calls. The suppliers of the organisation are communicated on a routine note. This is done by the method of calls and emails. The general customers are regarded as the biggest possible external stakeholders for Google. Here, any effective communication strategy being applied by the firm must take note of the fact that the consumer base of their products is situated worldwide.

Design ways to make improvements in the existing communication process of your chosen Organisation and explain how these improvements will be implemented to ensure greater integration of the communication systems

When dealing with such a large amount of customers, it is essential to utilise communication tools that can be easily accessed and used by the majority of the populace. Here, Google often uses emails and feedbacks in order to stay in touch with its vast customers. The usage of online tools for external communication processes is immensely utilised by many tech firms (Zeleny, 2005). This allows Google to better interpret the demands, desires and other relative points that are mentioned by the customers.

The mechanism of communication being utilised by Google can be deemed, as near perfect, still there are various improvements that can be attained by it. Some of the ways through which improvements can be made here are as follows: In terms of internal communication, it is often observed that the employees of Google invest a huge segment of their time in performing personal face-to-face communication.

Create a personal plan to improve your own communication skills

As a tech employee, we can improve our communication skills through the following personal plan:


Objectives (original)

What do I want to be able to do better?

Success Criteria

How will I recognise success?

How will I review and measure my improvement?

Actions/ Strategies

What methods will I use to achieve my learning objectives?


How will I practice and apply what I learn?


What resources do I need?


How much time do I need?


Objective 01


I must communicate with my peers on a quicker note


Quick flow of information would enable me to make timely decisions thereby improving my abilities of professional judgement.

I can utilise the latest technologies such as smart phones.

Implementation can be done by regularlyusing smart phones for my official duties.

I need the latest smartphone available in the market.

This must be done as soon as possible (within a month)


Objective 02


I must be able to perform effective verbal communication


Objective 3

I must perform through different tools of social media

Success can be recognised if my peers are better able to understand what my overall concerns are.




Different useful tools should be utilized by this organisation

I must participate at workshops, seminars or classes that deals with the topic of better verbal communication


Must be able to communicate through social media platforms to enhance the level of communication


I must practice my lessons from the seminars and classes that attended at the workplace.




Must organise different online forums 

I need to have the financial resources which I could invest at my chosen communication classes


Web, pc, smart phones

I may need at least a month.






One month



For a huge organization like Google, which has its present internationally, it is highly essential for it to have an integrated communication system within the organization. The organization should be able to effectively use several modes of communication while communicating internally as well as externally (Oliver, S. 2006).

The ways to integrate the communication system at Google is listed below:

Personal Email: It is one of the most convenient communication tools for all employees. The main advantage is that it is more convenient and saves a lot of time to contact other people. Also it is easily accessible, people can check their email accounts from anywhere throughout the world. Each department in Google should have a separate email address to contact and transfer information. This method is flexible for the organization and allows employees to send many documents at once. Moreover, it also creates a connection and integration between the different departments of the organization.

Power point Presentation: Presentation is also a useful technique to transfer the information, especially during meetings and conferences. Many complex ideas can be presented effortlessly and great effect with beautiful slide by Microsoft PowerPoint software. A good presentation is essential in creating a good impression among listeners.

Calendar notes: another effective communication tool is the calendar note. They are helpful in creating meeting appointment or task deadlines for employees. It also allows the organization to assign the main KRA for each task and manage the work done by employees every day (Oliver, S. 2006).

Meetings and group discussions: In any organization, team meeting and group discussion play an important part in the communication system. The main objective of the meeting is made known to the employees in advance. Meeting can be done for various reasons, some of the most common type of meetings are, project meeting, conference, teleconferencing and videoconferencing. It can be formal or informal depending upon the objective or the topic of the meeting.

Developing communication processes

Report on existing approaches to the collection, formatting, storage and dissemination of information and knowledge

Collecting data: for integrating it communication system, Google must build and design the customary communication system. Google should also include a formal form of report for all level and department of the organization. In addition, manager should eliminate the hurdles among different departments to support employees and collect information effortlessly. The organization is also equipped with the modern LAN network to connect all departments. Google should collaborate with best partners is FPT Telecom to provide a modern equipment to create better technology which will help in effective communication. A strong communication system can support the organization to improve the transferability of the information. Google should also undertake training program to train its employees about the new communication system. (Davenport, 2000).

Formatting data: Designing the customary format for current systems is crucial to ensure the effectiveness of the process. Google should conduct the formatting to keep information short and clear.
Disseminating information: with the developments in technology one of the latest ways of communicating, though the various file sharing system online such as Drop box, Sky Drive and Google Drive which are useful sharing information. These platforms allow each member of the organization to access information from anywhere whether it is personal computer (PC), (Davenport, 2000.) Smartphones even tablets computers. Depending on the level of management, an employee can access files, which are appropriate to his work.
Storing information: Improving database system to help Mobifone have larger space for data storage. With the advantages of technology, Mobifone has more storage choices from flash memory to network-area storage. The best solution is company may create a single central data warehouse where keep all-important data about customer, supplier or financial of company. Each staff member will have personal ID to access data without affecting the use of operational systems. In order to succeed, Mobifone is also investing the higher speed network access to support database system works smoothly.

The Information System being applicable at Google tends to have the following categories which serve different levels of the organisation: The operational-level systems, this is responsible for the collection of data and its formatting/processing; The management-level systems, this is generally responsible for the storage of data and information in soft and hard copies; The strategic-level systems, this is responsible for the dissemination of information towards different entities. The operational-level systems perform the conduction of research activities that are performed by the R&D department of Google. The management-level systems perform data storage along with managing the factors of sales, inventory control and budgeting associated with every department at Google. The strategic-level systems perform the distribution of data as well as mechanisms of profit planning, personnel planning and operational plans associated with Google.

Some advantages of the Information System used by Google are as follows: It allows better protection and management of data and it assists the users in terms of quick access to their desired information. Some disadvantages of this Information System are as follows: It is deemed as complicated by many of its official users and it is believed to be less flexible in terms of adapting changes within itself.

The management at Google can improve its Information System by performing the process of system re-engineering. This would enable the system to not only be more flexible for future changes but also be more effective throughout its current official usage. The process of system re-engineering involves the overall evolution of the presently functional system. This can only be done after a thorough analysis of the entire system is done in advance. This procedure would result in a significant amount of benefits since after the re-engineering process, the newly emerged Information System would be better in all aspects. It would be able to store more data, be easier to use and also more secure.

What changes can management adopt and implement to improve the current approach used for collecting, formatting, storing and dissemination of information and knowledge?  

