God Sees the Truth but Waits Essay

God Sees the Truth but Waits Essay.

* In the town of Vladimir lived a merchant named Ivan Dmitrich Aksionov along with his family.

* One summer, Aksionov planned to go to the Nizhny Fair to sell all his goods but was stopped by his wife who told him to go another day because she had a bad dream about him wherein he took off his cap and his hair was quite gray.

* Aksionov did not heed his wife’s plea and continued on to his journey.

* When he had reached the halfway point, he met a fellow merchant who he knew and they stayed at the same inn for the night, drinking tea together and sleeping in adjoining rooms.

* As it was not his habit to sleep late and wanting to leave before it became too warm, he left the inn before dawn.

Rising Action:

* When he had gone about 25 miles, he stopped at another inn to rest, have a samovar be heated and for his horses to be fed as well.

* Suddenly, a troika drove up to the inn, followed by two soldiers who came to him and asked him who he was, where he came from, where he stayed the night and if he was alone or with a fellow-merchant.

* Aksionov found out from the police-officer of the district that the other merchant was found with his throat cut.

* The soldiers searched his things and found a blood-stained knife in his bag.

* Aksionov was too nervous to answer the police-officer’s questions of why he had the knife in his bag so they assumed that it was guilt and he was taken into their custody and brought to the nearest town to be imprisoned.

* Enquiries were done to investigate his character which found him to be a good man but when the trial came on, he was charged with murdering the merchant from Ryazan and robbing him of twenty thousand rubles.

* His wife was able to visit him in prison with their children but in the end was also one of the people who suspected him of doing the crime.

* Aksionov, feeling that no one believed him, gave up all hope and turned to God and trusted Him with everything.

* For 26 years, he lived as a convict in Siberia where his hair became white and his beard grew long, thin and gray.

* The prison authorities like him for his meekness and they along with his fellow-prisoners respected him enough to be given the title of “Grandfather” and “The Saint”.

* One day, a fresh gang of convicts came to the prison and one of them was Makar Semyonich.

* After overhearing several conversations, Aksionov was convinced that Semyonich is the man who committed the murder for which he was accused of, causing him to feel anger so great that he longed for vengeance. He prayed and prayed but found no peace from it.

* One night, as he was walking about the prison he found out that Semyonich was creating a tunnel with the help of the other prisoners under the shelf by stuffing the earth into their high-boots.

* The tunnel was found out by the prison officials and was investigated by the guards and the Governor. All the prisoners who knew would not betray Semyonich for they knew that he would be flogged almost to death.

Climax

* The Governor, knowing that Aksionov was a just and fair man, turned to him and asked him who dug the hole but Aksionov, even though he wanted revenge against Semyonich, spoke out that it is not his place to speak about the tunnel.

Falling Action

* That night, Makar, moved by Aksionov’s protection of him, went near him and begged for his forgiveness and revealed the truth to him.

* Aksionov forgave Semyonich and while doing so felt his heart grow lighter and the feeling of longing to go home left him.

* Makar then told the truth of the murder to the officials but when the order for his release came, Aksionov was already dead.

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God Sees the Truth but Waits Essay

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Surya the Sun God Essay

Surya the Sun God Essay.

Surya is the important ancient Hindu Solar God. There are many hymns found in the Rig Veda which mention or honor Surya. The Rig Veda is a collection of more than a thousand hymns written between 1200 and 900 B.C. by people known as Aryans, who came to Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India from the Eurasian steppes to the north. The Rig Veda is one of the earliest known writings written in any Indo-European language. Hymn I.50 speaks to the Sun. (This passage is from The RigVeda; an anthology, a translation by Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty, Penguin Press, London, 1981) His brilliant banners draw upward the god who knows all creatures, so that everyone may see the Sun.

The constellations, along with the nights, steal away like thieves, making way for the Sun who gazes on everyone. The rays that are his banners have become visible from the distance, shining over mankind like blazing fires. Crossing space, you are the maker of light, seen by everyone, O Sun.

You illumine the whole, wide realm of space.

You rise up facing all the groups of gods, facing mankind, facing everyone, so that they can see the sunlight. He is the eye with which, O Purifying Varuna, you look upon the busy one among men. You cross heaven and the vast realm of space, O Sun, measuring days by nights, looking upon the generations. Seven bay mares carry you in the chariot, O Sun God with hair of flame, gazing from afar. The Sun has yoked the seven splendid daughters of the chariot; he goes with them, who yoke themselves. We have come up out of darkness, seeing the higher light around us, going to the Sun, the god among gods, the highest light. As you rise today, O Sun, you who are honored as a friend, climbing to the highest sky, make me free of heartache and yellow pallor. Let us place my yellow pallor among parrots and thrushes, or let us place my yellow pallor among other yellow birds in yellow trees. This Aditya has risen with all his dominating force, hurling my hateful enemy down into my hands. Let me not fall into my enemy’s hands!

This hymn is a mixture of verses about Surya and verses spoken to Surya. By its reference to the rising of the Sun we might guess that it was meant to be recited at sunrise. The “busy one among men” is probably a reference the religious person busy praying and offering sacrifice to the gods. The yellow pallor is probably a reference to jaundice, and thus the verses dealing with yellow are invoking the healing powers of the Sun. The hymn tells of Surya’s chariot being drawn across the sky by seven bay mares. Seven seems to be an important number in many religions. Seven may be significant because there are seven visible celestial bodies that wander across the sky, the Sun, Moon, and the five planets visible to the naked eye, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Because they are all wanders we can call them planets, even though today we normally do not think of the Sun and Moon as planets. “Planets” is a word which comes from the Greek “planet” which means “wander.”

