Globalization and Fashion Essay

Globalization and Fashion Essay.

In the 19th century, countries started trading more, because it was right after the Great depression of the 1930 when mass production became more accessible. The reason for this was the advance in technology. Improvement in technology has made life in many certain extents easier, not only for trading, but for many other aspects of human life. Meanwhile technology is getting so advanced that it has a great influence on cultures. With globalization, all the cultures in the world are fading away and giving their place to one major common culture.

Evidence of this can be seen clearly in fashion. From planes to the Internet, people and their culture are strongly connecting with each other.

To this date people travel from one country to another for various reasons including business, touring and education. Some of business people are the buyers of great fashion departments. They have a major influence on bringing different culture from one country to another. For instance, a trend in Europe transfers to North America from tourist who has traveled to Europe and buyers of department stores who choose the items.

On the other hand, buyers are strongly concerned about what is going to sell and what is not. If the garment that they are buying for is for United States of America, it must be more practical than something, which they transfer from New York to Europe.

The reason behind that is that culture of fashion in America is more practical than the culture of fashion in Europe. In American life style practicality has a strong voice, therefore, it is a better target market for casual wear. People tend to wear more comfortable clothes, such as jeans, sportswear, t-shirts, as well as converse shoes[1].

A good advertisement on the Internet has a worldwide impact, which can lead to a new trend. Most women in the world are very vulnerable to these beautiful new items shown on the Internet advertisement; they catch new trends and mix them up with their own home country fashion. The spread of globalization will bring changes to the countries it reaches, but change is very important part in everyone’s life. The Internet has proven a big part in projecting traditional culture. Various reports have showed that the world trade in goods with cultural content increased over the years.

Magazines are one thing that has always been there and has always been a strong way of communication between cultures. Today’s world of commercials and advertisements has made a huge diversity in the world of magazines. Magazines such as Vogue have had a major role in changing the fashion world.

Vogue was first published in 1910 in Britain, but now there are vogue in Italy, France, Spain, and America[2]. The strongest and most influential one of all is Americas Vogue People tend to pick up new trends from such sources every day in every single place in the world, but since English is the most spoken language across the globe, American Vogue sells the most and it automatically transfers American fashion more around the world.

Satellites and TVs are just as influential as magazines. For example, Fashion TV was found in 1997 in France as the first fashion only international network. In later years even in countries in the Middle East, some fashion channels were created and changed the whole country’s fashion. People copy all the new western trends, and try to use them as much as possible even though they have some restrictions in how they are supposed to dress in Muslim countries. For example, all Iranian woman follow the European fashion[3]. They are forced to cover up their hair but they are still very much fashionable and dress nice.

The effects of globalization on culture has also been perpetuated through music. Music has been termed as one of the strongest culture that has taken over a large number of young people across the globe. The different music genres including gangster rap, hip-hop, RNB, rock, reggae and others plays an important role in creating a global culture.

This has been made possible by technology and media including MTV, You Tube as well as other social networks in the internet. More particularly, the hip-hop culture is a wave that has dominated in various countries[4]. Today, every young man and women want to associate with a particular hip-hop star and imitate and adore their dressing code, style and even speaking. Hence, a college boy in New York living under the footsteps of Tupac Shakur (A popular hip-hop pioneer) is no different to a peer in China or Africa idolizing the same. As a result, these young men share the same fashion mode of wearing jeans, necklaces famous as ‘bling bling’, and even earrings as part of their accessories[5].

Similarly, the fashion trend goes beyond clothing. Globalization has made people in the world adopt a particular fashion of identity. The influence of media also blamed for brainwashing people’s identity. The contemporary woman as depicted in western movies is slender with long legs. This has influenced several young women to emulate this style to an extent of undergoing cosmetic surgery. Likewise, an ideal man portrayed in the movies emphasizes a well built masculine figure which has also influenced the lifestyles of many young men around the world.

There has been concern that globalization is synonymous with Americanization. The western particularly American culture is highly idolized all over the world. The fashion trends in America spreads more quickly and are readily embraced in all countries with music, Hollywood celebrities and even models playing as agents for perpetuating American fashion to the rest of the world. The internet has enabled the transfer of the American culture to the global community.

In conclusion, Globalization has a major affect in world’s fashion. Sources such as Internet, telemarketing and advertisements tend to change peoples perspective about fashion. People pick up trends from such sources and sometimes mix them up with their own ideas and cultural restriction. Globalization is sometimes associated with Americanization due to the large adoption of American fashion in virtually all aspects of lifestyles. Globalization has transformed the diversified culture in the world into one single culture, the global culture. Hence, the world has become a global village sharing everything including fashion and culture.


Anthony Giddens. Runaway World: How Globalization is Shaping our World. New York: Sage, 2003.

Dress – Globalization Of Fashion retrieved <ahref=””>Dress – Globalization Of Fashion</a> [accessed May 4, 2010]

Ian Condry and Shara Rambarran. Hip-Hop Japan: Rap and the Paths of Cultural Globalization. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2006.

Kai Hafez, Alex Skinner. The Myth of Media Globalizations. New York: Polity, 2007.

Kolawole A. Owolabi. Globalization, Americanization  and Western Imperialism. Journal of Social Development in Africa. 16, No. 2 (2001): 71-92.

Globalization and Fashion Essay

Globalization And Tesco Essay

Globalization And Tesco Essay.

Terms of Reference

The aim of this report is to give a detailed explanation of globalisation, what its main drivers are, its undesirable effects, how big a part Tesco plays in going global and what political, economic, sociocultural, technological and legal forces a multinational organisation might face when expanding into other countries.

Main Body

Globalisation is the integration of the world’s domestic economies into one single international market. It can also be defined as the ‘death of distance’ (Cairncross, 1997).

Globalisation allows for the free trade of goods and services between nations; it allows workers to be employed more easily around the world; it allows businesses to benefit from foreign direct investment (FDI) and it allows markets to develop at a faster rate due to the interchange of new technological advances and intellectual knowledge. The process of globalisation is motivated largely by the desire of multinational corporations to increase profit but also by the motivation of individual national governments to tap into the wider macroeconomic and social benefits that come from greater trade in goods, services and the free flow of financial capital.

* The term globalisation is generally used to describe an increasing internationalisation of markets for goods and services, the means of production, financial systems, competition, corporations, technology and industries. Amongst other things this gives rise to increased mobility of capital, faster propagation of technological innovations and an increasing interdependency and uniformity of national markets. (OECD, 2001).

The process of globalisation has several main drivers apart from of course multinational companies wanting to expand. Barriers to international trade are falling, tariffs and other import controls have declined making it cheaper and easier to trade between countries. Trading blocs allow for the free trade between countries within it, the EU has become the most powerful trading bloc in the world with a GDP nearly as large as that of the United States. There has been a major improvement in transportation, for example, containerisation greatly reduces the expense of international trade and increases its speed, especially of consumer goods and commodities, bringing prices down in the country of manufacture and closer to the prices in the export market. Deregulation of global financial markets allows for FDI and an increase in the free flow of money.

Tesco – A Global Organisation

Tesco is the largest chain of supermarket within the UK; it dominates the market with a share of 25%, making it a monopoly. The company has become successful through strong marketing techniques, good store location and efficient inventory management. It was one of the first to recognise that there was a gap in the market for unbranded value goods, which helped it to fast-track to the leading position in the UK in the early 1990’s. In 1995, Tesco overtook Sainsbury’s as the UK’s largest supermarket ( so as the company grew stronger and generated a larger cash flow, management decided that the only way to expand even further was to invest abroad.

When Tesco researched into international markets they decided that entering into countries where there were already well established supermarkets would not be the best option as they would struggle with tough competition. Unless Tesco invested heavily into research and development (R+D) in these established markets, they would not be able to compete with domestic chains that would already have a clear understanding of the needs and wants of their consumers. They decided to expand into emerging economies where there was little competition such as Eastern Europe and Asia.

Tesco initially expanded into Ireland and France but ‘The perceived success (or otherwise) of their early venture abroad would have been considered insignificant to the company’s fortunes at home, and as a result, this largely undermined the company’s (perceived) efforts in the eyes of the financial markets as being a peripheral and/or even a distraction to the core UK business’ (Palmer, 2005). So in 1995, according to, Tesco’s first port of call was Hungary, this was also the year they introduced the Tesco Clubcard (, this shows that as well as wanting to expand abroad, Tesco still wanted to build and retain a customer loyalty in the UK. Tesco expanded into Hungary as well as the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland by acquiring large stakes in domestic retailers.

This strategy of expanding was clearly successful as Tesco now have over 205 stores in Hungary, one of which is the biggest store in the world and over 21,000 employees ( By merging with domestic retailers there was a lot less risk than building new supermarkets as these companies had a deeper understanding of the markets they were participating in and allowed Tesco to gain an understanding of specific consumer demands in different countries, but without the financial strength of Tesco these companies would not have been able to expand much further. In 1998, Tesco expanded again into Taiwan and Thailand, with the same business venture of acquiring shares of well knows retailers. China, being one of the world’s BRIC economies would clearly be of interest to a fast expanding western company, this is because of its advances towards capitalism and its low labour costs.

The move into China came in 2004. After much deliberation with potential partners, Tesco settled on a joint venture with Hymall who had been operating in china for 6 years. This was their biggest move yet as there was so much potential to expand at a much faster rate in a growing economy. By 2007 after having investments in 46 stores, they had enough customer awareness to be to open their own branded store ( Asda is Tesco’s biggest rival in the UK, in 1999 it was taken over by the American superstore Wal-Mart.

This would have influenced Tesco to increase its performance as even though Asda is not as big in the UK, Wal-Mart is the biggest company in the world and would have the financial capacity to increase the competitiveness of Asda – ‘The takeover has far-reaching consequences for British retail as other companies react to it and find new ways to compete’ (Corporate Watch, 2004).

How is Tesco affected by international Political, Economic, Sociocultural, Technological and Legal forces?

Tesco operates in six other countries of the EU apart from the UK so its performance is now affected by the European Union (EU). Different tax policies, trade restrictions and tariffs will apply across every border, Tesco will need to include these differences when calculating their costs. In the UK, corporation tax lies between 20%-26%, but in comparison it is 40.69% in Japan. Multinational companies will need to take into consideration how much influence the government has over the country of potential investment – i.e. whether it is a dictatorship or democracy etc., and whether there is too much state control that could prevent the company from working efficiently and producing enough profit. As Tesco continues to expand, it may encounter problems with different monopoly regulations and competition authorities.

