Mass Wasting Article – Environmental Science

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Introduction You have been asked to write an article for a magazine (or newspaper – your choice) about a major mass wasting event (a landslide, mudslide, debris flow, rock fall, etc.), informing the public about the hazards of landslides, why they happen in certain locations, and the types of devastation that may occur as a result.You may choose from one of the following types of magazine/newspaper genre (audiences) for whom you would like to write:· NY Times, Washington Post, etc.· People, Cosmopolitan, Elle, etc.· US and World Report, Newsweek, etc.· National Geographic, Discover, Earth, etc.· Ranger Rick, Highlights, Sesame Street, etc. Assignment InstructionsYour article should discuss the following facts and concepts:· What type of mass wasting event occurred and where did it happen?· Why did this mass wasting event occur?· Was it devastating to people or places? If so, why was it so devastating?· Could it have been prevented or predicted?· Was there a way to prepare or warn the local communities of this potentially life-threatening hazard?Your article should include the following general information about landslides (see Rubric for guide as to what should be included):1. Natural causes of landslides (i.e. weather, topography, etc)2. Anthropogenic causes of landslides (i.e. dams, clear-cutting, undercutting, etc.)3. Angle of repose with respect to slope stability4. Recovery efforts and future for this areaRequirementsOther Important Information:· Your article should clearly state the NAME of the magazine or newspaper identifying your target audience.· Please be sure to address your article to that audience level.· Your article should also have a TITLE.· Your article should be at least one to two pages, typed, single-spaced, 10–12-pt font, 1” margins. · At least three credible sources must be included at the end of your article.· UP TO FIVE POINTS EXTRA CREDIT will be awarded for creativity and the quality of your article! Instead of memorizing a bunch of facts that you will promptly forget, use your knowledge to tell others a story of something that really happened, a horrifying but fascinating look at a natural hazard event. By sharing our knowledge of how these events occurred, such tragedies hopefully may be prevented in the future.· Format your article to appear as if it were in a real magazine, with pictures, graphics, etc. The more creative and realistic, the more extra credit you will earn.· Note: A “Types of Mass Wasting” Presentation, obtained from SERC Mass Wasting Overview, is attached as an additional resource to review. 

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Physical Geology

Your homework assignment is to complete Exercises 7.1 and 7.2 on moving data with Sqoop on the AWS RDS Instance as we did in class.

Please download the requisite input files for these exercises from the Chapter 7 Exercise Files posted  as “Ch 07 Sqoop Exercise” on Canvas under the Module entitled “CS  Course Project Data Sets”.  Unzip the folder and use the input files in your homework assignment in your work on this assignment.

Please submit a word document containing screenshots with section headings of how you managed to utilize Sqoop to load data from a RDMS onto the HDFS and then from the HDFS into Pig (7.1) and Hive (7.2) respectively in order to accomplish all of the tasks listed in Exercises 7.1 and 7.2.

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Volcano Writing Credit Assignment Research Paper

Volcano Writing Credit Assignment Research Paper

Do not submit the volcano writing assignment paper until your abstract is reviewed and accepted as complete.  Your abstract grader will give you 1 extra credit point in the abstract assignment grade when it is complete.  Your paper grader will be the same instructor who grades your abstract.  T.A. email addresses can be found on the Canvas home page using the “Schedule and Zoom URL” tab.  

From the earliest hominids living adjacent to the ephemeral lakes within the East African Rift Zone to modern civilizations, humans have coexisted with volcanoes. Volcanoes have long stood in the imaginations of people as symbols of the destructive power of natural processes— skyward temples of angry gods.  With the advancement of modern earth sciences, we now understand that volcanoes represent prominent surface expressions of upwelling magma generated at diverse tectonic settings.    Volcanoes have the potential to cause significant harm to residents living proximal to them, whether by violent pyroclastic eruptions (e.g., the destruction of the Roman city of Pompeii in 79 AD by a Mt. Vesuvius eruption), the catastrophic collapse of steep, often glaciated terrain, and resulting lahars (e.g., the destruction of Armeno, Columbia in 1985 by the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz ), or even silent emission of invisible gasses that seep through the ground (e.g., degassing of Lake Nyos, Cameroon in 1986). Despite these hazards, humans continue to build their communities on the fertile soils that form in volcanic regions.

Geologic study can help us to identify potential hazards associated with volcanoes, quantify the probability of those hazards occurring, and inform local governments of mitigation practices or policies to reduce potential harm to life and infrastructure. In this writing assignment, you will choose one volcano of your interest to investigate.  This volcano can be located anywhere in the world (exception Antarctica).  Your objective of this writing assignment is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the geology of your volcano, associated volcanic hazards to proximal communities, and potential mitigation to reduce the risk to population centers that may be impacted by future eruptive events.  Your proposed mitigation will need to balance future development pressures and societal needs with protection of life and property.

The length of the paper should be between 10-15 pages (~2500-3000 words), including maps, images, figures, tables and cited references). The format of paper should incorporate the following structure:

  1. Abstract
  2. Introduction
  3. Hazard Assessment
  4. Risk Assessment
  5. Mitigation Plan
  6. Conclusion
  7. References
  1. Abstract- An abstract is a high-level summary of the contents of your paper. The abstract is short (6-10 sentences or ~150-250 words) summary of your research paper.  An abstract allows readers to quickly ascertain the essence of your paper, and helps readers remember the most important points of your paper.  Your abstract should include a summary answering the following questions for your potential reader to review:
    1. What volcano does this paper research?
    1. What are the most important hazards of your volcano?
    1. What risks to proximal communities do these hazards present?
    1. How do you propose to mitigate these risks?
  2. Introduction- The introduction should introduce the reader to your volcano and provide the necessary background to understand the rest of the paper. To do this you will need to include the following topics:

A. Geographic Setting: Introduce your volcano.  Where is it located?

B. Motivation: Why is this volcano important to study? For instance, is your volcano particularly active, or particularly close to a population center?

