Variance Report Essay

Variance Report Essay.

Within a health care network I would give preference to a variable expense department. This is because a variable budget gives the financial manager an opportunity to evaluate departments’ productivity, efficiency and performance. Within a variable budget one can use this information to identify costs and revenues in order to determine a department’s financial operating performance. The positive result of using a variable expense department is the ability it gives to improve efficiency and productivity with minimal government regulation and control.

Managing a variable expense department can result in the ability to adapt quickly. Along with knowing the health care organizations product line costs, and the competitive and profitable price of services.

The negative side of a variable expense department is that it must be managed daily. A fixed expense department can be successful only if the expenses are established. Fixed expenses can be positive, because they appropriate funds for specific departments. I would consider healthcare reform to be the biggest challenge within healthcare financial planning and budgeting.

Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement have the greatest affect on hospital budgeting. This creates a challenge for a health care operations manager, because Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement health care reform has led to lower revenues.

It is a challenge for a health care operations manager to maintain a high quality service level while receiving lower revenues. This causes tough decisions to be made in financial planning and the health care system budget. This includes cutting department budgets and coming up with expense reduction plans. Strategic budgeting can be used to address this challenge. Health care operations managers need to establish targets within their budgets. The key is to develop a budget that is able to support the overall plan of the health care organization. A health care operations manager should look at each department and line item in order to implement reductions within the budget. A successful financial plan will include productivity, efficiency and quality.

Variance Report Essay

Patient Satisfaction Survey Essay

Patient Satisfaction Survey Essay.

Healthcare is a very important aspect of today’s society. Thus, there is a conscious effort on the part of all stakeholders to constantly monitor the quality of healthcare services provided to patients in order to determine the need for improvement or innovation. The primary concern of this effort is the improvement of the present health condition of the people and the ethical concept of promoting life itself due to which, significant efforts and concerns are always given for the quality of healthcare services.

(Fleming, 2004, 16).

In order to effect this laudable goal of assessing the quality of healthcare provided by different concerned institutions, tools such as surveys are developed and used. Surveys that assess the level of satisfaction derived by patients from health care providers could be helpful for the improvement of services (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2007). On a daily basis, feedback from patients could give insight on the kind of service they experience in hospitals or other medical facilities (Kowalczyk, 2005; Fahy, 2008).

Medicare, in an effort to understand the needs and experiences of patients, came up with the Patient Satisfaction Survey program. Problem Statement. In order to gain better understanding of the Patient Satisfaction Survey, as well as its effects on the behavior of professionals belonging to the health care industry, research that is based mainly on current literature is aimed to be conducted.

Review of existing literature on the subject of patient satisfaction through the Medicare program called Patient Satisfaction Survey (Health Resources and Services Administration) could give substantial information on the institutions that implemented the project and feedback from different stakeholders. Such information could shed light on the effectiveness of the project vis-a-vis the intent for its launch.

Patient satisfaction on the kind of service received from health care institutions like hospitals could be determined through the survey tool formulated by Medicare (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2007). Hospitals who implement the program would be able to churn out a good number of accomplished survey forms on a daily basis (Kowalczyk, 2005; Fahy, 2008). Research on data from such institutions would therefore be very helpful in gaining insight on the kind of performance that a hospital is able to give to its patients.

The literature review could give answers to a lot of heretofore unanswered questions concerning various aspects of the health care industry, such as the speed with which a patient’s call is attended to by a health care professional, the degree of attention given by a physician to a patient’s concerns, and the cleanliness of health care facilities (Kowalczyk, 2005; Skehan & Petrillo, 2003).

Significance of the Study Since the Medicare Survey, particularly the questions and answers, would be posted on its website in an effort to push hospitals into improving health care and promote quality service delivery (Kowalczyk, 2005; Skehan & Petrillo, 2003), current literature could help paint a picture of the state of health services being given to patients across the United States today. Existing literature could also show how far implementation of the project has come through, especially the institutions that have adopted and enforced the program.

A particular question that needs to be addressed by the literature is the effect of the survey results on the perception and belief of patients on the hospitals they choose to serve their medical needs. Thus, it is important that the facts to be gathered include tables, graphs and statistics that would show the general trend and effect of the survey results on the mindset of the patients.

Patient Satisfaction Survey Essay

Sick Around the World Essay

Sick Around the World Essay.

“Sick Around the World”The reform about the healthcare system in the US has been debated within the government and the public for years. The need for change in the healthcare system echoed since the legislation of Medicare and Medicaid were created. US presidents have tried to push for a universal healthcare system because of its citizen’s outcry for better, quality care, for all. Surprisingly other countries have studied the US health system and reared away from its market based structure to more of a government based structure.

In watching the documentary titled “Sick Around the World” I find it ironic that the most powerful rich country in the world ranks 37th when it comes to healthcare for its citizens. As a citizen of the US, I believe we can model our health care system similar to one of these countries in the documentary.

However not all these different health system seemed suitable to structure after.Instead of health insurance companies making huge profits and putting a dent in patient’s pockets, we should model our system similar to Germany.

The citizens of Germany pay two-thirds compared to US for health costs. In talking to people and listening to the news it puts a grim on my face hearing families go bankrupt because of health care costs. The citizens of the richest nation shouldn’t have to deal with the financial burden of living a healthy life pilling up on them. Instead we should have a sickness fund like Germany to negotiate care prices with hospitals, instead of inflating prices for care. With this system the employed get coverage through work and the unemployed stays insured through the government.

In Germany although doctors don’t make much compared to US, it’s a golden opportunity for medical students. I believe that studying medicine should be about caring for the less fortunate and not thinking about a big pay date. But students in the US are looking forward to that big pay date in order to pay back all those loans they incurred through their school years. Maybe a relocation effort would benefit because it costs nothing to study medicine in Germany. There is also the incentive of low malpractice insurance students in Germany can look forward to. In retreating back to patient benefits in Germany, a co-pay of $15 is paid out of pocket every three months. The cost for prescription drugs is small compared to US price for prescription drugs. With every health system there is an opposition from the other side of the aisle. In Germany doctors have complained about low salaries with regard to high care they provide.