As is found in the Greco-Roman Calendar the days of the week in the modern Hindu calendar are named for the seven visible planets, Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn and they are ordered exactly as they are in the Greco-Roman Calendar, a vestige of the ordering by ancient Babylonians. Before the Gupta period (about 300 A.D.) the Hindu calendar was a lunar calendar. Chariots were developed before 3000 B.C. and offered a warrior a stable platform from which to shot arrows and cast spears at his enemies.

The horse, which was domesticated probably a 1000 years earlier in the western steppes was also of great importance to the people who wrote the Rig Veda because the horse-riding warrior was able to easily maneuver around his foot-soldier enemy. It is not surprizing that the people who wrote the Rig Veda recognized of the more powerful gods, Surya, as having two of their most powerful weapons of war, the horse and chariot. (For more information on the early history of chariots and domestic horses see the work of Hartwick College’s Professor of Anthropology David Anthony and the Institute for Ancient Equestrian Studies.) Today there are a great number of temples in India devoted to Surya.

The 15th century Surya temple at Ranakpur, Rajasthan. Many of the temples are easily recognized because they are often decorated with carved images of Surya, who is shown holding two daisy shaped objects, one in each hand, and accompanied by images of horses. Often there are also one or more carved images of a chariot wheel decorating the Surya temples. (A typical depiction of a chariot wheel is shown in the title of this page.) In some cases there are seven gods, representing the planets, shown in association with chariot wheels.

Surya the Sun God Essay

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Kamikaze, Japan’s Suicide Gods Essay

Kamikaze, Japan’s Suicide Gods Essay.

Kamikaze is a Japanese word meaning “divine wind”. ‘Kami’ means ‘divine’ and ‘kaze’ ‘wind’. Kamikaze owes its origins to the 1274 and 1281 typhoons which wrought havoc on invasion forces from Mongolia. A Japanese World War II pilot specially trained to destroy an enemy ship by crashing on it was referred to as kamikaze. The plane to be used for such an attack, usually laden with explosives also bore the same name. Special air suicide attack units were given this name in World War II in 1944-45.

The kamikaze concept originated from lower ranks officers in the field when they reported that pilots and crew were experiencing accidental crashes.

Captain Motoharu first brought up the subject and led to the launch of initial investigations on the feasibility and modes of executing deliberate assaults. The Thunder Gods project was initiated soon afterwards in 1944 (Axell, 2002, p. 13) The first formal mention of kamikaze missions was in august 1944 when the Domei News Agency reported that Takeo Tagata, A flight instructor, was training pilots for suicide attacks in Taiwan.

It is also claimed that the first kamikaze mission was carried out on September 13th 1944 after which the 31st Fighter Squadron of the army based on Negros Island imitated the following day.

Takeshi Kosai, First Lieutenant and a sergeant, destined to crash into carriers, took off in separate fighter planes each loaded with 100 kilogram bombs. Other sources assert that the US cruiser, USS Reno CL96 was suicide bombed on October 14th 1944. It is also claimed that the commander of the 26th Air Flotilla, Captain Masafumi Arima, developed the kamikaze concept. He led 100 Yokosuka D4Y dive bombers to attack Franklin, an aircraft carrier on October 15th 1944. Arima got killed in the assault and was rewarded with the post of Admiral posthumously.

Top ranking Japanese military officials embraced Arima’s example as a source of military propaganda. The attack of Suluan Island by Allied forces set off the battle of Leyte Gulf. The responsibility of destroying the Allied forces in Leyte Gulf lay with the 1st Air Fleet of the Japanese Navy. The 1st Air Fleet had the limitation of having only 40 planes: 3 Nakajima B6N Tenzan Torpedo bombers, 34 Mitsubishi zero fighters, 1 Mitsubishi G4M and 2 Yokosuka P1Y Ginga land bombers. This made the task ahead appear impossible and prompted Vice Admiral Takijiro Onishi, the 1st Air Fleet commandant to constitute the Special Attack Unit.

Onishi told the 201st flying group pilots of the plan on October 19th at a meeting at Mabalacat airfield near Manila. The assault would involve crashing a zero bomber with 250 kilogram bomb and ramming it into a US carrier with a view of grounding all American carriers. The initial plan was to only involve volunteers in such attacks. Onishi lied to the pilots that their commander, Captain Sakai Yamamoto, already knew of the plan when the pilots requested for an approval from their own boss. Yamamoto was, however, in hospital after a motor vehicle accident and thus he was not privy to Onishi’s plans.

The 23 pilots in attendance volunteered and hence the first anti-Allied forces suicide strikes at Leyte were executed in a few days time (Astor, 1999, 32). The impact of the kamikaze strikes was momentous, damage greater than any preceding one was inflicted on the allied forces ships. The Japanese military top officials decided to have humans man rocket-propelled bombs, an operation they called Thunder Gods. The task of designing the flying bomb was signed to the Japan Aeronautical Research Laboratory. This was to counter the problems experienced in the remote guidance of German rockets and the threat of the advancing Allied forces.

The Thunder Gods project initially had 100 volunteers whose training was parallel to the construction of the pioneer 150 Ohka rocket bombs. Japan’s strategy was the stationing of Thunder Gods in Formosa and the Philippines. American submarines and carrier ships didn’t allow maneuvering south from Japan. The November 27th 1944 sinking of Shinano, Japan’s carrier ship, by Archerfish, the American submarine, proved that America had firmly held its base in the region. Shinano held the first batch of 50 Ohkas. Unryu, a Japanese carrier loaded with the next 30 Ohkas was also sunk a few weeks later while traveling to the Philippines.