C. Society: What local communities exist within the region surrounding your volcano? Describe population centers, and infrastructure, agriculture, and/or natural resources, that have the potential to be impacted.

D. Tectonic Setting: Describe the location and tectonic setting of your volcano. Address the geologic history of the region. What types of rocks are found in the vicinity of your chosen volcano?

E. Volcanic Geology: Describe the geologic details of your volcano. What type of volcano is it? What is the composition of the lava, and resulting eruption style? Detail the eruption history of your volcano, particularly historic eruptions that have occurred. If there are no historic eruptions, what evidence exists for prehistoric eruptions?

3. Hazard Assessment- A geologic hazard is a natural process that has the capability to inflict damage. Hazards associated with volcanoes extend beyond eruption events. A summary list of volcanic hazards can be found at (

Links to an external site.


 Identify the 3 or 4 main hazards associated with your volcano. Explain the causes and effects of each hazard that you identify. For example, if a hazard of your volcano is lava flows, you should describe the reason for the flows, the potential volume of the flows, the average distance traveled, how those flows affect the area they flow over, and so on.

4. Risk Assessment- Risks are distinct from hazards in that they describe the potential damage that a particular hazard may cause. To understand risk, you must know a) the likelihood of that hazard occurring and its magnitude, and b) the presence of people/infrastructure that could be impacted. For each of the hazards you have identified, address the following:

  1. How likely is it that the hazard will occur in the future? Are there estimates on when that could be? Is this hazard catastrophic but infrequent,  or frequent and limited in effect?
    1. Which population centers lie within the reach of this hazard? What direct (loss of life, building damage, etc) and indirect (economic effects, environmental impact) damages would afflict local communities if this hazard were to occur?

5. Mitigation Plan- From the hazards you have identified, choose which hazard (or multiple hazards if more than one hazard poses a risk to local populations)  you think poses the greatest risk. Propose a plan for future action to mitigate this risk from your volcano, that balances protection with the needs of local communities. Consider the consequences of your plan. As an example, this may be as simple as recommending halting development within a hazard zone, or installing warning sirens to evacuate to high ground in the event of a lahar flow inundating a river valley. You must also consider aspects such as what to do with people who already live there, and whether there are other places that a growing community can expand into.? Assume that you have infinite money/resources at your disposal to enact your mitigation plan.

6. Conclusion- Summarize the main points of your paper. Address the key hazards and risks of your volcano. Motivate the reader to consider your mitigation plan.

7. References- You must refer to at least five reliable, scientific sources in this paper using properly located in-text citations e.g., (Vulcan et al. 79 AD). Provide the full citation in consistent format in a References section at the end of the paper.  Remember that a proper citation will include the name of the reference, the date when it was published, the names of the authors, the publication, and, if applicable, the volume and issue number, the website and the date it was accessed, and/or the name of the publisher.

Starting Places for Research:

USGS Cascade Volcano Observatory- Excellent site to find research sources for Cascade volcanoes (journal articles, field guides, geologic maps, etc.).  You can use the “Search” tab and input any volcano around the world and get information on research papers and published articles.

Links to an external site.

Students can use web browser to search for the geological surveys in other countries.  You may need a translator for foreign languages if you do not speak a given language (e.g., Google search of “Columbian Geological Survey” provides the URL

The written information is provided in Spanish.

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What volcano does this paper research (including type and tectonic setting)?

An abstract is a high-level summary of the contents of your paper. The abstract is a short (6-10 sentences or ~150-250 words) summary of your research paper.  An abstract allows readers to quickly ascertain the essence of your paper, and helps readers remember the most important points of your paper.  Your abstract should include a summary answering the following questions for your potential reader to review:

  1. What volcano does this paper research (including type and tectonic setting)?
    1. What are the most important hazards of your volcano?What risks to proximal communities do these hazards present?
    1. How do you propose to mitigate these risks?

To write an abstract, you do not need to have your paper fully written. Remember, this is a preliminary abstract, and will almost certainly need to be revised as you develop your research and ideas. However, the more specific you can be now, the better prepared you will be to complete the full paper. To complete this assignment, you will at minimum need to:

  1. Choose a volcano for your paper
  2. Identified the hazards your volcano presents
  3. Identified communities and infrastructure that is proximal to your volcano
  4. Considered a potential plan to mitigate a risk associated with your volcano

Starting Places for Research:

USGS Cascade Volcano Observatory- Excellent site to find research sources for Cascade volcanoes (journal articles, field guides, geologic maps, etc.).  You can use the “Search” tab and input any volcano around the world and get information on research papers and published articles.

Students can use web browsers to search for the geological surveys in other countries.  You may need a translator for foreign languages if you do not speak a given language (e.g., Google search of “Columbian Geological Survey” provides the URL

The written information is provided in Spanish.

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The Impact of the Printing Press and Mass Literacy

The Impact of the Printing Press and Mass Literacy

The growth of the printing press and mass literacy was a crucial step in developing numerous American and European societies. The move contributed to developing and spreading key knowledge and ideas throughout diverse regions. Conversely, the innovations can be credited with the numerous advancements in the contemporary world. The printing press and mass literacy can be characterized as the key traits that stimulated American and European societies’ development and continuous growth.