This is why I believe if you are getting a free education to study medicine, you should not be thinking about huge profits. In my opinion a country as a whole flourishes with healthy citizens financially.When hospitals have to complete for government funds it makes me think twice about this health care system. This type of system is used in Great Britain which makes doctors salaried government employees. With the government owning hospitals, higher taxes are passed down to the public in order to pay through tax revenue. This type of system also puts in jeopardy under performing hospitals, putting the jobs of medical students, professions at jeopardy.

If hospitals are closed down due to performance rating, patients will have to wait longer for services with limited hospitals. In this system patients are also tangled up in going through a gatekeeper to see a specialist. So if hospitals and clinics are shut down, patients would even wait longer to see a specialist. This type of health care structure is not desirable for elective care such as heart operation. It might be suitable for preventive care, but patient’s tent to abuse the no-cost services just to talk to doctors without feeling ill. An alternative method to reduce patient traffic would be charging low premiums to create space for more serious care.

The medical facilities should be privatized as well, where the government has some control over prices charged for medical services. Doctors should be competing for patient services, instead of hospitals competing for funds. This widens the playing field because doctors should earn their salary, instead of being paid a salary. Everybody individual physician would have to contribute his/her skill to their respective medical center for it to prosper. Instead of hospitals shutting down because of lack of funds, individual doctors would be held accountable by their board if under performing. With this type of strategy more hospitals stay open, giving the public more access to a timely care.

Sick Around the World Essay

Inter-Professional Working Essay

Inter-Professional Working Essay.

The intention of this essay is to explore inter professional working and the impact it has on the quality of health care delivered within a mental health setting. For this purpose I have reflected on a previous placement where I worked in an acute mental health treatment ward and on the formative assessment assigned to me within this module.

Inter professional working in a health care setting involves different health care professionals working together in a collaborative fashion, this ensures the highest quality of care is delivered to service users (Day, J 2005).

It is suggested that the collaborative nature of inter professional working will lead to information and knowledge being shared amongst professionals within a team, which will ultimately lead to improved judgement when providing care and creating a higher bench mark for quality care (DOH 2007).

In the NHS, it is stated that quality is defined by doing the right thing in the right way at the right time in the right place with the right result (NHS 2012).

Lord Darzi’s High Quality Care for all (2008) states that delivering quality healthcare includes providing patients and the public with effective safety, cleanliness, delivery of care as well as a good patient experience and the consideration of patient dignity and respect . To assure that quality care is being provided, quality is externally and internally measured and evaluated.

Within a healthcare setting it is measured at three levels. The national level includes audits, staff surveys, patient surveys and mortality and morbidity rates. The strategic level includes clinical governance, benchmarking and meetings amongst high level staff. The clinical level includes protocols, care pathways, complaints made by patients and infection control (CQC 2011). Within the NHS another element in the provision of quality, is the implementation of national service frameworks. These are implemented to make sure clear quality requirements are set and that the most up to date evidence based practice is working effectively in a given setting (DOH 2011).

Following exploration of the literature for interprofessional working, three key issues identified are communication, culture and knowledge of professional roles (Pollard, K et al 2005). In regards to communication with in the team, to be able to provide holism in regards to a patients care all professionals within the team must engage in clear and open communication (Ellis. R et al 2003). It is essential that all of the professionals’ views and perspectives are heard and taken into consideration when implementing care. Although there are clear advantages to open communication there are often barriers that inhibit this practice.

Lack of knowledge or the stereotyping of other professions can lead to ideas, recommendations and perspectives of an individual not being heard or taken into consideration. This can ultimately affect the quality of care delivered to a service user (Barret,G et al 2005). In order to overcome such barriers, trust and respect of fellow professionals must be present. If the environment is lacking in trust and respect, it may result in professionals protecting their roles and justifying actions. This can then result in a closed working environment, where professionals do not learn from shared experiences and constructive criticism is not welcomed. Collectively this can impede on the holistic and collaborative nature required in the delivery of healthcare (Day, J 2005).

In order to approach care holistically, each member of the interprofessional team must have awareness and knowledge of the different professional roles within the team. This is due to the fact that conducting a holistic assessment is beyond the scope of any individual professional. Lack of knowledge of the roles of other professions and the boundaries of an individual’s role can lead to specific areas of care not being delivered to its highest quality (Wilcock, M et al. 2009).

Professional culture can affect the delivery of quality care as the norms and values of different professional groups maybe in contrast with one another. This can lead to a disagreement or conflict when discussing and planning the approach when devising a plan to deliver patient care. However these differences between professional s can have a positive effect on the formulation and direction of service delivery (Day, J 2005). Taking into account the different ideals and perspectives can lead to a comprehensive and thorough assessment of a service user needs thus optimizing the quality of care provided. Within professional cultures there is often the use of unique jargon. Amongst an interprofessional team this can lead to barriers to effective communication which could ultimately lead to a lesser quality of care delivered. In order to overcome this obstacle members within the interprofessional team need to be self-aware of the language they are using to avoid causing confusion amongst professionals (Ellis. R et al .2003).

On consideration of my placement in an acute psychiatric ward, I reflected on the interactions amongst the members of the interprofessional team. The role of the acute psychiatric ward was to provide treatment to service users aged eighteen to fifty five with conditions ranging from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective, depression, mania, eating disorders and borderline personality disorders. Due to the wide range of disorders and the complex care that is often required to treat service users holistically there were often more than one professional within the interprofessional team that was involved in a service users care (NICE 2011).