In order to implement a strategy to improve access to systems of information and knowledge, Google must do the following:

First, process monitoring:

Firstly, its management must be able to thoroughly monitor the processes of overall business activities. Then, it must collect the relevant data that is required by it for the implementation of its strategy. It then needs to normalise and analyse the collected data, this can be done by performing a thorough analysis upon the data. Finally, it must review the entire process on a regular note. The correct performance of the mentioned steps would enable Google to implement its chosen strategies, which may allow the benefits of better data and password protection associated with its information systems mechanism.

Second process collection: The employees must be given training in order to ensure that the data is properly collected and used by employees. It will improve the efficiency of the system. In addition, it will facilitate effective flow of information from one department to another.

Third, process storing:

The information can be stored in hardware and software within the organization. On the other hand, information can be stored in cloud computing also. Internal and external stakeholders can access from the cloud computing from anywhere of the world. Therefore, Google can improve the storing process by utilizing cloud computing or big data. In this competitive sector, this organization can enhance the storing process of different types of information.

Fourth process distribution:

The information can be distributed to the members of the organization. Stakeholders of the internal and external aspect can be able to collect the effective information with the help of this cloud computing process or big data.

implement a strategy to improve access to systems of information and knowledge

To implement a strategy in order to impoverish in the systems of information, following steps need to be followed and some of these are as follows:

Step 1: First, business problem need to be identified.

Step 2: change is required in any business for the purpose of growth. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare oneself for the level of change.

Step 3: Knowledge management (KM) need to be created to handle the specific problem because they have the required expertise to look into the matter.

Step 4: Audit and analysis has to be performed in order to gather knowledge in the particular area.

Step 5: key features of the solution need to be defined.

Step 6:Knowledge management can be successful if proper implementations of building blocks are ascertained.

Step 7:Finally,knowledge can be inbuilt from people so a connection is needed to bridge the gap between the two variables.

The sixth step can be further be broken down into several parts:

It is believed that the existing resources to get the immediate return on investment by accessing various knowledge attributes.

The mining in various simple knowledge, which can be efficiently accessed.

New knowledge can be categorized in the most effective manner in an automatic mode.

The staffs and employees of the organization can collect effective information from the cloud computing and big data. These tools are new and innovative. Every business company has taken these new tools for enhancing the process of data collection within the employees.


This study focuses on the one of the Top MNCs in information and technology and that is, Google Inc. more emphasis has been given to know how the information and the knowledge work together hand in hand and finally the implement section is the vital most part which needs proper care and attention.

The range of various decisions taken depends upon the specialist of Knowledge management who are responsible to guide in the decision makingprocess. The raw data is converted into information by specialist and they know how to extract the internal as well external sources so that to give a brief idea of the business enterprise.

Stakeholders are the person who invests its capital in the business so healthy relationship had to be maintained with them so that they do not face any difficulty in the future run.

Communication is a flow of information, which is a two way process and it, actually means to share ideas, views and opinions so that there is no sort of problem should occur due to miscommunication.

Technology has a vital role in the current scenario and it’s changing every single moment. Creating a knowledge management team is high task, which is possible only if the top executives give their full support in solving out the corporate objectives, which are required in the end. Another feature while updating the knowledge management systems is that it can perform a tedious amount of task in just a single step, which is cost efficiency,and time saver. It is full proving plan after the organization explains its objectives and goals and ready to make the desired commitment of various attributes like, people as well as time. After the approval is made, the knowledge team can easily access and make full efforts in the completion of the work.

Reference list

Barnes, S. (2002). Knowledge management systems. Austalia: Thomson Learning.

Curry, A., Flett, P. and Hollingsworth, I. (2006). Managing information and systems. London: Routledge.

Desouza, K. and Hensgen, T. (2005). Managing information in complex organizations. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.

Dossick, C. and Neff, G. (2011). Messy talk and clean technology: communication, problem-solving and collaboration using Building Information Modelling. Engineering Project Organization Journal, 1(2), pp.83-93.

Gottschalk, P. (2007). Knowledge management systems. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Pub.

Kebede, G. (2010). Knowledge management: An information science perspective. International Journal of Information Management, 30(5), pp.416-424.

Leidner, D. (2010). Globalization, culture, and information: Towards global knowledge transparency. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 19(2), pp.69-77.

Maier, R. (2007). Knowledge management systems. Berlin: Springer.

Moustaghfir, K. (2008). The dynamics of knowledge assets and their link with firm performance. Measuring Business Excellence, 12(2), pp.10-24.

Ruff, P. and Aziz, K. (2003). Managing communications in a crisis. Aldershot, Hants, England: Gower.

Sandberg, J. and Targama, A. (2007). Managing understanding in organizations. London: SAGE.

Sugumaran, V. (2002). Intelligent support systems. Hershey, PA: IRM Press.

Zeleny, M. (2005). Human systems management. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific Pub.

Koohang, A. Harman, K. Britz, J. (2008).  Knowledge management: Theoretical Foundations. [Online]. Available at: . Accessed on: 16/5/15

Bellinger, G. Castro, D. Mills, A.(2004).  Data, Information, Knowledge and wisdom.[Online]. Available at: . Accessed on: 16/5/15

Davenport, T.H., and L. Prusak. (2000). Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know . Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Hannsen, M.T., N. Nohria, and T. Tierney.( 1999). What’s your strategy for managing knowledge? Harvard Business Review 77(2): 106–116.

King, W.R. (2008). An integrated architecture for the effective knowledge organization. Journal of Knowledge Management 12(2): 1367–1380

Menon, T., and J. Pfeffer. (2003). Valuing internal vs. external knowledge explaining the preference for outsiders. Management Science 49(4): 497.

Oliver, S., (2006). How to develop knowledge culture in organizations? A multiple case study of large distributed organizations. Journal of Knowledge Management 10(4): 6–24.

William D. et al (2006). When will we ever learn? Improving lives through impact evaluation. Washington DC: Center for Global Development.

Knowledge Management Systems: Ikea Company

Research Proposal (Spirituality And PTSD Recovery)

Research Proposal (Spirituality And PTSD Recovery).


Does the spirituality component added to treat PTSD shine a brighter light to the PTSD recovery compared to PTSD treatment only?



Spirituality has been one of the aspect that has made the belief of the people in a certain area stronger. The values and the skills that are especially attached to the same entails the belief in something positive and true. The inner- self play a dominant role in such cases. It is the belief and the faith that grows in the mind of the people relating to the healing power of spirituality. The connection that is created with god and the aspect of spirituality helps in monitoring trauma and to improve the condition of a PTSD person (Bonet, 2009).

Post traumatic stress disorder or PSTD has been mediated through spirituality but that has been partial. There has been loads of argument that has been proposed in the studies that has been carried out in the relative perception. However, the strength of spirituality and the relationship that may be established with people having PTSD may vary. It may not always lessen the stress that the person may exhibit. The present study is based on the effect of spirituality on the healing of PTSD people rather than just the treatment.