The Printing Press and Mass Literacy in European Societies

The invention of the printing press was highly influential in the way of life in European societies, especially in the mid-15th century. The printing press entailed the combination of a few innovations such as oil-based ink, rag paper, block printing, the squeeze press, and interchangeable metal type. The first published books were devout and thus outlined the spread of religious information. The printing press aimed to improve the traditional approach of spreading information. Therefore, it imitated manuscript form to help the people transition but later transgressed to incorporate more improved writing style.

The printing press entailed the development of diverse topic other than religious scripts. It outlined the development of numerous books such as etiquette, grammar, and geology books which appealed to professional people especially in the middle class. The printing press stipulated the spread of information and knowledge and thus enlightened people on diverse topics. Consequently, the spread of mass literacy helped people understand the world better and have a better idea of what to expect in the world.

The printing press helped European societies develop starting with its impact in Germany where it helped people gain more knowledge on trade followed by Italy. The printing press stipulated led to the worldwide spread of ideas. They helped spread the ideas of revolution in nations that were undergoing through turbulent times informing them on ways to enact change. The printing press imperatively ensured education development, literacy growth, and the collective and far spread of uniform information for all people. Prior to the printing press, the people failed to get uniform information and thus limiting communication.

Prior to the development of the printing press, people relied solely on oral communication. However, the invention of print and paper ensured that information could be spread through books and newspapers. The latter ensured that people received uniform information while the former stipulated the spread of ideas. The invention opened up Europe making diverse European societies easily connect and spread the idea. The printing press spread its influence from Germany throughout Italy, England, Portugal, and Spain and thus outlining the development of collective ideas. It influenced power structures, for instance, the people understood different power methods and thus advocated for the most appropriate ones.

The cities with the printing press in Europe grew faster as compared to similar cities which failed to embrace it early on. Therefore, the diffusion of the printing press constituted approximately 20 to 80% of the city growth. In Europe, the first printing press was established in Mainz, Germany but ultimately spread throughout Europe assisting in the transformation in ways by which ideas were disseminated and helped improve the prosperity score in numerous regions.

The spread of mass literacy meant that a lot of people within the European societies were aware of contemporary things in the world and could be essential in the development of the region. Literacy and knowledge were essential tools in developing the European societies as they helped them stand out over other nations in the world and thus gave them an upper hand in developing. The stories of the widespread influence of the Romans outlines how these people managed to conquer and control numerous regions due to their ability to draft efficient strategies and have unique ideas. The power of the printing press and mass literacy cannot be underestimated as it gave European societies an upper hand in development.

The Printing Press and Mass Literacy in European Societies

Like European Societies, the development of the printing press led to the fast spread of information between different regions. The printing press entailed the printing of books, magazines, religious works, and newspapers and thus offered people a wide array of information that helped them understand the contemporary world and device ways to improve it. The United States had struggled, especially as some powers had tried to control the American region. However, the development of the printing press offered a new platform to fight for rights and better living conditions. It outlined a platform to spread beliefs and ideas and thus taught people how to act and react in different conditions. Notably, Martin Luther used the printing press as a weapon to fight for reformation, understanding that there was an easier way to inform people what they were fighting for.

The print media was essential as it stipulated the development of knowledge, skills, and innovations in commerce. The print media could easily be used to transmit key information and thus to reach a wider group than any initial means could. Fostering skills, ideas, and knowledge was crucial in developing American societies presenting an extensive move towards advancements.

The American societies highly benefitted from the rise in mass literacy. The move ensured that people had a better understanding of contemporary things and thus it was easier to make decisions that would positively influence the development of their diverse societies. Mass Literacy gave people the power to make decisions with ample knowledge of the impact of these decisions. It became easier to understand when they were being manipulated. Over the course of the development of the United States, the American region encountered numerous challenges especially with the European settlement in the region. The European managed to settle and control the United States due to their vast knowledge and their distinct approach whereby they outlined their motives as being driven by the goal to spread Christianity. In regard to their move, the used European religion to curb religion and develop rules and the people ignorantly followed them. However, the spread of mass literacy enlightened the people and helped them understand the intents of the Europeans. The newly-acquired knowledge led the people to push for self-rule and derive ways to develop the American region. The development of mass literacy can be credited with the present development within the American region.

The printing press and the development of mass literacy were two crucial developments in the development of innovative ideas that stipulated a drastic but imperative global change. The renaissance period outlined a period of expressive art and thus outlining how the printing press led to the development and spread of ideas. Many people could easily have a clear understanding of the contemporary world and the issues limiting growth. In response, the people used different media to offer suggestions and fight for the attainment of an ideal world.

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The Four Pre-Life Thresholds Of Complexity

The Four Pre-Life Thresholds Of Complexity 

The main pre-life events that preceded the complexities characterized by the life aspect of the universe can be summarized into four main historic events. These historical events include the big bang, emergence of stars, chemical elements formation and the formation of the planets. These cumulative events prepared the stage for the beginning of life forms. Complexity thresholds before life began with the appearance of the empty universe which was suddenly formed. After the universe, a series of other complexities represent various events that contributed to the build-up of the stages that gave the life forms the stage in which they would thrive and progress to complex life forms. The inanimate universe as discussed by Christian (15) has events such as the origin of the universe from some action of nature. 