It then became clear that Thunder Gods project would be fail. Students were mandated to recite the oath of the Imperial Rescript on Education as a ritual after the decree was passed in 1890. The oath stated that individuals would offer themselves, including sacrificing their lives, to the state as well as protect the Imperial family. Under the oath, dying for the emperor or for Japan was honorable. The Meiji restoration saw the establishment of Shinto as a state religion. Shinto doctrines were rampant in Japan in 1944 to 1945 and they were instrumental in the promotion of nationalism.

Many Japanese were of the view that to be honored at the Yasukumi shrine, which the Emperor visited twice yearly, was a great honor. Many sailors, pilots and soldiers were thus mentally prepared to die and become eirei, ‘guardian spirits’ of the country (Axel, Kase, 2002, p. 35). Books and newspapers published stories, articles and advertisements about the suicide bombers after the kamikaze strategy was adopted. A case in point is the Nippon Times October 1944 issue which ran an article with the view of aiding the recruitment of the special attack corps.

The propaganda that kamikaze were enshrined at Yasukumi from publishers and exaggerated stories of the kamikaze added to the Japanese ideology that kamikaze were divine people. Peer pressure also had a hand in popularizing the kamikaze. The Japanese government also had its share in the fanning of the kamikaze spirit by falsely declaring victories (Axell, Kase, 2002, p. 38). Ancient folklore also helped in the recruitment of volunteers into the suicide missions. For instance, it was widely believed that the bonds connecting an individual to his family were similar to the ones that joined him to his nation.

The Japanese so valued their close relationship with both the emperor and the nation that they were convinced that it would be useless to be Japanese if one didn’t have this links. Spiritistic ceremonies were held to bid kamikaze farewell before they departed to their assignments. The Japanese flag or the Japanese naval flag with spiritually inspirational words written on it were given to the kamikaze. The soldiers also drank sake; a-rice based alcoholic drink, before leaving. A headband with the rising sun and sennibari, a belt with a thousand stitches each made by a single woman were also among the kamikaze insignia.

The kamikaze were also supposed to compose a death poem and read it. This feat borrows heavily from the samurai, a pre-industrial Japan military nobility. Samurai also composed and read a death poem before undertaking seppuku, a Japanese disembowelment ritual. It is alleged that the kamikaze pilots flew southwest over mount Kaimon. The pilots then looked back to face the mountain, said farewell to Japan and saluted the mountain. This is an indication that some spiritism was associated with the kamikaze missions (Astor, 1998, p. 47). The 1281 AD invasion of Japan by Mongols prompted the emperor to pray for divine salvation.

A huge typhoon came up and drowned the enemy by sinking their ships. The typhoon was called kamikaze or the ‘divine wind’. This episode was one inspiration of the kamikaze suicide missions in World War II. The pilots had the divine mission of destroying their enemy. Suicide pilot manuals instructed pilots to obtain a high level of spiritual training, be always pure-hearted and cheerful and to maintain perfect health conditions. This instructions were found in a book ‘Transcend life and death’ which were given to each pilot. Pilots were supposed to loudly yell ‘Hissatsu’ translated ‘sink without fail’ moments before crashing into a target.

Many kamikaze had the conviction that by crashing into a target, they would pay the debts they owed their friends’ families and the Emperor. The heavy sanctions imposed on Japan by the United States and Washington’s order for Japan to vacate China precipitated the Pacific war in which kamikaze were utilized (Astor, 1998, p. 54).

References

Astor, G. (1999). The greatest war: Americans in combat, 1944-1945. California, United States. Presidio Press, pp. 32, 47, 54 Axell, A. & Kase, H. (2002). Kamikaze: Japan’s suicide gods. London, United Kingdom. Longman Publishers, Pp. 13, 35, 38

Kamikaze, Japan’s Suicide Gods Essay

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God of Small Things Quotes Essay

God of Small Things Quotes Essay.

Extended metaphor: “Perhaps Ammu, Estha and she were the worst transgressors. But it wasn’t just them. They all broke the rules. They all crossed into forbidden territory. They all crossed into forbidden territory. They all tampered with the laws that lay down who should be loved and how. And how much. The laws that make grandmothers grandmothers, uncles uncles, mothers mothers, cousins cousins, jam jam, and jelly jelly.

Rahel and Estha live in a society with very rigid class lines.

“Commonly held view that a married daughter had no position in her parent’s home. As for a divorced daughter – according to Baby Kochamma, she had no position anywhere at all. And for a divorced daughter from a love marriage, well, words could not describe Baby Kochamma’s outrage…”

“Chacko told the twins that, though he hated to admit it, they were all Anglophiles. They were a family of Anglophiles. Pointed in the wrong direction, trapped outside their own history and unable to retrace their steps because their footprints had been swept away”

The concept of “Anglophilia” is a big one in this book, from the way everyone fawns over Sophie Mol, to Chacko’s cocky attitude about his Oxford degree, to the whole family’s obsession with The Sound of Music.

But it’s pretty clear that the thing they love also holds them down. When Chacko says their footprints have been swept away, he is making a reference to the way members of the Untouchable caste have to sweep away their footprints so that people of higher classes don’t “pollute” themselves by walking in them. Even though by Indian standards their family is of a relatively high social status, they are of a low social status in relation to the British.