Investigation of the problem

The investigation of the current problem is to know about the effect of spirituality in dealing with the PTSD people. The present study tries to intervene in the aspect of the spirituality with respect to PTSD recovery rather than just PTSD treatment.

The importance of the study

The importance of the study is to know about the extent of help that spirituality can offer person with PTSD (Cheng & Gunasegaran 2009). There has been different research that has been conducted in order to know about the idea of the spirituality with respect to efficiency in recovering the people with PTSD. The importance of the current study is based on similar ideas.

Research strategy

The strategy of the research in to first understands the topic in the light of the information that is received. Based on this the literature and the review of the same is carried out. The next step is to understand the methodology that can be applied to get the final result. Finally it may be said that the findings may be done with the help of the methodology and the research conducted (Carolyn, 2009). The data that has been conducted leads to the finding and finally the discussion that be received.

Literature review

The literature review that is conducted for the present research sheds light on the theories and the concepts that are available. Apart from this there are number of aspects that can be drawn from the literature. It includes reviewing of the concepts and the knowledge along with the amalgamation of the same with the theories that can be persistent to support the thoughts (Dubin, 2009).  

Concept of spirituality and the history

Spirituality is as attribute in the life of people that may differ in terms of definition and meaning from one to another. Bradesi & Mayer (2009) opines in the psychological aspect it has been found that studies and beliefs show that apart from the visible side of the world there is something bigger. This bigger and greater aspect is the belief in something supernatural that positive in the power. Spirituality for one can be going to church and other religious institution while for others it may be thorough private prayer or meditation. It is also evident to mention that the sense of cognitive dissonance creates the faith in the people. They believe the fact that once there is a strong faith it creates the positive image in the minds of the people that cannot be negated with conflict (Leist, 2009).

Concept of PTSD (Post-traumatic stress disorder) and history

The concept of PTSD is related to the trauma that a person may have faced in life owing to an incident that is too stressful. Ying & Han (2009) put forward this may also include a personal experience that has been horrifying like rape or assault. The trauma becomes terrorizing with the worst experience that people face in their life. Most of these people face PTSD. Though there has been medication system that may improve the condition of the people but is highly negligible. The risk factor that may be included in the personal experience may be disastrous. Complete anxiety and depression may be the cause of the same. “Survivor’s guilt” is the major aspect of the problem that is found. However, it is also important to know that not only adults but children as well who are at the risk factor. Drug abuse or alcohol abuse may be another case that ca be one of the diving factor of the people with PTSD (Wiederhold, 2010).

Spiritual path and trauma of people

In the present situation it is necessary to understand that most of the most people make spirituality and religion close to each other. In such case the aspect of religion is taken into ground and this might not be a base of the necessary treatment that is required (Philip, 2009). There have been lots of studies that have been carried out to know the fact that most of the aspect that is required in understanding of the PTSD is related to religion. There have been tailored techniques and courses that have been used in the present day to heal and recover the people with PTSD to do better forgetting the shocks of the past incidents (Seaward, 2009).

Practice of spirituality in USA

However, with yoga or meditation the methods could be made better. This can help in case of getting the healing effect and to treat a patient. The recovery of the person essentially depends on the method of using the techniques that could treat a patient to come out a trauma to a great extent. On the contrary studies by Shiromani et al. (2009) prove that there can be a better healing effect that may be received from the spiritual teachings. There can be a positive effect on the people that defines the fact that all things cannot b defied or are not negative. There can be positive aspects in the life of the people after a shock or worst experience. The sense of identity is enhanced with the effect of the spirituality. The hope to do better in the present and future is accentuated with the involvement of spirituality and divinity (Nutt et al. 2009).

Bloom’s taxonomy

Bloom’s taxonomy can be dependent on a number of aspects. There is hierarchical order that is maintained. In the base there is remember is that of memorizing the information. Palm et al. (2009) mentions it is the remembrance of the fact but not the whole. Just above the remember aspect there is understand that deals with reframing the own words like that of translating, paraphrasing and summarizing. Then above understand comes apply that helps in translating the conceptual areas to the practical situation (Lewis, 2007). Analyze is the stage that is above apply that includes the identifying of the components and finally determining the inconsistencies and the consistencies. The stage above analyze is evaluate that includes the decision making process and understanding the views. The first stage at the top of the hierarchy deals with the combing of the theories, concepts, productivity and the originality (Lin, 2009).

In the current situation it might be said that based on the concepts that has been analyzed above spirituality might play a pivotal role in dealing with the recovery of the people with PTSD. The techniques like yoga, meditation, prayer might be of help to rejuvenate their mind and come out of the critical situation (Loucks, 2009). It is expected that the present research may help in relating the people of PTSD with that of the concepts that exist. In such the understanding of PTSD in respect to the local areas and people round the world would be interesting. 

Methodology description

In the present study, the methodology that has been used includes the research paradigm, research approach, the research strategy along with the sample size and the method of data collection.

The population of the sample is the people who are having PTSD. The sample is the representation of the population and helps in gaining the necessary idea of the entire population. The sample size has been taken according to the convenience of the research. It is not feasible for the researcher to target the entire population so the sample selected is to ensure the replicability. The survey has been conducted on 70 people with PTSD in America. The questionnaire is a close end quantitative one that would help in the collection of empirical data. This would help in getting the ideas that could be derived from the people who have faced the shocks in life. In such perspectives it is also important to know about the viewpoint of the customers. This is primary data collection method has been taken in the present case that could be helpful in getting the understanding of the present research. The analysis of the data collected has been from the empirical information that has been collected from the study and the quantitative data collection technique. Non – probability simple random technique has been used to choose the respondents. It is also important to mention the fact that even if few of the respondents do not wish to answer the survey they can do that. Therefore, the respondent would still be appropriate with that of the study. The study is a survey conducted on the people having PTSD.

The controlled mechanisms followed are that through the care centers or through the counselors of the people of PTSD, the respondents were approached. As per APA 1992 it was seen that no questions are made that may hurt the sentiments of the people. The group of Respondents was followed based on the same. As per the Data Protection Act, it is important to note that the data collected is reliable and the information is retrained to the researcher only. The information is only for the purpose of the present research.

The questions asked to the participant include the experience that they have due to which they have PTSD, the reason for the stress and the centers that they visit for treatment. The researcher asks usual question related to the above aspect with ease so that the participants are at ease. The control mechanism chose by the researcher is to analyze the extent and seriousness of the PTSD along with the limit of intuition. The ethical considerations of carrying the research are applied successfully.

Survey questionnaire

Q1) Which age group do you belong to?

  • 16-25 years
  • 26-35 years
  • 36-45 years
  • Above 45 years

Q2) Which gender do you belong to?