The professionals that were involved in this wards care whilst I was on placement were Nurses, Occupational therapists, Psychiatrists, Pharmacists, Social workers, Dietitians and Psychologists. Due to the differing nature of each of these professions, unique perspectives of the service user and their needs are assessed and an adequate and holistic care plan could be implemented. Key information was often passed on, an example I observed was in regards to eating plans from the Dietitan passed on to the nursing staff for eating disorder patients.

From my perspective as a student mental health nurse whilst on the ward it became apparent that professional culture and ideologies of the professions often came in conflict with each other. I observed this when decisions needed to be made, there was often a professional that had to compromise their views. Interprofessional working at times also had a negative effect on the service users. In one instance a patient was on continuous observations by two staff due to recent multiple suicide attempts, it was agreed amongst nursing staff that the service user only had essential items and was not allowed anything that could be potentially harmful to herself.

Although this was agreed amongst nursing staff the policy did not state any specifics that were not allowed, it did however state that it would be at the discretion of the professional at the time that is carrying out the continuous observation. This ultimately led to conflict when the occupational therapist allowed the service user to use paints, pencils, and paint brushes. On reflection this was not conducive to the recovery or mental state of the service user due to lack of consistency from staff that were looking after her.

Barrett, G et al (2005) states that the power share amongst the interprofessional team is an important issue as an unequal power share amongst the team could lead to professions oppressed and unable to have a significant input. However it is also argued that without strong leadership and direction there is no true direction to the care being delivered and professionals within the team will rely on others to take charge (DOH 2007). On the acute ward as a student nurse I found that on the surface level there was an equal power share with all the professionals having equal input. However at times it became apparent that if a decision was made that certain professions did not like, the former hierarchy system came to fruition and the grievance was taken directly to the consultant and their decision would be final.

On placement I believe that professional culture was a boundary to effective communication and collaboration amongst staff. Although all patient notes were stored on RIO which is readily available to any staff involved with patient care information was never discussed openly, formally or informally between professions unless something of significance happened. The driving factor for the interprofessional team to congregate was at that point to discuss blame instead of collaborative working. Professional identity also contributed to the quality and the effectiveness of the care given in the placement setting. The very nature of the training of each professional automatically assigns a skill set, codes of practice and standards from their governing body for example the NMC (2012) or HPC (2012). Thus meaning the very nature of this governing body can often conflict with collaborative nature of an interprofessional team.

My personal suggestions for my acute mental health placement would be that there are clear guidelines and policies that need to be implemented in order for seamless clinical care to be delivered amongst the professionals. This could set clear boundaries to the remit of staff’s responsibilities. I would also suggest that time for interprofessional education be available for staff so there is a sound knowledge between the professions which can lead to a greater appreciation of the care that is delivered.

On reflection of my formative group assessment it became apparent that the interpretation of the task at hand was different between each of the four members of the group, this could have been due to the fact that amongst the group there were different specialities of nurses. Once this was realised the group had to meet in order for each member to be fully aware of what was expected of them. Once there was clarity in the roles of each of the members a co-ordinator was appointed for the work to be collected and arranged appropriately for the presentation. It was agreed amongst the group the order of speakers and this translated seamlessly to the presentation. It became evident after the assessment had ended that if we had not of congregated beforehand the presentation would have not been as organised and coherent as it was (appendix).

In conclusion it is clear that interprofessional working plays a vital part in the effectiveness and quality of care delivered to a service user. The literature has stated that in able for quality care to be delivered there must be willing and open participation form all members of the interprofessional team to work collaboratively. Although there are many barriers to effective interprofessional working, regulating bodies such as the NMC and organisations such as NICE have initiatives and guidelines for guidance in overcoming differences and conflicts.

Clearly defined roles is an importance for professionals to be able to deliver high quality care, however he very nature of interprofessional working can sometimes hinder this as the views and perspectives of a situation between different professionals conflict with each other thus potentially leading to lack of clarity when delivering care (Wilcock, M et al. 2009). These factors were often present in my own experience in the above mentioned clinical setting. It became apparent that although there was an interprofessional approach to delivering quality healthcare, there was no clear structure to the composition of the team thus leading to conflict occurring more often than effective collaboration.

Reference list:

Barret, g et al . (2005). The process required for effective interprofessional working. In: Barret,g et al Interprofessional working in health and social care . Hampshire: Palgrave. P8-18.

CQC (2010). Mental Health five year action plan. London

Day, J (2005). Being Interprofessional . UK: Nelson thornes . P1-161.

DOH (2007). Creating an Interprofessional workforce. UK: London. 1-72.

DOH (2008) High quality care for all. NHS next stage review final report. London

DOH (2011) The NHS Performance framework: implementation guidence. London

Ellis. R et al . (2003). Improving communication . In: Ellis. R et al Interpersonal communication in nursing . 2nd ed. Hampshire: Elsevier.

HPC. (2012). Your duties as registarnts . Available: http://www.hpc-uk.org/assets/documents/10001BFBSCPEs-cfw.pdf. Last accessed 9th Apr 2012

NHS. (2012). Quality. Available: http://www.clinicalgovernance.scot.nhs.uk/section2/definition.asp. Last accessed 7th Apr 2012.

NHS. (2012). Quality. Available: http://www.clinicalgovernance.scot.nhs.uk/section2/definition.asp. Last accessed 7th Apr 2012.

NMC. (2012). The Code. Available: http://www.nmc-uk.org/Nurses-and-midwives/The-code/. Last accessed 07th Apr 2012

Pollard, K et al . (2005). The need for interprofessional working. In: Barret,g et al Interprofessional working in health and social care . Hampshire: Palgrave. P5-7.

Wilcock, M et al. (2009). Health care improvement and continuing interprofessional education . Journal of continuing education in the health professions . 29 (2), p84-90

Inter-Professional Working Essay

Vicarious Liability Essay

Vicarious Liability Essay.