Pappachi would not allow Paravans into the house. Nobody would. They were not allowed to touch anything that Touchables touched. Caste Hindus and Caste Christians. Mammachi told Estha and Rahel that she could remember a time, in her girlhood, when Paravans were expected to crawl backwards with a broom, sweeping away their footprints so that Brahmins or Syrian Christians would not defile themselves by accidentally stepping into a Paravan’s footprint. In Mammachi’s time, Paravans, like other Untouchables, were not allowed to walk on public roads, not allowed to cover their upper bodies, not allowed to carry umbrellas. They had to put their hands over their mouths when they spoke, to divert their polluted breath away from those whom they addressed. (2.270) This quote speaks volumes about the experience of the Untouchables, and it helps us appreciate the kinds of deeply ingrained attitudes that drive so much of the prejudice and hate we see in the novel.

Then [Baby Kochamma] shuddered her schoolgirl shudder. That was when she said: How could she stand the smell? Haven’t you noticed? They have a particular smell, these Paravans. (13.129) Like Mammachi, Baby Kochamma has a heap of prejudices against other social classes, and these prejudices run deep. By disparaging Velutha out loud and saying that his smell must have been intolerable, she tries to show just how high class she is.

Mammachi’s rage at the old one-eyed Paravan standing in the rain, drunk, dribbling and covered in mud was re-directed into a cold contempt for her daughter and what she had done. She thought of her naked, coupling in the mud with a man who was nothing but a filthy coolie. She imagined it in vivid detail: a Paravan’s coarse black hand on her daughter’s breast. His mouth on hers. His black hips jerking between her parted legs. The sound of their breathing. His particular Paravan smell. Like animals, Mammachi thought and nearly vomited. (13.131) Again, we see just how deeply Mammachi’s prejudices run. She doesn’t see Ammu and Velutha’s relationship as love between two people, as it might look to us. As far as she is concerned, it is as low as two animals going at it in the mud. The idea of a “coolie” (lower-class laborer) having sex with her daughter is so repulsive to Mammachi that it almost makes her puke.

Still, to say that it all began when Sophie Mol came to Ayemenem is only one way of looking at it.

Equally, it could be argued that it actually began thousands of years ago. Long before the Marxists came. Before the British took Malabar, before the Dutch Ascendancy, before Vasco da Gama arrived, before the Zamorin’s conquest of Calicut. Before three purple-robed Syrian bishops murdered by the Portuguese were found floating in the sea, with coiled sea serpents riding on their chests and oysters knotted in their tangled beards. It could be argued that it began long before Christianity arrived in a boat and seeped into Kerala like tea from a bag.

That it really began in the days when the Love Laws were made. The laws that lay down who should be loved, and how. And how much. (1.207-210) This quote is full of what might seem like obscure references, but what it’s basically doing is pushing us to think about what caused everything to fall apart for Estha and Rahel. Did everything come crashing down because Sophie Mol came to Ayemenem? Or do the events of the novel happen as a result of decisions, actions, and rules that were made thousands of years before any of our characters were even born? Do things happen for a reason, because they’re part of this huge plan, or do they just happen because the world is fickle like that?

[Estha] knew that if Ammu found out about what he had done with the Orangedrink Lemondrink Man, she’d love him less as well. Very much less. He felt the shaming churning heaving turning sickness in his stomach. (4.245) We can be pretty sure that if Ammu ever found out that Estha was molested, she wouldn’t be upset with him. She’d be unbelievably angry at the Orangedrink Lemondrink Man, but she would never actually blame Estha. Yet, in Estha’s mind, what happened to him is his fault, and he carries it around as his shame

Ammu touched her daughter gently. On her shoulder. And her touch meant Shhhh….Rahel looked around her and saw she was in a Play. But she had only a small part.

She was just the landscape. A flower perhaps. Or a tree.

A face in the crowd. A Townspeople. (8.48-50)

This moment turns the way Rahel understands her role at home upside-down. All of a sudden, things are totally different than they usually are. Rahel’s realization that they’re in a “play” shows us that everyone here is playing a part to some extent – they aren’t being themselves. Sophie Mol’s arrival topples over Rahel’s reality; she goes from being one of the leads to being the “nobody” in the background.

Now, all these years later, Rahel has a memory of waking up one night giggling at Estha’s funny dream.

She has other memories too that she has no right to have.

She remembers, for instance (though she hadn’t been there), what the Orangedrink Lemondrink Man did to Estha in Abhilash Talkies. She remembers the taste of the tomato sandwiches – Estha’s sandwiches, that Estha ate – on the Madras Mail to Madras. (1.10-12) Rahel’s ability to remember things that happened to Estha and not her tells us a lot about their joint identity and how profoundly she understands him.

God of Small Things Quotes Essay

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Existence of God Argumentative Paper Essay

Existence of God Argumentative Paper Essay.

There are many different types of arguments for the existence of God. With each argument there is a conception presented of God. For each argument there are different approaches. I will be focusing on the Cosmological and Teleological Arguments. Teleological Arguments are known to be arguments from divine, arguing from order in the universe to the existence of God (1).With the ordering of the universe, created by an intelligent being, they hold that it is ordered towards a purpose or an end.

The Cosmological Argument “is the argument that the existence of the world or universe is strong evidence for the existence of a God who created it. It is a first caused argument where the existence of the universe, the argument claims, stands in need of explanation, and the only adequate explanation of its existence is that it was created by God” (1).

Behind this argument, it holds that though the universe still needs explanation for its existence, the existence of God Himself does not.

In the article McCloskey is critical of these arguments for God’s existence supporting his stance by offering the problem of evil as reasoning to not believe. He believes the belief in the existence of God is not a source of strength and security (2). However, if we are to use the Cumulative Case approach we can have successive truths. This case cumulates the Cosmological, Teleological, as well as, the Moral Arguments together. It gives us the conclusion of a personal, moral, intelligent creator of the universe as the best explanation for the universe we experience (3).