According to the author, theories such as the big bang fail to explain where life forms came from after the formation of the universe. Hydrogen and helium were the building blocks of another complex event from their fusion which gave existence to physical complex sequence of events. From the newly formed mass of universe, galaxies were formed in the initial stages of the complexities. Galaxies forming into constellations of groups, clusters and super-clusters were established after the cooling of the universe. The stars are foundation of the other complexities as they are today. Gravitational force pulling together the stars in an orderly pattern facilitated the next complexity of a converging arrangement (Bryson, 16). Formation of the earth and other planets ushered in the life phase that began with simple life forms which progressed to put a higher and complex arrangement. 

Threshold 1 is the first in the order which is the beginning of events preceding life, when the universe formed through the generally accepted mode that took place 13 million years ago as explained in the Big Bang theory (Christian, xv). The theory states that there was a lot of heat that caused the surrounding which was very dense to rapidly expand like an explosion. The expansion still continues to date, creating space for the universe to come into existence state it is today (Bryson, 18). Threshold 2 has emergence of stars and the galaxies which formed from the cooling reaction of the expanding universe after the rapid Big Bang expansion (Christian, 41). The stars formed into groups that gave rise to galaxies. Threshold 3 consists of chemical elements formation stage from whose reactions energy was obtained to form materials necessary for life (Brown, 12). Molecular arrangement of the formed elements paved way for the formation of materials to the surface of the formed universe, enabling the setting of the stage for vey complex chemical phase of the universe. Elements such as carbon and other radioactive elements were disintegrated to give rise to more elements that are an important part of the universe. Threshold 4 constitutes the planet forming phase from which the earth and other planets were formed. Life supporting planet earth progressed with the complexity that life involves, which makes up the fifth threshold.

Each of the above thresholds is important in the study of the big history, which entails the study of everything that the universe is composed of today. The analysis of the events that the thresholds entail gives the picture of where the universe originated from as well as the processes that it is subjected to. Through such studies, the study of humanity is given a clearer picture from which an understanding of the environmental impacts that life is exposed to becomes well documented. By understanding the processes that the universe is exposed to, these studies facilitate the human exploration of the universe to understand the importance of such processes on human life. According to Brown (65), studying these events could facilitate unravelling the current pressing global challenges such as climate change and global warming. According to the author, the human population must realign itself to the challenges of these hazardous processes on the planet and the universe in order to adapt to changing conditions of life. Without such adaptations, human beings, animal as well other life forms are at a serious risk of mass extinction. Understanding the human life complexities under the environmental conditions would perhaps be an important stage to facilitate research to accommodate hazardous outcomes of changes in the universe such in dealing with disease outbreaks (Brown, 70). 

Regarding the   reasons why we need to know about the history of everything, it is probably the most important platform where all disciplines of studies can be conglomerated to formulate a comfortable earth. This arises from the revelations that the various related studies such as cosmology and geology, human beings can take charge of the developments in the universe and save the planet. 


Works Cited

Brown, Cynthia Strokes Big history: from the Big Bang to the present. New York, NY: New Press, 2007/ Print

Bryson, Bill A short history of nearly everything. New York, NY: Broadway Books, 2003. Print

Christian, David Maps of time: an introduction to big history. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2005. Print

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The Grand Canyon

The Grand Canyon

The Grand Canyon is an extensive natural rift that is located in the Arizona desert. It hosts various communities including Euro Americans, different cultures of Native Americans and the millions of international tourists who visit the area every year. The Grand Canyon also hosts various wildlife including the endangered fish, humpback chub and the Californian wild vulture called the Condor. The Grand Canyon has positively and negatively impacted the lives of both the people and the animals living in its proximity. This has been due to the rapid changes in the structures of the soil, changes in temperature, increased tourism and the legislation that saw the Grand Canyon become a national park. The presence of the Grand Canyon has impacted the settling of the communities that live in the environs. In addition, the establishment of the Canyon as a tourist attraction has improved the quality of life for most residents by providing them with employment opportunities and better transport facilitating trade ventures within the community and to the outside world. The millions of tourists who visit the area every year have promoted these trade ventures and also earn the state the much needed revenue that is used for funding other development projects.


The Grand Canyon is not only a natural wonder of the world, but it also has a defining impact on the people and animal life living in its proximity. The Grand Canyon is a geographical feature that is speculated to have resulted from a number of processes. Of these processes, geologists attribute the most significant to have been water and wind erosion. Water is thought to have caused most of the erosion. In addition to the erosion, other forces like volcanism, the trend of the Colorado River and continental drift are thought to have played a significant role in the formation of the Grand Canyon (Garton, 2002).


The Grand Canyon is located in an arid area. The soil on the top is baked by the sun into a hard cracked crust and because it is very dry and hard, it does not absorb water as it should even when it rains. When it rains the rain is not moderate and is often torrential. The impact of the torrential rain is that it flows very fast and does not allow percolation into the ground (Pyne, 1998). The plants that flourish in the Grand Canyon are shallow rooted to allow them as much access to the surface run off as possible. This translates in to increased erosion by water and wind because shallow roots do not hold the soil layers in place. Flash floods are usually evident at the grand canyon due to these increased erosions and the torrential downpours. The Grand Canyon is a tourist attraction and many people travel from all over to see it and hike. The vehicles are usually left at the bottom for all the hikers. These flash floods are usually a risk not only for the vehicles but also for the hikers. As a result weather conditions are usually monitored keenly by all who visit the Grand Canyon to avoid these flash floods (Levy, 1995).