I.  Case Summary of Pope v. Winter Park Healthcare Group, Ltd

The parties in this suit are Preston and Ginger Pope and the Winter Park Healthcare Group Limited.  The spouses Pope filed a medical malpractice suit against Winter Park, Dr. McMahan, and Dr. Wolford.  Plaintiffs claimed that the hospital is vicariously liable for the negligence of Dr. McMahan who was responsible for conducting an untimely and erroneous resuscitation on Tyler Pope, the newborn child of the plaintiffs.  As a result, plaintiff’s son developed permanent brain damage.

The spouses Pope argued that when Mrs. Pope was admitted to Winter Park Hospital for the delivery of he child, an implied contract was created between them.  The latter is therefore bound under the contract to provide her with the medical or surgical treatment or procedure she and her newborn son may need regardless if the physician is merely an independent contractor.  On the other hand, the hospital argued that it could not be held liable to the patient because the physician was an independent contractor as indicated in the patient consent form which was acknowledged and signed by the patients at the time they sought the services of the hospital

According to the Court of Appeals, the consent form signed by the plaintiffs constitutes an express contract that the physicians practicing at Winter Park are independent contractors and not its employees or agents.

 There is however nothing in the consent form that says that the hospital will be discharged from any liability in case of any negligent act of the physician.  Although the spouses acknowledged that the physician is an independent contractor this does not mean that the plaintiffs agree to discharge from hospital from its contractual obligation (“Hospitals May be Held Liable for Independent Contractor’s Negligence, 2006, p.2).  Delegation of duty does not mean discharge from responsibility.  Thus, although the use by hospitals of independent contractor may eliminate the respondeat superior liability it does not however relieve the hospital from any duty it has undertaken based on the contract.

II. There is vicarious liability when a person is not only liable for torts committed by himself but also for torts committed by others with whom he has a certain relationship and for whom he is responsible.  This is also known as the doctrine of imputed negligence in the sense that even if the person or company is not negligent per se but the law still treats the person or company responsible such as an employer being held liable for the tort of an employee (Susan Leung, 2004, p.1).  Thus, vicarious liability is defined according to Black’s Law Dictionary as “the imposition of liability on one person for the actionable conduct of another, based solely on the relationship between the two persons; indirect or imputed legal responsibility for the acts of another; for example, the liability of an employer for the acts of an employee, or, a principal for the torts or [actions] of an agent.”

III. The question on the existence of employer-employee relationship is important in determining vicarious liability (Andrew P. Hallowell, 2007, p.1). For a plaintiff who seeks to file a suit against a health care organization, he must allege and prove that there exists an employer-employee relationship between the physician and the hospital.    For the health care organization which seeks to exculpate itself from any liability, it must prove that there is no employer-employee relationship and that the physician is merely an independent contractor.

For purposes of determining the presence or absence of employer-employee relationship, the plaintiff should be guided by the following tests.  The health care organization is the employer if it is in charge of the selection and engagement of the employee, the payment of wages, the power of dismissal and the power to control the means and methods of doing the work.  The strongest test is the last factor which is the control test (Ernest Badway, 2007, p.1).

If the hospital controls the time when the physician is required to report for work and directs the means and methods in the performance of his work, pays his wages and has the power to terminate the physician then there is employer-employee relationship.  If on the other hand, the physician is not controlled according means and manner of doing his work but only on the result such as when he was chosen by a patient to perform a single operation within the premises of the hospital then he is an independent contractor and the hospital is not vicariously liable in case of negligence (Edward D. Shoulkin and Smith J. Tamara, p.1).

You may also be interested in the following: principles of vicarious liability

Vicarious Liability Essay

Ethical Issues Involved in Non-Admittance of Financially Incapable Clients Essay

Ethical Issues Involved in Non-Admittance of Financially Incapable Clients Essay.

Running a service-oriented business is never easy. One has to deal with a lot of things and consider a lot of factors in order to manage the business effectively. Policies are always set for the purpose of achieving the goals of the company and at the same time, adhering to the laws of the state and contributing to the common good. Being a case manager requires knowledgeable field and relevant experience to resolve issues concerning the benefits of the clients and the company as well.

A health center has the responsibility to meet the needs of its patients. Sometimes, it has to impose policies that are against the existing ones to ensure the survival and growth of the center as a business entity. The clients are needed to be carefully informed of these policies and rules because they are the ones who are directly affected when these policies take into effect.

As for the ethical issues involved in the problem of a certain dialysis center, the situation calls for adherence to the set policy rules of the company, concurrently, to the ethical standards of human services professionals as is quoted from the National Organization for Human Services (2007): Human service professionals provide services without discrimination or preference based on age, ethnicity, culture, race, disability, gender, religion, sexual orientation or socioeconomic status.

As a health care provider, the company must admit patients without discrimination based on different aspects. This may be suitable for health centers which are not yet in the brink of bankruptcy or closure. If the center is at a high risk of shutting down in the near future because it lacks budget and the expenses are exaggeratingly greater than the income, then non-admittance of patients who are not financially capable may be justifiable for the economic survival of the business.

As a health care provider of a hemodialysis center which advocates for the patients’ needs, the best thing to do is to cut down the patients’ 3 times a week visits to once or twice a week, depending on how much they can pay. Firstly, the company must check the benefits of the insurance to cover the expenses that may be incurred, and allocate these benefits to the whole health program.

The company may also offer the patients financial help through different government agencies so they can still continue with their hemodialysis. Transportation to and from other government dialysis centers may also be offered for a discounted cost or, if the company can handle it, it can be offered for free to those who are in dire need of treatment in order to sustain life even longer. A health care organization may contradict its code of ethics if the economic status and the future of the company are put at a high risk.

The company may choose to impose policies that may be unacceptable to the clients but are just and reasonable for the welfare of the company. It is also reasonable for a health care professional to refuse the admittance of a certain patient having an infectious disease that will later cause severe damage to other patients’ condition, let alone cause loss of lives. In this case, the company may offer help by means of referring the client to other health care organizations specializing in that kind of disease.