In the UK, the Competition Commission investigates all mergers and take overs and ensures that there is healthy competition to benefit consumers, companies and the economy as a whole. This is so that customers aren’t exploited by monopolies in the market – i.e. by paying higher prices and smaller businesses have a higher chance of survival. Multinational companies need to monitor the economic climate of countries they wish to expand to. During the recent economic downturn, the consumer electronics market has been one of the hardest hit, as incomes are cut the demand for luxury items has also fallen. ‘Operating losses of £46.7million in six months’ -because of this ‘Best Buy’ has had to close down their stores resulting in a huge loss of jobs (The Guardian, 2011). Tesco may not get hit as hard when expanding because of their diversity of products but they do need to ensure that they are entering new markets with the potential to gain a dominant market share so that they are not forced to shut down even when consumer demand is low.

The minimum wage in the UK as it stands is £6.08 an hour (, October 2011) however this will not be the same in every country and Tesco has faced exploitation allegations concerning this. In 2006, Tesco faced allegations over the treatment of workers in Bangladesh; War on Want alleged that wages were as low as 5p an hour and that workers were working 80+ hour weeks. However, Tesco stated that ‘Our suppliers comply with local labour laws and workers at all Bangladeshi suppliers to Tesco are paid above the national minimum wage’ (The Guardian, 2006). It may be unfair that the minimum wage is so low but it is not Tesco’s fault, however they are doing nothing in the way to improve the situation so they will still face a lot of negative media. Consumers in every country have different demands, the food and drink supplied in the UK may be completely different to the needs and wants of people in China.

Tesco need to appreciate that the food they retail in England may not appeal to other countries and so would have had to invest strongly in R+D to find out what they need to stock on their shelves. Merging with leading companies would have helped them to do this but much investment would have been needed in new raw materials and machinery to produce the different goods. ‘In the UK pies and sausages might take pride of place in Tesco’s meat refrigeration cabinets but in China, customers can browse through baskets of braised pig trotters, bundled together in fours by string’ (The Telegraph, 2011). To be successful in merging into foreign markets, Tesco has understood that they need to adapt their operations and that the way stores are run in the UK may not suit the way companies are run in different countries.

Instead of sending UK staff overseas to manage stores, Tesco has employed domestic managers that will understand fully the needs and wants of their consumers. In the UK, Tesco now supplies international cuisine to apply to all areas of the market, for example there are whole aisles filled with different Indian spices and shelves stacked with Polish branded goods. Religion in different nations will affect what Tesco can sell in their stores, meat is easily sold in the UK but in some religions it is not part of people’s diet so Tesco will need to provide suitable substitutions. Expanding outside of the UK means that Tesco will be exposed to and highly influenced by other laws and legislation different to that of the UK government.

The way in which vegetables and fruit are produced and grown in the UK may not comply with laws in other countries. In 2011, an investigation by Greenpeace discovered that vegetables sold in supermarkets contained levels of illegal pesticides or pesticides exceeding the maximum level that should be found in the food, making the produce illegal to sell in China. ‘Supermarket giants such as Tesco should be leading the way when it comes to shifting China’s agricultural industry to an eco-agricultural one, which includes reducing the country’s heavy use of chemicals in production. And instead they, along with Lotus and Lianhua, are seriously lax in keeping to China’s current standards’ (Greenpeace, 2011).

Why would Globalisation be considered undesirable?

Globalisation has been linked to a widening of inequalities in income and wealth. The benefits of globalisation are mainly going to the rich developed countries whilst the poor in the developing world are getting poorer. This is because multinational companies can exploit workers in LEDC’s as they do not have the power to fight back. Wealthy companies from any one country are only going to target expanding or rich companies in another; this reduces the chances of small businesses to become successful and forces many to shut down. As Tesco expands, it will need to increase its supply of raw materials and factories to manufacture in, this provides jobs in poorer countries because of the cheap labour pool, but because these multinational companies are so dominating they have the power to exploit workers and pay them extremely low wages.

Workers in poorer countries may also lose their jobs due to the rapid technological change and the fact that machinery can remove inefficiencies from the work force. This also results in structural unemployment where many industries are weakening due to their long-term decline of use and the investment in capital-labour substitutions. The workers in these environments then find it difficult to find another job in a different industry as their skills are specific to their previous job. The biggest long term threat to arise from globalisation is the effect that it will have on the environment, rapid growth and development may lead to irreversible damage.

Demand for timber, for example, has led to large scale deforestation in the developing world. Improvements in transportation is one of the main drivers of globalisation, as it is now much cheaper and far easier to transport goods around the world, however much more fuel is being used and many more emissions are being created. Pollution can have an effect not only on the environment but also on the health of people, as China continues to be the world’s fastest growing economy there are many health consequences to be aware of. A report by the World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that ‘diseases triggered by indoor and outdoor air pollution kill 656,000 Chinese citizens each year, and polluted drinking water kills another 95,600.’


From my research I have shown the factors why Tesco went global; these include the need to dominate international markets after becoming the biggest supermarket within the UK, the success of their strategies of merging with other companies with market knowledge and the rate of technological change that has allowed Tesco to grow so quickly. I have highlighted PESTL factors that Tesco may face such as the economic climates of different countries, sociocultural issues such as adapting to the needs and wants of consumers from a different market and the negative press that such a large company is bound to face. Even though globalisation is favoured by many, its effects can sometimes be undesirable, it is changing the world at such a phenomenal pace that there is always going to be some disadvantages and sadly it is always going to be the people with less money and power that will suffer.


– BBC News. (2007).

– Cairncross, F., (1997). The Death of Distance

– Corporate Watch. (2004).

– Directgov. (2011).

– Nadia G., (2011). Daily Mail.

– OECD. (2001).

– Palmer M., (2005). A case study of Tesco. Retail Multinational Learning.
33 (33,1), 28.

– Randeep R., (2006).The Guardian.

– Tan M., (2011)

– The Telegraph. (2011).

– WHO.

Globalization And Tesco Essay

The New International Economic Order Essay

The New International Economic Order Essay.

This book analyzes the globalization of the world economy and its real as well as its alleged implications for the international political economy. Since the end of the Cold War, globalization has been the most outstanding characteristic of international economic affairs and, to a considerable extent, of political affairs as well.

Yet, as I shall argue throughout this book, although globalization had become the defining feature of the international economy at the beginning of the twenty-first century, the extent and significance of economic globalization have been greatly exaggerated and misunderstood in both public and professional discussions; globalization in fact is not nearly as extensive nor as sweeping in its consequences (negative or positive) as many contemporary observers believe.

This is still a world where national policies and domestic economies are the principal determinants of economic affairs.

Globalization and increasing economic interdependence among national economies are indeed very important; yet, as Vincent Cable of the Royal Institute of International Affairs has pointed out, the major economic achievement of the post-World War II era has been to restore the level of international economic integration that existed prior to World War I.

1 My 1987 book lacked an adequate domestic dimension. It analyzed the international economy as if domestic economic developments were of only minor importance.

In part, this neglect was due to my desire to help advance an autonomous, self-contained international political economy. The present book attempts to overcome this unfortunate weakness through a focus on what I call “national systems of political economy” and their significance for both domestic and international economic affairs. As national economies have become more and more integrated, the significance of the fundamental differences among national economies has greatly increased.

The 1987 book had several other serious limitations, including its treatment of the multinational corporation, economic development, and economic regionalism; although I discussed all three of these important subjects at that time, much more needs to be said, especially in light of subsequent developments. In the mid-1980s, a revolution in international economic affairs occurred as multinational firms (MNCs) and foreign direct investment (FDI) began to have a profound impact on almost every aspect of the world economy. In the 1960s and 1970s, increased international trade transformed international economic affairs.

Subsequently, in the 1980s, the overseas expansion of multinational firms integrated national economies more and more completely. Moreover, whereas the term “multinational” had been synonymous with the expansion of American firms, in the 1980s firms of other nationalities joined the ranks of multinationals. Most importantly, MNCs led the way in internationalization of both services and manufacturing. My discussion of economic development in the 1987 book has become totally outdated; scholarship at that time gave serious attention to quasi-Marxist dependency theory and the deep division between the less developed and the developed world.

Today, the debate over economic development centers on the appropriate role for state and market in the development process. In the conclusion to the 1987 book, I referred to economic regionalism as the wave of the future. Today, economic regionalism has reached flood tide and is having a significant impact on the international economy. Financial developments since the mid-1980s have greatly increased the integration of the world economy and, therefore, deserve attention.

This book also addresses the question of whether or not the increased importance of the market in the organization and functioning of the global economy means the end of the nation-state and of international political economy as that term is defined in this book. Those familiar with my past work will not be surprised to learn that I think not. The principal purpose of this book is to draw upon these real-world and recent theoretical developments in order to formulate a more comprehensive understanding of international political economy than in my earlier publications.

The eclectic 1987 book presented what I considered to be the three major perspectives on international political economy (IPE)–liberalism, Marxism, and nationalism; this book takes a consciously realist or state-centric approach to analysis of the international economy. Differing from many contemporary writings on the global economy, I believe that the nation-state remains the dominant actor in both domestic and international economic affairs. Believing that both economic and political analyses are necessary for an understanding of the workings of the international economy, this book integrates these distinct modes of scholarly inquiry.

The New International Economic Order Essay

Positive Effects of Globalization Essay

Positive Effects of Globalization Essay.

Globalization has been credited with bringing an increased transparency in the world and communication technology has played a major role in this. Governments can now exchange data, research, analysis, and reports with each other on a real-time basis and this has led to increased cooperation between nations. One of the symbolic manifestations of globalization is the presence of multi-national brands across the globe. Companies like Coca-Cola, McDonalds, Nike etc. are present in a number of countries and to conduct their business smoothly and effectively, they rely on communication technology to a large extent.

The latest innovations in web-conferencing have made it possible for businessmen to interact with each other in a better way. The developments that we have seen in the business sector would have never been possible without the presence of an effective communication system. One of the prime examples is the surge in outsourcing that we have seen over the last decade of so. Most US companies have saved around 30% to 50% of their costs by taking their back-office, billing

Globalization: Pros and Cons

The term ‘globalization’ is profoundly contentious.