McCloskey maintains that the Teleological Argument is not satisfactory and that it can be rejected simply by rejecting its premise. The premise holds that there is in fact evidence of purpose and design. McCloskey says though, that there were many things that were considered evidence or proof, prior to evolution, but those very things are now not being considered as so. Thus, in order to be a proof, there has to be given indisputable examples. Given that the Teleological Argument, presenting disputable examples, says McCloskey, there is no proof. There can be no form of argument with evidence of an intellectual design and/or designer. I would have to argue with McCloskey by using the “fine-tuning argument.” Within the universe is nothing short of precision, not only of natural laws, but the beginning stages and state of the universe.

These both are pointers to an intelligent Creator. The universe is finely-tuned maintaining physical constants of nature (5).The strength of gravity should be considered. With the occurrence of the Big Bang. The gravity had to have precision because even with a little more force used on either side, it would not have occurred as the Big Bang, but the Big Crunch. Even with the slightest change in gravity, it could change the world into something completely other than what we know. That which is being offered as evidenced cannot be questioned. If we were to give to evolution as truth, there is still no grounds for believing it is true. It does nothing but in the end support the theist position, and shows that evolution needs teleology.

McCloskey’s main objection to theism is the presence of evil in the world, “No being who was perfect could have created a world in which there was unavoidable suffering or in which his creatures would(and in fact could have been created so as not to) engage in morally evil acts, acts which very often result in injury to innocent persons” (1). With this problem on McCloskey’s mind, he holds it to the theists. He still wonders how the theist does not take this to mind seeing that it goes against the perfection of the divine purpose.

There can be no grounds in a belief of a perfect being. Even if all reason was thrown out, he says the theist at best could only present a pool of beings full of “concern, dismay, and anxiety, rather than comfort and security” (1). There is a logical problem of evil and there is logical inconsistency when there is both the existence of God and of evil. The atheist holds that there is severe contradiction between claiming God is good, yet evil exists. Mackie, an atheist, says “…the contradiction does not arise immediately; to show it we need some additional premises…these additional principles are that good is opposed to evil, in such a way that a good thing always eliminates evil as far as it can, and that there are no limits to what an omnipotent thing can do.

From these it follows that a good omnipotent thing eliminates evil completely, and then the propositions that a good omnipotent thing exists, and that evil exists, are incompatible”(8). There exists two kinds of evil. There is “human evil,” and “natural evil” in which atheist claim are both forms of needless suffering. The logical problem of evil claims the “tension” between simultaneously having evil in the world, while also having a perfect God. This would without a doubt be a logical contradiction according to the atheist. There is also the evidential problem of evil. With this claim, there is not contradiction, but the fact that evil exists, if give grounding evidence for being able to reject that God is all-powerful. It is a weaker version of the former, and claims that it is highly unlikely that an all-perfect God exists. Plantinga responds with trying to defend that it is reasonable to believe in God, even without evidence. His position is known as “Reformed Epistemology”.

In order for his view to hold he would have to reject the Evidentialist Credo., which he claims rests on Classical Foundationalism. This led him to his positive view, or “Reformed Epistemology.” This holds that a belief in God is “properly basic.”Some object to these claims, saying that evil is logically required for good and is needed for us to see the good. Evil is a means and will cause good. There is given the “free will” defense that is meant to try and answer the problem of evil. Either this would come about by humans free will resulting in a greater good and that evil is ascribed the humans and not God. However, those who oppose this, bring up the issue of natural evils. Mackie stands his ground that God should have given human beings free will in such a way that we always chose the good.

The atheist propose God did not create men to choose between right and wrong, and that God is morally inconsistent. In response, the free will theodicy attempts to defeat the former by claiming the suffering of the innocent is justified because of the existence of free will. We as humans have misused our free will, thus what is known as ‘moral evil.’ Other sufferings from evil come from the natural evils. While McCloskey challenges the free will defense, Plantinga proposes the law of non-contradiction. He argues for there could be logically possible affairs whereby God would be unable of creating a world of both evil and autonomous humans (9). Evans puts it simply, “It does not seem to be true that a good being always eliminates evil as far as it can. What is true, perhaps, is that good being always eliminates evil as far as it can without the loss of a greater good or the allowance of a worse evil” (1).

McCloskey objects to the cosmological argument claiming, “mere existence of the world constitutes no reason for believing in such a being”(1). There has been great objection to this however because of the fact of contingent objects. God is the “first cause,” the one who began it all. Because there is not explanation for contingent beings, if God is a necessary being, He is the necessary cause of the existence of creation and we as beings. God has no cause, otherwise He would not be God. It is the very existence of the world that implies the existence of God. The “laws of nature” imply the existence of a lawgiver, God. This position was held by Aristotle, holding firmly against the possibility of infinite regress. The argument from contingency suggests that it is possible the universe might not have existed, thus needing explanation of why it does in fact exist. In essence, it must have a cause. This leads to the belief in “necessary being,” meaning a being that needs no explanation.

The temporal cosmological argument holds that the beginning of the universe was either caused or uncaused. However, objectors to this say we cannot actually claim whether the universe “had to exist.” Also, a “necessary being” comes into question. The refuters say this line of argument does not give enough explanation of why there could not be more than one cause. There is no ground for putting God as the first cause or prime mover. Time and causality as we know it cannot be grounds for explaining the beginnings of the universe. However, those objecting to McCloskey, hold if there were a being like the universe, then he would exist in time, thus he himself came into existence. But, the ultimate cause must not have come into existence. For it to be an ultimate cause, the ultimate Creator must be outside of time. (10).What McCloskey fails to realize, is that not every argument is going to capture every aspect of God. There are many different arguments that go about doing that.