The stability of human life on the plant earth and the specific quality of life afforded to the human species is determined by the distribution of the different landforms in the environment. This is because landforms impact the regional climate, the food supply, and the resultant natural resources. The Grand Canyon is a tourist feature with many people flooding in to the region to see it. The formation of a game park and then a game reserve around it ensures that it is preserved from further damage. The federal government took up the Grand Canyon and established it as a game reserve. They have since faced many problems including the extinction and the reintroduction of the Californian Condor which is a wild vulture. There have also been issues that have arisen due to high noise levels form the aircrafts which tend to discourage the residents living near the Grand Canyon and the tourists who plan to tour the Canyon. 

There was a great controversy between the Grand Canyon managers and a nearby power plant over the intensity of pollution in the region (Pyne, 1998). The power plant which is a coal burning power generating plant is located near the Grand Canyon and this led to fewer tourists visiting the area. In 1991 the two reached an agreement and the power plant implemented several measures to curb air pollution from their industry (Garton, 2002).

The federal government administrators induced a flood in the Grand Canyon in 2008 with the intention of allowing water absorption and permanently changing the ecosystem which was interfered with when the Glen canyon dam was constructed in 1963 to prevent flooding in the region (Levy, 1995).

The climate in the Grand Canyon is similar to that in the surrounding environment and the whole area is generally dry with high temperatures. Rain only occurs twice in a year in winter as moderate rain and there is deep snow. In the summer, the rain brings monsoon thunderstorms caused by the extreme high temperatures. The average rainfall for the south is les than 35cms while the snow reaches 132 cm. In the higher northern end, rainfall is less than 59cm and the snow averages 317 cm. The shallower northern rim however rarely snows and the rain is low averaging 17.6 cm. Temperatures seem to vary in the Grand Canyon extensively from -17°C during the winter seasons to highs of around 38°C during the summer. These extreme conditions make the area potentially unwelcoming to visitors who at times call off their hikes before time due to hypothermia during winter and dehydration and sunburns during the summer season. The weather is generally unpredictable and even in the vent of getting accurate predictions the weather forecast is still unreliable for this region (Price, 1999).

The area has been economically uplifted due to the value of the Grand Canyon as a unique, natural tourist attraction. The Grand Canyon National Park is one of the premier natural attractions all over the world receiving more than five million tourists every year. Most of these tourists are domestic with more than 80% coming from the different states in the United States and more than 12% coming from the neighboring California. Some of the tourists come from other foreign nations like United Kingdom, Netherlands, Canada, Japan and Netherlands. Most of the tourists visiting the area view it as a travel expedition because of the location of the Grand Canyon. Most of them come for sightseeing but there are also additional activities which they can engage in the area. Hiking along the Grand Canyon and running are also favorites among the tourists who visit the area. The tourists are however cautioned against running and hiking too much due to the steep rocks and the danger of heat exhaustion (Annerino, 2006).

  They are advised to spend the night in the specially established camping grounds and take up the hikes or run the following day so as to allow the body to recover from the physical exertion. Due to the varying weather conditions, not all these camping grounds are accessible throughout the year. The camping grounds that have been established along the higher northern end are generally inaccessible due to road closures as a result of poor weather conditions.   

Tourists who can afford it also have the option of viewing the Grand Canyon through privately chartered planes and helicopters. They can only view the Grand Canyon from far due to the plane accidents in 1990.Some helicopters may however choose to land on the less restricted India reservations that fall within the Canyon (Annerino, 2006).

More than six hundred people have died since the Grand Canyon became a tourist attraction. Many hikers have overestimated their physical capabilities and ended up being involved in fatal accidents, health complications including hypothermia, heart attacks, and dehydration. Other deaths result from plain collisions within the canyon and over zealous photographers. There are other fatalities that have resulted from lighting, flash floods, drowning and rock falls (Bauer & Wallace, 2008).

There are many communities living within the canyon. They are under the constant threats of flash flooding and temperature extremities. In August, 2008 the government had to evacuate tourists and residents of Supai which is a residential town at the foot of the Grand Canyon, as a result of heavy rainfall. Residents had to be evacuated due to a break in the Redland dam which is constructed upstream of the town (Price, 1999). 

Native Americans communities have been living in the Grand Canyon and in the environs that are now part of the Grand Canyon Reserve, for more than four thousand years. The Anasazi, the Cohonina and the Puebleoans cultures in the Native American communities were shaped as basket makers in the desert cultures that constituted a group of Native Americans. It was only after migrating and adapting less nomadic trends that they became dependent on agriculture as their main socio economic activity. Other cultures also settled in the Grand Canyon but archaeologists predict that climatic changes and the 13th century drought triggered their migration to other places and triggered a change in their cultures. Later the Paiutes, the Cerbat and the Navajo or Dine cultures settled extensively in the Grand Canyon but were forced in to reservations in 1882 due to the Indian wars. They were restricted in reservations within the Canyon by the US government after the declaration of Independence and are still in the region. The Havasupai and Hualapai, who are Native Americans that still occupy the region, are descendants of the Cerbat cultures (Bauer & Wallace, 2008).


In the late 19th century a geologist team discovered the potential of the region in terms of the unexploited mineral resources that constituted copper and asbestos. Many of the current settlers are descendants of the pioneers who came in along the rim for the purpose of mining. This enthusiasm was however short-lived, as the residents discovered that there was a better economic alternative to the poorly rewarding mining. Tourism overtook the mining efforts and by the twentieth century, the Grand Canyon was a well established tourist destination.