Where there are some highly appreciated advantages of this ideology of integrating cultures, the world has witnessed some enormously threatening effects of the same too. Its pros and cons simultaneously support and contradict its impact on the world economy. While the ones advocating globalization believe that it is because of this trend that poor economies have regained their hopes and faiths of developing financially, thus, raising their standards of living, the ones contradicting it believe that globalization is the only reason behind elite and high-profile multinational companies trashing local cultures and beliefs, domestic small-scale businesses, and commoners, in the rush to attain an international status. This instigates us to put forth numerous questions like What is the future of globalization with such ambiguities associated? How are cultures going to revive now?

All in all, it is upon the masses to keep a check on our sanctities and traditions, and be all the more tolerant as today, interaction in-person is no more prevalent. Issues will crop up, things would be misunderstood, and the power to tolerate will be tested every now and then. In order to properly balance between the benefits and prices that globalization is associated with, it is highly essential to adjudicate as to how the process of globalization works, and the norms and standards that it consorts with itself. It is then that we can seek an all-inclusive answer to globalization’s actual role and purpose within the world economy.

The impact of communication technology can be seen in the education sector as well. There are a lot of students who are now able to get access to information through Internet. Students can now get certifications from foreign Universities by completing an online program. These innovations have brought a marked difference to the way education is imparted and has led to an improvement in the quality of education. The impact of globalization on banking industry has been prominent and today we can see various banks being streamlined through effective communication channels. The innovation has also led to the globalization of banking industry as leading banks from all over the world now have their offices in almost every country of the world. While the impact of communication technology has been overly positive, it has led to certain challenges. There is a wide disparity when it comes to access to technology between developing and developed nations.

The developing nations do not have a proper infrastructure in place, which has created challenges for a lot of people in these countries. This can be disadvantageous to the developing countries and can lead to economic disparity. Globalization cannot be exclusive as it encompasses the whole world and it is important that corrective actions are taken to ensure that weaker sections of the society are not neglected. There has been a lot of progress in the last few years and developing countries like Nigeria and Kenya have started to take steps to encourage their people to be acquainted with the latest developments in communication technology.

It is important to remember that there are various factors that have contributed to globalization and communication technology is just one of them. However, it has played one of the most important roles in spreading globalization. The concerns that are associated with the disparity can be countered by making further innovations in communication technology.

Globalization has several advantages on the economic, cultural, technological, social, and other fronts. Any myths existing in the mind regarding these must be dispelled. Globalization means increasing the interdependence, connectivity, and integration on a global level, with respect to the social, cultural, political, technological, economic, and ecological levels. It is the collaboration of countries to provide a boost to trade practices, and also to reduce cultural differences. Its various advantages can be felt all across the globe by one and all, and also to a very large extent in our daily lives.

Obviously, now we understand that globalization is here to stay. Here are the most common and important advantages that globalization, over time, has brought about for mankind. These have been listed in no particular order, and are all vital in their own way.

Peaceful Relations

Most of the countries have resorted to trade relations with each other in order to boost their economy, leaving behind any bitter past experiences if any. Nations now try to raise capital and fortify their stand in international trade, rather than hosting a war. Thus, globalization has induced international peace and security in a big way.

Free Trade

Free trade is a policy in which a country does not levy taxes, duties, subsidies or quota on the import/export of goods or services from other countries. There are countries which have resolved to free trade in specific regions. This allows consumers to buy goods and services, comparatively at a lower cost.

Global Connectivity

Globalization has promoted international connectivity. With the use of the Internet, the world has definitely become a smaller place. There has been exchange of thoughts and ideas which has morally boosted and interlinked the mindset of people all round the world.

New Markets

The opportunities for new markets has increased dramatically. Numerous companies have started investing in different countries and luring customers for their brands. These ever-expanding markets have helped countries to raise capital in terms of foreign domestic investments, thus improving the economy of the country.

Employment Opportunities

One of the most advantageous factors of globalization is that it fosters the generation of employment. This happens due to the emergence of new companies and new markets, where lots of skilled and unskilled labor is required. Immigration between countries also increases, providing better opportunities for people all round the world. By providing employment, globalization helps in increasing the standard of living of the people, and also reduces poverty.

Quality Products

The competition among different companies finds place at an international level. It becomes important for the companies to focus on quality goods and services, in order to have a strong foothold in the market. The consumer is benefited in the process, and gets quality products at cheaper rates. He/she also gets the opportunity to select his goods from a large variety available in the market.

Environmental Protection

Mutual trade carried out by countries has brought about an understanding for the protection of the environment from which they benefit so much. It has been accepted by most countries that action needs to be taken in saving natural resources and wildlife, without thinking about the boundaries that separate them. Global environmental problems like cross-boundary pollution, over-fishing in the oceans, climate change, etc., are solved by discussions and conventions.

Good for Developing Nations

It is claimed that globalization increases the economic prosperity of developing nations. Developed countries invest in such countries with an aim of capturing new markets, which helps them improve their infrastructure and technologies to international levels. A lot of capital is invested in such projects, which in turn proves fruitful to the economy of the developing nation as well.

Equality for All

Globalization has helped in creating international criminal courts, and international justice movements are also launched to provide justice to people at a global level. Disputes are solved through global standards such as patents, copyright laws, and world trade agreements. Thus, it has ensured that people do not get discriminated with regard to country, caste, creed or sex.

Ease of Transportation

With the advent of globalization, there has been an immense increase in the transportation of goods and services worldwide. Things which took weeks for conveyance, can now easily be availed within a couple of days. Due to the development of containerization for ocean shipping, transportation costs are reduced to a great extent, lowering the cost of products in world markets.

Travel and Tourism

Globalization has promoted tourism to great heights. There are many places that have tourism as their main source of capital generation. International trade among different countries also helps in increasing the number of tourists that visit different places around the world.

Unity in Diversity

Globalization has helped in bringing about integrity and social understanding everywhere. The dream for a global village becomes realistic after looking at the impact of globalization. It has helped in removing some barriers that had kept the world divided on various grounds. There has been propagation of democratic ideas among countries. Cross-cultural contacts grow and cultural diffusion takes place, which helps in minimizing differences, and promotes companionship.

External Borrowing

It has often been seen that a poor country is unable to provide adequate financing to its companies, which proves to an obstacle in the development of the country on the whole. With the help of globalization, there is opportunity for corporate, national, and sub-national borrowers to have better access to external finance, with facilities such as external commercial borrowing and syndicated loans.

It is a common belief that globalization plays a role just at international levels of trade and commerce, but the fact is that it has played an important role in making our lives much more comfortable too. The phones, apparels, gadgets or accessories that we use in our day-to-day life are be available to us through globalization. Knowingly or unknowingly, we are all under the impact of globalization, and more importantly it has helped in bringing international peace and justice to mankind. Read more at Buzzle:

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Positive Effects of Globalization Essay

Apple’s Fdi and Globalization Essay

Apple’s Fdi and Globalization Essay.

Globalization- Today the world has become a global village where each and every thing is interlinked.The concept of global village or global merger is based on the grounds of globalization. Now thequestion arises in one¶s mind what is globalizationThe term globalization means the concentration of world economy in to a single international market rather than many national markets. For example, the APPLE INC, an American multinational corporation that concentrates in computer hardware and software components. It assembles its best known product i.

e. ‘mac’ computer, best selling phone ‘iphone’ in china. This is because the cost of production is low due to cheap labour force. Thus globalization involves:- Free trade of goods and services

Free movement of labour and capital
Free access in technology
Now, we will discuss the above points with more details.

Free trade of goods and services- Based on APPLES INC business operation the company is selling its product such as the ‘iPhone’, ‘MAC’ computer in many countries in the world.

Generally it is a US based company which is doing its business world-wide, there are no restriction for the company not to sell its product in any country. So its means free trade of goods and services. Free movement of labour and capital- In regard with APPLE INC it means, apple can move its labour force and inject capital in any country with no restriction. When talking about labour force it means the people who work for APPLE can travel from one country to the other. For instance, officers travel from one country to the other. We normally see in the news that APPLE has appointed new officers in the UK, Germany or the US. Technical team travel from one country to the other when there is a major problem where other technician can not figure out what the problem is. In terms of capital, it means APPLE has invested capital to make industries where its product are made and assembled.

They have factory in china and other countries in the world. Free access in technology- It means the the software of APPLE i.e. the ‘iOS’ are being used in many countries in the world. This is because the products that APPLE is selling use iOs software and these products are being sold in many countries in the world, so it means the technology is being freely moving from one country to the other. This encourages globalization. Another example is, a potential customer from Bangladesh looking to buy a shirt, he looks on the ‘New look’ website. It normally making the sense that, a customer can access the catalogue from any where of the world. This is commonly known as globalization. Apple Inc. is an American based multinational company whose stocks are listed in the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ (National Association of Securities DealersAutomated Quotations) under the symbol AAPL.

The company specializes in the design,development and manufacturing of electronic equipments like computers, software and smart phones. Business strategy: Apple is currently working on the differentiation strategy by putting unique elements in the design and development of its products. The differentiation strategy is defined as a strategy that aims to develop the products and or services that have unique characteristics that are well liked by the customers and are valued by them. This strategy enhances the market position of the companies with respect to their counterparts (Porter, 1998).The success of the company in the global markets is due to its extensive focus on the market research and development for the development of its products and services. With reference to its business strategy, the company is in a continues process to build and advance the robust platform that can enhance the listing of third party content like mobile phone apps, games etc on its online stores or its iTunes store (Apple Inc.,2010).

Markets and Distribution

The customer segments of the company are divided into various categories. The needs of the main customers markets it caters are of small and medium businesses, education sectors,large corporations, government departments and other related markets. In order to meet the needsand wants of these consumer markets, the company is utilizing direct and indirect distributionchannels including online sales services, retail stores and direct sales force as well as third partysellers, retailers etc. Using direct sales contacts with the customers is, believed by the company,leveraging its product sales and has demonstrated as an advantage to the company over itscompetitors. In order to maximize its sales and to make sure that the buyers are receiving highquality experience, the company is in a process to expand and improve its existing channeldistribution network (Form 10-k S EC Filing, 2010).