  • Male
  • Female

Q3) Do you believe in the existence of God?

  • Yes
  • No

Q4) Do you believe that god can be helpful in life to take you out of your scare?

  • Yes
  • No

Q5)Do you believe that spirituality can help you in gaining strength of life?

  • Yes
  • No

Q6)Do you practice yoga or meditation?

  • Yes
  • No

Q7)Do you watch motivational or spiritual videos?

  • Yes
  • No


Q8)Do you discuss your personal problem with your inmates of the centre?

  • Yes
  • No

Q9) Do you feel better after practicing yoga or meditation?

  • Yes
  • No

Q10)Do you read religious text?

  • Yes
  • No

Q11)Do you think meditation helps you in gaining confidence?

  • Yes
  • No

Q12) Do you think you would like to continue your mediation or yoga for the rest of your life?

  • Yes
  • No

Q13) Do you like staying in the community or centre you are at present?

  • Yes
  • No

Q14) Which are the religious institution that you often visit?

  • Yes
  • No

Q15) Are you happy with your present life?

  • Yes
  • No


It may be said that the present research would try to find the understanding of the relationship that is expected in between the people of PTSD with that of aspect of spirituality. It will found that the relationship that might be there is the mind of the people in America is relevant to spirituality or not (Johnson, 2009). The present study also tries to establish the fact what are the ways in which, traumatized people are helped to use the aspects of spirituality. The study also seeks to find the understanding of the people in regard to the ways of spirituality like yoga, meditation, prayer and others.

The questions will answer the research objective of the relationship of spirituality with that of the chance of recovery rather than only treatment. The data that is to be collected will help in getting the answer of the extent that spirituality will seek to make a person with stress positive. Ford (2009) refers in the similar aspect it is also necessary to understand the ideas that are related to the spirituality and the way people use the prospect to have a positive future.

The research also seeks to know about the spiritual self of a person and the way in which spirituality can help in forgetting the past incidents. It is necessary to find the time that they are engrossed in the spiritual activity. The research also seeks to delve into the ways and the centers that have helped the people with PTSD get the desired support. The study makes it evident to try to understand the facts like social support, coping skills, behavioral risks that may be, improved by the use of spirituality (England, 2009).

The findings from the research are that most of the PTSD people have faced traumatized outcome in their childhood. This is the major cause of the stress. The study proves the fact that most of the childhood experience is the prime cause of the stress. The findings from the survey ensure the fact that there are innumerable issues and practice of mental torture that is another cause of stress. However, in the findings the major gap of the research and the literature review is the lack of spiritual senses in people. Most of the people cannot have the negative perceptions regarding the stress and the spiritual side. The efficiency has been less in many countries and especially in USA.


The project would help in getting the answer to the hypothesis that has been found. In such case it is important to note the fact that the data collected will help to know about the perceptions that the respondents have and this would shed light on the research. It is anticipated that the understanding of the facts that are related to the spirituality may be useful to find the perception of the respondents. There is a special need that is at par with the understanding of the positivity that may be useful in getting out of the trauma. The stress that a person may face in the past life can be tailored through the method of spirituality. As per the data collected the final analysis in after the completion of the study can claim the importance of spirituality in treatment. The same can be used to get the extent to which spirituality can help in the recovery of the people with PTSD.

The anticipation that is related to the research could be helpful in getting the understanding of the adaptive understanding of the response. It may be said in the present condition that the aspects of the spirituality is predictive and are unique to the aspect of PTSD. The severity that is there in the PTSD can be dealt with the help of the understanding of the adaptive practices. The associations that are there in the present condition can help in getting the understanding of the maladaptive and adaptive processes. The positivity that is ensured with the dependence on spirituality can help in getting the view of the people with PTSD. The coping that is used by the spiritual process can be helpful in dealing with the negativities that has been faced by the affected people of PTSD. However, the extent of the positivity may vary from one person to another (Ellor, 2009).

The integration that may be helped with the spiritual understanding helps in getting the idea of the integration. However, the period of observation and the study that has been given has been less in order to conduct a study on large scale. In case of respondents this could have been more along with the extension of the time would have helped in getting the answer in a concrete method. It may be said that after conducting the literature review there have been certain ideas that have been received that entails that people with PTSD have faced better situation with spirituality. Even if there are fewer chances in case of the recovery however the treatment that is offered by spirituality is effective. Apart from the key limitation of not intervening of the personal details and the time frame of the research, the study has been made concrete.


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Bradesi, S., & Mayer, E. (2009). Experimental Models of Stress and Pain: Do They Help to Develop New Therapies?. Digestive Diseases, 27(1), 55-67.

Carolyn Smith-Morris (2009). The Cultural Context of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 16(3), 235-236.

Cheng., & Gunasegaran.,. (2009). Change we need to attain stress free living. Milton Keynes: AuthorHOUSE.

Diamond, A. (2009). Fixing ideas: how research is constrained by mandated formalism. Journal Of Economic Methodology, 16(2), 191-206.

Dubin, N. (2009). Asperger syndrome and anxiety. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Ellor, J. (2009). Multidisciplinary Views on Religion and Spirituality. Journal Of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 21(4), 239-240.

England, D. (2009). The post traumatic stress disorder relationship. Avon, Mass.: Adams Media.

Ford, J. (2009). Posttraumatic stress disorder. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press.

Jiang, Z. (2009). The Value and Research Methodology of Industrial Heritage. Null, 2009(4), 354-361.

Johnson, S. (2009). Therapist’s guide to posttraumatic stress disorder intervention. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press.

Leist, D. (2009). Developing a model of spirituality for the clinically diagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder patient on the seven-week residential unit of the Fort Thomas, Kentucky, Department of Veteran Affairs Medical Center.

Lewis, M. (2007). Multi-dimensional spirituality and vicarious trauma.

Lin, G. (2009). Higher Education Research Methodology-Literature Method. IES, 2(4).

Loucks, A. (2009). Is stress measured in joules?. Military Psychology, 21(Suppl 1), S101-S107.

Nutt, D., Stein, M., & Zohar, J. (2009). Posttraumatic stress disorder. London: Informa Healthcare.

Palm-Meinders, I., Box, F., de Craen, A., Blauw, G., van Buchem, M., & van der Grond, J. (2009). Diastolic Wall Shear Stress in the Internal Carotid Artery Is Associated with Different Cardiovascular Risk Factors than Systolic Wall Shear Stress. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 28(2), 185-190.

Philip F. Sheldrake (2009). Spirituality and Social Change: Rebuilding the Human City. Spiritus: A Journal Of Christian Spirituality, 9(2), 137-156.

Seaward, B. (2009). Managing stress. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Shiromani, P., LeDoux, J., & Keane, T. (2009). Post-traumatic stress disorder. New York: Humana Press.