Ethical Issues Involved in Non-Admittance of Financially Incapable Clients Essay

Parallels between Scottsboro and Maycomb Essay

Parallels between Scottsboro and Maycomb Essay.

To Kill a Mockingbird, a classic novel written by Harper Lee, is focused on racism that takes place in Maycomb, Alabama during the 1930s, where African Americans were segregated by white men. Harper Lee said that the Scottsboro trial, which was a trial that started because of discrimination, inspired her on writing To Kill a Mockingbird. Despite the differences between the Scottsboro Boys and To Kill a Mockingbird, both of them had an impact on the racial implications and laws of the south.

The Scottsboro Trials was a sad tragedy that took place in Alabama during the 1930s.

While nine black youth, ages from 13 to 21, were on a train heading to Memphis, Tennessee to find a job, a fight between the nine black youths and a group of white men started. After the white men were kicked out of the train, they reported what had happened to a stationmaster, and the station master stopped the train at a town called Paint Rock.

After the train stopped, a group of policed jumped on the train and arrested the nine black youths. When they are caught on the train, two white women, dressed in men’s clothes, were found hiding on the train.

Then the two white women accused the nine black youths raping them without any evidence. Because raping in 1930s in the Deep South was a big crime, so many trials started. At the end, every one of the Scottsboro Boys were sentenced to death except for the youngest one, Roy Wright, who was 13 years old. The reason why the jurors did not sentence him to death is because of his age. Although he was not sentenced to death, he was still sentenced for spending his life time in jail (The Scottsboro Case (1931)) (Lanset). Maycomb, Alabama is the main setting that the book, To Kill a Mockingbird, took place.

Maycomb and the Scottsboro Trials are similar because they both relate to the discrimination between African Americans and white men. It was Tom Robinson, who was accused of rape by a white woman, just as the Scottsboro Boys was, and he was sentenced guilty by all-white juries even though he did nothing wrong. Although he wasn’t sentenced to death, he was still killed by jail guards who shot seventeen bullets at him just because he tried to escape. To Kill a Mockingbird and the Scottsboro Boys are similar because Harper Lee based her story on the Scottsboro Trials.

The first case took place during April 1931, and it was taken to the juries around three pm. For less than two hours, the juries announced the verdict, death penalty; after the crows outside heard it, they yelled of approval. Also, the juries also warned people who were in the courthouse that there must be no demonstration staged after the verdict, so the people in the courtroom just applauded, while people outside cheered wildly. The second trial that was held on April 8th, for eighteen-year-old Haywood Patterson.

Then the jury announced a verdict of death penalty within three hours. The third case was tried with five boys; Olin Montgomery, who was seventeen and nearly blind, Andy Wright (18 years old), Eugene Williams (17 years old), Willie Robeson (17 years old), and Ozie Powell, who was 16 years old. During this trial, Willie RObeson was suffering from a bad venereal disease, so it was pretty much impossible to rape somebody with that disease. However, the case went to the jury at four pm, and next morning, the verdict was still a death penalty.

During the trials, Governor Benjamin Miller even sent the Alabama National Guard to Scottsboro to prevent a death sentence, but at the end, eight of the Scottsboro Boys were still sentenced to death, except for the youngest one, Roy Wright. Although Roy Wright wasn’t sentenced to death, he was still sentenced to be in jail for his whole life (Linder) (Salter). All the trials of Scottsboro started pretty much because of discrimination. On June 22, 1933, Jude James Horton was convinced that Victoria Price was lying because all her stories were inconsistent; also, she had no witnesses and medical evidences for her claims too.

Another person, Dr. Lynch, who asked to talk to Horton privately, said that the girls were lying too. As a result, Judge Horton took his verdict of death penalty back, and announced that there will be a new trial. Attorney General Knight also promised that there would be evidences for Victoria Price’s rape story; Orville Gilley, a white boy on the train agreed to testify for the prosecution. William Callahan, a judge whose age is about 75, was going to participate in Haywood Patterson’s next trial on November 1933.

During the trial, Judge Callahan cut off all the questions about Victoria Price’s chastity, character, and reputation. Also, when Leibowtiz queried Price about her probability of having sex with someone other than a Scottsboro Boy, Judge Callahan stopped him. He did these because he wanted to debunk this event off the American’s newspaper. Similarly to the Scottsboro trials, Tom Robinson’s trial in To Kill a Mockingbird also started because of discrimination. Mayella wanted to protect her dad, so she accused Tom, an African American, of raping her.

She accused a black guy because she knew that in a fight, white men always win (Linder). The Scottsboro Trials incident had impacted the community’s racial climate and the ideologies during the 1930s. Firstly, it had forced the country to look back to their racial practices although white men disliked black men. Secondly, the African Americans changed from republicans to democratic community. Thirdly, the Scottsboro Trials made black men realize how badly the white men were treating them. For example, racial practices and how they were looked upon by law.

Lastly, it also changed the way the legal system of the United States is viewed. Because of the Scottsboro Boys, the African Americans learned to fight for their rights… (Ross) (Scottsboro Boys Hist2081) The discrimination between African Americans and white men was the reason why the Scottsboro Trials and the trial in To Kill a Mocking happened. Although black men lost in their trials, they later realize their power, and started to fight for their rights. The Scottsboro Trial is an event that impacted the whole world, especially America, making them realize several things they had done wrong, and to never repeat it again.

Parallels between Scottsboro and Maycomb Essay

Health and Child Care Practitioner Essay

Health and Child Care Practitioner Essay.

Keeping children healthy and safe is very important. To ensure children’s health, safety and wellbeing every home nations has sets of standards or welfare requirements which settings must meet. The standards vary from country to country, but they all exists in order to protect children. Child care practitioner need to be familiar with minimum Welfare requirements, Safeguarding children, Promoting welfare, Suitable people, Organisation, Premises, Environments, Equipment, Documentation . Section 1 –Quality of Care. Standard 1 – Safeguarding and child protection.