The company faces aggressive competition from the other market players. According toHoover (2011) the top three competitors of Apple Inc. in United States are Fujitsu TechnologySolutions (Holding) B.V., International Business Machines Corporation and MediaNet Digital,Inc. respectively. The needs of the markets it caters are highly competitive in nature due to the ever changing and advancing technological environment and the rapid introduction of new technology based products. The main competitors of the company are following cost leadership strategies by reducing the prices of their products or by maintaining low profit margins to maintain their market share.

There are various forces that can impact the business and profitability of Apple. These factors may include the marketing mix ± product, price, place, promotion strategies, product performance, the quality and reliability of the product, innovative designs as well as then availability of up to date software services.Moreover, some of the competitors of the company have number of resources which they can utilize against the company to provide the product and service offerings related to Apple,offer the business and consumer products and services similar to Apple¶s products at low price range(Form 10-k SEC Filings, 2010).

Products and Services

Apple is currently using in house manufacturing system for the production of all of its products. All the products like Mac, iphone, ipad and ipod etc. are designed, developed and marketed via its main manufacturing hub which is located in the USA. But, as mentioned earlier,the company is outsourcing the production of some of its product parts to the various international and national supply chain partners; subcontractors. Some of the components of its products, ipod, are outsourced to its subcontractor in Hong Kong from where it is sent to theoutsourced production plant of the company (Linden et al, 2007).Some of these components are of high cost. While the other products like hard drive andflash memory etc. are sent to the other companies or outsourcing companies like Toshiba inJapan or Samsung in Korea.

Large number of its components is of low cost. The metalcomponents of the products are made by the outsourcing unit in Taiwan called Foxconn and the plastic components are products by the outsourcing units in Singapore (Brown, 1998, p.198).Finally these parts are assembled in the China and then transported to its sales outlets across theworld (Kahney, 2008).Outsourcing plants:It has built its integrated manufacturing and design facilities in the various countries for example in California, Singapore etc. This global network allows the company to develop andlaunch the products in its markets of America, Asia and Europe.

It produces its products, for example ipads, in the Shanghai, China which has given it a cost saving advantage and lead to theincreased profitability for the company (Chaffin, 2002). But on the other hand, this outsourcing has increased the downsizing and unemployment rate in the home country (Rodriguez-Clare,2011).some of the outsourcing plants managed by the company are showing troubled situations for Apple. ConclusionThe economy of the world has now become free from any boundary. All the countries are now considered integrated with one another as one global market for carrying out variousactivities like trade, relations, etc.

Evaluate: Evaluate;

From one perspective, Apple’s world could not be rosier and its future shinier. Rising from the rubble of a disintegrating company in 1997, Apple has reached the pinnacle of success in 15 short years. With a market capitalization of over $500 billion, Apple is amongst the most valuable and highly profitable companies in the world. When it comes to customers, Apple is a bold innovator that leads the industry into new directions and forces others to follow. However, when it comes to the management of its supply chain and treatment of workers in the Chinese factories that make its products, it hides behind the constraints of prevailing industry practices. Foxconn and its China-based subsidiaries are owned and controlled by the Taiwan-based Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd. Most of Apple’s worker-related problems were focused on Apple’s manufacturing partner Foxconn and its subsidiaries.

Reports over the past few years have described instances of Foxconn employees committing suicide, presumably from working in an extremely high stress environment. In addition there are reports of deplorable living conditions, underage workers, below-standard wages, involuntary labor, and health hazards associated with the use of toxic chemicals and inadequate air filtration systems Finally, in the closing days of 2011, Apple announced with great fanfare that it had joined the Fair Labor Association (FLA.

Over the concept , Chinese factories have honed their tactics in concealing problems from the auditors by keeping workers away from plants during audit visits, maintaining multiple sets of accounting books and workers’ personnel files, coaching workers to give right answers to the auditors’ questions in terms of working hours, wage rates, and overtime, et cetera, with promises of bonuses if the auditors were satisfied and implied threats of punishment if serious problems were identified. Thus a highly choreographed audit allows for certain violations—albeit manageable—to be disclosed and promises for corrective action to be taken. Cutting out excessive hours would entail additional costs. For example, a reduction in the average working hours from the current 60-70 hours per week to 48 hours per week would entail approximately a 30 percent + increase in the labor force to maintain the current rate of output.

The Indicators of Globalization
There are three main economic and financial indicators of globalization, these are:
• international trade in goods and services
• the transfer of money capital from one country to another
• the movement of people across national borders.

Of the three, international trade and foreign investment are the most important. Each of the three indicators will be examined in turn. International Trade International trade means that countries become more interconnected through the exchange of goods and services, that is, through imports and exports. Multinational companies (MNCs) are major traders and account for a large proportion of international trade, with significant proportions accounted for by trade between subsidiaries within the same company. So for example, Ford makes gearboxes in its factory in Bordeaux and exports them to its assembly plants in other European countries. Around one half of US manufactured exports and more than 60% of its imports flow within MNCs. International trade has increased more rapidly than global output which has been increasing by around 3% per annum. 2004)

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

FDI is the main source of investment in developing countries. Recent year FDI has increased in these countries due to three reasons: –

• The rise of multinational companies
• Liberalization of world capital market
• Liberalization of world economies

As in regard to APPLE INC, it has built factories in china to make its product so it has invested in china which is foreign direct investment. In the recent years FDI has increased in this country due to three reasons: –

• The rise of multinational companies
• Liberalization of world capital market
• Liberalization of world economies

The advantages of these FDI are as the following: –

• This FDI will allow a country to invest more than their saving. It is a crucial source of investment in a country such as in china where it is difficult to encourage savings. FDI also helps to increase the import than the export. Again a FDI can be assumed as an injection which, in terms has a large multiplier effect in the economy. It creates demand in the receipent country and hence helps to increase real GDP. • FDI helps to increase the employment in a country. For instance, the investment by apple in chine has created jobs for Chinese people to work and earn a living. They, sometimes offer higher wages than other national companies which helps to increases the living standard of that country. For e.g. in 1999 30 million people were employed in the developing countries directly or indirectly by the multi national companies. This has a positive externality in the economy in the long run. • Sometimes FDI goes in the tradeable goods sextor of a country. Thus the countries export performance may increase and the country may enjoy higher competitiveness.

The disadvantages if these FDI are as the following: –

• Multinational companies, such as APPLE tends to send back their profit to their country. This may create a balance of payment deficit in the receipient countries if they fail to increase their export earnings. • Apple tends to use expertise of staffs from their country so the benefit that should come from employment becomes insignificant. • Multinational companies such as these APPLE tends to locate their factories in the urban areas so there may be an increase in inequality in the economy. Again it may create pressure in the urban sector. • There is a risk of tends that multinational companies such as APPLE tends to exploit the natural resources of a country like gas, coal, electricity. Thus in the long- run there may be an environmental degradation and the country may suffer from natural degradation. • Deficit in the long- run-

However, FDI may have positive impact on a country but they tend to be fuelled only in some developed countries.

Apple’s Fdi and Globalization Essay

Canadian Globalization Essay

Canadian Globalization Essay.

Canadian scholar Marshall McLuhan once said that the world is becoming more and more like a “global village,” each nation part of an increasingly interconnected society that stretches across national boundaries (6). Although he was talking about the role of new media in this change, he also was probably talking about the growing economic links that come with globalization. Globalization is a process that offers both the opportunity for a better world and the risk of destroying local communities, regional cultures, and entire natural environments.

Over the last century, globalization has become a major issue in politics, environmental studies, and economics, touching every corner of earth as corporations spread. But Globalization is a broad term that does not necessarily mean one single thing. It usually describes the increasing interconnectedness of economies, political institutions, and individuals as the result of communication, transportation, and goods provided by multinational corporations. As Justin Ervin and Zachary Smith define it, “Globalization can now be seen as a process that ‘shrinks’ the world as human interaction ‘thickens’” (4).

The effects of globalization are neither good nor bad; there are costs and benefits as with most things in life. What is certain is that no nation on earth has not yet felt the effects of globalization. One nation that has been particularly involved in and affected by globalization is Canada. Canada is a nation often overshadowed by its economically dominant southern neighbor, the United States. As the world continues to globalize, Canada’s role in this expansion is becoming increasingly important, and whether it will accept globalization entirely or continue to resist is a major point of debate.

Canada has both embraced and rejected globalization: many of its corporations embrace it as a means of expanding, but many of Canada’s people fear the effects of globalization on local culture, the economy, and the environment. For Canada, globalization has brought both economic prosperity and a series of cultural and environmental problems. In an address to the Richard Ivey School of Business at the University of Western Ontario, Wayne G. Wouters, Clerk of the Privy council and Secretary to the Cabinet, there are five dimensions to globalization. First, “global capital markets now ruly operate 24/7” and “perturbations in one country or sector may now be felt both near and far. ” Globalization has made business both quick in time and geographically broad. Second, there are now “global supply chains” where products are made and shipped all across the globe. What started out as “outsourcing” in the 1980s became “off-shoring” in the 1990s, and now is called the “global supply chain. ” Third, there is the “globalization of information,” an interconnected network of media and communication. Fourth, globalization raises environmental concerns.

Last, there is what Wouters calls the “globalization of insecurity,” the idea that the future is even more uncertain in a world where everything is connected and nothing is stable for long. These dimensions highlight that globalization is seen in Canada as both a force for good and a problem. Throughout its history Canada has had strong ties to Europe and later to the United States. As part of the British Empire it was an important source of natural resources such as timber and ores. In recent decades, the Canadian oil industry has become increasingly important as well.

Canada has the third largest oil reserves in the world after Saudi Arabia and Venezuela (Lewis and Moor). Other industries such as technology, chemicals, and manufacturing continue to make Canada a major player in the world economy. But what does the continued growth of Canadian industry and its own involvement with globalization do to its regional cultures? How is Canadian identity affected by the spread of products and ideas from multinational corporations? How can Canada embrace globalization without sacrificing its natural and national resources?

All of these questions are important when we look at the role of Canada on the global stage. Most importantly, it must be rightly remembered that the effects of globalization on Canada are not entirely beneficial or entirely damaging, demonstrating that globalization is both an agent of positive change and potential dangers. As a European colony founded mainly for trade, you might say that Canada has always been global. It has attracted people from all over the world . It was only in the 1920s that the US finally replaced Britain as the “leading provider of foreign investment in Canada” (Azzi).