Wiederhold, B. (2010). Coping with posttraumatic stress disorder in returning troops. Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Ying, Y., & Han, M. (2009). Stress and Coping with a Professional Challenge in Entering Masters of Social Work Students: The Role of Self Compassion. Journal Of Religion & Spirituality In Social Work: Social Thought, 28(3), 263-283.

Research Proposal (Spirituality And PTSD Recovery)

Detecting Diabetes Complications In Children

Detecting Diabetes Complications In Children.


Identify a research or evidence-based article that focuses comprehensively on a specific intervention or new diagnostic tool for the treatment of diabetes in adults or children?



Diabetes can be defined as metabolic disorder that increases the blood glucose or blood sugar level of a person either by decreasing the production of insulin or by making the cells less responsive to the hormone (Bertalan & Gregory, 2011). With the advancement of time more and more adolescent and children are diagnosed with the metabolic disorder. Most of the children and adolescents who are detected having diabetes have the type-1 diabetes. In the United State, every year around 13,000 children are known to be diagnosed with type 1-diabetes (, 2015). But now, children and younger people are also diagnosed with type-2 diabetes. The risk of being detected with type-2 diabetes increases in children with obesity.

Haemoglobin A1c (A1C) has been recommended by the American Diabetes Association to be used as a tool for diagnosing diabetes and to detect the subjects who are at risk of getting the disease in future. The recommendation was granted on the basis of studies carried out on adults. However its application to the children and adolescent are lacking. So, in this article, the authors have studied the implication of A1C diagnostic tool on the obese paediatric population.

Research design and methodology:

The samples for the study was chosen based on the following inclusion criteria-

The subjects must be obese.

The subjects were not under medications that alter the blood glucose level.

They are not known to have type-1 or type-2 diabetes.

Around 1156 children and adolescents with obesity were chosen following the inclusion criteria. Among them 40% were male and 60% were female. At first, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to detect the status of glucose tolerance of the population, which would be the indication of the pre-diabetic condition. In order to determine the plasma glucose level YSI 2700 Stat Analyser was used. Radioimmunoassay was performed to detect the fasting plasma insulin and an Auto-Analyser was used to measure the lipid level. On the same day of performing OGTT, A1C levels were also measured using an assay which was based on the latex immune-agglutination inhibition methodology. In order to establish a relationship between A1C and type 2 diabetes pathogenesis the β cell function and insulin sensitivity was checked based on the following index-

The Insulinogenic Index

The whole body insulin sensitivity index

The disposition index.

Repetition of the tests was performed after a period of 2 years with 218 samples.


Depending on the observations, the samples were classified based on the A1C category-

Samples with normal glucose tolerance- 77% (A1C< 5.7%)

At risk of diabetes- 21% (A1C: 5.7- 6.4%)

Sample with diabetes- 1% (A1C > 6.5%)

In case of diabetes category-

Pre-diabetes- 47%

Type 2 diabetes- 62%

The threshold that was selected in order to identify type 2 diabetes was A1C 5.8% with a sensitivity of 67.7% and specificity of 87.64%.


From the results, the authors have found that A1C of 6.5% use would not clearly detect the presence of type-2 diabetes or pre diabetes. According to the authors, the A1C could be applied in order to detect type-2 diabetes along with 2-h glucose and fasting as a clinical tool but it cannot be recommended to detect pre-diabetes in case of children and adolescents.

Other studies carried out in adults had shown that A1C could be used in making predictions regarding type-2 diabetes even in persons without the disease (Kleber, 2010). But concerns have been raised regarding the applicability of A1C for detecting type-2 diabetes in pregnant women and aged persons (Tuomilehto, 2011). Again the use of A1C is associated with the risk of over diagnosis in patients with anaemia and with rapid glycosylation (Yang, 2010).

Overall, the authors have concluded that an A1C of 6.5% as suggested by the American Diabetes Association underestimates the issue in case of the diabetes and pre-diabetes children and adolescents with obesity. However the low specificity and sensitivity indicate that A1C is a poor diagnostic tool regarding the diagnosis of pre- diabetes and diabetes in adolescents and children with obesity.


With the increasing rate of diabetes in children and adolescents proper diagnostics tools are needed in order to detect the disorder in the children as well as to detect the children who are at risk of developing the metabolic disorder. Again proper evaluation of the tools regarding their applicability is also very important. So, in this context, the study carried out by the authors is very relevant.


Bertalan, R., & Gregory, J. (2011). Detecting diabetes complications in children. Practical Diabetes,28(8), 352-357a. doi:10.1002/pdi.1634,. (2015). Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?. Retrieved 21 May 2015, from

Kleber, M. (2010). Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance in obese children and adolescents. WJD,1(4), 129. doi:10.4239/wjd.v1.i4.129

Nowicka, P., Santoro, N., Liu, H., Lartaud, D., Shaw, M., & Goldberg, R. et al. (2011). Utility of Hemoglobin A1c for Diagnosing Prediabetes and Diabetes in Obese Children and Adolescents.Diabetes Care, 34(6), 1306-1311. doi:10.2337/dc10-1984

Tuomilehto, J. (2011). A1C as the method for diagnosing diabetes – how wise is the choice?. Primary Care Diabetes, 5(3), 149-150. doi:10.1016/j.pcd.2011.07.005

Yang, W. (2010). Diagnosing diabetes using glycated haemoglobin A1c. BMJ, 340(may17 2), c2262-c2262. doi:10.1136/bmj.c2262

Detecting Diabetes Complications In Children

Behavioral Heuristics

Behavioral Heuristics.


Write an essay on Behavioral Heuristics?


All the fields of life move steadily into a world of behavioral psychology where this gives an inner sense of understanding that there is a larger level of involvement than on the interface level. I work in a training environment and I find this approach quite a no. of times where we take feedback and behave in a certain way which can lead to answers which can resolve a lot of issues. Sometimes these aspects when they get resolved become aspects which can rule the others above the others.

I generally take a feedback after all my training sessions and on one day I have got into asking the participants how they felt using the technology and what were their pre – assumptions even before they have joined the training. I have assumed that the answers would be very positive as the system was designed focusing on their daily activities and to reduce the amount of work they normally do and also reduce the average time taken to perform their activities however to my surprise people reacted in a mixed way as they did not know as to what was happening and they were believing other’s recommendations.

We had to change the way in which the process was being taught to them as we implemented a way in which we demonstrated that models of human behavior and design of systems had an increased focus on people which was an important modelling behavior for the designers to implement their systems in the community.


J.H. Barnes Jr, “ Cognitive Biases and their Impact on Strategic Planning”, Strategic Management Journal 10. No. 2 (1984). 95 – 106.

H.A. Simon, Administrative Behavior (New York : Mac Millan, 1957).