If God does not exist, then all has no hope of immortality. Life, the world, and everything in it is meaningless. There would be no purpose or significance to anyone or anything. This leaves us with no ultimate meaning without immorality and God. Would we be able to say there was any purpose or meaning to someone who lived just to die? To be born just to pass out of existence? Lane says that it is not just each individual person that is headed towards the grave, but the universe itself is headed for extinction. This all in all is hopeless. Dying man, in a dying world. If this is the case, the small details in life do not matter, it does not make a difference. Our behaviors, our choices do not matter. Dotoyevsky said “If there is no immortality then all things are permitted” (11). Without God, there is no accountability, morality, or sense of right and wrong. Even more so, in a universe without God, good and evil do not exist (11). However, if we were to say there were no God, we would still be without purpose because we would just be accidental. We would just be accidents of chance.

The only view that can save the human race from itself is a theistic view (11). The only thing going for an atheist is living with the fact of the absurdity of life. Such a view makes it impossible to live a fulfilling, happy life. For the atheist, absurdity of life and creating meaning for one’s life is a contradiction. A major disadvantage of atheism is that no one has hope or faith for reward of good or and punishment of evil. A believer’s hope is this, Christ. Ephesians 3:11 tells us that God had a purpose I mind before He created. Man within his own voluntary will would be able to love and choose God. Nature alone points to God. Humanity and the universe itself does not have to exist. Both are not self-existent but caused. There is no explanation for their existence. Within a Christian world view, life is not meaningless and pointless ending at the grave. We have hope in the resurrection and of eternal life. God and immortality are both necessary for a meaning full life (11).

Bibliography

11- Craig, William Lane. “The Absurdity of Life without God.” In Reasonable Faith: Christian Truth and Apologetics, by William Lane Craig, 71-90. Wheaton: Crossway Books, 2008. 1-Evans, C. Stephen, and R. Zachary Manis. Philosophy of Religion: Thinking About Faith. Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2009. 8- Kunkle,Brett. “The Logical Problem of Evil.” Truth Never Gets Old. April 21, 2009 2- McCloskey, H. J. “On Being an Atheist.” Question (1968):
63-69. 5- Biologos. “What is the “fine-tuning” of the universe, and how does it serve as a “pointer to God?” 9- http://kevinfannystevenson.blogspot.com/2012/07/on-being-theist-response-to-h-j.html 10- http://www.existence-of-god.com/first-cause-argument.html

Existence of God Argumentative Paper Essay

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God Grew Tired of Us Essay

God Grew Tired of Us Essay.

God Grew Tired of Us documents the journey of three Sudanese men who were part of the “Lost Boys of Sudan”, a refugee camp home to thousands of young men who fled Sudan amidst the wars that went on since the 1980s. The three young men were one of the few who were invited to live in America and the documentary follows the men on their journey of adapting to the North American culture, customs and the new found freedom they never had back in Sudan.

Throughout the film, the audience witness their struggle of feeling a sense of belonging and also their strive to find the family members they lost when they had to flee the country during the war. The men began their journey to the United States when they got on their very first airplane to Belgium for a connection flight to New York. There we witness the men embark on their first cultural shock.

At the airport, the men are obviously amazed at the diversity of races since they’ve grown up only knowing one, African.

Most North Americans grew up with a diverse culture around them so walking down the street and seeing someone who isn’t the same skin tone as you is never really a shock to anyone. For the men it was a first glance of what it’s like to live in the United States, where you’d have to learn to live amongst and get along with people who are of a different race and have different beliefs than you. When the lost boys arrive in America, they are presented with their very own apartment, something they’ve never seen in their lives. Now the men need to adapt with living a modern North American lifestyle with electricity and plumbing.

A guide takes them through the house and demonstrates how to use basic everyday appliances. This was particularly amusing because the men were learning basic skills such as using the toilet and using toilet paper, something that North Americans learn in the early toddler years. Also, now that the men live on their own, they’d have to cook for themselves, something that men are not supposed to do in Africa because it is seen as a woman’s job. In North America it is not seen as a humiliating task for men to be seen cooking. Instead, chefs and cooks are stereotyped as a man’s job. As new citizens of America, the lost boys have left behind their extended families back in Africa. In a sense of loneliness they lean on each other for comfort.

It makes sense that they travel together to help each other out, but unfortunately locals filed complaints to police that because the men travel in pacts, they’re intimidating. This was a totally absurd and racist accusation. Just because the men are tall and black doesn’t mean they are a threat to society. North Americans tend to stereotype people to segregate certain groups. The men experienced their first account of discrimination, an act that ultimately pushed them to run away from their home country in the first place.

At the end of the film, the lost boys have lived in America for over 3 years and have adapted to the North American culture. Two of the three lost boys were lucky enough to locate their family members. The men went on to live separate lives and even got college/university degrees. The documentary ends with a short note about each of the three men and what they did after the film was done. Daniel, John, and Panther, the once lost boys with no future planned ahead are now striving to make a difference for their country.

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God Grew Tired of Us Essay

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St Anselm’s Proof of God’s Existence Essay

St Anselm’s Proof of God’s Existence Essay.

St. Anselm argued that the very concept of God entails its existence as a necessary consequence, to wit: “And certainly that than which a greater cannot be imagined cannot be in the understanding alone. For if it is at least in the understanding alone, it can be imagined to be in reality too, which is greater. Therefore if that than which a greater cannot be imagined is in the understanding alone, that very thing than which a greater cannot be imagined is something than which a greater can be imagined.