As David Lewis and Karl Moor note, tariffs and high taxes kept Canada relatively isolated as far as international trade goes until after World War II. In 1947 the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) opened up the Canadian economy by reducing tariffs and taxes on imports and exports. According to Azzi and also to Ervin and Smith (19), this led directly to the growth of Canada’s international presence as a major worldwide economy. Later actions such as the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US in 1989 led to more economic success (Azzi).

This contributed to the fact that in 2012 Canada had $481. 7 billion in exports, the eleventh most of any country, although most of these exports are bought by the United States. More recently, Canada prospered through the 1990s and early 2000s. Then, after a 12 year surplus, Canada struggled in 2008 when the world economy started to decline. But Canadian banks came out of the crisis pretty well. In fact, according to the CIA Factbook, Canadian banks “emerged from the financial crises of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world. Canada also has one of the world’s largest economies, valued at $1. 5 trillion dollars annually.

A recent report by Mark Carney, the Governor of the Bank of Canada, notes that globalization has been a generally positive force for Canada. He says that “hundreds of millions of people have already been lifted out of poverty, with the real potential for hundreds of millions more to share their destiny. ” Carney points to Canada’s current participation in globalization as part of the nation’s second longest expansion, which he compares to the Roman Empire and the Industrial Revolution.

Carney sees the trends toward better growth, such as the doubling of the Canadian labor force by 2050, as signs that Canada will prosper at home and abroad. Canada remains a powerhouse on the international stage. Stephen Azzi calls Canada “one of the most globally integrated countries in the world. ” It belongs to 14 international organizations, “second only to the US, which is a member of 15” (Azzi). This has led to prosperity and increased influence on the world stage. Globalization provides many benefits for Canada as a whole.

For example, Canada enjoys the second highest standard of living in the G-8, and the eighth highest standard of living overall (CIA Factbook). Canadians enjoy access to products from around the world, travel frequently, and foreign trade has increased the overall prosperity of Canada. This is especially true for its businesses. Canadian corporations are becoming more and more international over the last three decades, as recent studies have shown. In one The Russell Reynolds Associates conducted a survey to see how Canadian companies were adapting to the new global economy.

The results showed in the report, “A World of Experience: The Globalization of Canadian Corporate Leadership,” suggests that Canadian companies are getting significantly more global at both the top and bottom of their levels. The Reynolds study took CEOs from Canada’s 100 largest corporations. It then measured how much international experience each of these executives had. According to the results the percentage of Canadian CEOs with international work experience rapidly increased between 1987 and 2007.

What is even more interesting is that more and more Canadian CEOs are getting their international experience in countries other than the United States and Europe. This is a sure sign that Canadian companies are moving forward with a global perspective in mind. They are led by executives who understand that the world is interconnected now by “webs of global supply” (Reynolds). From Russell Reynolds and Associates Study 1987-2007 The Reynolds Report suggested that the benefits of participating in global markets are many.

Their study also shows the importance of being able to trade internationally, since Canada is actively trying to become more global economically. It is especially important for Canada to look to the United States, one of the world’s most globalized economies. There has been a good deal of government action on both sides that have further globalized Canada. For example, the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was ratified in 1988, causing Canada’s business scene to change. New markets opened up and more trade connections were expanded than ever before.

Afterwards the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the establishment of the World Trade Organization in 1995 (WTO) built Canada’s role even further. According to Stephen Azzi, Canada’s role in the WTO has made it an important part of other large international financial organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. One of the main questions about globalization in Canada is how it strengthens the country’s connection with the United States. As the United States became one of the forefronters of globalization, Canada was also close behind.

The expansion of the Canadian and global economies and the growth of emerging markets in developing nations improved trade and lowered investment barriers so that Canadian money could flow across the globe. Business was booming. Canadian firms began selling their products to other countries and creating “global supply chains and contracts. ” Canadian companies also got access to lower-cost raw materials and cheaper labor.

Even when foreign firms entered Canada’s markets which increased the competition faced by domestic firms: “By 2007, Canada’s foreign imports and exports equaled 62 percent of its GDP, compared with only 43 percent in 1987. When Canadian firms started selling their companies and products to globally recongnized and international countries, the competetion increased making others more dependent on Canada. The entire Canadian economy grew as a result. A recent CBS News report at the Summit of the Americas, “What is Globalization? ” (March 30, 2006) discussed the debate over what globalization means in different places. Canada was an early supporter of trade and investment liberalization and remains so today. More than 40 per cent of the country’s economy depends directly on trade.

The Canadian government thinks expanding trade and international investment is vital to the economy, but not everyone agrees. The definition of globalization from an anti-globalization group known as Anti-Marketing says globalization is “the process of exploiting economically weak countries by connecting the economies of the world, forcing dependence on (and ultimately subservience to) the western capitalist machine. ” However, the report did not say that globalization did not have its fair share of problems. It pointed to problems of higher unemployment, lowered health care and decreased safety standards.

It also pointed to the lower environmental protection standards, less effective government as corporations have more power, and less protection for developing industries and countries. Globalization can also provide easier communications due to improved technologies. This allows Canadian corporations to set up manufacturing plants in newly industrializing economies like China, India or Latin America where costs of production are lower. Although this often lowers the prices of goods, this also causes local Canadians to lose their jobs, resulting in discontentment, resentment, and loss in confidence in the Canadian government.

Labor groups also dislike this effect of globalization. Often strikes and riots will be organized as the economy further suffers as companies continue to export jobs overseas. This problem is one that is both social and economic as local workers blame their economic problems on the outsourcing of labor. Worldwide communication also affects daily life in Canada. Canada is extremely well-connected to the rest of the world. According to Azzi, “the average Canadian spends more than 500 minutes per year on international telephone calls. ” This communication goes beyond technology such as phones and internet.

Canadians are also avid travelers. Canada has the forth most airports in the world (CIA Factbook). This increases the exchange of goods and ideas, making Canada a real hub. Of course, globalization has not met with universal acceptance. In his article “Globalization is Killing Canada: Fight for Your Freedom,” Paul Hellyer, Canada’s former Deputy Prime Minister, makes an argument against globalization. Hellyer sees globalization as part of the reason why Canadian values are disappearing and Canadian independence is being threatened.

Hellyer even sees globalization as a threat to Canada’s sovereignty, saying that “Canadian values are disappearing rapidly as we lose our independence and our sovereignty. ” He believes Canada is losing control of its most important industries and losing its most exciting and challenging jobs as companies move their headquarters to other parts of the world. Hellyer claims Canada has become a victim of globalization, a process that is good for two to five percent of the world’s richest and most powerful people. It is bad for the vast majority.

Global cooperation is essential for protecting oceans, ozone global warming but the relentless drive on the part of multinational corporations and international banks to take over governance of the world for their own benefit has to stop before it’s too late. Mr. Hellyer details the history of Canadian globalization and sees that foreign companies are increasingly more powerful within Canada. He specifically points to Nafta as a treaty that “granted US and Mexican investors greater rights in Canada than Canadian citizens enjoy.

Hellyer sees this as very problematic, and his title gives out his position on the matter. Even if he does think that it is “killing Canada,” Hellyer does not write off globalization entirely. In fact, he sees many positive things can come out of international cooperation. For example, he sees a need for countries to cooperate in order to restore the environment to its former glory. But Hellyer sees international corporations as more of a threat. He certainly fears the environmental effects of globalization, but he also seems to see that corporations might be the most appropriate way to repair the environment.

Stephen Azzi sees similar problems, noting that the two major problems with globalization for Canada are an increased reliance on foreign economies and a greater dependence on the US. Azzi states that early attempts to broaden global trade ended up strengthening American commerical interests but not other nations. It is seen as a problem by many Canadians, and many “viewed multilateral trade agreements as a way of offsetting the influence of the US. ” This problem is hard to ignore. Three quarters of all Canadian exports go to the United States (CIA Factbook).

The resistance to globalization became most vocal in the 1960s and 70s. Nationalist movements in Canada saw globalization as a threat to national identity. There were protests by Canadians who were afraid that globalization might erase their local cultures and destroy the environment. The government took some actions to promote Canadian identity. One was the Canadian government establishing “content quotas for radio and television” and benefits for Canadian publications (Azzi). This was to promote Canadian media instead of being overwhelmed by American and British television, film, and publications.

But this had little overall effect. Even when Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau tried to promote the Foreign Investment Review Agency in 1974 and the “Third Option” program to reduce economic and social dependence on the United States, there was little change. Canada stayed watching American programs and buying American products. More recently, Canadians have been involved in widespread opposition to globalization. At the 1999 World Trade Organization Summit in Seattle, many Canadians were involved in the protests.

These protests turned violent, but led to international recognition that globalization had opponents even in a globalized country like Canada. At the 2001 Summit of the Americas in Quebec City there were similar protests. Canadian protesters felt that the country was falling into the hands of international corporations, particularly American ones. Instead of promoting regional cultures, these protesters felt that there was a “global monoculture . . . increasingly destroying local traditions” (Hellyer). That is the main threat to Canadian locals. Globalization in the past century has led to the increased exposure of Canada to the world.

This has sometimes brought globalization into the news as a cause of social problems, especially immigration. Chain migration takes place in Canada, bringing large numbers of foreign migrants into the country. Although migrants can make a positive contribution to Canada’s economy, they can, on the other hand, work against the Canadian society by increasing the social tension between Canadian locals and foreigner migrants. For example, in the city of Richmond in the Vancouver metropolitan area, there are large numbers of Asian migrants and social tension between groups.

Migrants also complete with Canadians for the same jobs. But population movement is made even more intense by improved transportation. It is significantly easier in recent years for families to relocate and for goods to be shipped from various countries around the world. The major effect of this increased interconnectedness is that populations have become highly mobile. People are not constrained to remain in a single place for their entire life but rather are now able to move about, often following multinational corporations for whom they work.

Canadian Globalization Essay

Driving Force of Globalisation Essay

Driving Force of Globalisation Essay.