Behavioral Heuristics

Employee Compensation: Industrial Management

Employee Compensation: Industrial Management.


Describe about the Employee Compensation for Industrial Management?



Motivation is derived from the word motive. By the word motive it means needs, desires or wants that the individual expects from within. It is a complete procedure of stimulating the actions of the employees who are working in the organization is order to accomplish the goals. Employees working in the organization are motivated very frequently by their manager. This will help them to become more productive, more engaged and more interested in doing their work, so basically it is the job of the managers to motivate the employees to make them in doing their jobs well.

Motivation-key to improvement in performance

It is an old saying that a horse can be taken to the water but the horse cannot be forced to drink water. Same is the case with the human beings they will do only that work for which they are interested to do or it can be said that they are motivated to do the work. They must be motivated either by themselves or with the help of some external methods.

Now the question is that whether the employees working in the organization are self-motivated or driven by external stimulus. If they are not self-motivated then be motivated. So now it becomes the duty of the manager to motivate the employees. So for motivation there can be some skill that can be learnt. This is very much essential for any business to run smoothly.  Performance of the employees is considered to be a mixture of ability and motivation, therefore:

Performance in job = function (f) x ability x motivation

 Ability depends upon education, experience as well as the training of the employees. Any improvement in the ability undertaken by the manager is a slow and a long process, whereas motivation can be improved quickly. Following are major strategies of motivation that can be used by the manager:

Higher expectations from employees

Maintaining discipline in the organization

No biasness among the employees

Satisfying the needs of the employees

To set the goals effectively.

The above stated strategies may vary from situation to situation in every organization. It is usually found that there is slight gap that exist between the actual state and desired state of the individual. The managers today are trying to reduce the gap by adopting different kind of strategies.

Motivation is adopted by the motivator so that he can easily complete the work and can achieve the desired goals set by the manager. The manager can also carry on research in order to evaluate that what are the needs of the individual and how can they be motivated. it can be explained with this example, a famous gas company Minneapolis Gas Company that had 31,000 men and 13,000 women workers made a long research for a period of 20 years in order to evaluate that what are the desired of the employees that are working in their organization. This research gave them fruitful results and they came to know that both the men and women workers wanted that there should be security of their job for which they are working hard. Other than this there were other three factors that were found after the research:

Advancement in the technology.

Work type assigned to a particular worker.

The company should be reliable and authentic. 

The detailed arguments against merit pay are as follows

Rewards with the fear of punishment may lead to declining of performance and thus it will affect the intrinsic form of motivation. When a manager makes stress on the employee that it will get rewards from his work done then employee gets burdened and thus becomes least interested in its work.

The amounts that are available for distribution are small so they cannot act an incentive. They have always been a matter of question in the merit pay schemes

The requirements that are needed for success are difficult to achieve.

Money as in itself will not lead to sustainable motivation. Rather the intrinsic motivation that is provided by the work itself will last longer.

Every employee reacts differently to any forms of motivation. Thus it cannot be assumed that money will motivate every employee equally or not.

These merit pay schemes can create dissatisfaction if they are unfair, inadequate or not managed properly.

The policy of “carrot and stick” :- the best motivational system for an organization :

There is a traditional framework as well as an argument for this above stated myth. It consists of telling the employees two particular statements:

“If you will do this particular work, then you will get the bonus or incentive for the same.

“If you will not do this particular work then you might get an unsatisfactory appraisal or you may also get fired from the company”.

The author of the book The Truth about Managing People, Stephen P.Robbins says that the system of rewards has nothing to do with the performance of the employees. A good and a hard working individual will surely give out its best performance, so it is nothing to do with the method of paying rewards only to that employee who will complete the work on time.

A worker is more productive in his work only when he is happy:

According to this particular theory an employee who gets flexibility in his working hours, facilities of workout and generous amount of packages as benefits are the happiest employees in an organization. All these are considered to be excellent benefits and they have nothing to do with incentives that an employee gets for better performance. So it is basically a myth in the minds of the people in context of motivating the employees.


Motivation is a process that depends upon the needs related to growth of the employees. This motivational process gives benefits over a period of time in the organization and hence it acts an internal engine for the whole organization. This is because the personal growth acts as a final reward in the process of motivation. An employee can be motivated by giving them more challenging work and with this the employees can accept the sense of responsibility. The employees working in the organization acts as the best asset for the company. If the employees are not motivated then it will affect the productivity of the organization to a great extent.


Gerhart, B., & Bretz Jr, R. D. (1994).Employee compensation. Wiley, New York.

Longenecker, C. O. (2011). How the best motivate workers.Industrial Management, 53(1), 8-13.

Cleary, T. J., Durning, S. J., Gruppen, L. D., Hemmer, P. A., & Artino Jr, A. R. (2013). Self-regulated learning.Oxford textbook of medical education, 465.

Davenport, T. H., & Nohria, N. (2012). Case management and the integration of labor.Sloan Management Review.

Song, J. (2014). Subsidiary absorptive capacity and knowledge transfer within multinational corporations.Journal of International Business Studies, 45(1), 73-84.

Moradi, H., Masrur, F. F., & Hossini, R. N. S. (2014). Examining the relationship between sports participation motivation and goal-orientated behavior at adolescent female athletes.International Journal of Sport Studies,4(3), 271-276.

Elliott, P. H., & Folsom, A. C. (2013).Exemplary Performance: Driving Business Results by Benchmarking Your Star Performers. John Wiley & Sons.

Curado, C., Henriques, P. L., & Ribeiro, S. (2015). Voluntary or mandatory enrollment in training and the motivation to transfer training.International Journal of Training and Development.

Employee Compensation: Industrial Management

Survey On The Renewable Energy Consumption And Sustainability

Survey On The Renewable Energy Consumption And Sustainability.


Discuss the literature survey on the renewable energy consumption and sustainability?



Consumption is the key factor to achieve sustainable development as unsustainable patterns of consumption such as overexploitation of renewable energy resources, and using non-renewable resources are the major reasons for the deterioration on global environment. With the increasing trend in development, the expenditure of energy consumption per capita has increased in the last fifteen years by an average of one-third (Apergis and Payne, 2011). The consumption growth is expected to increase at a fast pace until 2020 at the same growth in GDP rate. Moreover, the advancement in technology has reduced the intensity of energy and material in products considerably. However, these advantages have been outweighed by the increasing volume of goods consumption. This paper draws attention to the individual decisions of consumers on energy demand in context of sustainable development.

Literature survey

Renewable energy consumption

Ayoub and Abdullah (2012) defined sustainable consumption “ as the goods or services that will address the basic needs of customers minimizing the use of natural resources and toxic materials which in turn reduce the emission of wastes and pollutants to environment and lifecycle so that the needs of future generation are not jeopardised.