The safeguarding of children is best promoted through: The regular review of policies and procedures, Access to approved training for all staff on safeguarding issues on a regular three-yearly basis , If all children are resting/sleeping on mats or low beds, it is acceptable that the staffing arrangements as per required ratios, do not have to be med but a minimum of two staff must remain with the group of children.

It is also important in settings that providing group-based care that a member of staff have a designed responsibility for Safeguarding and child protection. Standard 4 – Health & Safety in the Setting.

The section requires settings to ensure the relevant regulations and guidance are meet, registrations with their local Environmental Health Service and compliance with their guidance, reference is made to staff/child-minders being ‘’under the influence of any substance’’, this relates to alcohol or drugs, also reference is made in the Minimum Standards to valid fire-safety risk assessment , the risk assessment should be regularly reviewed and updated in line with Northern Ireland Fire Rescue Service Guidance. Facilities that have been registered for some years may hold a Fire Safety Certificate. Standard 5- Food and Drink.

The social value of children eating is recognised. Whilst it is beneficial to have a separate dining room in a full day care settings, all settings are required to register with their local Environmental Health Service and comply with all guidance issued. Level 2 Food Hygiene Certificate it should noted, the standards identifies the need for all setings to provide food and drinks for the four main food groups, for sessional care playgroups, creches and after school settings, it is acknowledged that they are not required to provide non-dairy sources of protein like meat, fish, eggs, beans Section 2- Quality of Staffing, Management &Leadership.

Standard 11- Organisation of the Setting. In terms of addressing the requirements of this Standard, the following issues should be addressed: Staffing ratio, Absence of person in charge, Lead Time for applications for Managers in post, Existing Staff with qualifications, Existing Staff without qualifications, New staff without qualifications, Babies and toddlers, School aged children, Students in placement, Volunteers, Daily Registrations, Minimum number of staff available, Excursions school pick-ups, child-minders Mandatory Training , Arrangements for Emergencies, Child-minders with an assistant.

Standard 12- Suitable Person. The term substantial access therefore does not refer to these employed to care for children in a child minding or day care setting, but anyone who has access to the children throughout the period of time in which care is provided and the register person. Vetting does not only refer to criminal record checks but includes medical references, employment and personal references and Social Services checks. Vetting will be carried out in line with the Regional Vetting Procedure.

Section 3- Quality of Physical Environment. Standard 13- Equipment provided by all settings will be furniture, play equipment, must be sufficient and suitable for all ages. High chairs must have point harness, all outdoor play equipment must be safety secured in terms of safety, appropriate insurance cover must be held, it is also important that staff have access to comfortable seating which allow them to feed a bottle to or nurse an infant.

. Section 4 –Ability of Monitoring and Evaluation Standard 15 Documentation. As all records, including those pertaining to children and staff, are accessible to the Trust’s Registration and Inspection staff, The reference to article 126 of the Children(NI) 1995 relates to the requirement to keep record of the name of: any child looked after on the register premises, any person who assist in looking after a

child, any person who lives, or is likely at any time to be leaving , also providers should be aware that accidents may need to be reported to the Health and Safety Executive like work related, serious injuries, to staff or children , work related diseases , over three day injuries. Section 5- Policies and procedures. Trusts in their regulatory capacity, will wish to be satisfied that providers have the range of policies and procedures as outlined in this section, it is important that all policies and procedures including risk assessment are reviewed an annual basis .

List of Policies as outlined in the Minimum Standards: Absence of the Manager, Accidents, Additional Needs, Complaints, Confidentiality, Consent, Data Protection, Equality, First aid, Infection prevention and control, Managing Emergences, Menu Planning, Mobile phones, Parents access to record, Participations, Provision for Food and drink , Security on the setting, Smoking. 1. 2 Explain the lines of reporting and responsibility within the work setting. When we are working with children it is important to understand the lines of reporting and responsibility.

In some small settings the lines of reporting may be quite simple but, in a large setting certain member of the staff may be responsible for different areas. In my setting if in case of any accident, incident, illness or any other emergency I have to report to my teacher and then to others responsible, my setting also have Health and Safety officer, fire officer, child protection officer, safe guarding officer and a full qualified first aid for every stage.

When an accident/ incident occurs at the setting we record it in our incident/ accident book which is kept in the office filing cabinet. .Some illnesses must be reported to the local health authority such like tuberculosis, mumps, meningitis. In my setting we have our emergency procedures displayed in every classroom, and the reception aria so all the staff, students or volunteers they will know where to report in case of any emergency. Legislation of Health and safety NI at work of order 1978

Employee responsibilities: Comply with health and safety policy and procedures, keep the safe working practise and use any or all safety equipment that is provided. Take care of yourself and the safety of others who may be affected by your actions. Employer responsibilities: Making the workplace safe and eliminate health risks is one of the many, providing adequate welfare facilities, ensure health and safety in work place ,provide training ,safety equipments ,understand the importance of regular risk assessment.

3. 1 Explain how to promote children’s health and well-being in a an early years work setting Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity. Health can be thought of a bit like a jigsaw puzzle as there are various components that need to come together in order to maintain good health and well-being both for children and adults. If one part is missing health is affected.

Some of the components of health are : Nutrition, Health care, Hygiene, Play opportunities, Rest and sleep, Safe guarding and protection, Positive experience, Love and attention, Fresh air and lights, Diet, Physical activities, Medical care. Rest and sleep is an essential requirement for good health and development. Sleep appears to have many vital functions required to support a healthy immune system: aids the regulation of hormones and the processing of information by the brain. If a child is not sleeping enough this can have negative impact on the child health such as: Growth, Memory and learning, Illness, Behaviour and impulsivity.

The sleep amount hours will vary, depends on the child age for example a child between 1-3 years may need to sleep between 12- 14 hours per day, also children in this age they need to nap in the afternoon , we have to make sure that the nap is not to long so the children can sleep during the night, another issue about sleeping is the safety , by making sure that there are no objects that my suffocate children, also the cot have to be comfortable, worm and clean , the rom temperature should be 18-21 not too cold, not too worm .