An NIC stands for a Newly Industrialised Country. It is a term used to describe a country that has moved away from an agriculture-based economy and into a more industrialised, urban economy. These countries have a high growth rate. Current NICs include China, India, Brazil, Malaysia, Mexico, South Africa, Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. The average growth rate between these countries is approximately 7.64% compared to the world average of 3.7% (2011). The average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for these NICs is US$10,769 compared to the world average GDP per capita of US,000.

GDP is a useful indicator of development and a great measure for comparing differences between countries, therefore allowing a clear differentiation between countries that are Highly Industrialised Countries (HICs), Newly Industrialised Countries (NICs) or Low Industrialised Countries (LICs). The Human Development Index (HDI) is another strong indicator of development, it includes a combination of statistics: life expectancy, education and income. The average HDI of these NICs is approximately 0.6874. The world average HDI is 0.


India is now an NIC, as the IT services boom has transformed the country’s economy, which is now growing at more than 9% per year, the same rate as China. India’s HIC is 0.547(2011 estimate). Since China opened up its markets to the West in the 1980s, the city of Shanghai has transformed into a booming metropolis consisting of about 21 million people. Shanghai accounts for 30% of China’s foreign exports and attracts 25% of all foreign investment into the country. The GDP of Shanghai alone is US450 billion! China’s HDI is 0.867 (2011 estimate).

Globalisation is the stage of processes and impacts that occur at a global scale, usually economic systems, but it can include physical systems (global warming) and socio-cultural systems (fashion, music, film industry). Globalisation can be measured using the Globalisation Index, which tracks and assess changes in the 4 key components of global integration. Another measure of globalisation is the KOF Index of Globalisation. This calculates the overall index of globalisation and sub-indices referring to actual economic flows, economic restrictions, data on information flows, data on personal contact and data on cultural proximity.

NICs have been and continue to be the driving force of globalisation. Manufacturing tends to occur mainly in industrialised countries. Globally, manufacturing output continues to increase and most manufacturing still occurs in industrialised countries. Although relative contribution of manufacturing to most industrialised countries economies has declined, manufacturing remains fundamental to all economies. Many of the new industrialised countries are dramatically increasing their manufacturing output, by establishing their unique multi-nationals and implement manufacturing plants in developed countries. An example of a country doing this is South Korea. NICs have a variety of advantages over fully developed countries, as they are able to benefit from cheap labour costs, lower business taxes, cheaper land and fewer environmental controls.

Multi-nationals are hugely responsible for a large majority of the rise in globalisation, for example; the introduction of Trans-national companies (TNCs). These multi-nationals have huge benefits, i.e. they have generated millions of new jobs in NICs, however; they have also lead to social, political and economic problems within a country, as well as between countries. For example, Uganda, a very poor country with a GDP per capita of just $1,300 (2011), has been forced to lower its prices of exporting coffee, which is what its economy relies on.

Coffee prices have fallen by 70% since 1997, costing exporters in developing countries $8 billion in lost foreign-exchange earnings. This divides the gap between the rich and the poor, as the richer countries will benefit from trading, while the poorer countries, such as Uganda, will loose out in gaining money on exports, therefore making them poorer. TNCs dominate industrial production including manufacturing and services, therefore further dividing the gap between the rich and the poor, and being the main leader of globalisation as a consequence.

TNCs work to meet the demand for its good from HICs. For example, Toyota, like many other TNCs undertakes much of its manufacturing in LICs in order to meet the high and constant demand from HICs. Manufacturing in LICs is preferred as it provides these large companies with cheap labour. Toyota was recorded as the fifth largest TNC in 2010. It has 51 overseas manufacturing companies in 26 countries and regions, it has Design and Research and Development centres in the USA, Japan, Belgium, the UK, France, Thailand and Australia, and its headquarters are in Japan.

Globalisation inevitably increases pressure to liberalise trade and to eliminate tariffs and non-trade barriers. Liberalisation of trade within OPEC clearly resulted in China (an NIC) for example, gaining a comparative advantage over the US (MIC) in the manufacture of machinery products.

Globalisation has also been a resulting factor for the dramatic increase in technology. Bangalore, in the Silicon Valley of India is experiencing a remarkable IT boom, that is transforming the prospects of India’s economy. The internet is the fastest growing tool of communications. It took just 4 years for the internet to reach 50 million years, in contrast to the 38 years it took for radio and 13 years for television. However, the bulk of internet traffic is between and within North America, Western Europe and, to a limited extent, East Asia i.e. HICs and NICs. In Asia, Japan accounts for the major share of internet traffic, which is the reason for why this country has become an NIC, where as most other countries in Asia are LICs.

A number of charismatic new Indian companies are now challenging the multinationals for global leadership in this area, including TCS (TATA Consultancy Services), Infosys and WIPRO (the current global leader in technology). The IT services boom has helped to transform the Indian economy, which is now growing at more than 9% a year, comparable to China. The new-found affluence of the young workers in the IT sector has led to a change in attitudes to wealth and consumption in the country. More and more young people are increasingly being able to afford such luxuries, for example cars and home ownership.

On the other hand, NICs are not necessarily the driving force to globalisation. The reason for this is that these countries have only been able to develop due to the richer western countries. These MICs have the money to buy up land in poorer countries, as part of land colonization in order to meet the demand of these MICs. Many of the new industrializing countries (NICs) are dramatically increasing their manufacturing output, however this is only as a result of industrialised countries becoming established in the NICS.

The core periphery is a theory to explain the process by which some countries become wealthy and others become poor, subsequently increasing the divide between them. The patterns of trade that emerges from the 1500s onwards created a wealthy ‘core’ of European countries. The nations who supply these rich European countries remained poor and on the edge, known as the periphery. The Global core regions include North America, Europe and Japan. This core owns and consumes 80% of global goods and services, earns the highest incomes, makes most decisions about the global economy, e.g. what goods are produced, and provides most global investment. Therefore, richer countries control trade, and so have control of LICs to meet their large demand, subsequently being the driving force of globalisation.

Trade has been the engine of globalisation, with world wide trade in manufactures goods increasing more than 100 times (from $9.5 billion to $12 trillion) in the last 50 years. This has outpaced the overall growth of the global economy. Since 1960, increased trade has been made easier by international agreements to lower tariff and non-tariff barriers on export of manufactured goods, especially to rich countries. Those countries which have managed to increase their role in the world trading system (through implementing TNCs) by targeting exports to rich countries – such as Japan, Korea and now China. All these countries have seen a dramatic increase in their standard of living.

In conclusion, I strongly believe that NICs have been the driving force to globalisation. Moving to a more industrialised, urban economy will help any country to perform better in the global market, helping it to gain a higher growth rate and GDP. Having a higher HDI in a country will also help those countries to receive higher standards of living and an enhanced quality of life. Globalisation occurs as factor of change to economic, physical and socio-cultural systems, which all have large global influences. HICs have therefore, increasingly been the cause for globalisation, as they develop from an agriculture-based economy into an industrialised, urban economy.

Driving Force of Globalisation Essay

The Globalization of Eating Disorders Essay

The Globalization of Eating Disorders Essay.

I still remember when I was a child, my parents always called me “fat boy”. In the traditional culture of my hometown China, “fatty” means cute, full of blessing. No one associated “fat” with being ugly. Even when I was a high school student, “fat boy” was still my parents’ nickname for me. But in recent years, Chinese aesthetics has been changing quickly. Now, you can easily find all kinds of diet pills on sale in stores, and more and more recreation centers open classes for fitness, such as yoga.

The only purpose is to lose weight and gain a skinny body. Suddenly, it seems as if being skinny is equated with being “beautiful.

This is a trend and culture, like a hurricane sweeping around the China rapidly. Why has this new standard of beauty taken root and spread across China so quickly? In the article “The Globalization of Eating Disorders” written by Susan Bordo, she tries to explain this phenomenon.

The author, Susan Bordo, begins her essay with a personable example of a young girl standing in front of the mirror, which the readers can relate to. This example introduces the concept of “body image” (814). It is a great way to capture the reader’s interest. The young girl is a typical white, middle-classed, North American (Susan Bordo, 814).

Then, the author uses a similar example, an African American girl who would “rather die from starvation than gain a single pound” (Susan Bordo, 814). According to the author, this girl comes from a race that is proud of their voluptuous bodies, but was ashamed of her own body (Susan Bordo, 814). The culture of body image, like an invisible hand, has been changing people’s aesthetic views. By comparing these two examples, the author lets the readers realize the gravity of eating disorders. Immediately following these examples, the author urges the readers to seriously consider the problem of eating disorders.

She moves the readers’ attention from North America to other parts of the world to explain how this phenomenon is taking place. Nowadays, the best ways to gain information are through the media–TV, Internet, newspapers and magazines. In addition to news and weather forecasts, the media also conveys popular standards of beauty to the viewers. The author gave the example of the women and girls who live on the Fiji islands. Then the author quoted Anne Becker, an anthropologist, who thought that Fijian cultural traditions, which celebrate eating and favor voluptuous bodies, would “withstand” the influence of the media images ( Susan Bordo, 815).

But it seems that Becker was wrong, these Fijian women were satisfied with their voluptuous body figures until programs from US, England, and Australia broadcasted there three years later ( Susan Bordo, 815). Thus it can be seen that the Fiji islands were not immune to the effects of this culture. To emphasize that eating disorders and body image have become a global phenomenon, Bordo mentions similar occurrences in Central Africa and Asia. For Central Africa, a voluptuous body type was considered desirable and healthy, compared to the skinny body type as poverty-stricken and disease ( Susan Bordo, 815).

When a skinny, light-skinned African girl was sent to Miss World Pageant, she won the competition ( Susan Bordo, 815). This sent the message to women in Central Africa that slim is beautiful. For Asia, the same thing happened. Compared to Caucasians and Hispanics, Asian people have more delicate bones, and smaller body sizes. I took a physical examination before I came to America. My weight was 185 pounds, the doctor said, “you are so fat! The average weight for Chinese male is around 155 pounds, and female is around 98 pounds. ” After the physical examination, the doctor warned me very serious, “you need to diet and work out.

As mentioned earlier, Chinese people are fanatic in work out and diet, even though they are thin enough, especially for young girls. This culture has become a global phenomenon that extents across gender, racial and cultural backgrounds. Undoubtedly, throughout the entire article Bordo believes that Western culture and media have occupied people’s ideology, while spreading an inaccurate and unhealthy idea of what is considered beautiful. In conclusion, the author gradually delves into the issue of eating disorders, starting from the example of the two girls to the description of a global wide problem.