But certainly this cannot be. There exists, therefore, beyond doubt something than which a greater cannot be imagined, both in the understanding and in reality.

” (Anselm’s Ontological Argument: Proslogium) If God is indeed that greatest being of which He has no equal then it is necessary that He must have the attribute of existence. If he does not exist then he is not the greatest being because a greater being can be conceived, one that both exist in concept and in reality.

This means that for God to be the greatest being He must exist not just in the mind but also in reality. Because existence in the mind alone lacks an important aspect of perfection and that is existence. Thus God exist. I have read several statements attempting to prove God’s existence using arguments. I found most of these arguments logically convincing and philosophically sound. These arguments are the Cosmological Argument, Teleological Argument and the Religious Experience Argument.

I however find St. Anselm’s Ontological Argument the least convincing of all these arguments that I am familiar with. After reading and understanding this argument it is as if I am back to where I started – ignorant. I share the same objection with the other philosophers who think that this argument runs around in circles. Based on St. Anselm’s argument, perfection implies that which no other greater being can be conceived. Perfection also implies existence because something will not be perfect if it does not have the attribute of perfection.

I can use the same argument to argue that there exists a perfect parent, or a perfect professor or a perfect president or a perfect friend. In my example, if my concept of perfect parent is one who provides me with more than enough money for my allowance, it is always possible for me to think of another parent who can give me more money. For this reason, not only that the very nature of a perfect parent is logically not plausible it also cannot exist in actuality.

According to Gaunilo of Marmoutier, St. Anselm committed the mistake of confusing the existence of an idea with the existence of the thing that corresponds with the idea. (Kenneth Einar Himma) In my example, St. Anselm thought that what is in the mind is the same as that which is in actuality. This is not always the case since I can always think of a perfect ice cream which have never existed and may never exist. My third objection against St.

Anselm’s Ontological argument is that it presumes that the existence of something is good and that existence is an attribute of perfection. I disagree. The presence of pimples on my face will not make me perfect. Dandruff on the scalp of my hair is no way near perfection. The presence of murder in every society is far from being considered a perfect society. I would rather want that there will be no more genocide, abortion, and infanticide in our society. The point is that it does not always follow that existence of something is good.

St Anselm’s Proof of God’s Existence Essay

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The paradox of omnipotence, and Mackie`s solution Essay

The paradox of omnipotence, and Mackie`s solution Essay.

Omnipotence is inexhaustible, unlimited power. The attribute of omnipotence (being all powerful) is generally a quality of the God of monotheistic religions. There exists an argument, however, that the concept of an omnipotent being is paradoxical, meaning that it is logically impossible that an omnipotent being can exist. One of the more well-known renderings of this paradox goes: Can God create a rock that would be too heavy for him to lift? What this question is asking is essentially “can God can create something that he cannot subsequently control?

This question presents a dilemma.

If the answer is yes (because God can do anything, after all), it would mean that he is not actually omnipotent, for how could there exist something that an omnipotent being cannot control? If the answer is no (because how could God not be able to lift a stone—he’s supposed to be all-powerful), then he is not actually omnipotent, because here is something he cannot do after all (he cannot create something that he cannot control).

Thus, with either answer, the conclusion is that God is not omnipotent. In his answer to this problem, John L. Mackie says that if an omnipotent being creates an uncontrollable thing, then controlling this thing would mean controlling an “omnipotently-made-uncontrollable” thing, which is logically impossible. Thus even the omnipotent being will not be able to control it, and his failure to control it would actually be an affirmation rather than a refutation of the his omnipotence.

Rigid designator and non-rigid designators The concept of rigid and non-rigid designators is somewhat akin to the concept of proper nouns and common nouns. A rigid designator is a term in philosophy that “designates [or defines] the same object in all possible worlds in which that object exists and never designates anything else” (LaPorte, 2006). Inversely, a non-rigid (or flaccid) designator is a term that does not refer to the same object in all possible worlds.

For example, the sentence “Neil Armstrong was the first man on the moon” contains both a rigid designator (Neil Armstorng) and a non-rigid designator (first man on the moon). If events had been different, Neil Armstrong might not have been the first man on the moon, but Neil Armstrong (not just as a name, but as it refers to the man himself) will always be who he is.

The paradox of omnipotence, and Mackie`s solution Essay

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Night – Devotion to God Essay

Night – Devotion to God Essay.

Under certain circumstances, one’s perspective towards their faith in God may change, which is demonstrated in the memoir Night. Wiesel’s initial devotion to God and his faith undergoes a radical transformation in the face of his horrendous experiences, resulting in apparently soils and cynical atheism, but his faith survives to some degree in spite of overwhelming odds, and in subsequent years move have revived enough to motivate this memoir. At the age of twelve, Wiesel began to question God and analyze the cabbala with his fellow friend Moche, and together there faith became stronger than before.

Then, under circumstances, Moche was sent away, and returned as a different man. The motif of his eyes demonstrated his loss in the faith of God. He cried to the people to believe that the horrific experiences he said was true, but no one could pull themselves together to believe. Moche’s faith was gone, and that only made Wiesel’s faith stronger.

Wiesel’s devotion never disappeared as he stated, “I continued to devote myself to my studies. By day, Talmud, at night, the cabbala” (18). Yet, his faith began to take a turn when the Germans took over the life of the Jews.