As a tourist destination, the Grand Canyon has facilitated various aspects of development in the surrounding area for the communities that continue to occupy these regions. Initially the first tourists used stage coaches to access the area abut within a short period of time railway lines had been established allowing a larger influx of people and also facilitating trade for the residents. There was a rapid interest for key players to invest in this region and they established formal tourist facilities. A lot of these facilities were centered at the Grand Canyon village. The federal government gave the Grand Canyon the national park status in 1919(Annerino, 2006).

Officials have constantly flooded the Grand Canyon as a strategy to preserve the local ecosystems in the Grand Canyon and preserve endangered species like humpback chub.

The humpback chub is a fish of an extremely rare species that is only found in the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. It was declared endangered in 1967. The ecosystem on this particular species was altered when the government authorized the construction of the Glen Canyon dam in 1963. This diluted the Colorado waters and converted them from the muddy waters to the clear and efficient systems that they became (NRC etal, 2000). By flooding the dam, researchers speculated that this will alter the already established banks of the Colorado to form a similar version to the one that existed before the dam was constructed. This in turn facilitated preservation of these endangered species by regulating the ecosystem. This measure has worked relatively well in the past at increasing the numbers of the humpback chub. The government has also facilitated the removal of the populous rainbow trout from the Colorado River in an effort to reduce competition of food between the two species. These efforts have regulated the numbers of rainbow trout and reduced the food competition for the humpback chub. Due to the changing global patterns the weather in the Colorado has been too cold for the optimal reproduction of the humpback chub. Their reproduction was restricted to a little region at the Little Colorado River. There has been recorded increase in temperature in the Colorado River favoring the reproduction of the humpback chub. Experimental releases of the dam waters have led to increased temperatures as well as the past droughts in the last few years leading to an increase  in the number of humpback chubs being spawned and surviving in the Colorado waters.

            The Grand Canyon is a beautiful natural wonder of the world and demonstrates how a landform and its geologic history can impact the quality of life for neighboring humans and animals through direct and indirect contribution to other factors such as soils and tourism. It has influenced the lifestyle of people in the region as well as the climate and the type of plants that can be grown there.




John Annerino. (2006). Hiking the Grand Canyon. New York: Sierra Club Books

Stephen J Pyne. (1998). How the Canyon Became Grand. Boston: Viking publishers.

Marion D. Bauer & John Wallace. (2006). The Grand Canyon. New York: Aladdin publishers.

Jeff Garton. (2002). Grand Canyon: The Great Abyss. Los Angeles: Advantage Pub Group.

Daniel S. Levy. (1995). Conceptual and Statistical Issues in Contingent Valuation: Estimating the Value of Altered Visibility in the Grand Canyon: Rand Corporation

L. Greer Price. (1999). An Introduction to Grand Canyon Geology. Grand Canyon: Grand Canyon Association.

National Research Council (NRC), Committee on Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research, National Research Council, Water Science and Technology Board, National Research Council, Commission on Geosciences, Environment $ Resources. (2000). Downstream: Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado River Ecosystem. Washington: National Academies Press.


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700 word paper geology

select a city or state that is successfully using one of the following renewable resources:

  • Wind power
  • Geothermal energy
  • Hydropower
  • Solar Power

Prepare a 700- to 1,050-word paper on this city’s use of by unisales” in_hover=”” in_hdr=”” style=”border: none !important; display: inline-block !important; text-indent: 0px !important; float: none !important; height: auto !important; margin: 0px !important; min-height: 0px !important; min-width: 0px !important; padding: 0px !important; text-transform: uppercase !important; text-decoration: underline !important; vertical-align: baseline !important; width: auto !important; background: transparent !important;”>your chosen renewable resource. Do not discuss multiple renewable resources. Include the following in your paper:

  • Explain your chosen renewable source and what makes it unique.
  • Explain possible limitations of using your chosen resource.
  • When and how was use of the renewable resource implemented?
  • How has the use of the renewable resources changed the use of nonrenewable resources in the region?
Must include all the things above and remember only talk about 1 renewable resource. 

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. 


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Write a paper that summarizing the current psychological

1. Choose one of the following topics and write a 1,000-1,500 word paper summarizing the current psychological research on the topic. (Many of these topics are broad and you may choose to focus your research on a more specific area of the topic, such as focusing on when children show resiliency when dealing with divorce.)

Effects of divorce on children

2. Access the University Library so that you can find 3 research articles from peer-reviewed psychology research journals published in 2000 or more recently. This means the body of your paper must also have in-text citations for these 3 articles.

Research articles must be from the year 2000 or newer.

Older research articles will result in point deductions.

Research articles must be from the psychology discipline.

Do not use psychiatry journals or journals from other disciplies (nursing, geology, etc.) Points will be deducted for this.

3. Format your paper according to APA standards.

Use Subheadings!

An introduction and conclusion paragraph are required.

Remember to include a properly formatted title and reference page.

An abstract is NOT required.

Attachment:- psych_600_wk_1_ia_3.rar

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What changes in school and college does this involve?

the education of a woman differ from that of a man? What changes in school and college does

this involve?” The question of woman’s education is seductively close to the question of woman’s

“sphere.” I hold it to be almost a transgression even to mention woman’s sphere — the word recalls so

many painful and impertinent deliverances, so much of futile discussion about it — and yet the

willingness to dogmatize about woman in general is so common an infirmity that I am emboldened to

err. Let us ask, then: “What is a woman’s business, and what is the best way to train her for it?”