This technique helps readers realize the seriousness of the problem. On the surface, it seems that the author just mentioned the problem of eating disorders. In fact, it is more than that. Eating disorder is just a display of the dominant culture. This is a trend– everyone is affected by the dominant culture, but no one can explain why. It seems as if it is natural. However, the author does not offer a solution to this global trend. Rather she is suggesting us to pay more attention to the dominant culture around us so as to educate our children to be aware of this issue (Susan Bordo, 816).

The Globalization of Eating Disorders Essay

A Study of the Cultural Imperialism Theory Essay

A Study of the Cultural Imperialism Theory Essay.


This paper explores the validity of the Cultural Imperialism Theory which says the Western culture has dominated the cultures of developing Nations. It examines to what extent and how the Western world in the real sense has dominated the developing countries. The study further examined the means through which the developing countries are being dominated culturally by the Western culture. The paper further looked at both the negative and the positive effects of cultural imperialism. It concluded that though the western world is succeeding in eroding the culture of developing countries and Nigeria as a study, Nigeria as a Nation should put on some safety belt in safeguarding our heritage.


Culture is the way of life of a set of people. It encompasses the knowledge, ideas, beliefs, values, standards, and sentiments prevalent in the group. According to Charles A. Ellwood, an American Sociologist, culture is the “collective name for all behavior patterns socially acquired and socially transmitted by means of symbols”.

Dare A., defines Culture as the collectivity of human activities and general principles that tend to guide ideas of a group of people with shared traditions (general acceptability), which are passed on, instilled into generation (socialization) and reinvigorated by members of the group (sustainability) while Imperialism as defined by The Dictionary of Human Geography is the creation and maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination

The Theorist of Cultural Imperialism theory, Herb Schiller postulated that Western nations dominate the media around the world which in return has a powerful effect on Third World Cultures by means of imposing on them, western views thereby destroying their native cultures Western Civilization produces the majority of the media (film, news, comics, etc.) because they have the money to do so. The rest of the world purchases those productions because it is cheaper for them to do so rather than produce their own. Therefore, Third World countries are watching media filled with the Western world’s way of living, believing, and thinking. The third world cultures then start to want and do the same things in their countries and destroy their own culture. In cultural Imperialism theory, the key words are culture and imperialism.

According to Anaeto G., Onabajo, O. and Osifeso, J. (2008), they wrote that “the western countries are technologically developed in television and motion programmes and developing countries that are not technologically developed depend on the programmes from the developed countries. This means that the programmes from the developed counties which portray their culture will be imbibed by the developing nations. This western culture now dominates our local culture simply because we are consuming their mass media messages”. The assumptions of the theory according to Schiller, H., are classified into three namely 1. Ontological Assumptions 2. Epistemological Assumptions

3. Axiological Assumptions

1. Ontological Assumptions

This theory says that humans do not have the free will to chose how they feel, act, think, and live. They react to what they see on television because there is nothing else to compare it to besides their own lives, usually portrayed as less than what it should be. 2. Epistemological Assumptions This theory explains that there is one truth and no matter what that truth never going to change. As long as Third World countries continue to air Western Civilization’s programs then the third world countries will always believe they should act, feel, think, and live as Western Civilizations act, feel, think, and live. 3. Axiological Assumptions This theory is value-neutral and objective. It does not matter what beliefs the people of Third World may already hold, the television programs from the Western World will communicate the same message and affect them in the same way.


The critiques of the Cultural Imperialism theory came up with scientific theory which counter-argued the theory with the following responses: Explanatory Power: It explains what happens when one group of people with their own ideas sends messages through the media to a different group of people. Predictive Power: It predicts that Third World countries’ culture will be destroyed and the people will identify with Western views. Parsimony: We can see a direct linear path from sender to receiver through the media channels and then watch the effects.

Falsifiability: The theory could be proved false should the Third World countries not be affected by Western media and they do not lose their culture. E.G “Under the intriguing title Seducing the French (1993), Richard F.Kuisel concedes that the French underwent a process of Americanization. But at the same time, they succeeded in defending their “Frenchness.” French consumers found some American products appealing but they also continued to cherish and idealize French national identity, notably the idea of a superior French high culture.”

Internal Consistency: There is a logical flow of events and consequences within the theory. Heuristic Provocativeness: This theory could lead to new hypotheses such as which cultures are affected more than others (if any) or whether low context differ in the reception of messages compared top high context cultures? Organizing Power: This fits with what we already know about differences between Western civilization and Third World countries. Another example the critique stated is that “if an International Broadcast station shows a video depicting Nigerians as corrupt, dangerous and malnourished, should someone in Nigeria watch this the Western stereotype of Nigerians, and not affected by it, the theory have been proved false”.

John, T., further argues that Cultural imperialism consists of the spread of modernity. It is a process of cultural loss and not of cultural expansion. There never were groups of conspirators who attempted to spread any particular culture. Instead, global technological and economic progress and integration reduced the importance of national culture. Therefore, it is misleading to put the blame for a global development on any one culture. The notion of imperialism that is, purposeful cultural conquest is irrelevant; instead, all countries, regardless of whether they are located in the northern or southern hemisphere, are victims of a worldwide cultural change


Tracing world history all through the era of colonialism, there have been histories of cultural imperialism which will seem the only way to explain the popularity of the very-British game cricket in all countries that once served as British colonies. Invasion of a country most often doesn’t end with an invasion of the geographical territories within the political boundaries alone. Religious and cultural invasion are often inseparable parts of a political conquest. It’s much easier to rule if your subjects share the same religious and cultural platforms as the invaders? The cultural imperialism theory is founded upon the premises of imposing the influences and beliefs of the stronger culture (the invaders) upon the weaker or more submissive culture (the invaded). How does this cultural Imperialism take place?

Dare A., states that Cultural imperialism takes place when one culture overtakes another in such a way that the latter ends up following a significant number of values, traditions, beliefs and influences of the former either completely or in a way merges the influences of the dominating culture with those of its own. Such a cultural invasion can either be active or passive. In its active form, the dominant culture forcefully imposes its cultural influences upon the dominated culture. This is a dynamic phenomenon where the subordinate culture is compelled to adopt the ways of the invaders. The passive form is when one culture (not necessarily subordinate) voluntarily embraces the influences and traditions of another culture. Here, the dominant culture makes little or no forceful efforts in imposing its cultural ideals upon another but the latter gets influenced as a consequence of its receptivity to the former’s cultural impacts. The passive form of cultural imperialism is what largely takes place today.

Cultural imperialism can also occur due to the significant commercial relations between two countries. A country heavily importing products and services of another country may get significantly influenced by the exporting country’s lifestyle attributes and social values. We can see this phenomenon in the form of Westernization of a number of Eastern countries. This is a type of passive cultural imperialism as the receiving culture adopts the foreign values without perceiving the fact that they are, in fact, becoming slaves of a foreign culture.

English Cultural Imperialism

English cultural imperialism has been rife in the history of cultural imperialism. Latin which has the Church’s official language to popularizing its national game all across its colonies was changed to English. The British Empire left no stone unturned to make sure that its subjects adhered to its cultural idiosyncrasies even decades after ceasing to be its subjects. The fact that Cricket is among the top ten most popular sports around the world with an estimated 3 billion fan following, especially in countries like Australia, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, United Kingdom, New Zealand and certain African and Caribbean countries proves the strength of the English cultural imperialism. It is also a known fact that English is the third most spoken language after Mandarin and Spanish.

Decades of dominion and repressive policies towards Tibet, Taiwan and various other neighboring regions by China has had a significant influence upon the religion and culture of these regions. The aggressive promotion of a standardized Chinese language across Mainland China and Taiwan indicates towards an attempted cultural imperialism aimed at overtaking regional dialects in these areas. Also, the fact that most traditional aspects of the Chinese culture pertaining to religious beliefs, festivals and social norms significantly inundate the socio cultural edifices of various Oriental countries indicate towards strongly existing cultural imperialism.

The most widespread and still continuing instance of cultural imperialism can be seen in the form of Americanization. This is mostly due to the multitudes of commercial relationships the United States holds with a large number of countries in all parts of the world. This is definitely passive cultural imperialism and the countries that are most affected are those that have voluntarily adopted the stereotyped American lifestyle values and specific cultural aspects


The Issue of Sagging

Sagging has become the latest phenomenon among the male youths today in Nigeria. It is what is in vogue; if you have not exposed the lower part of your private, you belong to the old school system. What is sagging and where did it come from? According to Greg, M., sagging was adopted from the United States prison system where belts are prohibited. Belts are sometimes prohibited to keep prisoners from using them as weapons or in committing suicide by hanging themselves. The style was later popularized by hip-hop artists in the 1990s. It has since become a symbol of freedom and cultural awareness among some youths or a symbol of their rejection of the values of mainstream society. Jails are typically state run institutions. What usually happens is the state will order a set number of inmate uniforms. These uniforms are usually in general sizes like small, medium and large; making them ill-fitting for most inmates.

When a medium sized inmate comes in and there are no remaining medium uniforms this inmate will receive a large instead. Prisoners are not allowed to have shoe laces or belts for fear they’d use them to kill themselves (by way of strangulation or hanging), or as weapons to kill or injure other inmates. The combination of over sized clothing and lack of fastening devices created the perfect storm for falling pants. Many street hungry rappers latched on the dress of their incarcerated friends and family and brought the style to the masses. Thus a new trend was born and Nigerians have fallen into this trend Linguistic Imperialism Language is one of the principal elements in identifying a particular culture and the absence of it makes a culture unidentifiable. It is vital for cultural transmission and preservation.

With the gradual loss of our indigenous languages in Nigeria, what culture are we then preserving? Ogwu, M., Agbanu, N. and Ofordile, J. describes Linguistic Imperialism as “People who can relate with each other only through the medium of communication foisted on them by a former colonist are victims of a peculiar kind of Schizophrenia”. The use of our language is declining in Africa especially Nigeria because we are compelled to embrace Western culture and civilization as Western language. Western language has created a division between an elite and mass of our people who still cannot do business with foreign language. It causes alienation for people who cannot speak English or French. Language is a vehicle of culture; we are in a very serious problem. e.g. “Professor Babafunwa project on local language as a basic tool of teaching in Nigeria was aborted because of the nature of our country.”