He described his experiences as hell, describing that god was trying to say that hell wasn’t any worse than the experiences they were going through. Wiesel kept thinking of god, thanking him for every joyful moment that he came across. Wiesel’s faith became then weakened when he came across a rabbi. “Here came the Rabbi, his back bent, his face shaved, his pack on his back. His mere presence among the deportees added added a touch of unreality to the scene” (26), Wiesel faith weakened because seeing this rabbi left him in shock, making it so surreal.

After the rabbi experience, Wiesel’s faith went downhill from there. When the night came along no one prayed, out of fear of the next day. Wiesel came across horrific experiences, making him question god. He saw babies and humans being burned, for no apparent reason. Angered, Wiesel came to a solution by stating “Why should i bless His name? ” (42). At times, Wiesel’s faith was totally gone because he was angered towards how people were treated, and why God didn’t do anything about it.

Wiesel’s relationship with God remained as he believed that God was out there, just hidden saying “I did not deny God’s existence, but I doubted His absolute justice. ” (53). Then time passes and Wiesel’s relationship with God is then questioned when he is influenced by the people around him. One day he came across three victims being killed, and listening to to people saying “Where is He? ” (72). Wiesel was also influenced by Akiba Drummer, as the motif in his eyes showed that he lost total faith in God.

Wiesel no longer blessed God because he realized that there was no point of blessing God when he allowed so many horrid things to happen. Wiesel also stopped praying, since he had no time to do so. All this resulted to an extent of Wiesel being spiritually dead. Wiesel lost total faith and spirit in God, because of the horrid experiences he went through, which changed his perspective on certain things. After the concentration camp, Wiesel’s spirit and faith revive.

Looking back at his experiences, as he writes his memoir, he realizes how harsh he was to God. Wiesel acted bitter towards God, as he lost faith, not because he chose to, it was because of the circumstances he was under. Wiesel’s faith and spirit was probably gained as he slowly began to realize that God had nothing to do with the repulsive experiences he went through. The reason he lost faith in God was because he needed someone to blame, someone to take his anger out to, and that was probably understood a while after he was rescued.

Overall, Wiesel’s perspective towards faith in God changes, which is demonstrated in the memoir Night. To conclude, Wiesel’s initial devotion to God and his faith undergoes a radical transformation in the face of his horrendous experiences, resulting in apparently soils and cynical atheism, but his faith survives to some degree in spite of overwhelming odds, and in subsequent years move have revived enough to motivate this memoir. In certain situations, one’s relationship with God can take a change, for the better or worse.

Night – Devotion to God Essay

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King Sahure and A Nome God & Demedji and Hennutsen Comparative Analysis Essay

King Sahure and A Nome God & Demedji and Hennutsen Comparative Analysis Essay.

Throughout past histories we’ve witnessed different forms of art and sculptures from different time periods. These changes occur for many different reasons and give historians a taste of what life was like people growing up in these times. King Sahure and A Nome God and Demedji and Hennutsen were both two sculptures created in the same time period. These two show the similarities and differences of life between their time period.

Both statues at first glance have a similar appearance to them.

King Sahure and A Nome God features the King Sahure, the second ruler of dynasty five. It was sculpted between 2458-2466 B.C. Next to King Sahure is a smaller figure labeled as the god of the Coptite provence of Upper Egypt.[1] At first glance this sculpture can be described as having a monumental scale, with a height of about 25 inches. The god coptite is shown reaching his hand out towards King Sahure, signifying the gods acceptance of King Sahure.

The figures are considered high relief, in that they are protruding from the background. [2]

The whole statues make is rough, an indicator of Ancient Egyptian Art. Demedji and Hennutsen was constructed during the fifth dynasty between 2465-2438 B.C. Like King Sahure and A Nome God, it shows two figures, husband and wife. Demedji was known as Overseer of the Desert, and his wife Hennutsen was known as the priestess of the goddesses Hator and Neith. [3]The husband sitting down looks massive in structure. He is wearing what appears to be a helmet, covering his head.

He is sitting on a large stone, inscribed with hieroglyphics. His wife standing along side him is much smaller in statue. She, also has a headdress covering her head. The statue is in the round and has a monumental scale like King Sahure and A Nome God. The statue itself is only around 32 inches tall. The sculpture is a lot more rounded and smoother than the previous sculpture. Carved out of limestone, it shows a light beige tint. Something that really stuck out at me was the precision of space between the husbands arm and body. The bodies are sculpted with a smooth appearance.

In both sculptures you could tell who was meant to be viewed as most significant in the sculpture. In King Sahure and A Nome God, King Sahure is larger in statue than the god of Coptite. This indicating that King Sahure reigns supreme over the god, determining that it is not a votive statue. It can also tell us a little s something about Ancient Egyptian culture, and what their values were. If the King was considered more superior than the god, it would give us an insight to religion during that time period.

In the sculpture of Demedji and Hennutsen, the husband is seated and is also larger in stature. This also indicates supremacy over his wife. A difference that I picked up on with the two sculptures were the artists usage of space. King Sahure and A Nome God shows two figures that are submerged and connected to each other within the stone. They almost look like they are attached to each other. In Demedji and Hennutsen, the statues are seated very differently. The man and woman have a significant amount of space between both of them. Not only in proximity, but the spaces between their arms and legs is much more significant than the other sculpture. Giving the pair a sense of distance.

Although both works King Sahure and A Nome God and Demedji and Hennutsen were created during the same dynasty and time period, they do have their differences. Each statue tells a story what everyday life was for the people of their time period. They give us a inside view of what their beliefs and cultures were like.

King Sahure and A Nome God & Demedji and Hennutsen Comparative Analysis Essay

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