Certain theories recently advocated remind one of the London cab-driver whom a gentleman engaged

to take him to the station. The driver set off at a furious rate in the opposite direction, and when his

passenger called out, “Cabby, cabby, you’re going in the wrong direction,” he answered: “Ah, but see

what a beautiful pace I’m giving you!” In my opinion. President Stanley Hall, in his work on Adolescence,

has been giving us a beautiful pace — only he has been traveling backward. Permit me to quote from the

chapter on “Adolescent Girls and Their Education” what seems to me a fair representation of the

mediæval standpoint — done, perhaps, in oriental color. He says (Vol. II, chap. 17, p. 562):

She [woman] works by intuition and feeling….. If she abandons her natural naïveté and takes up the

burden of guiding and accounting for her life by consciousness, she is likely to lose more than she gains,

according to the old saw that she who deliberates is lost….. Biological psychology already dreams of a

new philosophy of sex which places the wife and mother at the heart of a new world and makes her the

object of a new religion and almost of a new worship, that will give her reverent exemption from sex-

competition and reconsecrate her to the higher responsibilities of the human race into the past and

future of which the roots of her being penetrate; where the blind worship of mere mental illumination

has no place; and where her real superiority to man will have free course and be glorified. [p. 790]

We find further on, p. 646, that the author profoundly sympathizes with woman’s claims, that he has

worship and adoration for her shrine, and that he is “more and more passionately in love with woman as

he conceives she came from the hand of God.”

This is certainly all very handsome indeed, but to adore this naïve being, passionately to worship an

unconscious divinity (the roots of whose being are so penetrating), is it not a very apotheosis of the

vegetable? This attitude toward women did very well in the Middle Ages, but, to tell the truth, the

modern woman is made a little bit ill by the incense. She longs for fresh air and common-sense, and is

not willing to be a dolt for the sake of being called a deity. In a word, she is ready to resign the charm of

her naïveté, and to brave the perils of consciousness and reflection.

President’s Hall’s central thesis is that a woman ought to be trained to regard matrimony as her one

legitimate province. Concerning the details of curriculum and method he offers the suggestion that

botany should be taught with an emphasis on its poetic aspect, zoölogy with plenty of pets. Astronomy

and geology are valuable because they can be taught out of doors! Specialization hurts a woman’s soul

more that it does a man’s.

The serious valuations of this writer’s conclusions need not detain us long; for a work so bizarre both in

style and taste is not to be classed as literature; neither can an inquiry so uncritical in method find a

place in science. I have quoted at some length because the above discussion raises the two questions

upon which I wish to speak. First: Should a woman’s school and college training be in any sense a

matrimonial education? This I should call the social side of the question. Second: When a woman is

pursuing the same subject that a man is, must she be taught by a different method? This is the

psychological question.

The first point must not be confused with the query whether a woman needs special training for

matrimony. Nobody denies that a woman, if she marries, should be acquainted in some degree with

domestic economy and the care of children. The question is: Are the school and college years the time

for such instruction, or are these institutions the place for it? In the first place, a girl’s domestic training

should not begin until she knows not only that she will marry, but whom she will marry. An adequate

matrimonial education should be regulated to wit the taste and the income of the man who’s wife she is

going to be. So one will pretend that all men like the same thing in a woman, nor that the administration

of a very humble and a very pretentious household requires the same technique. The proper time for

such training, then, is subsequent to her engagement in marriage to some individual. [p. 791]

In the second place, domestic economy is a strictly technical professional pursuit, and to give it any

considerable position in school and college curricula would be to alter the very foundation idea of those

institutions. As a special technique it has no more right there than military tactics or agriculture.

Certainly the knowledge of cooking, housekeeping, retail buying, and nursing must be recognized as

techincal[sic], and not in any sense liberal, knowledge. The college, as I understand it, aims to give four

years of non-professional training — years of respite from strictly utilitarian interests — a period of

leisure for the cultivation, in a variety of directions, of taste, of character, and of judgment. The essential

idea of the college is the carrying on of liberal or non-specialized inquiry. Our question would then

reshape itself to this: Ought a woman to receive a liberal education, or ought she to spend the usual

college years in a school for matrimony?

My conviction is all for the collegiate education. Matrimony is only one of a large number of possible

occupations for women. In the ministry, in law, in medicine, in teaching, in journalism, in scientific

research, in civil engineering, in insurance, in business of many kinds, women have worked successfully

and contentedly. Although it will always be true that the greater number of women will elect the

domestic career, yet I cannot but think that the superlative fascination of that estate has been by recent

writers a trifle overworked. Sentiment aside for a moment, is not matrimony the most precarious

business in the world. The mat rial[sic] returns — not to mention the vagaries of affection — are

notoriously disproportionate to a woman’s efficiency. If it be the business of a domestic woman to rear

a large family of children, she must acknowledge that her reward in worldly goods is inversely

proportional to her success; for with every additional child the same income must be made to reach

farther. Of course, no self-respecting woman marries merely for money but are we not coming to see

that it is not respectable to enter any calling merely for money? Again, are we not likely to fall into the

fallacy of supposing that there is something intrinsically desirable in a mere quantity of human beings?

As Jane Austen says: “A family of ten children will always be called a fine family, were there are head

and arms and legs enough for the number.” We must remember that reproduction is too often a vain

repetition. Why repeat, until we find something worth while? Indeed, I would almost say that a woman

had no business to be a mother until she can demonstrate her ability to be something else.