Sustainable consumption is viewed as the process that involves negotiation and development of consensus. This significant process at some areas is seen to fight with the conventional market operations. Banos et al. (2011) opined that, all actors must be willingly engage in the discourse in order to achieve the new consumption strategies.

According to Connolly et al. (2012), sustainable consumption has to be comprehended as a societal field of action, which is further characterized by the three significant interacting areas of action.

Individual area of concern– This section is divided into two sub-areas i.e. demand-side area and informal area. Demand side area considers the household consumption activities and professional procurement activities of both the public sector and large scale private industries. The informal area include the private consumers who undertake informal activities i.e. informal work that is unpaid (Eichholtz et al. 2013).Informal activities are not visible on the level of demand and hence not oriented to market.

Supply side area of action- This include activities of governmental bodies and companies to offer sustainable services, products and information.

Socio-political area of action– This include activities to develop a general framework of governance for both by the governmental bodies, organizations and associations. Their activities consider supply-side, structural and individual area of action.

According to GhaffarianHoseini et al. (2013), the above three actions are interrelated to each other. The consumer behaviour rather their consumption activity particularly depends on an appropriate infrastructure (i.e. availability of energy efficient household tools), supply side activities and socio- political measures (emission trading systems or existence of eco-labels).

There has been a strong agreement among the experts and claims that awareness among the consumers is not sufficient for the implementation of sustainable consumption behaviour but brings about a significant change economic and social structures. As referred by Graves et al. (2011), the process of consumption is a socially constructed but historically changing mechanism. According to Hashim and Ho (2011), sustainable consumption is an ecological way of purchasing and using goods. The consumption behaviour of individual and society is highly influenced by a number of factors such as system infrastructure, specific lifestyles, routines and habit, and their social environment.

Approaches to explain renewable energy consumption

According to several Psychologists, energy-related behaviour highly force the role participation, peer networks, social context and macro level factors that contribute to the use of renewable energy resources. There is an ever-increasing debate on “social dilemma” in relation to consumption of energy and usage of green electricity (Howard et al. 2012). In both the situation, the behaviour of consumers and their cumulative behaviour mainly counts. Meanwhile, the social psychologists are focussed on extending their models beyond the light of conventional individualistic and significantly focus on the framework of holistic socio-ecological factor.

According to the Kaygusuz (2012), a famous sociologist, who state that users does not consume energy rather they utilize to raise their family or operate business. Moldan et al. (2012) also opined that, users have little responsibility and engagement in sustainable consumption due to the centralised system of supply. In argument, Moriartyand Honnery (2012) stated that, the irrational behaviour of energy users acts as a barrier to energy efficiency and sustainability.

Energy services

Paetz et al. (2012) argued that determinants of energy consumption depends extensively on the renewable energy services i.e. whether the service dealing with heating or electricity, lighting or washing. Surveys on energy related preferences primarily refers to the choice between product alternatives i.e. replacement of products with renewable and energy efficient alternatives. Issues related to transport, in particular focus on the choice between transport or vehicles and less sustainable energy alternatives. Panwar et al. (2011) conducted empirical analysis to evaluate the affect of energy label on purchase decisions of automotive customers. The conjoint analysis shows that, the purchase decisions of customers are not influenced by the energy label hence shows they are less prone towards using the renewable energy resources.

Empirical study on household appliances

A conjoint analysis has been conducted by Richardson (2013), to study the consumer preference on using renewable energy alternatives in replacement to their household products. The study investigate the relative and significant willingness of consumers to pay for energy efficient products built out of renewable energy. Shi and Chew (2012) made an analysis on the impact of environmental certification on customer purchase behaviour considering the case of a wood furniture. The outcome of conjoint analysis shows that environmental certification is viewed as a positive product attribute, however the product preference of typical customers outweigh the importance of environmental certification.

Stambouli et al. (2012) presented a frequent argument against the efficiency standard of sustainable products, in which the energy based product that represent maximum choice of customers is prohibited which in turn reduce the customer utility. However, it has been found out that, refrigerators that possess efficiency standards leads to increased utility for the average customers. In argument, Tugcu et al. (2012) states that his study on sustainable consumption claims that, significant impact of incentives on their payment such as loans or rebates can influence the choice of residential customers  paying no heed to the level of efficiency in refrigerators.

Green electricity

The research on green electricity has been conducted by Apergis and Payne (2011) within the BMBF funded projects, on two consumer groups i.e.  green electricity and solar thermal. In this particular research, randomly selected pedestrian were asked to about their preferences and motivation of purchasing and using renewable energy resources. It has been noticed that, buyers of green electricity are less sensitive to price in comparison to a group of non-buyers. None of the surveyed groups could estimate the difference accurately on asking them the difference in price between green electricity and conventional electricity. Ayoub and Abdullah (2012) conclude that, there has not been any effective marketing of green electricity with successful presentation of information. For instance, buyers of green electricity overestimate the price to four fold, however, non-buyers assume ten-fold higher price of green electricity on average. In argument, Banos et al. (2011) presents a conjoint analysis drawing attention to the preference of electricity customers. According to his research, customers pay more attention to the criteria of energy mix, location where electricity is produced and cost. On the other hand, specific attributes like the pricing model, supplier of electricity, the duration of contract and eco-certification plays a secondary for majority of private clients. According to his findings, consumers only prefer fixed price for a time of day or seasonal rates and they do not prefer to get locked in lengthy contracts.

 In addition, Connolly et al. (2012) analyzed the integration of renewable resources, its price, support to conservation programs, outages and customer services. The outcome of study states that, the willingness of customer to pay for reliability is an essential component of rational planning strategy for investment in electricity generation and transportation. It also acts as the key determining factor on optimal pricing schedule of electricity. Eichholtz et al. (2013) extended the conjoint research by Connolly et al. (2012), and based on the previous studies, he analyzed other significant attributes like type and amount of renewable energy, compound with other services, charitable contributions, minimization on voltage fluctuations, billing options, etc.

 The argument raises on evaluating the outcome that states, customers are highly concerned about the renewable energy offered by the suppliers. According to the estimation, customers are willing to pay on an average of 2.1 cents per KwH for a supplier who make use of 100% hydro energy than for the supplier who uses no renewable sources. Similarly, customers pay 1.48c more for suppliers using 100% wind than the ones with no renewable energy.

Studies conducted by Graves et al. (2011), shows that consumers do not justify their decisions of renewable energy consumption by the concern of sustainable environment, even if their consumption pattern decreases the negative impact. In argument, Hashim and Ho (2011) demonstrate that consumers purchase more environmentally sound products. Now against the backdrop of the significant concepts like lifestyles, literature survey reveal indicate that based on the different need areas, the consumer behaviour differentiate significantly. Graves et al (2011) highlight on the fact that, the purchase behaviour of consumer is not predictable between the aspects of “green” consumption and need areas. As a conclusion, Kaygusuz (2012) state that different products and systems has to be considered separately and findings of one system is not transferred without the difference is perception of consumers.