Personal Hygiene is very important for everyone but especially for young children because good hygiene prevent possible infection, children need to be kept clean but also the environment they are living in, By teaching children how to wash hands correctly, how to brush their teeth or hair we can help young children understand the importance of a good hygiene. We can teach children how to maintain a god personal hygiene by playing games, through different activities such as painting or through singing/ puppet show but also through good role model.

Immunisation is the use of vaccines to give immunity for a specific diseases, the vaccinations prevent children from getting ill but also some of the diseases can be contagious for other children and also for the staff . Love and attention is about children’s emotional well- being and is linked to their health. Babies and children can become depressed if they are not given sufficient attention.

The attention the babies and young children will receive is from their parents but also from the childcare practitioner, this mean that children must have a key person who can establish a special relation with them so they feel loved and protected. Diet what children eat and drink has a pivotal effect on their health. The term balanced diet is often used in connection with the healthy eating. A balanced diet is one in which there are sufficient nutrients in right quantities for children and adults.

The child care practitioner can promote a healthy diet by teaching children about healthy foods, the importance of healthy food. As an child care practitioner working with the early years I am in the unique position to influence the lives of the young children by promoting healthy living in the setting I work. I have to help children understand the importance of the healthy lifestyle 5. 1 Identify balanced meals and drinks for children in their early years, following current government guidance on nutritional needs.

Just like adults young children need energy ( calories) from food and nutrients such as protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals, to make sure their bodies work properly and can repair themselves. At this age children grow very quickly and are usually very active, so they need plenty of calories and nutrients. A healthy and varied diet should provide all nutrients the child need. A well balanced diet is who will have: Milk and dairy foods, meat, fish, beans, and lentils , bread and other cereals such as rice , pasta , potatoes, breakfast cereals, fruit and vegetables, fruit juices and water.

Health and Child Care Practitioner Essay

Healing Hospital: a Daring Paradigm Essay

Healing Hospital: a Daring Paradigm Essay.

Healthcare providers need to reach people on a personal level. The concept of the healing hospital paradigm research reveals that specific design changes in healthcare environments can reduce patient stress and alleviate the consequences of that stress. These changes can also help reduce medical errors and hospital-acquired infections, while improving staff morale and efficiency (Kreitzer, 2011). This paper will identify the concepts of a healing hospital, advances in technology, the physical design of the hospital and culture which promote a holistic approach to patient care.

Physical Environment The healing environment goes beyond just the basic construction materials that make up the hospital. An actual healing environment is constructed to help patients and families cope with the stresses of illness, and are free from overhead paging, in-room intercoms, loud machines or noise at the nurse’s station (Eberst, 2008). Hospitals need to be free from physical disturbances which can cause stress for the patient and their family. Many hospitals are under constant construction. The loud noise of this construction can inhibit healing.

Healthcare providers need to be sensitive to this and be patient advocates to ensure that the construction noises are at times when the patient is not in a resting state. They can coordinate construction times during optimal patient awake times. This will allow patients with adequate rest periods to promote healing. Patients need internal transformation to completely heal. Human aura is an expression of what is taking place within the mind, the soul, and the spirit of the individual. When considering this the color of the environment plays a big part of the healing environment.

The use of chromotherapy, color healing, is essential when considering a healing environment. Green is considered the universal color for healing (Stefanidakis, 2001). Using colors appropriately in the hospital environment can encourage emotional responses to enhance healing. If the incorrect colors are utilized the patient may present with symptoms of irritability instead of peacefulness or cheerfulness which could inhibit healing. Furthermore, the hospitals interior plays a major role in the healing process.

Spirituality will be promoted if the interior reflects the hint of a religious atmosphere such as exercising specific religious artifacts spirituality will be promoted. Hospitals can also incorporate unrestricted visiting, decorative fountains, fireplaces, skylights and healing gardens to help provide a relaxing environment which decreases stress for their customer population. Technology Technology can help provide an overall healing environment. Medical advances in medicine and diagnostic procedures help provide treatment for the physical illness.

Historically physicians treat physical illnesses, psychiatrists treat mental illnesses and hospital chaplains deal with spiritual issues. Many times the physicial treatment of illness is the main focus of hospital staff. However, technology can also provide a way of better communication between staff and physicians with the use of cell phones. Wireless monitoring systems and alarm silence mechanisms can provide a quieter, calmer environment with less patient stress which promotes a healing environment. Although technology helps promote the healing of physical illness patient satisfaction can be improved when a holistic approach is taken.

The healing hospital incorporates technology and holistic patient care to provide body, mind and spiritual healing (Chapman, 2007). Spiritual Healing Spirituality is the search to know our true selves and discovering the real nature of consciousness (Russell, 2006). Many times healthcare providers think of patients based on their diagnosis. This thought process depersonalizes the patient. This can lead to care that is not holistic. Healing hospitals promote staff education and administrative support to provide patients with holistic care.

If staff members enter patient rooms in a calm and unhurried manner the patient perceives this as a loving environment (Chapman, 2007). This approach to each patient encounter allows the staff to address all of the patient needs. In this situation patients will open up to the staff so that all patient needs are identified. The staff can then recognize these needs and utilize all available resources to aid the patient in the healing process. Spirituality plays a major role in the patient’s ability to cope with stress and illness (Ashcraft, Anthony ; Mancuso, 2010). Biblical Passage

In times of illness people turn to their faith and pray for help. The bible states “The LORD sustains them on their sickbed and restores them from their bed of illness” (Psalm 41:3, New International Version). This reinforces the healing the concept of the healing hospital and the power of prayer. Prayer is one of the most helpful ways of inspiring hope in our patients and families. This passage reinforces the belief that spirituality is essential in the healing process. As healthcare providers we must be sensitive to our patient’s spirituality and incorporate this in our patient care.