However, be the allurements of different callings what they may, of a woman’s inalienable right to

choose for herself I cannot understand that [p. 792] there should be any question. And, if a woman has

abilities to follow various professions, and the right to choose which she will, is it just or is it honorable

so to manage her education that she never would follow, never would choose, but the one ? If her

teachers decide for her what she ought to be, if they foreordain her to some one career, and then

instruct her accordingly, she never has any real freedom or any real choice. In every trial both sides are

supposed to get a hearing before judgment is pronounced; our sense of fair play demands that. It seems

to me only an affair of common honesty to educate a girl so that she really comprehends more than one

possibility in her life. A biased education is half truth and half lie. A woman’s education, like a man’s

education, should fit her to make a free and intelligent choice of a life-occupation, A woman’s education

should place within her reach the possibility of economic independence; that is to say, the possibility of

competing with men. For the woman who does not marry, economic independence is, of course, almost

indispensable. But for the woman who does marry this possibility is hardly less desirable. I am not saying

that a married woman ought actually to be earning an independent living, but I do say that she ought to

be so educated that such a thing is within her power.

Historically, women have as a sex occupied a position inferior in dignity to that of men. Man’s work in

the world has been considered as more important than woman’s work. If it really is more important, of

course nobody can blame women for aspiring to do the higher kind of service. If it is not more

important, there is but one way for women to prove it, and that is to meet men upon their own ground.

We measure one man against another by setting the two at the same kind of work. We use the objective

result as a measure of value. What women must be able to do is to produce the same definite

impersonal objective result that a man does, and if the event shows that women can compete creditably

with men, this fact enhances the value of whatever career the woman chooses. The woman who could

follow another calling if she would dignifies by so much the calling which she does follow. She goes into

it with the enthusiasm of a personal conviction, not because there was no alternative. We should have

even more respect for matrimony as a vocation if we knew that it never was the only possible resource

of any woman. Moreover, there are many married women for whom it would be a valuable experience

to know the meaning of a hard day’s work — a woman’s estimate of her husband may be considerably

altered when she comes to appreciate the strain and effort of the work by which he supports her. In

answer, then, to our question in its social aspect, I should say that a woman’s prospect for [p. 793] social

equality with men is conditioned by her ability to do the same work, and this ability is largely dependent

upon her having the same school and college training which a man has.

Let us turn now to the psychological aspect of our question. Supposing that we wish to get the same

grasp of a subject into a girl’s head which we wish to get into a boy’s, are her mental processes so

diverse that we must adopt a radically different method of instruction and discipline?

The scientific investigation of the mental differences of the sexes is thus far limited in its scope and

tentative in its conclusions. Many inquiries which have been made are almost entirely worthless on

account of the lack of rigor in method. A contribution of the highest merit and importance has been

made in this field by Dr. Helen Thompson, in her book The Mental Traits of Sex. Her conclusions are

drawn from a systematic experimental study. She says:

The psychological differences of sex seem to be largely due, not to difference of average capacity, nor to

difference in type of mental activity, but to differences in the social influences brought to bear on the

developing individual from early infancy to adult years. The question of the future development of the

intellectual life of women is one of social necessities and ideals, rather than of the inborn psychological

characteristics of sex.

Some mental distinctions of sex there probably are, but they certainly are pretty difficult to determine.

The environmental conditions of men and women are so disparate that it is hard to be sure that

differences, apparently sexual, are not to be explained upon another basis. For practical purposes of

education the mental likenesses seem overwhelming, and to attempt upon any such basis as we have to

reconstruct the plan of woman’s education would be wholly fantastic. I have said that education has

three ends in view: the training of judgment, character, and taste. Let us turn to them in order. In

forming a judgment a woman must observe exactly the same logical procedure as a man; she has no

royal road to learning; the feminine syllogism has just as many terms and premises as the masculine,

and no more. There is an old superstition that women’s minds work by feeling and men’s by reason.

Surely it is time to give that up. Does a woman solve the binomial theorem by feeling, or a quadratic

equation by intuition? Does a man never move without consulting the principle of sufficient reason?

Does he appreciate a sonnet by logical deduction, or respond to a lyric in reasoned conclusions?

Again, in cultivating right character, how are we to be distinguished? Are girls not to have energy and

initiative, are boys not to know gentleness and obedience? Is stealing not stealing, is a lie not a lie, are

meanness [p. 794] and cowardice any the less mean and cowardly because of a sex distinction in the

culprit? Are not honesty, veracity, courage, courtesy, as admirable in the one as in the other?

Or, finally, in forming taste cannot both sexes learn by the same acquaintance with the best in art. Must

women be lured on by flower-pieces and men by battle-scenes to appreciate good painting? Shall we

have a Mrs. Browning for men, and Jane Austen translated into the masculine? Must we edit a Woman’s

Bible, or the Ladies’ Own Shakespeare?

Let me, then, answer the original question in this way: The education of a woman should not differ from

that of a man, until after she becomes engaged to be married. This difference would not involve any

changes in school and college. To my mind, the simplest, most natural, and most certain way of securing

to men and women an identity of opportunity is the coeducational plan. I believe that coeducation helps

to correct the faults of both sexes, without at all endangering the development of a desirable

individuality. To the fear that women may be coarsened by the association, or men made less manly, I

am inclined to reply that if men and women are fit to marry one another, they are fit to go to school


Let me say, in conclusion, that it would seem to me both frivolous and morally wrong for a school or

college to spend time, money and intelligence in devising different systems of training for the two sexes,

while so many, and those so real, problems in education are waiting for solution.

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