The literature survey confirmed the hypothesis stating that transparency respective to the cost of energy utilization is positively correlated with the behaviour of energy saving. This has been shown through the different measures such energy labels and energy bills.

Prices of energy plays a significant role and positively correlated with sustainable usage of energy. Higher the price of energy, the household becomes more responsive to the energy saving criteria. The conjoint analysis made by the authors’ on significant willingness of customers to pay for A-labelled energy efficient products depends on the different degrees of their energy efficiency (Moldan et al. 2012).  A study presented in argument focus on the impact of incentive payment method, such as loans or rebates influence the choice of customers on sustainable consumption energy efficient products. Moreover, from the literature review conducted, it is evident that, adoption of sustainable consumption is not possible without altering the framework conditions such as (infrastructure, price, etc). It is essential to analyze the individual consumption behaviour in a given context of regulation and supply factors (Moriarty and Honnery, 2012).  However, the literature does not generate any clear hypothesis till now. Although, there are certain agreement on the relevance of consumer lifestyle and attitude, but these factors has not yet been represented as the significant determinant of renewable energy consumption and their contribution towards sustainable consumption.

Reference List

Apergis, N., and Payne, J. E. (2011). The renewable energy consumption–growth nexus in Central America. Applied Energy, 88(1), 343-347.

Ayoub, M., and Abdullah, A. Z. (2012). Critical review on the current scenario and significance of crude glycerol resulting from biodiesel industry towards more sustainable renewable energy industry. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(5), 2671-2686.

Banos, R., Manzano-Agugliaro, F., Montoya, F. G., Gil, C., Alcayde, A., and Gómez, J. (2011). Optimization methods applied to renewable and sustainable energy: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(4), 1753-1766.

Connolly, D., Lund, H., Mathiesen, B. V., Pican, E., and Leahy, M. (2012). The technical and economic implications of integrating fluctuating renewable energy using energy storage. Renewable Energy, 43, 47-60.

Eichholtz, P., Kok, N., and Quigley, J. M. (2013). The economics of green building. Review of Economics and Statistics, 95(1), 50-63.

GhaffarianHoseini, A., Dahlan, N. D., Berardi, U., GhaffarianHoseini, A., Makaremi, N., and GhaffarianHoseini, M. (2013). Sustainable energy performances of green buildings: A review of current theories, implementations and challenges. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 25, 1-17.

Graves, C., Ebbesen, S. D., Mogensen, M., and Lackner, K. S. (2011). Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO 2 and H 2 O with renewable or nuclear energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(1), 1-23.

Hashim, H., and Ho, W. S. (2011). Renewable energy policies and initiatives for a sustainable energy future in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(9), 4780-4787.

Howard, B., Parshall, L., Thompson, J., Hammer, S., Dickinson, J., and Modi, V. (2012). Spatial distribution of urban building energy consumption by end use.Energy and Buildings, 45, 141-151.

Kaygusuz, K. (2012). Energy for sustainable development: A case of developing countries. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(2), 1116-1126.

Moldan, B., Janoušková, S., and Hák, T. (2012). How to understand and measure environmental sustainability: Indicators and targets. Ecological Indicators, 17, 4-13.

Moriarty, P., and Honnery, D. (2012). What is the global potential for renewable energy?. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(1), 244-252.

Paetz, A. G., Dütschke, E., and Fichtner, W. (2012). Smart homes as a means to sustainable energy consumption: A study of consumer perceptions. Journal of consumer policy, 35(1), 23-41.

Panwar, N. L., Kaushik, S. C., and Kothari, S. (2011). Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(3), 1513-1524.

Richardson, D. B. (2013). Electric vehicles and the electric grid: A review of modeling approaches, Impacts, and renewable energy integration. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 19, 247-254.

Shi, L., and Chew, M. Y. L. (2012). A review on sustainable design of renewable energy systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(1), 192-207.

Stambouli, A. B., Khiat, Z., Flazi, S., and Kitamura, Y. (2012). A review on the renewable energy development in Algeria: current perspective, energy scenario and sustainability issues. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(7), 4445-4460.

Tugcu, C. T., Ozturk, I., and Aslan, A. (2012). Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth relationship revisited: evidence from G7 countries. Energy economics, 34(6), 1942-1950.

Survey On The Renewable Energy Consumption And Sustainability

Quality Metric: Management

Quality Metric: Management.


According to Philip Crosby “Quality is Free.” As a leader of a company, how will you set the operating budget for your Quality Department/Team and how will you decide how much to spend on Quality initiatives. What performance measures will you rely upon? Please remember to include your references.


Quality is an inventory performance and health indicator. It was first developed by a group of materials managers who sought to find a way to measure how company’s inventories are in alignment with the demand for the products (see Note 1). The QUALITY metric approaches inventory management from an inventory valuation perspective, relative to the projected usage value. This method effectively addresses the variety of issues that are inherent with inventory analytics based on only valuation or units currently on hand.

The problem with inventory-value-based analysis is that the SKUs that have the most value currently in inventory show up on top of the inventory lists, whether there is demand for them or not, or if the already-high inventory investment is sufficient enough. Volume-based inventory analysis becomes convoluted very quickly when the company’s products come in various units of measure.

Inventory metrics based on financial characteristics are lagging indicators that provide no insight into what is driving the inventory levels. They are also too late to signal a timely response, and are blind to the inventory performance against future requirements. The financial inventory values only show how much inventory exists, and inventory-turn-based metrics are calculated using the historical cost of goods sold. The values are aggregated across a company’s reporting units, with metrics updated infrequently, usually on a monthly basis. The judgment of the inventory levels is made against historical levels, peer benchmarks or company objectives. Even if they were updated and reported more frequently, they wouldn’t demonstrate how the on-hand inventories are performing against the planned future demand and service-level targets.

The Quality metric is calculated from the inventory and material requirement data that most companies already have readily available in their ERP systems or higher-level planning systems of record. The metric evaluates the current inventory values against the expected usage value, and divides in the inventories into “active” and “excess” categories. Active inventory is the portion of total inventory value that is forecast to be depleted within a defined time horizon, and the rest is excess inventory. QUALITY is a ratio of active inventory value over the total inventory value. In this research, we describe the basic data requirements for QUALITY calculation and provide a breakdown of the calculation steps for generating the values for the metric.


International Journal on productivity and Quality Management. (2013, January 28th). Retrieved from Management Program. (2013, January 28th). Retrieved from

Quality Metric: Management