This is a paramount of the healing hospital paradigm. Incorporating spiritual healing provides holistic care that is essential in the restoration of health. Culture The concept of the healing hospital is gaining the attention of healthcare professionals when they consider holistic care. It is essential that hospital administrators as well as the staff embrace this concept to achieve holistic patient care. If everyone is not on the same page, holistic care cannot be achieved. Many times administrators are dollar focused. In this process they lose site of the aspect of holistic care.

Many hospitals struggle financially and in a knee-jerk reaction jobs are eliminated. This often results in fewer nurses with larger patient loads. It also results in increased work demands of other employees. Cutting corners to save dollars affects all aspects of patient care. Patients often feel like a number or diagnosis and the personal aspect is lost. Patients’ emotional and spiritual needs are not met. How can hospital employees produce a healing atmosphere and provide holistic care to their patients with these obstacles? Holistic care can only be achieved in a loving, caring environment (Chapman, 2007).

This atmosphere will produce better patient satisfaction scores and enhanced revenue for success. This also provides employee satisfaction which promotes better patient care. These concepts go hand in hand. The healing hospital implements processes based on subjective theories as well as scientific evidence based practices to promote all aspects of healing. Conclusion The healing hospital paradigm concept encompasses an all-inclusive treatment to meet patients’ needs for complete restoration. The components of this theory are a culture of loving care, a healing environment and technology with a combined work design.

Healing Hospital: a Daring Paradigm Essay

Hat Task Essay

Hat Task Essay.

The population as of 2011 was totaled to 608,453. The majority of this population consisted of people between the ages of 15 and 44 years old. Kent County consist of mostly white persons at 83. 8%. The next larges group consists of African Americans at 10. 3% and Hispanics at 9. 9%. The median household income is $50,801, with 14. 8% of the population being listed below poverty level. The unemployment rate is at 8. 52% (2011, US Census Bureau). It is reported by adults that 13. 6% have not accessed healthcare within the past 12 months. 10. % of adults reported they have no healthcare coverage.

It was also discovered that the county only has 29% of what is needed in the dental care community(2011, Michigan Department of Community Health). The second assessment piece is labeled cultural assessment. Once again this was information I collected on a County level. In Kent County there are slightly more females than males, 51% versus 49% respectively. The populations consists predominately of white Christians, while the subgroup is Roman Catholics (2011, Kent County Health Department).

Obesity was noted to be on the rise due to lack of physical activity and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption.

More specifically 31. 3% of adults are obese, and Michigan as a whole is the 5th most obese state in the US. 19. 7% of adults reported adequate physical activity with 23. 6% stating they lived a sedentary lifestyle within the past month, and 17. 8% report they consume fruits and vegetables at least 5 times a day (2011, Michigan Department of Health). African Americans voiced distrust among healthcare providers however they did support and agree for a universal healthcare system.

Hispanics voiced concern for the lack of translation services due to language barriers and issues surrounding documented legal status and the difficulty this poses to accessing healthcare (2009, Michigan Department of Health). I discovered that in the area there are over 50 parks with various indoor and outdoor activities for all to enjoy. The third assessment piece is entitled neighborhood and community safety. This information was obtained from local agencies. I noted the Health Department and local hospitals are very involved in providing health services, education, and discussions for the community free of charge.

The air quality for Kent County is considered poor. We have had at least 7 air pollution days per year due to fine particulate matter and ozone. The water quality in the last 5 years has been excellent. 0. 09% of public water supplies exceeded contamination levels during this time frame (2011, Kent County Health Department). The wild life in the area can cause a potential for disease, and the many surrounding lakes, rivers and streams can cause a potential for drowning. Due to the location of Kent County we risk potential severe weather events. The violent crime rate in the area was 0. 4% significantly lower than the national average. It was also noted that the local police and fire response is at or exceeds standards (2013, Kent County Sheriffs Department). The fourth assessment piece is the disaster assessment and planning status. This information was gathered on a City and County level. The disaster command is headed by the Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security located in Grand Rapids. They included the requirements of National Response Plan and NIMS. I discovered they are following all federal regulations by the Department of Homeland Security. 3 County, and other regional collaborations were noted in the planning. The Kent County area is at risk most for these natural disasters; severe winter weather, thunderstorms, tornados, riverine flood, and urban flood. The are is at risk most for these other disasters; electrical failures, communication failure, intentional acts, transportation accidents, and hazardous material. The city and county provide public education through CERT classes, brochures, and coordination with school districts to relay safety information at a young age (2011, Kent County Health Department).

From the information obtained above I believe that Kent County Michigan is an overall healthy community. Areas for improvement would be to increase the access to dental care and healthcare for at risk and poor underserved families, to decrease the prevalence of obesity and ensure access to healthful foods, and to establish a plan to deal with language barriers for other populations living within West Michigan. This information that I have obtained and explained above is listed below in my community genogram.

The genogram highlights the pertinent information in an easy to view graph with each assessment topic listed. It discusses once again the community as a whole from population and economic status, to the cultural assessment, to the neighborhood and community safety to lastly disaster assessment and planning. It provides an overview of the community as a whole, strengths and weaknesses. The community assessment is how I feel the community is and the areas that are at risk or I feel can be improved upon. Resources: 1. ) 2011. Kent County Michigan. US Census Bureau. Retrieved from http://www. uickfacts. census. gov/qfd/states/26/26081. html 2. 2013. Kent County Michigan. Kent County Health Department. Retrieved from http://www. accesskent. com/emergencymanagement. html 3. 2011. Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey. Michigan Department of Community Health. Retrieved from http://www. michigan. gov/brfs 4. 2009. Community Conversation Executive Summary. Michigan Department of Community Health. Retrieved from http://www. michigan. gov/minorityhealth 5. 2013. Kent County Sheriffs Department. Retrieved from http://www. accesskent. com/lawenforcement/sherrif_emergency. htm

Hat Task Essay