Parents also do not encourage their children or wards to speak in their local language as they belief it causes setback in their education. Fashion imperialism You hardly find few of our men, women and the youths who still embrace our cultural mode of dressing. Our people are going ‘gaga’ with the western way of dressing thereby losing their root of African way of dressing. It’s quite unfortunate that when expatriates and tourist who come to Nigeria appreciate our native attire while the owners of the heritage has seen it as something of old school and fashion.

Tattoos have also become a common phenomenon. Both the young and old are stamping themselves all over the body with symbolic ‘devilish’ tattoos. Religious Imperialism Most churches in Nigeria today have gone the western way. When you go to some churches today, you marvel at the way some our ladies apparel. The custom of covering of hair has been eroded by the western way; all kinds of dressing are acceptable. The men or young male adults put on all sort of jewels and dress ‘haggardly’. The sense of going to commune with God is lost.


Through the float of western culture into Nigeria through the advent of technology and globalization, there has been obvious moral decline in Africa and in Nigeria in particular. This moral decadence has permeated almost all spheres of our culture. Moral consciousness has been equated with awkward and odd life styles. According to Oshafu, H., in his article “Cultural Imperialism”, this resulted due to Africa’s carelessness and failure to hold their culture with high esteem. He added that the moral excellence of African society has over night transformed into moral decay. Elders are no longer respected, our rapid festivals and ceremonies are now seen as “old school” and we now have children of single parents, a phenomenon that is identifiable with America. People no longer communalize, nobody wants to be anybody’s brother’s keeper. Our mode of dressing has been totally distorted by western civilization through foreign films and media content.

Today we seem not to have any cultural attire. Our people now prefer to go naked on the streets as against our culture, micro minis with handless tops has this to show. The acculturation of “blue jean and hamburger” has gradually found it way into young people in African society. The issue of dress code has led to controversies in our high institute in today. Cases of immoral dressing have also gave way to rapid sexual harassment among students and lecturers, bosses and their employees. Raping in our society today came as a result of reckless dressing code by ladies The traditional notion of chastity and virginity have been rendered absurd by pornographic and sleazy materials displayed on screens, distorting sexuality and condoning promiscuity, which has given rise to active homosexuality and lesbianism in our society today.

These cases of reckless sex have led to the rapid spread of STD’s particularly, HIV/AIDs in our society today. Innocent children are dying of this disease. They paid dearly for the offence committed by their parents. This is immoral evil militating against the dignity of human person. Increase in Crime Rate With exposure to the western way of life, increase in crime rate is on high. Most of the films we watch on the television set are crime oriented thereby leading to increase in crime rate. In as much as there is positive impact of the television set, the negative aspect outweighs the good part, as the western world is teaching modern ways to crime though the kind of programmes being disseminated, which includes kidnapping, serial killing etc.

Look for more points

We have scholars who however belief that Cultural Imperialism theory regardless of its negative effect has its positive side. Cultural imperialism they say is not entirely bad as it increases the pace of development in Nigeria and other less developed countries. For example, in the giving away of media products free of charge or selling them at a very low price to these developing nations, the US actually accelerates the growth of the media industry and the advancement in technology, hence increasing the knowledge and skills of the people there. Their actions not only add on to actual growth; the subsequent increase in human capital further boosts potential growth, which is essential for the actual growth to be sustained in the long run. This investment in human capital goes a long way and benefits the country as it strengthens the competitive edge and increases productivity of the workforce.

Economic growth is also achieved Even more so, being a developing nation, Nigeria would not have had the latest technology available to produce media products; it is only through the provision of the American companies that they are able to obtain state-of-the-art equipment. The advocacy of production of local-helmed programs would thus further enhance American influence on the nation. Despite government efforts to hinder cultural imperialism, they cannot completely eliminate the impacts of this influence as American media products have already found their way into the market and become a part of Nigeria’s media production efforts. They need such “interference” in order to keep their media industry alive WAY FORWARD Long Term Investment in the Development of our Mass Media

One way cultural imperialism spreads is through the mass media. The local media imports foreign materials because it is cheaper than having to produce local indigenous content. An example of this issue is that indigenous journalists have to learn to transcribe and rewrite news by foreign news agencies rather than source for their own stories. Sometimes even rewriting local stories covered by the foreign news agencies. Our government and private investors should invest heavily in our local media and encourage the development of indigenous content that will reflect our culture, values, promote our languages etc. Media products like movies, news, music, advertising etc should be regulated to avoid the influx of foreign content. This is where organizations like the Nigerian Broadcasting Service come in. They should develop stronger laws and be strict in its enforcement of the laws such as the 60/40% rule (60% indigenous, 40% foreign). If the indigenous media products are of high quality, the citizens will be encouraged to consume them.

This is so because a lot of people give the low quality of the products (movies, music, adverts, news etc) as reasons for not consuming them. If Nigerians consume indigenous media products, it will reflect in every area of our lives (culturally that is). An example is what is happening in the Nigerian music industry,. Because of the increase in local content in our music, it is now becoming acceptable and even encouraged to sing in our indigenous languages(Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo etc), dress in our native attires most especially Ankara and wear our national colors. There has been a rise in the popularity of Pidgin English as opposed to just speaking plain English. Also the teaching of our indigenous languages should be encouraged in our schools. All primary and secondary schools should be encouraged to teach at least one Nigerian language at all classes especially in the minority regions of the country where the minority languages are in danger of becoming extinct.

Parents should further speak their native dialect with their wards or children to aid them to be conversant in their local dialect. Young adults today see it as a taboo or as inferiority complex speaking in their local dialect; “it does not sound ‘tush’ rather local” parents more importantly should be more watchful and observant in the kind of foreign stations their children tune to for their programmes as “media has become the primary means by which many of us experience or learn about many aspects of the world around us” Stanley and Dennis, 5th edition,p.200). With the presence of technology, access to International broadcast station is at the tip of the hand, we have cables surrounding us and with just a remote control, you can be anywhere in the world learning and assimilating what is been impressed on you. As such supervision is needed to regulate what is been watched.

Parents should devout time for their children while they are still young as most of the western values tend to catch them while they are still young just as the “catch them young phrase”. Another solution is to try to export our own culture as this will help in boosting tourism in Nigeria. We should conscious try to sell and promote our media products to the rest of the world. This will improve our image globally and help foreigners understand our culture, values, cuisine better. I would like to say at this point that we should not consume wholly indiginous media products. A little foreign content is still advisable as there has been some good aspects of cultural imperialism such as technological and educational advancement, political structure (democracy), eradication of some harmful practices like the killing of twins etc. We should take a balanced approach, like an 80 (indigenous))/20% (foreign).


As a result of globalization and technological advancement, the western world has succeeded in dominating the third world countries. This notwithstanding should not be an excuse for Nigerians and other third world countries to be subjugated by the western world. Nigerian as a nation should fight cultural imperialism and fight back for our lost culture. One way by which this could be done is through Long Term Investment in the Development of our Mass Media as it is the major means by which cultural imperialism spreads.

The local media imports foreign materials because it is cheaper than having to produce local indigenous content. An example of this issue is that indigenous journalists have to learn to transcribe and rewrite news by foreign news agencies rather than source for their own stories. Sometimes even rewriting local stories covered by the foreign news agencies. Our government and private investors should invest heavily in our local media and encourage the development of indigenous content that will reflect our culture, values, promote our languages etc.


Anaeto, S. G., Onabajo, O. S. and Osifeso, J. B. (2008). Models and Theories of
Communication. African Renaissance Books Incorporated.

Dare, A., (2010). The Effects of Western Civilization and Culture on Africa. Afro Asian Journal of Social Sciences (1/1) Quarter IV

Grifin, E. (2000). A first look at communication theory. (4th edition). Boston, MA: McGraw- Hill

Littlejohn, S. W. (1999). Theories of human communication (6th edition). Belmont, CA:

Oshafu H. U. Cultural Imperialism. Accessed from on 12/11/2012.

Ogwu, M., Agbanu, N., and Ofordile, J. (December, 2010). “Sustaining Cultural Values
Through the Promotion of Indigenous Languages in Nigeria” Journal of
Communication and Culture: International Perspective. (1/3), pp 76

Schiller, H. I. (1976). Communication and Cultural Domination. Armonk, NY: International Arts and Sciences Press. Accessed online on 29/10/2012.

Critics of cultural imperialism theory. Encyclopedia of the New American Nation available Accessed at on 29/10/2012

A Study of the Cultural Imperialism Theory Essay

A Common Swot Analysis of Unilever and P & G Essay

A Common Swot Analysis of Unilever and P & G Essay.

Common Strengths

The strong branding of the two companies make them one of the most successful brands in the world. Extensive experience in marketing in different market segments and is two of the best marketers in the world. Known for its diverse brand portfolio. The companies are able to customize their global products and brands according to the local preferences. Significant scales of scope and economies in their operations Access to global resources and synergy of resources and operations

Common Opportunities

Usage of online social networks and internet marketing techniques.

Rise in purchasing power and population in developing countries (China, Indonesia, Thailand-these markets are less saturated and less competitive) Increasing need for healthy products due to better consumer awareness


There is a cut throat competition in the fast moving consumer’s goods markets today The other competitors are making their product portfolios diverse day by day and using different marketing and promotional strategies to increase their market share. In the market many substitutes are available for products at cheaper prices.

This is specially affecting the strategy of P & G Due to recession, the consumer spending has decreased globally. Also, the prices for raw materials are increasing so cost to the company is increasing. Government interventions in developing markets


The large scale operations of the two companies make the cultures heavy and processes slow. This also leads to quality control problems. Complex organizational structures (dealerships with many associates, joint ventures and agency relationships) Lack of direct connection with ultimate consumers due to dependence on retailers and wholesalers(in Western countries retail giants such as Tesco, Asda and Sainsbury are very strong and have the ability to dictate big multinational companies). Inefficient management of brands (being unable differentiate between stars,cashcows and dogs according to Mandelow’ s Matrix eg-25 brands of Unilever account for 73% of global sales and about half of P&G’s sales come from its top ten brands)

A Common Swot Analysis of Unilever and P & G Essay